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Journal of Experimental Botany

Lucas Faverjon, Abraham Escobar-Gutiérrez, Isabelle Litrico, Bernadette Julier, Gaëtan Louarn
The performance of an individual-based model accounting for the dynamics of forage legumes in multi-species grasslands was assessed. Morphogenetic shoot and root parameters were calibrated for seven widely-used species. Other model parameters, which concerned C and N metabolism, were obtained from the literature. The model was evaluated using a series of independent experiments combining the seven species in binary mixtures subject to regular defoliation.For all the species, the model could accurately simulate phytomer demography, leaf area dynamics, and root growth under conditions of weak competition...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yujin Yuan, Lihua Mei, Mengbo Wu, Wei Wei, Wei Shan, Zehao Gong, Qian Zhang, Fengqing Yang, Fang Yan, Qiang Zhang, Yingqing Luo, Xin Xu, Wenfa Zhang, Mingjun Miao, Wangjin Lu, Zhengguo Li, Wei Deng
The photosynthesis of green tomatoes contributes to fruit growth and carbon economy. Tomato auxin response factor 10 (SlARF10) belongs to the ARF family and is located in nucleus. SlARF10 gene was highly expressed in green fruits. Overexpression of SlARF10 in fruits produced a dark green phenotype, whereas down-regulation of SlARF10 produced a light green phenotype. Autofluorescence and chlorophyll content analysis confirmed the phenotypes, which indicated that SlARF10 plays an important role in the chlorophyll accumulation...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Julien Nowak, Hélène Frérot, Nathalie Faure, Cédric Glorieux, Clarisse Liné, Bertrand Pourrut, Maxime Pauwels
Human activities generate environmental stresses that can lead plant populations to extinction. Population survival would require the evolution of adaptive responses increasing stress tolerance. Thus, in pseudometallophyte species that colonized anthropogenic metalliferous habitats, evolution of increased metal tolerance is expected in metallicolous populations. However, the mechanisms by which metal tolerance evolves remain unclear. In this study, parent populations were created from non-metallicolous families of Noccaea caerulescens...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
João Henrique F Cavalcanti, Menny Kirma, Jessica A S Barros, Carla G S Quinhones, Ítalo A Pereira-Lima, Toshihiro Obata, Adriano Nunes-Nesi, Gad Galili, Alisdair R Fernie, Tamar Avin-Wittenberg, Wagner L Araújo
Lysine (Lys) connects the mitochondrial electron transport chain to amino acid catabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. However, our understanding of how a deficiency in Lys biosynthesis impacts plant metabolism and growth remains limited. Here we used a previously characterized Arabidopsis mutant with reduced activity of the Lys biosynthesis enzyme L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (dapat) to investigate the physiological and metabolic impacts of impaired Lys biosynthesis. Despite displaying similar stomatal conductance and internal CO2 concentration, we observed reduced photosynthesis and growth in the dapat mutant...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jiao Liu, Pengfei Zhi, Xiaoyu Wang, Qingxin Fan, Cheng Chang
Powdery mildew caused by Blumeriagraminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) seriously threatens the production of common wheat (Triticumaestivum L.). In eukaryotes, WD40-repeat (WDR) proteins usually participate in assembling protein complexes involved in a wide range of cellular processes. However, the potential function of WDR proteins in regulating crop resistance against biotrophic fungal pathogens, such as Bgt, remains unclear. In this study, we isolated TaHOS15, encoding a WDR protein, from wheat cultivar Jing411 and demonstrated that knockdown of TaHOS15 expression using virus- or transient-induced gene silencing attenuated wheat susceptibility to Bgt...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Huanhuan Niu, Xiaofeng Liu, Can Tong, Hu Wang, Sen Li, Li Lu, Yupeng Pan, Xiaolan Zhang, Yiqun Weng, Zheng Li
The WUSCHEL-related homeobox1 (WOX1) transcription factor plays an important role in lateral growth of plant organs; however, the underlying mechanisms in its regulation of reproductive development are largely unknown. The monoecious cucumber (Cucumis sativus), has separate male and female flowers which facilitates studies of the role of WOX1 in stamen and carpel development. In the present study, we identified a mango fruit (mf) mutant in cucumber, which displayed multiple defects in flower growth as well as male and female sterility...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Sarah F Prewitt, Brian G Ayre, Roisin C McGarry
Genes of the CENTRORADIALIS/ TERMINALFLOWER 1 / SELF-PRUNING (CETS) family influence meristem identity by controlling the balance of indeterminate to determinate growth, thereby profoundly impacting plant architecture. Artificial selection during cotton (G. hirsutum) domestication converted photoperiodic trees to the day-neutral shrubs widely cultivated today. To understand the regulation of cotton architecture and leverage these principles to enhance crop productivity, we characterized the CETS gene family from tetraploid cotton...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Dongliang Xiong, Jaume Flexas
The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is an eco-physiological concept describing the trade-offs of leaf structural, and physiological traits, that has been widely investigated across multiple scales. However, the effects of the breeding process on the LES in crops, as well as the mechanisms of the trait trade-offs underlying the LES, have not been thoroughly elucidated to date. In this study, a dataset, including leaf anatomical, biochemical and functional traits, was constructed to evaluate the trait covariations and trade-offs in domesticated species, rice (Oryza sp...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
M Klepsch, Y Zhang, M M Kotowska, L J Lamarque, M Nolf, B Schuldt, J M Torres-Ruiz, D-W Qin, B Choat, S Delzon, C Scoffoni, K-F Cao, S Jansen
According to the hydraulic vulnerability segmentation hypothesis, leaves are more vulnerable to decline of hydraulic conductivity than branches, but whether stem xylem is more embolism resistant than leaves remains unclear.Drought-induced embolism resistance of leaf xylem was investigated based on X-ray computed tomography (microCT) for Betula pendula, Laurus nobilis, and Liriodendron tulipifera, excluding outside-xylem, and compared to hydraulic vulnerability curves for branch xylem. Moreover, bordered pit characters related to embolism resistance were investigated for both organs...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Marianne Delporte, Guillaume Bernard, Guillaume Legrand, Björn Hielscher, Arnaud Lanoue, Roland Molinié, Caroline Rambaud, David Mathiron, Sébastien Besseau, Nicole Linka, Jean-Louis Hilbert, David Gagneul
In Eudicotyledons, accumulation of trihydroxycinnamoyl spermidine restricted to the pollen wall constitutes an evolutionary conserved trait. Nevertheless, the role of this compound synthetized by a BAHD enzyme, i.e. Spermidine Hydroxycinnamoyl Transferase (SHT) is still a matter of debate. We showed that this particular phenolamide is replaced by tetrahydroxycinnamoyl spermine in the pollen coat of the Asteraceae. Phylogenetic analyses combined with quantitative RT-PCR experiments allowed the identification of two homologous genes from Cichorium intybus putatively involved in its metabolism...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Daniel Maynard, Harald Gröger, Thomas Dierks, Karl-Josef Dietz
Forty years ago, 12-oxophytodienoic acid (12-OPDA) was reported as a prostaglandin (PG)-like metabolite of linolenic acid produced by flaxseed extract. Since then, ground-breaking findings revealed the role of 12-OPDA in regulating plant immunity, seed dormancy and germination. This review summarizes current insight into regulation of 12-OPDA synthesis in the chloroplast and 12-OPDA-dependent signaling in gene expression and targeting protein functions. Properties of OPDA are described which provide a link to activities of PGs, which are derived from arachidonic acid and act as tissue hormones in animals including human...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Anthony J Schmitt, Andrew E Sathoff, Catherine Holl, Brittany Bauer, Deborah A Samac, Clay J Carter
Nectar is one of the key rewards mediating plant-mutualist interactions. In addition to sugars, nectars often contain many other compounds with important biological functions, including proteins. This study was undertaken to assess the proteinaceous content of Brassicarapa nectar. SDS PAGE analysis of raw B.rapa nectar revealed the presence of ~10 proteins, with a major band at ~10 kDa. This major band was found to contain a non-specific lipid transfer protein encoded by B. rapa locus Bra028980 and subsequently termed BrLTP2...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Shu-Wei Wu, Ritesh Kumar, Arya Bagus Boedi Iswanto, Jae-Yean Kim
In plants, communication and molecular exchanges between different cells and tissues are dependent on the apoplastic and symplastic pathways. Symplastic molecular exchanges take place through the plasmodesmata (PDs) that connect the cytoplasm of neighboring cells in highly controlled manners. Callose, β-1,3-glucan polysaccharide, is a PD marker molecule that is deposited in cell walls near the PD neck zone and controls PD permeability. During cell differentiation and plant development and in response to diverse stresses, the PD callose level is highly regulated by two antagonistic enzymes, callose synthase (CalS) or glucan synthase-like (GSL) and β-1,3-glucanase (BG)...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Hongwen Wang, Wanxin Chen, Kai Eggert, Tatsiana Charnikhova, Harro Bouwmeester, Patrick Schweizer, Mohammad R Hajirezaei, Christiane Seiler, Nese Sreenivasulu, Nicolaus von Wirén, Markus Kuhlmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 28, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Shu Heng Chang, Choon Meng Tan, Chih-Tang Wu, Tzu-Hsiang Lin, Shin-Ying Jiang, Ren-Ci Liu, Ming-Chen Tsai, Li-Wen Su, Jun-Yi Yang
As key mediators linking developmental processes with plant immunity, TCP (TEOSINTE-BRANCHED, CYCLOIDEA, PROLIFERATION FACTOR 1 and 2) transcription factors have been increasingly shown to be targets of pathogenic effectors. We report here that TB/CYC (TEOSINTE-BRANCHED/CYCLOIDEA)-TCPs are destabilized by phytoplasma SAP11 effectors leading to the proliferation of axillary meristems. Although a high degree of sequence diversity was observed among putative SAP11 effectors identified from evolutionarily distinct clusters of phytoplasmas, these effectors acquired fundamental activity in destabilizing TB/CYC-TCPs...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jochem B Evers, Wopke van der Werf, Tjeerd J Stomph, Lammert Bastiaans, Niels P R Anten
Plant species mixtures improve productivity over monocultures by exploiting species complementarities for resource capture in time and space. Complementarity results in part from competition avoidance responses that maximize resource capture and growth of individual plants. Individual organs accommodate to local resource levels, e.g. with regard to nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity or by size (e.g. shade avoidance). As a result, the resource acquisition in time and space is improved and performance of the community as a whole is increased...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Peng Liu, Yinghui Duan, Cong Liu, Qinghe Xue, Jia Guo, Tuo Qi, Zhensheng Kang, Jun Guo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Brendan Fahy, Hamad Siddiqui, Laure C David, Stephen J Powers, Philippa Borrill, Cristobal Uauy, Alison M Smith
We investigated the extent to which final grain weight in wheat is limited by starch synthesis capacity during grain filling under field conditions. A total of 54 wheat genotypes including elite varieties and landraces was grown in two successive years in fields in the east of England. The weight, water content, sugars, starch and maximum catalytic activities of two enzymes of starch biosynthesis, ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase and soluble starch synthase, were measured during grain filling. The relationships between these variables and the weights and starch contents of mature grains were analysed...
August 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Gilles Lekeux, Clémentine Laurent, Marine Joris, Alice Jadoul, Dan Jiang, Bernard Bosman, Monique Carnol, Patrick Motte, Zhiguang Xiao, Moreno Galleni, Marc Hanikenne
The PIB ATPase Heavy Metal ATPase 4 (HMA4) has a central role in the zinc homeostasis network of Arabidopsis thaliana. This membrane protein loads metal from the pericycle cells into the xylem in roots, thereby allowing root to shoot metal translocation. Moreover, HMA4 is key for zinc hyperaccumulation as well as zinc and cadmium hypertolerance in the pseudometallophyte Arabidopsis halleri. The plant-specific cytosolic C-terminal extension of HMA4 is rich in putative metal-binding residues and substantially diverged between A...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Haixia Wang, Yanlin Chen, Xingtong Wu, Zongshang Long, Chunlian Sun, Hairong Wang, Shumei Wang, Paul Rj Birch, Zhendong Tian
Plant STRUBBELIG (SUB)-RECEPTOR FAMILY (SRF) genes encode putative leucine-rich repeat transmembrane receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLK). SRFs have been reported to play essential roles in tissue morphogenesis of many plant organs. Here, we show that a potato SRF family gene, StLRPK1, is involved in plant immunity. StLRPK1 is located at the cell plasma membrane and is strongly induced by culture filtrate (CF) from in vitro growth of the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Overexpression of StLRPK1 in stable transgenic potato or ectopic expression in Nicotiana benthamiana plants enhances P...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
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