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Journal of Experimental Botany

Gilles Lekeux, Jean-Marc Crowet, Cécile Nouet, Marine Joris, Alice Jadoul, Bernard Bosman, Monique Carnol, Patrick Motte, Laurence Lins, Moreno Galleni, Marc Hanikenne
The P1B ATPase heavy metal ATPase 4 (HMA4) is responsible for zinc and cadmium translocation from roots to shoots in Arabidopsis thaliana. It couples ATP hydrolysis to cytosolic domain movements, enabling metal transport across the membrane. The detailed mechanism of metal permeation by HMA4 through the membrane remains elusive. Here, homology modeling of the HMA4 transmembrane region was conducted based on the crystal structure of a ZntA bacterial homolog. The analysis highlighted amino acids forming a metal permeation pathway, whose importance was subsequently investigated functionally through mutagenesis and complementation experiments in plants...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Charles P Pignon, Marjorie R Lundgren, Colin P Osborne, Stephen P Long
C4 leaves confine Rubisco to bundle-sheath cells. Thus, the size of bundle-sheath compartments, and total volume of chloroplasts within them, limits space available for Rubisco. Rubisco activity limits photosynthesis at low temperatures. C3 plants counter this limitation by increasing leaf Rubisco content, yet few C4 species do the same. Because C3 plants usually outperform C4 plants in chilling environments, it has been suggested that there is insufficient chloroplast volume available in the bundle-sheath of C4 leaves to allow such an increase in Rubisco at low temperatures...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Dipannita Mitra, Sandra Klemm, Pratibha Kumari, Jakob Quegwer, Birgit Möller, Yvonne Poeschl, Paul Pflug, Gina Stamm, Steffen Abel, Katharina Bürstenbinder
Plant microtubules form a highly dynamic intracellular network with important roles for regulating cell division, cell proliferation and cell morphology. Its organization and dynamics are coordinated by various microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) that integrate environmental and developmental stimuli to fine-tune and adjust cytoskeletal arrays. IQ67 DOMAIN (IQD) proteins recently emerged as a class of plant-specific MAPs with largely unknown functions. Here, using a reverse genetics approach, we characterize Arabidopsis IQD5 in terms of its expression domains, subcellular localization and biological functions...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
S Dinant, N Wolff, F De Marco, F Vilaine, L Gissot, E Aubry, C Sandt, C Bellini, R Le Hir
Cell walls are highly complex structures that are modified during plant growth and development. For example, the development of phloem and xylem vascular cells, which participate in the transport of sugars and water as well as support, can be influenced by cell-specific cell wall composition. Here, we used synchrotron radiation-based infrared (SR-FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy to analyze the cell wall composition of wild-type and double mutant sweet11-1sweet12-1, which impairs sugar transport, Arabidopsis floral stem vascular tissue...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yingxin Zhong, Andreas Blennow, Olivia Kofoed-Enevoldsen, Dong Jiang, Kim Henrik Hebelstrup
Plant starch is the main energy contributor to the human diet. Its biosynthesis is catalyzed and regulated by coordinated actions of several enzymes. Recently, a factor termed Protein Targeting to Starch 1 (PTST1) was identified to be required for correct GBSS localization and demonstrated to be crucial for amylose synthesis in Arabidopsis. However, the function of its homologous protein in storage tissues (e.g. endosperm) is unknown. We identified a PTST1 homolog in barley and it was found to contain crucial coiled coil domain and carbohydrate binding module...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Ryan A Boyd, Amanda P Cavanagh, David S Kubien, Asaph B Cousins
Enhancement of Rubisco kinetics could improve photosynthetic efficiency, ultimately resulting in increased crop yield. However, imprecise knowledge of the reaction mechanism and the individual rate constants limits our ability to optimize the enzyme. Membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) may offer benefits over traditional methods for determining individual rate constants of the Rubisco reaction mechanism, as it can directly monitor concentration changes in CO2, O2, and their isotopologs during assays. However, a direct comparison of MIMS with the traditional radiolabel method of determining Rubisco kinetic parameters has not been made...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yun-Wei Kuo, Jeng-Shane Lin, Yu-Chi Li, Min-Yao Jhu, Yu-Chi King, Shih-Tong Jeng
MicroRNAs play diverse roles in plant development and defense responses by binding to their mRNA targets based on sequence complementarity. In this study, a wound-related miR408 and its target genes in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) are proposed by small RNA deep sequencing and transcriptome analysis. The expression patterns of miR408 and the miR408 precursor were significantly repressed by wounding and jasmonate (JA). In contrast, expression of the putative target genes IbKCS (3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase 4),IbPCL (Plantacyanins), and IbGAUT (galacturonosyltransferase 7-like) of miR408 was increased following wounding, whereas only IbKCS was increased after JA treatment...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
A K Chaplin, I Chernukhin, U Bechtold
Non-enzymatic post-translational modifications of proteins can occur when the nucleophilic amino acid side chains of lysine and arginine encounter a reactive metabolite to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Glycation arises predominantly from the degradation of reducing sugars, and glycation has been observed during metabolic stress from glucose metabolism in animals and plants alike. The implications of glycating proteins on plant proteins and biology has received little attention, and here we describe a robust assessment of global glycation profiles...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mathieu Pottier, Jean Dumont, Céline Masclaux-Daubresse, Sébastien Thomine
Micronutrient deficiencies affect a large part of the world population. They are mostly due to the consumption of grains with insufficient content of Fe or Zn. Both de novo uptake by roots and recycling from leaves may provide seeds with nutrients. Autophagy, which is a conserved mechanism for nutrient recycling in eukaryotes, was shown to be involved in nitrogen remobilization to seeds. Here, we have investigated the role of this mechanism in micronutrient translocation to seeds. We found that several Arabidopsis thaliana plants impaired in autophagy display defects in nutrient remobilization to seeds...
November 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Vilém Zachleder, Ivan Ivanov, Milada Vítová, Katerina Bišová
Progression of the cell cycle in green algae dividing by multiple fission is, under otherwise unlimited conditions, affected by growth rate set by a combination of light intensity and temperature. We compared cell cycle characteristics of Desmodesmus quadricauda at 20°C or 30°C and shifts between them. The duration of the cell cycle in cells grown under continuous illumination was more than doubled at 20°C compared to 30°C, suggesting it was set directly by growth rate. Similarly, DNA, RNA and bulk protein content per cell at 20°C were about double that of cells grown at the higher temperature...
November 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Wayne L Morris, M Carmen Alamar, Rosa M Lopez-Cobollo, Javier Cañete Castillo, Mark Bennett, Jeroen Van der Kaay, Jennifer Stevens, Sanjeev Kumar Sharma, Karen McLean, Andrew J Thompson, Leon A Terry, Colin G N Turnbull, Glenn J Bryan, Mark A Taylor
Potato tuber bud dormancy break followed by premature sprouting is a major commercial problem which results in quality losses and decreased tuber marketability. An approach to controlling premature tuber sprouting is to develop potato cultivars with a longer dormancy period and/or reduced rate of sprout growth. Our recent studies using a potato diploid population have identified several QTLs that are associated with tuber sprout growth. In the current study we aim to characterise a candidate gene associated with one of the largest effect QTL for rapid tuber sprout growth on potato chromosome 3...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Julia C Gouot, Jason P Smith, Bruno P Holzapfel, Amanda R Walker, Celia Barril
Climate change scenarios predict an increase in average temperatures and in the frequency, intensity and length of extreme temperature events in many wine regions around the world. In already warm and hot regions, such changes may compromise grape growing and the production of high quality wine as high temperature has been found to critically affect berry composition. Most recent studies focussing on the sole effect of temperature, separated from light and water, on grape berry composition found that high temperature affects a wide range of metabolites, and in particular flavonoids - key compounds for berry and wine quality...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Larry M York
The emergence of functional phenomics signifies the rebirth of physiology as a 21st century science through the use of advanced sensing technologies and big data analytics. Functional phenomics seeks to fill the significant knowledge gaps that still exist about the relationship of plant phenotype to function. Here, a general approach for the theory and practice of functional phenomics is outlined. The functional phenomics pipeline is proposed as a general method for conceptualizing, measuring, and validating utility of plant phenes, or elemental units of phenotype...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Carlisle Bascom, Graham M Burkart, Darren R Mallett, Jacquelyn E O'Sullivan, Alexis J Tomaszewski, Katherine Walsh, Magdalena Bezanilla
Rho/Rac of Plants (ROP) GTPases are plant-specific small GTPases that regulate cell morphology. ROP activity is controlled and read by several families of regulatory proteins. However, how these diverse regulators contribute to polarized growth remains understudied. In a system-wide approach, we used RNAi to silence each gene family of known ROP regulators in the juvenile tip growing tissues of the moss Physcomitrella patens. We found that the GTPase Activating Proteins (GAPs), but not the ROP Enhancers (RENs), are essential for tip growth...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Dimitrije Markovic, Ilaria Colzi, Cosimo Taiti, Swayamjit Ray, Romain Scalone, Jared Gregory Ali, Stefano Mancuso, Velemir Ninkovic
Plants activate defense-related pathways in response to subtle abiotic or biotic disturbances changing their volatile profile rapidly. How such perturbations reach and potentially affect neighboring plants is less understood. We evaluated whether brief and light touching had cascading consequences on volatiles profiles and gene expression of the focal plant and a neighboring untouched plant. Within minutes after contact, Zea mays had an upregulation of certain defense genes and increased the emission of specific volatiles that primed neighboring plants, making them less attractive for aphids...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Xiaoyi Li, Xiangge Kong, Qi Huang, Hu Ge, Qian Zhang, Liang Zhang, Gaoming Li, Lu Peng, Zhibin Liu, Jianmei Wang, Xufeng Li, Yi Yang
Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a vital role in responses to abiotic stresses to mediate the environmental challenges. In this study, we analyzed ABA receptors of subfamily III as the potential targets of Cytosolic ABA Receptor Kinase 1 (CARK1). We previously found that CARK1 phosphorylated the subfamily III member RCAR11 at a distinct threonine residue (T78). Our study now shows the physical interaction of CARK1 with the receptors RCAR12/13/14 in vitro and in vivo. A catalytically inactive form of CARK1-N204A did not interact with the receptors...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Di Wu, Zilong Guo, Junli Ye, Hui Feng, Jianxiao Liu, Guoxing Chen, Jingshan Zheng, Dongmei Yan, Xiaoquan Yang, Xiong Xiong, Qian Liu, Zhiyou Niu, Alan P Gay, John H Doonan, Lizhong Xiong, Wanneng Yang
Manual phenotyping of rice tillers is time consuming and labor intensive and lags behind the rapid development of rice functional genomics. Thus, automated, non-destructive phenotyping of rice tiller traits at a high spatial resolution and high-throughput for large-scale assessment of rice accessions is urgently needed. In this study, we developed a high-throughput micro-CT-RGB (HCR) imaging system to non-destructively extract 730 traits from 234 rice accessions at 9 time points. We could explain 30% of the grain yield variance from 2 tiller traits assessed in the early growth stages...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Tobias G Boatman, Phillip A Davey, Tracy Lawson, Richard J Geider
We established the relationship between gross photosynthetic O2 evolution and light-dependent O2 consumption in Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 acclimated to three targeted pCO2 concentrations (180 µmol mol-1 = low-CO2, 380 µmol mol-1 = mid-CO2 and 720 µmol mol-1 = high-CO2). We found that biomass (carbon) specific, light-saturated maximum net O2 evolution rates (PnC,max) and acclimated growth rates increased from low- to mid-CO2, but did not differ significantly between mid- and high-CO2. Dark respiration rates were five-times higher than required to maintain cellular metabolism, suggesting that respiration provides a substantial proportion of the ATP and reductant for N2 fixation...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jingyi Han, Hui Li, Bin Yin, Yongzhuo Zhang, Yadi Liu, Ziyi Cheng, Di Liu, Hai Lu
Both tracheary elements and fiber cells undergo programmed cell death (PCD) during xylem development. In this study we investigated the role of papain-like cysteine protease CEP1 in PCD in the xylem of Arabidopsis. CEP1 was located in the cell wall of xylem cells, and CEP1 expression levels in inflorescence stems increased during stem maturation. cep1 mutant plants exhibited delayed stem growth and reduced xylem cell number compared to wild-type plants. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that organelle degradation was delayed during PCD, and thicker secondary walls were present in fiber cells and tracheary elements of the cep1 mutant...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jia Feng, Cheng Dai, Huifeng Luo, Yafan Han, Zhongchi Liu, Chunying Kang
The critical role of auxin in strawberry fruit set and receptacle enlargement was previously demonstrated. While fertilization was known to trigger auxin biosynthesis, the specific tissue source of fertilization-induced auxin is not well understood. Here, auxin reporter DR5ver2::GUS was introduced into wild strawberry Fragaria vesca to reveal auxin distributions in the seed and fruit receptacle pre- and post-fertilization as well as in the root. In addition, the expression of TAR and YUCCA genes coding for enzymes catalyzing the two-step auxin biosynthesis pathway was investigated using their respective promoters fused to the GUS reporter...
October 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
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