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Journal of Experimental Botany

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431134/floral-transitions-in-wheat-and-barley-interactions-between-photoperiod-abiotic-stresses-and-nutrient-status
#1
Leonard Gol, Filipa Tomé, Maria von Korff
The timing of plant reproduction has a large impact on yield in crop plants. Reproductive development in temperate cereals comprises two major developmental transitions. During spikelet initiation, the identity of the shoot meristem switches from the vegetative to the reproductive stage and spikelet primordia are formed on the apex. Subsequently, floral morphogenesis is initiated, a process strongly affected by environmental variation. Recent studies in cereal grasses have suggested that this later phase of inflorescence development controls floret survival and abortion, and is therefore crucial for yield...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430985/arabidopsis-cp12-mutants-have-reduced-levels-of-phosphoribulokinase-and-impaired-function-of-the-calvin-benson-cycle
#2
Patricia Elena López-Calcagno, Amani Omar Abuzaid, Tracy Lawson, Christine Anne Raines
CP12 is a small, redox-sensitive protein, the most detailed understanding of which is the thioredoxin-mediated regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle, where it facilitates the formation of a complex between glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and phosphoribulokinase (PRK) in response to changes in light intensity. In most organisms, CP12 proteins are encoded by small multigene families, where the importance of each individual CP12 gene in vivo has not yet been reported. We used Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA mutants and RNAi transgenic lines with reduced levels of CP12 transcript to determine the relative importance of each of the CP12 genes...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419381/enhancing-faba-bean-vicia-faba-l-genome-resources
#3
James W Cooper, Michael H Wilson, Martijn F L Derks, Sandra Smit, Karl J Kunert, Christopher Cullis, Christine H Foyer
Grain legume improvement is currently impeded by a lack of genomic resources. The paucity of genome information for faba bean can be attributed to the intrinsic difficulties of assembling/annotating its giant (~13 Gb) genome. In order to address this challenge, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed on faba bean (cv. Wizard) leaves. Read alignment to the faba bean reference transcriptome identified 16 300 high quality unigenes. In addition, Illumina paired-end sequencing was used to establish a baseline for genomic information assembly...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419380/%C3%AE-carboxysome-bioinformatics-identification-and-evolution-of-new-bacterial-microcompartment-protein-gene-classes-and-core-locus-constraints
#4
Manuel Sommer, Fei Cai, Matthew Melnicki, Cheryl A Kerfeld
Carboxysomes are bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) that enhance CO2 fixation in all cyanobacteria. Structurally, carboxysome shell proteins are classified according to the type of oligomer formed: hexameric (BMC-H), trimeric (BMC-T) and pentameric (BMC-P) proteins. To understand the forces driving the evolution of the carboxysome shell, we conducted a bioinformatic study of genes encoding β-carboxysome shell proteins, taking advantage of the recent large increase in sequenced cyanobacterial genomes. In addition to the four well-established BMC-H (CcmK1-4) classes, our analysis reveals two new CcmK classes, which we name CcmK5 and CcmK6...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419363/applying-drought-to-potted-plants-by-maintaining-suboptimal-soil-moisture-improves-plant-water-relations
#5
Jaime Puértolas, Elisabeth K Larsen, William J Davies, Ian C Dodd
Pot-based phenotyping of drought response sometimes maintains suboptimal soil water content by applying high-frequency deficit irrigation (HFDI). We examined the effect of this treatment on water and abscisic acid (ABA) relations of two species (Helianthus annuus and Populus nigra). Suboptimal soil water content was maintained by frequent irrigation, and compared with the effects of withholding water and with adequate irrigation. At the same average whole-pot soil moisture, frequent irrigation resulted in larger soil water content gradients, lower root and xylem ABA concentrations ([X-ABA]), along with higher transpiration rates or stomatal conductance, compared with plants from which water was withheld...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419345/dehydration-responsive-element-binding-transcription-factors-and-their-applications-for-the-engineering-of-stress-tolerance
#6
Pradeep K Agarwal, Kapil Gupta, Sergiy Lopato, Parinita Agarwal
Dehydration responsive element binding (DREB) factors or CRT element binding factors (CBFs) are members of the AP2/ERF family, which comprises a large number of stress-responsive regulatory genes. This review traverses almost two decades of research, from the discovery of DREB/CBF factors to their optimization for application in plant biotechnology. In this review, we describe (i) the discovery, classification, structure, and evolution of DREB genes and proteins; (ii) induction of DREB genes by abiotic stresses and involvement of their products in stress responses; (iii) protein structure and DNA binding selectivity of different groups of DREB proteins; (iv) post-transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms of DREB transcription factor (TF) regulation; and (v) physical and/or functional interaction of DREB TFs with other proteins during plant stress responses...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419325/dissecting-molecular-and-physiological-response-mechanisms-to-high-solar-radiation-in-cyanic-and-acyanic-leaves-a-case-study-on-red-and-green-basil
#7
Massimiliano Tattini, Federico Sebastiani, Cecilia Brunetti, Alessio Fini, Sara Torre, Antonella Gori, Mauro Centritto, Francesco Ferrini, Marco Landi, Lucia Guidi
Photosynthetic performance and the expression of genes involved in light signaling and the biosynthesis of isoprenoids and phenylpropanoids were analysed in green ('Tigullio', TIG) and red ('Red Rubin', RR) basil. The aim was to detect the physiological and molecular response mechanisms to high sunlight. The attenuation of blue-green light by epidermal anthocyanins was shown to evoke shade-avoidance responses with consequential effects on leaf morpho-anatomical traits and gas exchange performance. Red basil had a lower mesophyll conductance, partially compensated by the less effective control of stomatal movements, in comparison with TIG...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419301/nitrogen-use-efficiency-in-crops-lessons-from-arabidopsis-and-rice
#8
Hua Li, Bin Hu, Chengcai Chu
Application of chemical fertilizers, especially nitrogen (N), to crops has increased dramatically in the last half century and therefore developing crop varieties with improved N use efficiency (NUE) is urgent for sustainable agriculture. N utilization procedures generally can be divided into uptake, transport, and assimilation. Transporters for nitrate or ammonium acquisition and enzymes for assimilation are among the essential components determining NUE, and many transcription factors also play a pivotal role in regulating N use-associated genes, thereby contributing to NUE...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419340/extremely-thick-cell-walls-and-low-mesophyll-conductance-welcome-to-the-world-of-ancient-living
#9
Linda-Liisa Veromann-Jürgenson, Tiina Tosens, Lauri Laanisto, Ülo Niinemets
Mesophyll conductance is thought to be an important photosynthetic limitation in gymnosperms, but they currently constitute the most understudied plant group in regard to the extent to which photosynthesis and intrinsic water use efficiency are limited by mesophyll conductance. A comprehensive analysis of leaf gas exchange, photosynthetic limitations, mesophyll conductance (calculated by three methods previously used for across-species comparisons), and the underlying ultra-anatomical, morphological and chemical traits in 11 gymnosperm species varying in evolutionary history was performed to gain insight into the evolution of structural and physiological controls on photosynthesis at the lower return end of the leaf economics spectrum...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407119/a-barley-udp-glucosyltransferase-inactivates-nivalenol-and-provides-fusarium-head-blight-resistance-in-transgenic-wheat
#10
Xin Li, Herbert Michlmayr, Wolfgang Schweiger, Alexandra Malachova, Sanghyun Shin, Yadong Huang, Yanhong Dong, Gerlinde Wiesenberger, Susan McCormick, Marc Lemmens, Philipp Fruhmann, Christian Hametner, Franz Berthiller, Gerhard Adam, Gary J Muehlbauer
Fusarium Head Blight is a disease of cereal crops that causes severe yield losses and mycotoxin contamination of grain. The main causal pathogen, Fusarium graminearum, produces the trichothecene toxins deoxynivalenol or nivalenol as virulence factors. Nivalenol-producing isolates are most prevalent in Asia but co-exist with deoxynivalenol producers in lower frequency in North America and Europe. Previous studies identified a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase, HvUGT13248, that efficiently detoxifies deoxynivalenol, and when expressed in transgenic wheat results in high levels of type II resistance against deoxynivalenol-producing F...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407080/genome-wide-changes-in-microrna-expression-during-short-and-prolonged-heat-stress-and-recovery-in-contrasting-rice-cultivars
#11
Satendra K Mangrauthia, Sailaja Bhogireddy, Surekha Agarwal, Vishnu V Prasanth, S R Voleti, Sarla Neelamraju, Desiraju Subrahmanyam
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to regulate expression of genes under stress. We report here the deep sequencing of small RNAs expressed during control, short and prolonged heat stress and recovery. Genome-wide identification of miRNAs in tolerant (Nagina 22) and susceptible (Vandana) rice cultivars was performed in 16 samples representing root and shoot of 13-day-old seedlings. The expression profile of miRNAs was analysed in 36 pairwise combinations to identify the genotype-, treatment- and tissue-dependent expression of miRNAs...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407076/differential-gene-expression-and-transport-functionality-in-the-bundle-sheath-versus-mesophyll-a-potential-role-in-leaf-mineral-homeostasis
#12
Noa Wigoda, Metsada Pasmanik-Chor, Tianyuan Yang, Ling Yu, Menachem Moshelion, Nava Moran
Under fluctuating ambient conditions, the ability of plants to maintain hydromineral homeostasis requires the tight control of long distance transport. This includes the control of radial transport within leaves, from veins to mesophyll. The bundle sheath is a structure that tightly wraps around leaf vasculature. It has been suggested to act as a selective barrier in the context of radial transport. This suggestion is based on recent physiological transport assays of bundle sheath cells (BSCs), as well as the anatomy of these cells...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407073/uptake-sequestration-and-tolerance-of-cadmium-at-cellular-levels-in-the-hyperaccumulator-plant-species-sedum-alfredii
#13
Shengke Tian, Ruohan Xie, Haixin Wang, Yan Hu, Dandi Hou, Xingcheng Liao, Patrick H Brown, Hongxia Yang, Xianyong Lin, John M Labavitch, Lingli Lu
Sedum alfredii is one of a few plant species known to hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd). Uptake, localization, and tolerance of Cd at cellular levels in shoots were compared in hyperaccumulating (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating (NHE) ecotypes of Sedum alfredii. X-ray fluorescence images of Cd in stems and leaves showed only a slight Cd signal restricted within vascular bundles in the NHEs, while enhanced localization of Cd, with significant tissue- and age-dependent variations, was detected in HEs. In contrast to the vascular-enriched Cd in young stems, parenchyma cells in leaf mesophyll, stem pith and cortex tissues served as terminal storage sites for Cd sequestration in HEs...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407071/decline-in-rna-integrity-of-dry-stored-soybean-seeds-correlates-with-loss-of-germination-potential
#14
Margaret B Fleming, Christopher M Richards, Christina Walters
This study investigates the relationship between germination ability and damage to RNA in soybean seeds (cv 'Williams 82') stored dry at 5 °C for 1-27 years. Total germination of 14 age cohorts harvested between 2015 and 1989 ranged from 100% to 3%. Germination decline followed classic seed viability kinetics, with symptomatic seed aging beginning after 17 years of storage. RNA integrity was assessed in dry seeds by electrophoresis of total RNA, followed by calculation of the RNA integrity number (RIN, Agilent Bioanalyzer software), which evaluates RNA fragment size distributions...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398591/evolutionarily-distinct-strategies-for-the-acquisition-of-inorganic-carbon-from-seawater-in-marine-diatoms
#15
Yoshinori Tsuji, Anggara Mahardika, Yusuke Matsuda
The acquisition of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in CO2-limited seawater is a central issue to understand in marine primary production. We previously demonstrated the occurrence of direct HCO3- uptake by solute carrier (SLC) 4 transporters in a diatom, a major marine primary producer. Homologs of SLC are found in both centric and pennate marine diatoms, suggesting that SLC transporters are generally conserved. Here, the generality of SLC-mediated DIC uptake in diatoms was examined using an SLC inhibitor, diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS), and an inhibitor of external carbonic anhydrase, acetazolamide...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398587/complexity-and-specificity-of-the-maize-zea-mays-l-root-hair-transcriptome
#16
Stefan Hey, Jutta Baldauf, Nina Opitz, Andrew Lithio, Asher Pasha, Nicholas Provart, Dan Nettleton, Frank Hochholdinger
Root hairs are tubular extensions of epidermis cells. Transcriptome profiling demonstrated that the single cell-type root hair transcriptome was less complex than the transcriptome of multiple cell-type primary roots without root hairs. In total, 831 genes were exclusively and 5585 genes were preferentially expressed in root hairs [false discovery rate (FDR) ≤1%]. Among those, the most significantly enriched Gene Ontology (GO) functional terms were related to energy metabolism, highlighting the high energy demand for the development and function of root hairs...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398585/immunogold-scanning-electron-microscopy-can-reveal-the-polysaccharide-architecture-of-xylem-cell-walls
#17
Qiang Sun, Yuliang Sun, Kevin Juzenas
Immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) and immunogold transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are the two main techniques commonly used to detect polysaccharides in plant cell walls. Both are important in localizing cell wall polysaccharides, but both have major limitations, such as low resolution in IFM and restricted sample size for immunogold TEM. In this study, we have developed a robust technique that combines immunocytochemistry with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study cell wall polysaccharide architecture in xylem cells at high resolution over large areas of sample...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398563/studying-microstructure-and-microstructural-changes-in-plant-tissues-by-advanced-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-techniques
#18
Darya Morozov, Iris Tal, Odelia Pisanty, Eilon Shani, Yoram Cohen
As sessile organisms, plants must respond to the environment by adjusting their growth and development. Most of the plant body is formed post-embryonically by continuous activity of apical and lateral meristems. The development of lateral adventitious roots is a complex process, and therefore the development of methods that can visualize, non-invasively, the plant microstructure and organ initiation that occur during growth and development is of paramount importance. In this study, relaxation-based and advanced diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods including diffusion tensor (DTI), q-space diffusion imaging (QSI), and double-pulsed-field-gradient (d-PFG) MRI, at 14...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398557/the-2-oxoglutarate-dependent-dioxygenase-superfamily-participates-in-tanshinone-production-of-salvia-miltiorrhiza
#19
Zhichao Xu, Jingyuan Song
Highly oxidized tanshinones are pharmacological ingredients extracted from the medicinal model plant Salvia miltiorrhiza and are mainly used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have confirmed that cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenases (CYP450s) have a key function in the biosynthesis of tanshinones; however, no solid evidence links oxidation to the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (2OGD) superfamily. Here, we identified 132 members of the DOXB and DOXC subfamilies of 2OGD by scanning the 2OG-FeII Oxy domain using a genome-wide strategy in S...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383668/copper-amine-oxidase-8-regulates-arginine-dependent-nitric-oxide-production-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#20
Felicitas Groß, Eva-Esther Rudolf, Björn Thiele, Jörg Durner, Jeremy Astier
Nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule in plants, regulating a wide range of physiological processes. However, its origin in plants remains unclear. It can be generated from nitrite through a reductive pathway, notably via the action of the nitrate reductase (NR), and evidence suggests an additional oxidative pathway, involving arginine. From an initial screen of potential Arabidopsis thaliana mutants impaired in NO production, we identified copper amine oxidase 8 (CuAO8). Two cuao8 mutant lines displayed a decreased NO production in seedlings after elicitor treatment and salt stress...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
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