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Journal of Experimental Botany

Qinggang Yin, Guoan Shen, Zhenzhan Chang, Yuhong Tang, Hongwen Gao, Yongzhen Pang
Flavonols are one of the largest groups of flavonoids that confer benefits for the health of plants and animals. Flavonol glycosides are the predominant flavonoids present in the model legume Lotus japonicus The molecular mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of flavonol glycosides as yet remain unknown in L. japonicus. In the present study, we identified a total of 188 UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) in L. japonicus by genome-wide searching. Notably, 12 UGTs from the UGT72 family were distributed widely among L...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Wenbin Li, Tao Wang, Yuhang Zhang, Yongguang Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Joao Braga de Abreu Neto, María Clara Hurtado-Perez, Monika A Wimmer, Michael Frei
Boron (B) toxicity is a nutritional disorder affecting crop production in many parts of the world. This study explored genetic factors associated with B tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) through an integrated genome mapping and transcriptomic approach. Variation in B tolerance was first evaluated by screening a panel of 137 indica genotypes in B toxic conditions (+2 mM B), followed by genome-wide association study (GWAS). Leaf bronzing and greenness were significantly correlated with shoot and root dry weight, but B uptake was not correlated with any stress phenotype...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Xiao Ying Gong, Rudi Schäufele, Hans Schnyder
Bundle-sheath leakiness (ϕ) is a key parameter of the CO2-concentrating mechanism of C4 photosynthesis and is related to leaf-level intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi). This work studied short-term dynamic responses of ϕ to alterations of atmospheric CO2 concentration in Cleistogenes squarrosa, a perennial grass, grown at high (1.6 kPa) or low (0.6 kPa) vapour pressure deficit (VPD) combined with high or low N supply in controlled environment experiments. ϕ was determined by concurrent measurements of photosynthetic gas exchange and on-line carbon isotope discrimination, using a new protocol...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jing Li, Yanzhi Wang, Yongxia Zhang, Weiyao Wang, Vivian F Irish, Tengbo Huang
Plant organ growth requires the proper transition from cell proliferation to cell expansion and differentiation. The CIN-TCP transcription factor gene TCP4 and its post-transcriptional regulator microRNA319 play a pivotal role in this process. In this study, we identified a pathway in which the product of the C2H2 zinc finger gene RABBIT EARS (RBE) regulates the transcription of TCP4 during Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) petal development. RBE directly represses TCP4 during the early stages of petal development; this contributes to the role of RBE in controlling the growth of petal primordia...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Nathan Mellor, Milad Adibi, Sedeer El-Showk, Bert De Rybel, John King, Ari Pekka Mähönen, Dolf Weijers, Anthony Bishopp
The root vascular tissues provide an excellent system for studying organ patterning, as the specification of these tissues signals a transition from radial symmetry to bisymmetric patterns. The patterning process is controlled by the combined action of hormonal signaling/transport pathways, transcription factors, and miRNA that operate through a series of non-linear pathways to drive pattern formation collectively. With the discovery of multiple components and feedback loops controlling patterning, it has become increasingly difficult to understand how these interactions act in unison to determine pattern formation in multicellular tissues...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Shadi Rahimi, Yu-Jin Kim, Johan Sukweenadhi, Dabing Zhang, Deok-Chun Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
A Veloccia, L Fattorini, F Della Rovere, A Sofo, S D'Angeli, C Betti, G Falasca, M M Altamura
Adventitious roots (ARs) are post-embryonic roots essential for plant survival and propagation. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the auxin that controls AR formation; however, its precursor indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is known to enhance it. Ethylene affects many auxin-dependent processes by affecting IAA synthesis, transport and/or signaling, but its role in AR formation has not been elucidated. This research investigated the role of ethylene in AR formation in dark-grown Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, and its interaction with IAA/IBA...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Stéphanie Arrivault, Toshihiro Obata, Marek Szecówka, Virginie Mengin, Manuela Guenther, Melanie Hoehne, Alisdair R Fernie, Mark Stitt
Worldwide efforts to engineer C4 photosynthesis into C3 crops require a deep understanding of how this complex pathway operates. CO2 is incorporated into four-carbon metabolites in the mesophyll, which move to the bundle sheath where they are decarboxylated to concentrate CO2 around RuBisCO. We performed dynamic (13)CO2 labeling in maize to analyze C flow in C4 photosynthesis. The overall labeling kinetics reflected the topology of C4 photosynthesis. Analyses of cell-specific labeling patterns after fractionation to enrich bundle sheath and mesophyll cells revealed concentration gradients to drive intercellular diffusion of malate, but not pyruvate, in the major CO2-concentrating shuttle...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Ashley Ann Alvarez, Sang Won Han, Masatsugu Toyota, Carla Brillada, Jiameng Zheng, Simon Gilroy, Marcela Rojas-Pierce
Gravitropism in Arabidopsis shoots depends on the sedimentation of amyloplasts in the endodermis, and a complex interplay between the vacuole and F-actin. Gravity response is inhibited in zigzag-1 (zig-1), a mutant allele of VTI11, which encodes a SNARE protein involved in vacuole fusion. zig-1 seedlings have fragmented vacuoles that fuse after treatment with wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and underscore a role of phosphoinositides in vacuole fusion. Using live-cell imaging with a vertical stage microscope, we determined that young endodermal cells below the apical hook that are smaller than 70 μm in length are the graviperceptive cells in dark-grown hypocotyls...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Judith Van Dingenen, Jonas Blomme, Nathalie Gonzalez, Dirk Inzé
Chloroplasts and mitochondria are indispensable for plant development. They not only provide energy and carbon sources to cells, but also have evolved to become major players in a variety of processes such as amino acid metabolism, hormone biosynthesis and cellular signalling. As semi-autonomous organelles, they contain a small genome that relies largely on nuclear factors for its maintenance and expression. An intensive crosstalk between the nucleus and the organelles is therefore essential to ensure proper functioning, and the nuclear genes encoding organellar proteins involved in photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation are obviously crucial for plant growth...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
H H Liu, J Liu, S L Fan, M Z Song, X L Han, F Liu, F F Shen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Qian Li, An Yang, Wen-Hao Zhang
To elucidate the mechanisms underlying tolerance to saline-alkaline stress in two rice genotypes, Dongdao-4 and Jigeng-88, we exposed them to medium supplemented with 10 mM Na2CO3 and 40 mM NaCl (pH 8.5). Dongdao-4 plants displayed higher biomass, chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic rates, and a larger root system than Jigeng-88 under saline-alkaline conditions. Dongdao-4 had a higher shoot Na(+)/K(+) ratio than Jigeng-88 under both control and saline-alkaline conditions. Dongdao-4 exhibited stronger rhizospheric acidification than Jigeng-88 under saline-alkaline conditions, resulting from greater up-regulation of H(+)-ATPases at the transcriptional level...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Sofia Otero, Ykä Helariutta
Vascular plants have developed highly specialized cells to transport nutrients and developmental signals. The differentiation process includes the degradation of multiple organelles of the sieve element cells (SEs) to facilitate transport and, as a consequence, SEs become dependent on neighboring companion cells (CCs). Despite its importance for phloem function and flowering time control, CCs are still a mysterious cell type. In this review, we gather all the genes known to be expressed in CCs, in different organs and organisms, with the objective of better understanding CC identity and function...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mika Farber, Ziv Attia, David Weiss
Previous studies on cytokinin (CK) and drought have suggested that the hormone has positive and negative effects on plant adaptation to restrictive conditions. This study examined the effect of CK on transpiration, stomatal activity, and response to drought in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Transgenic tomato plants overexpressing the Arabidopsis thaliana CK-degrading enzyme CK oxidase/dehydrogenase 3 (CKX3) maintained higher leaf water status under drought conditions due to reduced whole-plant transpiration...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Rachel E Webster, Wanda M Waterworth, Wolfgang Stuppy, Christopher E West, Roland Ennos, Clifford M Bray, Hugh W Pritchard
Carica papaya (papaya) seed germinate readily fresh from the fruit, but desiccation induces a dormant state. Dormancy can be released by exposure of the hydrated seed to a pulse of elevated temperature, typical of that encountered in its tropical habitat. Carica papaya is one of only a few species known to germinate in response to heat shock (HS) and we know little of the mechanisms that control germination in tropical ecosystems. Here we investigate the mechanisms that mediate HS-induced stimulation of germination in pre-dried and re-imbibed papaya seed...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Dörte Kasten, Axel Mithöfer, Elisabeth Georgii, Hans Lang, Jörg Durner, Frank Gaupels
This study aimed to understand the molecular mechanisms of nitrogen dioxide (NO2)-induced toxicity and cell death in plants. Exposure of Arabidopsis to high concentrations of NO2 induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. No leaf symptoms were visible after fumigation for 1 h with 10 parts per million (ppm) NO2 However, 20 ppm NO2 caused necrotic lesion formation and 30 ppm NO2 complete leaf collapse, which had already started during the 1 h fumigation period. NO2 fumigation resulted in a massive accumulation of nitrite and in protein modifications by S-nitrosylation and tyrosine nitration...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jing-Jing Xu, Xiao-Fan Zhang, Hong-Wei Xue
Grain yield and quality of rice mainly depend on grain filling and endosperm development. Here we report that a rice NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factor, OsNF-YB1, is specifically expressed in the aleurone layer of developing endosperm and regulates grain filling and endosperm development. Knockdown of OsNF-YB1 expression by RNAi significantly retarded grain filling, leading to small grains with chalky endosperm as well as altered starch quality. Whereas OsNF-YB1 shows subcellular localization in both the cytosol and the nucleus in roots, it was specifically targeted to the nucleus of aleurone layer cells, which was facilitated by interacting with OsNF-YC proteins preferentially expressed in the aleurone layer...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Shan Zhang, Linli Huang, An Yan, Yihua Liu, Bohan Liu, Chunyan Yu, Aidong Zhang, John Schiefelbein, Yinbo Gan
Multiple phytohormones, including auxin, ethylene, and cytokinin, play vital roles in regulating cell development in the root epidermis. However, their interactions in specific root hair cell developmental stages are largely unexplored. To bridge this gap, we employed genetic and pharmacological approaches as well as transcriptional analysis in order to dissect their distinct and overlapping roles in root hair initiation and elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana Our results show that among auxin, ethylene, and cytokinin, only ethylene induces ectopic root hair cells in wild-type plants, implying a special role of ethylene in the hair initiation stage...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Nuria Ferrol, Elisabeth Tamayo, Paola Vargas
Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses that involve most plants and Glomeromycota fungi are integral and functional parts of plant roots. In these associations, the fungi not only colonize the root cortex but also maintain an extensive network of hyphae that extend out of the root into the surrounding environment. These external hyphae contribute to plant uptake of low mobility nutrients, such as P, Zn, and Cu. Besides improving plant mineral nutrition, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can alleviate heavy metal (HM) toxicity to their host plants...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
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