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Journal of Experimental Botany

Fernando Ibáñez, Luis Wall, Adriana Fabra
Agricultural practices contribute to climate change by releasing greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide that are mainly derived from nitrogen fertilizers. Therefore, understanding biological nitrogen fixation in farming systems is beneficial to agriculture and environmental preservation. In this context, a better grasp of nitrogen-fixing systems and nitrogen-fixing bacteria-plant associations will contribute to the optimization of these biological processes. Legumes and actinorhizal plants can engage in a symbiotic interaction with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia or actinomycetes, resulting in the formation of specialized root nodules...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Nicklaus Fankhauser, Sylvain Aubry
C4 photosynthesis allows highly efficient carbon fixation that originates from tightly regulated anatomical and biochemical modifications of leaf architecture. Recent studies showed that leaf transcriptome modifications during leaf ontogeny of closely related C3 (Tarenaya hassleriana) and C4 (Gynandropsis gynandra) species within the Cleomaceae family existed but they did not identify any dedicated transcriptional networks or factors specifically driving C4 leaf ontogeny. RNAseq analysis provides a steady-state quantification of whole-cell mRNAs but does not allow any discrimination between transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes that may occur simultaneously during leaf ontogeny...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Madhuri A Inupakutika, Soham Sengupta, Amith R Devireddy, Rajeev K Azad, Ron Mittler
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in the regulation of many biological processes in plants. Nonetheless, they are considered highly reactive and toxic to cells. Owing to their toxicity, as well as their important role in signaling, the level of ROS in cells needs to be tightly regulated. The ROS gene network, encoding a highly redundant arsenal of ROS scavenging mechanisms and an array of enzymes involved in ROS production, regulates ROS metabolism and signaling in plants. In this article, we review the role of the ROS gene network in plants and examine how it evolved...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Ivan Jurić, Vinicio González-Pérez, Julian M Hibberd, Gerald Edwards, Nigel J Burroughs
Bienertia cycloptera belongs to a diverse set of plants, recently discovered to perform C4 photosynthesis within individual mesophyll cells. How these plants accomplish high photosynthetic efficiency without adopting Kranz anatomy remains unanswered. By modelling the processes of diffusion, capture, and release of carbon dioxide and oxygen inside a typical Bienertia mesophyll cell geometry, we show that a spatial separation as low as 10 μm between the primary and the secondary carboxylases, can, on its own, provide enough diffusive resistance to sustain a viable C4 pathway at 20 °C, with a CO2 leakage <35%...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Matteo Riboni, Alice Robustelli Test, Massimo Galbiati, Chiara Tonelli, Lucio Conti
One strategy deployed by plants to endure water scarcity is to accelerate the transition to flowering adaptively via the drought escape (DE) response. In Arabidopsis thaliana, activation of the DE response requires the photoperiodic response gene GIGANTEA (GI) and the florigen genes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF). The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is also required for the DE response, by promoting the transcriptional up-regulation of the florigen genes. The mode of interaction between ABA and the photoperiodic genes remains obscure...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Hicham Chahtane, Woohyun Kim, Luis Lopez-Molina
Primary seed dormancy is an important adaptive plant trait whereby seed germination is blocked under conditions that would otherwise be favorable for germination. This trait is found in newly produced mature seeds of many species, but not all. Once produced, dry seeds undergo an aging time period, called dry after-ripening, during which they lose primary dormancy and gradually acquire the capacity to germinate when exposed to favorable germination conditions. Primary seed dormancy has been extensively studied not only for its scientific interest but also for its ecological, phenological, and agricultural importance...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Diane R Wang, Edward J Wolfrum, Parminder Virk, Abdelbagi Ismail, Anthony J Greenberg, Susan R McCouch
Rice plants (Oryza sativa) accumulate excess photoassimilates in the form of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in their stems prior to heading that can later be mobilized to supplement photosynthate production during grain-filling. Despite longstanding interest in stem NSC for rice improvement, the dynamics of NSC accumulation, remobilization, and re-accumulation that have genetic potential for optimization have not been systematically investigated. Here we conducted three pilot experiments to lay the groundwork for large-scale diversity studies on rice stem NSC...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Marien Havé, Anne Marmagne, Fabien Chardon, Céline Masclaux-Daubresse
As a result of climate changes, land use and agriculture have to adapt to new demands. Agriculture is responsible for a large part of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have to be urgently reduced in order to protect the environment. At the same time, agriculture has to cope with the challenges of sustainably feeding a growing world population. Reducing the use of the ammonia-nitrate fertilizers that are responsible for a large part of the GHGs released and that have a negative impact on carbon balance is one of the objectives of precision agriculture...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Qili Fei, Li Yang, Wanqi Liang, Dabing Zhang, Blake C Meyers
Dissection of the genetic pathways and mechanisms by which anther development occurs in grasses is crucial for both a basic understanding of plant development and for examining traits of agronomic importance such as male sterility. In rice, MULTIPLE SPOROCYTES1 (MSP1), a leucine-rich-repeat receptor kinase, plays an important role in anther development by limiting the number of sporocytes. OsTDL1a (a TPD1-like gene in rice) encodes a small protein that acts as a cofactor of MSP1 in the same regulatory pathway...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Hannah L Osborn, Hugo Alonso-Cantabrana, Robert E Sharwood, Sarah Covshoff, John R Evans, Robert T Furbank, Susanne von Caemmerer
In C4 species, the major β-carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) localized in the mesophyll cytosol catalyses the hydration of CO2 to HCO3(-), which phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase uses in the first step of C4 photosynthesis. To address the role of CA in C4 photosynthesis, we generated transgenic Setaria viridis depleted in β-CA. Independent lines were identified with as little as 13% of wild-type CA. No photosynthetic defect was observed in the transformed lines at ambient CO2 partial pressure (pCO2). At low pCO2, a strong correlation between CO2 assimilation rates and CA hydration rates was observed...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mathilde Royer, David Cohen, Nathalie Aubry, Vera Vendramin, Simone Scalabrin, Federica Cattonaro, Marie-Béatrice Bogeat-Triboulot, Irène Hummel
Molecular regulation of growth must include spatial and temporal coupling of cell production and cell expansion. The underlying mechanisms, especially under environmental challenge, remain obscure. Spatial patterns of cell processes make the root apex well suited to deciphering stress signaling pathways, and to investigating both processes. Kinematics and RNA-sequencing were used to analyze the immediate growth response of hydroponically grown Populus nigra cuttings submitted to osmotic stress. About 7400 genes and unannotated transcriptionally active regions were differentially expressed between the division and elongation zones...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yi Xiao, Danny Tholen, Xin-Guang Zhu
Leaf photosynthesis is determined by biochemical properties and anatomical features. Here we developed a three-dimensional leaf model that can be used to evaluate the internal light environment of a leaf and its implications for whole-leaf electron transport rates (J). This model includes (i) the basic components of a leaf, such as the epidermis, palisade and spongy tissues, as well as the physical dimensions and arrangements of cell walls, vacuoles and chloroplasts; and (ii) an efficient forward ray-tracing algorithm, predicting the internal light environment for light of wavelengths between 400 and 2500nm...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Gwyneth C Ingram
The complete elimination of unwanted cells during development is a repeated theme in both multicellular animals and in plants. In plants, such events have been extensively studied and reviewed in terms of their molecular regulation, of marker genes and proteins expressed, and in terms of cellular changes associated with their progression. This review will take a slightly different view of developmental cell elimination and will concentrate specifically on the numerous elimination events that occur during ovule and seed development (here grouped together as seed development)...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Deyang Xu, Franziska S Hanschen, Katja Witzel, Sebastian J Nintemann, Hussam Hassan Nour-Eldin, Monika Schreiner, Barbara Ann Halkier
Casparian strip-generated apoplastic barriers not only control the radial flow of both water and ions but may also constitute a hindrance for the rhizosecretion of stele-synthesized phytochemicals. Here, we establish root-synthesized glucosinolates (GLS) are in Arabidopsis as a model to study the transport routes of plant-derived metabolites from the site of synthesis to the rhizosphere. Analysing the expression of GLS synthetic genes in the root indicate that the stele is the major site for the synthesis of aliphatic GLS, whereas indole GLS can be synthesized in both the stele and the cortex...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Niaz Ahmad, Franck Michoux, Andreas G Lössl, Peter J Nixon
Plastid transformation has emerged as an alternative platform to generate transgenic plants. Attractive features of this technology include specific integration of transgenes-either individually or as operons-into the plastid genome through homologous recombination, the potential for high-level protein expression, and transgene containment because of the maternal inheritance of plastids. Several issues associated with nuclear transformation such as gene silencing, variable gene expression due to the Mendelian laws of inheritance, and epigenetic regulation have not been observed in the plastid genome...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Päivi L H Rinne, Laju K Paul, Jorma Vahala, Jaakko Kangasjärvi, Christiaan van der Schoot
Axillary buds (AXBs) of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula×P. tremuloides) contain a developing dwarfed shoot that becomes para-dormant at the bud maturation point. Para-dormant AXBs can grow out after stem decapitation, while dormant AXBs pre-require long-term chilling to release them from dormancy. The latter is mediated by gibberellin (GA)-regulated 1,3-β-glucanases, but it is unknown if GA is also important in the development, activation, and outgrowth of para-dormant AXBs. The present data show that para-dormant AXBs up-regulate GA receptor genes during their maturation, but curtail GA biosynthesis by down-regulating the rate-limiting GIBBERELLIN 3-OXIDASE2 (GA3ox2), which is characteristically expressed in the growing apex...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Leigh Mickelson-Young, Emily Wear, Patrick Mulvaney, Tae-Jin Lee, Eric S Szymanski, George Allen, Linda Hanley-Bowdoin, William Thompson
The duration of the DNA synthesis stage (S phase) of the cell cycle is fundamental in our understanding of cell cycle kinetics, cell proliferation, and DNA replication timing programs. Most S-phase duration estimates that exist for plants are based on indirect measurements. We present a method for directly estimating S-phase duration by pulse-labeling root tips or actively dividing suspension cells with the halogenated thymidine analog 5-ethynl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) and analyzing the time course of replication with bivariate flow cytometry...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Peitong Wang, Wenwen Zhang, Chuanzao Mao, Guohua Xu, Fang-Jie Zhao
Arsenic (As) contamination in paddy soil can cause phytotoxicity and elevated As accumulation in rice grain. Rice varieties vary in As uptake and tolerance, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the aus variety Kasalath was found to be more tolerant to arsenate [As(V)] than the japonica variety Nipponbare, but the two varieties showed similar arsenite [As(III)] tolerance. Nipponbare took up more phosphate (Pi) and As(V) than Kasalath. The expression of genes for Pi transporters or Pi homeostasis regulation was quantified...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Maximilian Lauterbach, Kumari Billakurthi, Gudrun Kadereit, Martha Ludwig, Peter Westhoff, Udo Gowik
Some species of Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae) convert from C3 photosynthesis during the seedling stage to the C4 pathway in adult leaves. This unique developmental transition of photosynthetic pathways offers the exceptional opportunity to follow the development of the derived C4 syndrome from the C3 condition within individual plants, avoiding phylogenetic noise. Here we investigate Salsola soda, a little-studied species from tribe Salsoleae, using an ontogenetic approach. Anatomical sections, carbon isotope (δ(13)C) values, transcriptome analysis by means of mRNA sequencing, and protein levels of the key C4 enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) were examined from seed to adult plant stages...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yuanyuan Li, David Heckmann, Martin J Lercher, Veronica G Maurino
To feed a world population projected to reach 9 billion people by 2050, the productivity of major crops must be increased by at least 50%. One potential route to boost the productivity of cereals is to equip them genetically with the 'supercharged' C4 type of photosynthesis; however, the necessary genetic modifications are not sufficiently understood for the corresponding genetic engineering programme. In this opinion paper, we discuss a strategy to solve this problem by developing a new paradigm for plant breeding...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
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