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Journal of Experimental Botany

Rajiv Sharma, Fulvia Draicchio, Hazel Bull, Paul Herzig, Andreas Maurer, Klaus Pillen, William T B Thomas, Andrew J Flavell
To explore wild barley as a source of useful alleles for yield improvement in breeding we have carried out a genome-wide association scan using the nested association mapping population HEB-25, which contains 25 diverse exotic barley genomes superimposed on a ca 70% genetic background of cultivated barley. 1420 HEB-25 lines were trialled for nine yield-related grain traits for two years in Germany and Scotland, with varying N-fertilizer application. The phenotypic data were related to genotype scores for 5,398 gene-based SNP markers...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mutez Ali Ahmed, John Passioura, Andrea Carminati
To a first-order approximation, the yield of a water-limited grain crop depends (1) on how much water is available to the crop and (2) on how crop water use is partitioned during the growing season. The latter determines the harvest index of the crop, that is, the proportion of the crop's above ground biomass that is converted into grain, which is typically optimal if about 30% of the seasonal available water supply is used during flowering and grain-filling.Here we review the role of roots in extracting water from the soil both in the amount and in timing that may lead to maximal grain yield, and the various mechanisms underlying this activity...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Saima Umbreen, Jibril Lubega, Beimi Cui, Qiaona Pan, Jihong Jiang, Gary J Loake
Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and their cognate redox signalling networks pervade almost all facets of plant growth, development, immunity and environmental interactions. The emerging evidence implies that specificity in redox signalling is achieved by a multi-layered molecular framework. This encompasses the production of redox cues in the locale of the given protein target and protein tertiary structures that convey the appropriate local chemical environment to support redox-based, post-translational modifications (PTMs)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Rafael Garcia Tavares, Prakash Lakshmanan, Edgar Peiter, Anthony O'Connell, Camila Caldana, Renato Vicentini, José Sérgio Soares, Marcelo Menossi
Sugarcane contributes to more than 70 percent of sugar production and is the second largest feedstock for ethanol production globally. Since sugar accumulates in sugarcane culm, culm biomass and sucrose content are the most commercially important traits. Despite extensive breeding, progress in both cane yield and sugar content remains very slow in most countries. We hypothesize that manipulating the genetic elements controlling culm growth will alter source-sink regulation and help break down the yield barriers...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Neil C Turner
Osmotic adjustment (OA), the accumulation of solutes in higher plant cells in response to water deficits, was first reported more than four decades ago. Since then, variation in OA among genotypes/cultivars in response to drought has been reported in many crop plants, but its role in maintaining growth and yield in water-limited environments has been questioned. The role of OA in the physiological and agronomic adaptation to water stress of crops, the methods of reliably measuring the degree of OA among genotypes or species, the range of OA in many studies and its impact on grain yield in water-limited environments are reviewed...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Alex Costa, Lorella Navazio, Ildiko Szabo
Calcium (Ca2+) is among the most important intracellular messengers in living organisms. Understanding of the players and dynamics of Ca2+ signalling pathways in plants may help to unravel the molecular basis of their exceptional flexibility to respond and to adapt to different stimuli. In the present review we focus on new tools that have recently revolutionized our view of organellar Ca2+ signalling as well as on the current knowledge regarding the pathways mediating Ca2+ fluxes across intracellular membranes...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Amarjeet Singh, Akhilesh K Yadav, Kanwaljeet Kaur, Sibaji K Sanyal, Saroj K Jha, Joel L Fernandes, Pankhuri Sharma, Indu Tokas, Amita Pandey, Sheng Luan, Girdhar K Pandey
Potassium (K+) is a major macronutrient required for plant growth. In response to low- K+ condition, an adaptive mechanism entails activation of the Ca2+ signaling network consisting of calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs) and their interacting kinases (CIPKs) in plants. The CBL-interacting protein kinase 9 (CIPK9) is previously implicated in low-K+ responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we report a protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C), AP2C1, as an interactor of CIPK9. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and co-localization analyses revealed that CIPK9 and AP2C1 interact in the cytoplasm...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Niteen N Kadam, Paul C Struik, M C Rebolledo, Xinyou Yin, S V Krishna Jagadish
A diversity panel comprising of 296 indica rice genotypes was phenotyped under non-stress and water-deficit stress conditions during the reproductive stage in 2013 and 2014 dry seasons at IRRI, Philippines. We investigated the genotypic variability for grain yield, yield components and related traits and conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using high-density 45K single nucleotide polymorphisms. We detected 38 loci in 2013 and 64 loci in 2014 for non-stress conditions and 69 loci in 2013 and 55 loci in 2014 for water-deficit stress...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yanliang Wang, Erik Lysøe, Tegan Armarego-Marriott, Alexander Erban, Lisa Paruch, Andre van Eerde, Ralph Bock, Jihong Liu-Clarke
Root and root-released organic anions play important roles in uptake of phosphorus (P), an essential macronutrient for food production. Oat, ranking sixth in the world's cereal production, contains valuable nutritional compounds and can withstand poor soil conditions. Our aim was to investigate root transcriptional and metabolic responses of oat grown under P-deficient and P-sufficient conditions. We conducted a hydroponic experiment and measured root morphology and organic anion exudation, and analysed changes in the transcriptome and metabolome...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Valentino Giarola, Niklas Udo Jung, Aishwarya Singh, Pooja Satpathy, Dorothea Bartels
Reproductive structures of plants (e.g. seeds) and vegetative tissues of resurrection plants can tolerate desiccation. Many genes encoding desiccation-related proteins (DRP) have been identified in the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum, but the function of these genes remains mainly hypothetical. Here the importance of the DRP gene pcC13-62 for desiccation tolerance is evaluated by analysing the expression of this gene in C. plantagineum and in the closely related desiccation tolerant species Lindernia brevidens and desiccation sensitive species Lindernia subracemosa...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Dan Wang, Lei Ling, Wenrui Zhang, Yan Bai, Yongjun Shu, Changhong Guo
Gametocidal (Gc) chromosomes can kill gametes that lack them by causing chromosomal breakage to ensure their preferential transmission, and have been exploited in genetic breeding. The present study investigated the possible roles of small RNAs (sRNA) in Gc action. By sequencing two small RNA libraries from the anthers of Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring (CS) and Chinese Spring-Gc 3C chromosome monosomic addition line (CS-3C), we identified 239 conserved and 72 putative novel microRNAs (miRNAs), including 135 differentially expressed miRNAs...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Xiaolong Tian, Yuanxin Qin, Baojian Chen, Chenxu Liu, Lele Wang, Xingli Li, Xin Dong, Liwei Liu, Shaojiang Chen
In vivo doubled-haploid technology is widely applied in commercial maize breeding programs owing to its time-saving and cost-reducing features. The production of maize haploids primarily depends on the use of the Stock6-derived haploid inducer lines. Although the gene underlying haploid induction, MTL/ZmPLA1/NLD, was cloned recently, the mechanism of haploid induction is still unknown. Hetero-fertilization can occur via a single fertilization, which pave a way to investigate single-fertilization events by studying the hetero-fertilization phenomenon...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mathias Nottensteiner, Bernd Zechmann, Christopher McCollum, Ralph Hückelhoven
Pathogens overcome plant immunity by the means of secreted effectors. Host effector targets often act in pathogen defense but might also support fungal accommodation or nutrition. The barley ROP GTPase HvRACB is involved in accommodation of fungal haustoria of the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh) in barley epidermal cells. We found that HvRACB interacts with the ROP-interactive peptide 1 (ROPIP1) that is encoded on the active non-long terminal repeat retroelement Eg-R1 of Bgh. Over-expression of ROPIP1 in barley epidermal cells and host-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (HIGS) of ROPIP1 suggested that ROPIP1 is involved in virulence of Bgh...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Alexandra Miricescu, Kevin Goslin, Emmanuelle Graciet
A fundamental question in biology is how organisms integrate the plethora of environmental cues that they perceive to trigger a coordinated response. The regulation of protein stability, which is largely mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in eukaryotes, plays a pivotal role in these processes. Due to their sessile lifestyle and the need to respond rapidly to a multitude of environmental factors, plants are thought to be especially dependent on proteolysis to regulate cellular processes. In this review, we present the complexity of the ubiquitin system in plants, and discuss the relevance of the proteolytic and non-proteolytic roles of this system in the regulation and coordination of plant responses to environmental signals...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
William Plumb, Alexandra J Townsend, Brwa Rasool, Sarah Alomrani, Nurhayati Razak, Barbara Karpinska, Alexander V Ruban, Christine H Foyer
The requirements of growth and photosynthesis for ascorbate were assessed under low (LL; 250 μmol m-2 s-1) or high (HL; 1600 μmol m-2 s-1) irradiance in wild type Arabidopsis thaliana and two ascorbate synthesis mutants (vtc2-1 and vtc2-4) that have 30% wild type ascorbate levels. The low ascorbate mutants had the same numbers of leaves but lower rosette area and biomass than the wild type under LL. Wild type plants experiencing HL had higher leaf ascorbate, anthocyanin and xanthophyll pigments than under LL...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Xiaomin Deng, Dong Guo, Shuguang Yang, Minjing Shi, Jinquan Chao, Huiliang Li, Shiqing Peng, Wei-Min Tian
Rubber trees are the major source of worldwide natural rubber. Rubber-containing latex is obtained from the laticifer cells of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) via regular tapping. However, little is known about the positive feedback regulation of rubber biosynthesis, a typical isoprenoid metabolic process in laticifer cells, by tapping-caused loss of latex. Here, we demonstrated the crucial role of jasmonate signalling in this feedback regulation. The endogenous jasmonate levels, the expression levels of rubber biosynthesis-related genes and the efficiency of in vitro rubber biosynthesis were significantly higher in laticifer cells of regularly tapped trees than those of virgin trees...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Kevin Grosjean, Christophe Der, Franck Robert, Dominique Thomas, Sébastien Mongrand, Françoise Simon-Plas, Patricia Gerbeau-Pissot
The laterally heterogeneous plant plasma membrane (PM) induces its finely controlled compartmentalization into specialized areas including membrane-ordered domains. Recently, PM spatial distribution has emerged with a key role in cell responses to environmental challenges. To monitor the local level of membrane order, BY-2 tobacco suspension cell PMs were labelled with an environment-sensitive probe (di-4-ANEPPDHQ) to evaluate membrane packing. To identify mechanisms and cell components involved in short-term (one hour) maintenance of the ordered domain organization in steady-state cell PMs, four experimental models were compared: modulation of the cytoskeleton or the cell wall integrity of tobacco BY-2 cells; and formation of giant vesicles using either a lipid mixture of tobacco BY-2 cell PMs or the original lipids and proteins combination of tobacco BY-2 cell PM...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
V Locato, S Cimini, L De Gara
This review provides an update of the plant redox signalling network implicated in stress responses, in particular in cross-tolerance acquisition. The interplay between reactive oxygen species (ROS), ROS-derived signals and antioxidative pathways is discussed in plant acclimation to stress at short and long term. Retrograde pathways occurring between chloroplasts, mitochondria and nucleus involve oxidative and antioxidative signals that, working in a synergistic or antagonistic mode, control the expression of specific patterns of genes following stress perception...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Rex Cole, Valera Peremyslov, Savanah Van Why, Ibrahim Moussaoui, Ann Ketter, Renee Cool, Matthew Andres Moreno, Zuzana Vejlupkova, Valerian Dolja, John E Fowler
The exocyst, a conserved, octameric protein complex helps mediate secretion at the plasma membrane, facilitating specific developmental processes that include control of root meristem size, cell elongation, and tip growth. A genetic screen for second-site enhancers in Arabidopsis identified NEW ENHANCER of ROOT DWARFISM1 (NERD1) as an exocyst interactor. Mutations in nerd1 combined with weak exocyst mutations in SEC8 and EXO70A1 result in a synergistic reduction in root growth. Alone, nerd1 alleles modestly reduce primary root growth, both by shortening the root meristem and by reducing cell elongation, but also result in a slight increase in root hair length, bulging, and rupture...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Deepak Kumar, Sharmila Chattopadhyay
The contribution of glutathione (GSH) in combating environmental stress in the plant system has long been known. Previous reports also pointed towards the involvement of GSH in inducing various heat shock proteins (HSPs). However, the molecular mechanism is yet to be explored. Here, we investigate how GSH induces the expression of important HSPs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Expressions of HSPs like BiP3, HSP70B and HSP90.1 were positively regulated by GSH. Promoter activation assay suggested the role of GSH in inducing these HSPs...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
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