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Journal of Experimental Botany

Laura de la Canal, Marcela Pinedo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
J A Raven
Some freshwater algae have lower (< 130 osmol m-3) intracellular osmolarities than most others (> 180 osmol m-3). Low osmolarities are related to the presence of flagella and low energy cost of active water efflux following downhill water influx unconstrained by cell walls covering the plasmalemma, and low resource cost of cell-wall synthesis with the same mechanical degree of safety. One consequence of low intracellular osmolarity is limitation on the concentration of metabolites, i.e. substrates and products of enzyme activity...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mengliang Niu, Junjun Xie, Chen Chen, Haishun Cao, Jingyu Sun, Qiusheng Kong, Sergey Shabala, Lana Shabala, Yuan Huang, Zhilong Bie
This work aimed to reveal the physiological and molecular basis of differential salinity stress tolerance within the Cucurbita species. Five C. maxima (salt tolerant) and five C. moschata (salt-sensitive) genotypes have been comprehensively accessed for the salt tolerance mechanism. Our results show that tissue-specific transport characteristics enable the more tolerant lines to deal with the salt load. This mechanism is conferred by the ability of this species to accumulate more Na+ in the leaf vein and retain more K+ in the leaf mesophyll...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Hongbin Wei, Yongping Zhao, Yurong Xie, Haiyang Wang
Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) is an agronomically important crop and also a classical genetic model for studying the regulation of plant architecture formation, which is a critical determinant of grain yield. Since 1930s, increasing planting density has been a major contributing factor to the over 7-fold increase in maize grain yield per unit land area in the United States, which is accompanied by breeding and utilization of cultivars characterized by high density-tolerant plant architecture, including decreased ear height, lodging resistance, more upright leaves, reduced tassel branch number, and reduced anthesis-silking interval (ASI)...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Masashi Ryo, Takafumi Yamashino, Yuji Nomoto, Yuki Goto, Mizuho Ichinose, Kensuke Sato, Mamoru Sugita, Setsuyuki Aoki
Two-component systems (TCSs) are signal transduction mechanisms for responding to various environmental stimuli. In angiosperms, TCSs involved in phytohormone signaling have been intensively studied, whereas there are only a few reports on TCSs in basal land plants. The moss Physcomitrella patens possesses several histidine kinases (HKs) that are lacking in seed plant genomes. Here, we studied two of these unique HKs, PAS-Histidine Kinase 1 (PHK1) and its paralog PHK2, both of which have PAS (Per-Arnt-Sim) domains, which are known to show versatile functions such as sensing light or molecular oxygen...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Sunil Bansal, Hae Jin Kim, GunNam Na, Megan E Hamilton, Edgar B Cahoon, Chaofu Lu, Timothy P Durrett
The ability to manipulate expression of key biosynthetic enzymes has allowed the development of genetically modified plants that synthesise unusual lipids that are useful for biofuel and industrial applications. By taking advantage of the unique activities of enzymes from different species, tailored lipids with a targeted structure can be conceived. In this study we demonstrate the successful implementation of such an approach by metabolically engineering the oilseed crop Camelina sativa to produce 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols (acetyl-TAGs) with medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs)...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Hongwen Wang, Wanxin Chen, Kai Eggert, Tatsiana Charnikhova, Harro Bouwmeester, Patrick Schweizer, Mohammad R Hajirezaei, Christiane Seiler, Nese Sreenivasulu, Nicolaus von Wirén, Markus Kuhlmann
Strigolactones (SLs) represent a class of plant hormones that are involved in inhibiting shoot branching and in promoting abiotic stress responses. There is evidence that the biosynthetic pathways of SLs and abscisic acid (ABA) are functionally connected. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the interaction of SLs and ABA, and the relevance of this interaction for shoot architecture. Based on sequence homology, four genes (HvD27, HvMAX1, HvCCD7, and HvCCD8) involved in SL biosynthesis were identified in barley and functionally verified by complementation of Arabidopsis mutants or by virus-induced gene silencing...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Neema Prabhakaran Mariyamma, Kurtis J Clarke, Houlin Yu, Emily E Wilton, Jordan Van Dyk, Hongwei Hou, Elizabeth A Schultz
The reticulate leaf vein pattern typical of angiosperms is proposed to have been a driving force for their evolutionary success. Vein pattern is established through auxin canalization via the auxin efflux protein PINFORMED1 (PIN1). During formation of vein loops, PIN1 cellular localization is increasingly restricted to either the basal side of cells in the lower domain or to the apical side in the upper domain. We previously identified the gene FORKED1 (FKD1) as required for PIN1 asymmetric localization and for the formation of closed vein loops...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Wenguan Zhou, Feng Chen, Sihua Zhao, Caiqiong Yang, Yongjie Meng, Haiwei Shuai, Xiaofeng Luo, Yujia Dai, Han Yin, Junbo Du, Jiang Liu, Gaoqiong Fan, Weiguo Liu, Wenyu Yang, Kai Shu
Soybean seeds contain higher concentrations of oil (triacylglycerol) and fatty acids than do cereal crop seeds, and the oxidation of these biomolecules during seed storage significantly shortens seed longevity and decreases germination ability. Here, we report that diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6), a plant growth regulator, increases germination and seedling establishment from aged soybean seeds by increasing fatty acid metabolism and glycometabolism. Phenotypic analysis showed that DA-6 treatment markedly promoted germination and seedling establishment from naturally and artificially aged soybean seeds...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yu-Chen Chuang, Yi-Chu Hung, Wen-Chieh Tsai, Wen-Huei Chen, Hong-Hwa Chen
Floral scent is an important factor in attracting pollinators and repelling florivores. In Phalaenopsis bellina (Orchidaceae), the major floral scent components are monoterpenoids. Previously, we have identified that expression of GERANYL DIPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (PbGDPS) is highly correlated with monoterpene biosynthesis in Phalaenosis orchids. Here, we showed that both cis- and trans-regulation were present on the GDPS promoters, with trans-regulation playing a key role. To investigate the regulation of floral scent biosynthesis, we compared the transcriptomic data of two Phalaenopsis orchids with contrasting scent phenotypes...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Shaoya Li, Jingying Li, Jiahui Zhang, Wenming Du, Jindong Fu, Suhas Sutar, Yunde Zhao, Lanqin Xia
The recently developed CRISPR/Cpf1 system expands the range of genome editing and is emerging as an alternative powerful tool for both plant functional genomics and crop improvement. Cpf1-crRNA produces double strand DNA breaks (DSBs) with long 5' protruding ends, which may facilitate the pairing and insertion of repair templates through homology-directed repair (HDR) for targeted gene replacement and introduction of the desired DNA elements at specific gene loci for crop improvement. However, the potential mechanism underlying HDR of DSBs generated by Cpf1-crRNA remains to be investigated and the inherent low efficiency of HDR and poor availability of exogenous donor DNA as repair templates strongly impede the use of HDR for precise genome editing in crop plants...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Eliška Kuthanová Trsková, Erica Belgio, Anna M Yeates, Roman Sobotka, Alexander V Ruban, Radek Kana
The present paper focuses on different light harvesting strategies in two model organisms: Spinacia oleracea, land plant, compared to alveolate alga Chromera velia. Photoprotective non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) represents an effective way to dissipate excess energy in most phototrophs. Whilst in higher plants its kinetics depends on violaxanthin de-epoxidation, we found that this is not the case in C. velia, characterized by a constitutively fast NPQ activation. Experimental results and in silico studies support the idea that fast quenching is due not to xanthophylls, but to intrinsic properties of C...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Zhigang Wu, Ding Tang, Kai Liu, Chunbo Miao, Xiaoxuan Zhuo, Yafei Li, Xuelin Tan, Mingfa Sun, Qiong Luo, Zhukuan Cheng
The widespread introduction of semi-dwarf1 (sd1), also known as the "Green Revolution" gene, has dramatically increased rice yield. However, the extensive use of limited sources of dwarf genes may cause 'bottleneck' effects in breeding new rice varieties. Alternative dwarf germplasms are quite urgent for rice breeding. Here, we characterized a new allele of rice Slr1-d mutant, Slr1-d6, which reduced plant height by 37%, a much milder allele for dwarfism. Slr-d6 was still responsive to gibberellin (GA) to a reduced extent...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Sara Zahraeifard, Maryam Foroozani, Aliasghar Sepehri, Dong-Ha Oh, Guannan Wang, Venkata Mangu, Bin Chen, Niranjan Baisakh, Maheshi Dassanayake, Aaron P Smith
The H2A.Z histone variant plays a role in the modulation of environmental responses, but the nature of the associated mechanisms remains enigmatic. We investigated global H2A.Z deposition and transcriptomic changes in rice (Oryza sativa) upon exposure to phosphate (Pi) deficiency and in response to RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of OsARP6, which encodes a key component of the H2A.Z exchange complex. Both Pi deficiency and OsARP6-knockdown resulted in similar, profound effects on global H2A.Z distribution...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Romain Castilleux, Barbara Plancot, Marc Ropitaux, Alexis Carreras, Jérôme Leprince, Isabelle Boulogne, Marie-Laure Follet-Gueye, Zoë A Popper, Azeddine Driouich, Maïté Vicré
Extensins are cell wall glycoproteins, belonging to the Hydroxyproline-Rich GlycoProtein (HRGP) family, which are involved in many biological functions, including plant growth and defence. Several reviews have described the involvement of HRGPs in plant immunity but little focus has been given specifically to cell wall extensins. Yet, a large set of recently published data indicates that extensins play an important role in plant protection, especially in root-microbe interactions. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on this topic and discuss the importance of extensins in root defence...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Julia Emiliani, Lucio D'Andrea, María Lorena Falcone Ferreyra, Evangelina Maulión, Eduardo José Rodríguez, Manuel Rodriguez-Concepción, Paula Casati
Plastidial isoprenoids, such as carotenoids and tocopherols, are relevant anti-oxidant metabolites synthesized in plastids from precursors generated by the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. In this work, we found that irradiation of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with UV-B caused a strong increase in the accumulation of the photoprotective xanthophyll zeaxanthin but also slightly higher levels of γ-tocopherol. Plants deficient in MEP enzymes 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase and 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-butenyl 4-diphosphate synthase showed a general reduction in both carotenoids and tocopherols associated with increased DNA damage and decreased photosynthesis after UV-B exposure...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Marcin Lipowczan, Dorota Borowska-Wykret, Sandra Natonik-Bialon, Dorota Kwiatkowska
The relatively thick primary walls of epidermal and collenchyma cells often form waviness on the surface that faces the protoplast when they are released from the tensile in-plane stress that operates in situ. This waviness is a manifestation of buckling that results from the heterogeneity of the elastic strain across the wall. This heterogeneity was confirmed by the spontaneous bending of isolated wall fragments that were initially flat. We combined the empirical data on the formation of waviness in growing cell walls with computations of the buckled wall shapes...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Eric Linster, Markus Wirtz
N-terminal acetylation (NTA) is a prevalent protein modification in eukaryotes. The majority of proteins is acetylated at their N-terminus in a co-translational manner by ribosome-associated N-terminal acetyltransferases (NAT). However, the recent discovery of Golgi-membrane localized NATs in metazoan, and plastid-localized NATs in plants challenged the dogma of static, co-translational imprinting of the proteome by NTA. Indeed, NTA by the cytosolic NatA is highly dynamic and under hormonal control in plants...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Sasha R Gorham, Aaron I Weiner, Maryam Yamadi, Naden T Krogan
The shoot apical meristem (SAM) undergoes developmental transitions that include a shift from vegetative to reproductive growth. This transition is triggered by flowering time genes, which upregulate floral meristem (FM) identity genes that, in turn, control flower development by activating floral organ identity genes. This cascade of transcriptional activation is refined by repression mechanisms that temporally and spatially restrict gene expression to ensure proper development. Here, we demonstrate that HISTONE DEACETYLASE 19 (HDA19) maintains the identity of the reproductive SAM, or inflorescence meristem (IM), late in Arabidopsis thaliana development...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Lam Dai Vu, Tingting Zhu, Inge Verstraeten, Brigitte van de Cotte, Kris Gevaert, Ive De Smet
Wheat (Triticum ssp.) is one of the most important human food sources. However, this crop is very sensitive to temperature changes. Specifically, processes during wheat leaf, flower, and seed development and photosynthesis, which all contribute to the yield of this crop, are affected by high temperature. While this has to some extent been investigated on physiological, developmental, and molecular levels, very little is known about early signalling events associated with an increase in temperature. Phosphorylation-mediated signalling mechanisms, which are quick and dynamic, are associated with plant growth and development, also under abiotic stress conditions...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
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