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Journal of Experimental Botany

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087653/identification-of-regulatory-networks-and-hub-genes-controlling-soybean-seed-set-and-size-using-rna-sequencing-analysis
#1
Juan Du, Shoudong Wang, Cunman He, Bin Zhou, Yong-Ling Ruan, Huixia Shou
To understand the gene expression networks controlling soybean seed set and size, transcriptome analyses were performed in three early seed developmental stages, using two genotypes with contrasting seed size. The two-dimensional data set provides a comprehensive and systems-level view on dynamic gene expression networks underpinning soybean seed set and subsequent development. Using pairwise comparisons and weighted gene coexpression network analyses, we identified modules of coexpressed genes and hub genes for each module...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082510/discharge-of-surplus-phloem-water-may-be-required-for-normal-grape-ripening
#2
Yun Zhang, Markus Keller
At the onset of ripening, some fleshy fruits shift the dominant water import pathway from the xylem to the phloem, but the cause for the decline in xylem inflow remains obscure. This study found that xylem-mobile dye movement into grape berries decreased despite transient increases in berry growth and transpiration during early ripening, whereas outward dye movement continued unless the roots were pressurized. Modeling berry vascular flows using measurements of pedicel phloem sap sugar concentration, berry growth, solute accumulation, and transpiration showed that a fraction of phloem-derived water was used for berry growth and transpiration; the surplus was recirculated via the xylem...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082511/glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase-3-osgpat3-is-required-for-anther-development-and-male-fertility-in-rice
#3
Xiao Men, Jianxin Shi, Wanqi Liang, Qianfei Zhang, Gaibin Lian, Sheng Quan, Lu Zhu, Zhijing Luo, Mingjiao Chen, Dabing Zhang
Lipid molecules are key structural components of plant male reproductive organs, such as the anther and pollen. Although advances have been made in the understanding of acyl lipids in plant reproduction, the metabolic pathways of other lipid compounds, particularly glycerolipids, are not fully understood. Here we report that an endoplasmic reticulum-localized enzyme, Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase 3 (OsGPAT3), plays an indispensable role in anther development and pollen formation in rice. OsGPAT3 is preferentially expressed in the tapetum and microspores of the anther...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077447/role-of-vacuoles-in-phosphorus-storage-and-remobilization
#4
REVIEW
Shu-Yi Yang, Teng-Kuei Huang, Hui-Fen Kuo, Tzyy-Jen Chiou
Vacuoles play a fundamental role in storage and remobilization of various nutrients, including phosphorus (P), an essential element for cell growth and development. Cells acquire P primarily in the form of inorganic orthophosphate (Pi). However, the form of P stored in vacuoles varies by organism and tissue. Algae and yeast store polyphosphates (polyPs), whereas plants store Pi and inositol phosphates (InsPs) in vegetative tissues and seeds, respectively. In this review, we summarize how vacuolar P molecules are stored and reallocated and how these processes are regulated and co-ordinated...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073951/nod-factors-potentiate-auxin-signaling-for-transcriptional-regulation-and-lateral-root-formation-in-medicago-truncatula
#5
Violaine Herrbach, Ximena Chirinos, David Rengel, Kokoévi Agbevenou, Rémy Vincent, Stéphanie Pateyron, Stéphanie Huguet, Sandrine Balzergue, Asher Pasha, Nicholas Provart, Clare Gough, Sandra Bensmihen
Nodulation (Nod) factors (NFs) are symbiotic molecules produced by rhizobia that are essential for establishment of the rhizobium-legume endosymbiosis. Purified NFs can stimulate lateral root formation (LRF) in Medicago truncatula, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. Using a combination of reporter constructs, pharmacological and genetic approaches, we show that NFs act on early steps of LRF in M. truncatula, independently of the ethylene signaling pathway and of the cytokinin receptor MtCRE1, but in interaction with auxin...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073950/differential-coupling-of-gibberellin-responses-by-rht-b1c-suppressor-alleles-and-rht-b1b-in-wheat-highlights-a-unique-role-for-the-della-n-terminus-in-dormancy
#6
Karel Van De Velde, Peter Michael Chandler, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Antje Rohde
During the Green Revolution, substantial increases in wheat (Triticum aestivum) yields were realized, at least in part, through the introduction of the Reduced height (Rht)-B1b and Rht-D1b semi-dwarfing alleles. In contrast to Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b, the Rht-B1c allele is characterized by extreme dwarfism and exceptionally strong dormancy. Recently, 35 intragenic Rht-B1c suppressor alleles were created in the spring wheat cultivar Maringá, and termed overgrowth (ovg) alleles. Here, 14 ovg alleles with agronomically relevant plant heights were reproducibly classified into nine tall and five semi-dwarf alleles...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069780/a-chlorophyll-fluorescence-based-method-for-the-integrated-characterization-of-the-photophysiological-response-to-light-stress
#7
João Serôdio, William Schmidt, Silja Frankenbach
This work introduces a new experimental method for the comprehensive description of the physiological responses to light of photosynthetic organisms. It allows the integration in a single experiment of the main established manipulative chlorophyll fluorescence-based protocols. It enables the integrated characterization of the photophysiology of samples regarding photoacclimation state (generating non-sequential light-response curves of effective PSII quantum yield, electron transport rate or non-photochemical quenching), photoprotection capacity (running light stress-recovery experiments, quantifying non-photochemical quenching components) and the operation of photoinactivation and photorepair processes (measuring rate constants of photoinactivation and repair for different light levels and the relative quantum yield of photoinactivation)...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069779/jasmonate-signaling-and-manipulation-by-pathogens-and-insects
#8
REVIEW
Li Zhang, Feng Zhang, Maeli Melotto, Jian Yao, Sheng Yang He
Plants synthesize jasmonates (JAs) in response to developmental cues or environmental stresses, in order to coordinate plant growth, development or defense against pathogens and herbivores. Perception of pathogen or herbivore attack promotes synthesis of jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), which binds to the COI1-JAZ receptor, triggering the degradation of JAZ repressors and induction of transcriptional reprogramming associated with plant defense. Interestingly, some virulent pathogens have evolved various strategies to manipulate JA signaling to facilitate their exploitation of plant hosts...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064178/linking-photosynthesis-and-leaf-n-allocation-under-future-elevated-co2-and-climate-warming-in-eucalyptus-globulus
#9
Robert E Sharwood, Kristine Y Crous, Spencer M Whitney, David S Ellsworth, Oula Ghannoum
Leaf-level photosynthetic processes and their environmental dependencies are critical for estimating CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. These estimates use biochemical-based models of photosynthesis that require accurate Rubisco kinetics. We investigated the effects of canopy position, elevated atmospheric CO2 [eC; ambient CO2 (aC)+240 ppm] and elevated air temperature (eT; ambient temperature (aT)+3 °C) on Rubisco content and activity together with the relationship between leaf N and V cmax (maximal Rubisco carboxylation rate) of 7 m tall, soil-grown Eucalyptus globulus trees...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064177/nitric-oxide-acts-upstream-of-ethylene-in-cell-wall-phosphorus-reutilization-in-phosphorus-deficient-rice
#10
Xiao Fang Zhu, Chun Quan Zhu, Chao Wang, Xiao Ying Dong, Ren Fang Shen
Nitric oxide (NO) and ethylene are both involved in cell wall phosphorus (P) reutilization in P-deficient rice; however, the crosstalk between them remains unclear. In the present study using P-deficient 'Nipponbare' (Nip), root NO accumulation significantly increased after 1 h and reached a maximum at 3 h, while ethylene production significantly increased after 3 h and reached a maximum at 6 h, indicating NO responded more quickly than ethylene. Irrespective of P status, addition of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) significantly increased while the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO) significantly decreased the production of ethylene, while neither the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) nor the ethylene inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) had any influence on NO accumulation, suggesting NO acted upstream of ethylene...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064176/root-xylem-plasticity-to-improve-water-use-and-yield-in-water-stressed-soybean
#11
Silvas J Prince, Mackensie Murphy, Raymond N Mutava, Lorellin A Durnell, Babu Valliyodan, J Grover Shannon, Henry T Nguyen
We tested the hypothesis that increasing the number of metaxylem vessels would enhance the efficiency of water uptake in soybean (Glycine max) and decrease the yield gap in water-limited environments. A panel of 41 soybean accessions was evaluated in greenhouse, rainout shelter, and rain-fed field environments. The metaxylem number influenced the internal capture of CO2 and improved stomatal conductance, enhancing water uptake/use in soybeans exposed to stress during the reproductive stage. We determined that other root anatomical features, such as cortex cell area and the percentage of stele that comprised cortical cells, also affected seed yield under similar growth parameters...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062593/the-ratio-of-red-light-to-far-red-light-alters-arabidopsis-axillary-bud-growth-and-abscisic-acid-signalling-before-stem-auxin-changes
#12
Srinidhi V Holalu, Scott A Finlayson
Arabidopsis thaliana shoot branching is inhibited by a low red light to far red light ratio (R:FR, an indicator of competition), and by loss of phytochrome B function. Prior studies have shown that phytochrome B deficiency suppresses bud growth by elevating systemic auxin signalling, and that increasing the R:FR promotes the growth of buds suppressed by low R:FR by inhibiting bud abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation and signalling. Here, systemic auxin signalling and bud ABA signalling were examined in the context of rapid bud responses to an increased R:FR...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062592/protein-phosphatase-ap2c1-negatively-regulates-basal-resistance-and-defense-responses-to-pseudomonas-syringae
#13
Volodymyr Shubchynskyy, Justyna Boniecka, Alois Schweighofer, Justinas Simulis, Kotryna Kvederaviciute, Michael Stumpe, Felix Mauch, Salma Balazadeh, Bernd Mueller-Roeber, Freddy Boutrot, Cyril Zipfel, Irute Meskiene
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) mediate plant immune responses to pathogenic bacteria. However, less is known about the cell autonomous negative regulatory mechanism controlling basal plant immunity. We report the biological role of Arabidopsis thaliana MAPK phosphatase AP2C1 as a negative regulator of plant basal resistance and defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae AP2C2, a closely related MAPK phosphatase, also negatively controls plant resistance. Loss of AP2C1 leads to enhanced pathogen-induced MAPK activities, increased callose deposition in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns or to P...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062591/epigenetic-processes-in-flowering-plant-reproduction
#14
REVIEW
Guifeng Wang, Claudia Köhler
Seeds provide up to 70% of the energy intake of the human population, emphasizing the relevance of understanding the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms controlling seed formation. In flowering plants, seeds are the product of a double fertilization event, leading to the formation of the embryo and the endosperm surrounded by maternal tissues. Analogous to mammals, plants undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming during both gamete formation and early seed development, a process that is supposed to be required to enforce silencing of transposable elements and thus to maintain genome stability...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062590/shared-characteristics-underpinning-c4-leaf-maturation-derived-from-analysis-of-multiple-c3-and-c4-species-of-flaveria
#15
Britta M C Kümpers, Steven J Burgess, Ivan Reyna-Llorens, Richard Smith-Unna, Chris Boursnell, Julian M Hibberd
Most terrestrial plants use C3 photosynthesis to fix carbon. In multiple plant lineages a modified system known as C4 photosynthesis has evolved. To better understand the molecular patterns associated with induction of C4 photosynthesis, the genus Flaveria that contains C3 and C4 species was used. A base to tip maturation gradient of leaf anatomy was defined, and RNA sequencing was undertaken along this gradient for two C3 and two C4 Flaveria species. Key C4 traits including vein density, mesophyll and bundle sheath cross-sectional area, chloroplast ultrastructure, and abundance of transcripts encoding proteins of C4 photosynthesis were quantified...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053190/phobf1-a-petunia-ocs-element-binding-factor-plays-an-important-role-in-antiviral-rna-silencing
#16
Daoyang Sun, Shaohua Li, Lixin Niu, Michael S Reid, Yanlong Zhang, Cai-Zhong Jiang
Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a common reverse genetics strategy for characterizing the function of genes in plants. The detailed mechanism governing RNA silencing efficiency triggered by viruses is largely unclear. Here, we reveal that a petunia (Petunia hybrida) ocs element binding factor, PhOBF1, one of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors, was up-regulated by Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) infection. Simultaneous silencing of PhOBF1 and a reporter gene, phytoene desaturase (PDS) or chalcone synthase (CHS), by TRV-based VIGS led to a failure of the development of leaf photobleaching or the white-corollas phenotype...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053189/function-of-cyclophilin1-as-a-long-distance-signal-molecule-in-the-phloem-of-tomato-plants
#17
Ziv Spiegelman, Sumita Omer, Ben N Mansfeld, Shmuel Wolf
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) diageotropica (dgt) mutants, containing a single mutation in the Cyclophilin1 (SlCyp1) gene, are auxin-insensitive, exhibiting a pleiotropic phenotype including lack of geotropism, abnormal xylem structure, lack of lateral roots (LRs), and elevated shoot-to-root ratio. SlCyp1 is a putative peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that can traffic from shoot to root, where it induces changes in auxin response, LR formation, and xylem development, suggesting it has a role as a long-distance signaling molecule...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043950/freeze-quenched-maize-mesophyll-and-bundle-sheath-separation-uncovers-bias-in-previous-tissue-specific-rna-seq-data
#18
Alisandra K Denton, Janina Maß, Canan Külahoglu, Martin J Lercher, Andrea Bräutigam, Andreas P M Weber
The high efficiency of C4 photosynthesis relies on spatial division of labor, classically with initial carbon fixation in the mesophyll and carbon reduction in the bundle sheath. By employing grinding and serial filtration over liquid nitrogen, we enriched C4 tissues along a developing leaf gradient. This method treats both C4 tissues in an integrity-preserving and consistent manner, while allowing complementary measurements of metabolite abundance and enzyme activity, thus providing a comprehensive data set...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043949/the-oshapl1-dth8-hd1-complex-functions-as-the-transcription-regulator-to-repress-heading-date-in-rice
#19
Shanshan Zhu, Jiachang Wang, Maohong Cai, Huan Zhang, Fuqing Wu, Yang Xu, Chaonan Li, Zhijun Cheng, Xin Zhang, Xiuping Guo, Peike Sheng, Mingming Wu, Jiulin Wang, Cailin Lei, Jie Wang, Zhichao Zhao, Chuanyin Wu, Haiyang Wang, Jianmin Wan
Heading date is an important agronomic trait related to crop yield. Many genes related to heading date have already been identified in rice (Oryza sativa), and a complicated, preliminary regulatory genetic network has also already been established, but the protein regulatory network is poorly understood. We have identified a novel heading date regulator, Heme Activator Protein like 1 (OsHAPL1), which inhibits flowering under long-day conditions. OsHAPL1 is a nuclear-localized protein that is highly expressed in leaves in a rhythmic manner...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040800/identification-introgression-and-validation-of-fruit-volatile-qtls-from-a-red-fruited-wild-tomato-species
#20
José L Rambla, Aurora Medina, Asun Fernández-Del-Carmen, Walter Barrantes, Silvana Grandillo, Maria Cammareri, Gloria López-Casado, Guillermo Rodrigo, Arancha Alonso, Santiago García-Martínez, Jaime Primo, Juan J Ruiz, Rafael Fernández-Muñoz, Antonio J Monforte, Antonio Granell
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are major determinants of fruit flavor, a primary objective in tomato breeding. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 169 lines derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum and a red-fruited wild tomato species Solanum pimpinellifolium accession (SP) was characterized for VOCs in three different seasons. Correlation and hierarchical cluster analyses were performed on the 52 VOCs identified, providing a tool for the putative assignation of individual compounds to metabolic pathways...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
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