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Journal of Experimental Botany

Elisa Andresen, Edgar Peiter, Hendrik Küpper
Many trace metals are essential micronutrients, but also potent toxins. Due to natural and anthropogenic causes, vastly different trace metal concentrations occur in various habitats, ranging from deficient to toxic levels. Therefore, one focus of plant research is on the response to trace metals in terms of uptake, transport, sequestration, speciation, physiological use, deficiency, toxicity, and detoxification. In this review, we cover most of these aspects for the essential micronutrients copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, and zinc to provide a broader overview than found in other recent reviews, to cross-link aspects of knowledge in this very active research field that are often seen in a separated way...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yan Li, Shanshan Xu, Zhiwei Wang, Lingchao He, Kang Xu, Genxuan Wang
Sugars play important roles in regulating plant growth, development and stomatal movement. Here, we found that glucose triggered stomatal closure, showing a dose-and time-dependent manner in Arabidopsis. Pharmacological data showed that glucose-induced stomatal closure was greatly inhibited by catalase (CAT, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger), diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor), lanthanum chloride (LaCl3, a Ca2+ channel blocker), ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, a Ca2+ chelator), two nitrate reductase (NR) inhibitors, tungstate and sodium azide (NaN3), while not affected by salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, a peroxidase inhibitor)...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Sen Yang, Yanling Cai, Xingwang Liu, Mingming Dong, Yaqi Zhang, Shuying Chen, Wenbo Zhang, Yujing Li, Min Tang, Xuling Zhai, Yiqun Weng, Huazhong Ren
The fruit epidermal features such as the number and size of trichomes or spines are important fruit quality traits for cucumber production. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying fruit spine formation in cucumber. Here, we reported functional characterization of the cucumber CsMYB6 gene, which encodes a MIXTA-like MYB transcription factor that is an important player in regulating fruit trichome development in cucumber. Spatial-temporal expression analyses revealed high level expression of CsMYB6 in the epidermis of cucumber ovaries during fruit spine initiation, which was similar to CsTRY, a homolog of the Arabidopsis TRY gene that also plays a key role in trichome development...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Carlos De Ollas, Vicent Arbona, Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas, Ian C Dodd
To determine whether drought-induced root jasmonates (JA, jasmonic acid and JA-Ile, jasmonic acid iso-leucine) accumulation affected shoot responses to drying soil, near isogenic wild type (WT) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Castlemart) and the def-1 mutant (which fails to accumulate jasmonates during water deficit) were self- and reciprocally-grafted. Rootstock hydraulic conductance was entirely rootstock-dependent and significantly lower in def-1, yet def-1 scions maintained a higher leaf water potential as the soil dried due to their lower stomatal conductance (gs)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Ji Hyun Youn, Tae-Woo Kim, Se-Hwan Joo, Seung-Hyun Son, Jeehee Roh, Sunyoung Kim, Tae-Wuk Kim, Seong-Ki Kim
DWARF1 (DWF1) is a sterol C-24 reductase that catalyzes the conversion of 24-methylenecholesterol (24-MCHR) to campesterol (CR) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). A loss-of-function mutant, dwf1, showed similar phenotypic abnormalities to brassinosteroid (BR)-deficient mutants. These abnormalities were reversed in the wild-type phenotype by exogenous application of each castasterone (CS) and brassinolide (BL), but not dolichosterone (DS). Accumulation of DS and decreased CS were found in quantitative analysis of endogenous BRs in dwf1...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Dong Guo, Zi-Ping Yang, Hui-Liang Li, Ying Wang, Jia-Hong Zhu, Shi-Qing Peng
Hevea brasiliensis is a key commercial natural rubber (cis 1,4-polyisoprene) source. In H. brasiliensis, rubber transferase is responsible for cis-1,4-polymerization of isoprene units from isopentenyl diphosphate and implicated in natual rubber yield. Little is known about the regulatory mechanism of rubber transferase gene at molecular levels. Here, we showed that 5'UTR intron of the promoter of rubber transferase gene (HRT2) suppresses the expression of HRT2. A Hevea RING zinc finger protein (designated as HbRZFP1) was able to interact specifically with the HRT2 promoter to down-regulate its transcription in vivo...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yulan Shi, Xiule Yue, Lizhe An
Ω-3 fatty acid desaturases (FADs) are thought to contribute to plant stress tolerance mainly through the C18:3-induced membrane stabilization, but the comprehensive analysis of their roles in stress adaptation is lacking. Here, we isolated a microsomal ω-3 FAD gene (CbFAD3) from a cryophyte (Chorispora bungeana), and elucidated its functions in stress tolerance. CbFAD3, exhibiting highest identity to Arabidopsis AtFAD3, was up-regulated by abiotic stresses. Its functionality was verified by heterogonous expression in yeast...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jun Tominaga, Hiroshi Shimada, Yoshinobu Kawamitsu
Intercellular CO2 concentration of leaves (ci) is a critical parameter in photosynthesis. Nevertheless, uncertainties in calculating ci (ci(c)) arise as stomata close. Here, applying a system for directly measuring ci (ci(m)) to a commercial gas-exchange equipment, we demonstrate overestimation of ci(c) without stimulating stomatal closure. Gas-exchange was measured on one leaf side while ci(m) was acquired simultaneously on the other side in hypostomatous passionfruit (Passiflora edulis Sims), and amphistomatous sunflower (Helianthus annuus L...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Erin L McAdam, James B Reid, Eloise Foo
Leguminous plant roots can form a symbiosis with soil dwelling nitrogen-fixing rhizobia leading to the formation of a new root organ, the nodule. Successful nodulation requires co-ordination of spatially separated events in the root, including infection in the root epidermis and nodule organogenesis deep in the root cortex. We show that the hormone gibberellin plays distinct roles in these epidermal and cortical programs. We employed a unique set of genetic material in pea that includes severely gibberellin-deficient lines and della-deficient lines that enabled us to characterise all stages of infection and nodule development...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Saumik Basu, Nirbhay Kumar Kushwaha, Ashish Kumar Singh, Pranav Pankaj Sahu, R Vinoth Kumar, Supriya Chakraborty
RNA silencing is an integral part of the plant's cellular defense mechanism acting against virus infection. However, explicit role of RNA silencing and interplay between host and virus components during the host recovery from geminivirus infection is still unexplored. Hence, in this study we aimed to examine the mechanism behind the host-specific recovery of Nicotiana tabacum (cv. Xanthi) infected with Tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus (ToLCGV). Unlike Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV), ToLCGV infection resulted in symptom remission in N...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Olga Sztatelman, Justyna Labuz, Pawel Hermanowicz, Agnieszka Katarzyna Banas, Aneta Bazant, Piotr Zglobicki, Chhavi Aggarwal, Marcin Nadzieja, Weronika Krzeszowiec, Wojciech Strzalka, Halina Gabrys
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Longhua Zhou, Tao Yan, Xin Chen, Zhilan Li, Dezhi Wu, Shuijin Hua, Lixi Jiang
Global warming causes a faster increase of night temperature than of day temperature in tropical and subtropical zones. Little is known about the effect of high night temperature on storage lipids and transcriptome changes in oilseed rape. This study compared the total fatty acids and fatty acid compositions in seeds of two oilseed rape cultivars between high and low night temperatures. Their transcriptome profiles were also analyzed. High night temperature significantly affected the total fatty acids and fatty acid compositions in seeds of both low and high oil content cultivars, namely Jiuer-13 and Zheyou-50, thereby resulting in 18...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Nasreldin Mohemed, Tatsiana Charnikhova, Emilie F Fradin, Juriaan Rienstra, Abdelgabar G T Babiker, Harro J Bouwmeester
Sorghum is an important food, feed and industrial crop worldwide. Parasitic weeds of the genus Striga constitute a major constraint to sorghum production particularly in the dryer parts of the world. In this study we analysed the Striga germination stimulants, strigolactones, in the root exudate of 36 sorghum genotypes and assessed Striga germination and infection. Low germination stimulatory activity and low Striga infection correlated with exudation of low amounts of 5-deoxystrigol and high amounts of orobanchol, whereas susceptibility to Striga and high germination stimulatory activity correlated with high concentrations of 5-deoxystrigol and low concentrations of orobanchol...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Rengin Ozgur, Baris Uzilday, Yuji Iwata, Nozomu Koizumi, Ismail Turkan
Secretory proteins undergo modifications such as glycosylation and disulphide bond formation before proper folding and move to their final destination via endomembrane system. Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER due to sub-optimal environmental conditions triggers a response called unfolded protein response (UPR), which induces a set of genes that elevate protein folding capacity in the ER. This review aims to establish a connection among ER stress, UPR and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which remains an unexplored topic in plants...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Zeyu Xiao, Suzy Rogiers, Victor Sadras, Stephen D Tyerman
Mesocarp cell death (CD) during ripening is common in berries of seeded Vitis vinifera L wine cultivars. We examined if hypoxia within berries is linked to CD. Internal oxygen concentration ([O2]) across the mesocarp was measured in berries from Chardonnay and Shiraz, both seeded, and Ruby Seedless, using an oxygen micro-sensor. Steep [O2] gradients were observed across the skin and [O2] decreased toward the middle of the mesocarp. As ripening progressed the minimum [O2] approached zero in the seeded cultivars and correlated to the profile of CD across the mesocarp...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Manuela Ferrero, Chiara Pagliarani, Ondrej Novák, Alessandra Ferrandino, Francesca Cardinale, Ivan Visentin, Andrea Schubert
Besides signalling to soil organisms, strigolactones (SL) control above- and below-ground morphology, in particular shoot branching. Furthermore, SL interact with stress responses, possibly thanks to a cross-talk with the abscisic acid (ABA) signal. In grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), ABA drives the accumulation of anthocyanins over the ripening season. In this study, we investigated the effects of treatment with a synthetic strigolactone analogue, GR24, on anthocyanin accumulation in grape berries, in presence or absence of exogenous ABA treatment...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Karl J Niklas, A Keith Dunker, Inmaculada Yruela
The evolution of complex multicellular life forms occurred multiple times and was attended by cell type specialization. We review seven lines of evidence indicating that intrinsically disordered/ductile proteins (IDPs) played a significant role in the evolution of multicellularity and cell type specification: (i) most eukaryotic transcription factors (TFs) and multifunctional enzymes contain disproportionately long IDP sequences (≥30 residues in length), whereas highly conserved enzymes are normally IDP region poor; (ii) ~80% of the proteome involved in development are IDPs; (iii) the majority of proteins undergoing alternative splicing (AS) of pre-mRNA contain significant IDP regions; (iv) proteins encoded by DNA regions flanking crossing-over 'hot spots' are significantly enriched in IDP regions; (v) IDP regions are disproportionately subject to combinatorial post-translational modifications (PTMs) as well as AS; (vi) proteins involved in transcription and RNA processing are enriched in IDP regions; and (vii) a strong positive correlation exists between the number of different cell types and the IDP proteome fraction across a broad spectrum of uni- and multicellular algae, plants, and animals...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Abdulsamie Hanano, Ibrahem Almousally, Mouhnad Shaban, Denis J Murphy
We have investigated the effects of dioxins on seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Dioxins are highly toxic persistent organic pollutants bioaccumulated by both plants and animals that also cause severe developmental abnormalities in humans. Plants were exposed to various concentrations of the most toxic congener of dioxins, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and the effects on seed development were analysed in depth at transcriptome, proteome and metabolome levels. Exposure to dioxin led to generalised effects on vegetative tissues plus a specific set of perturbations to seed development...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Germán Robert, Nacira Muñoz, Xochitl Alvarado-Affantranger, Laura Saavedra, Vanina Davidenco, Margarita Rodríguez-Kessler, Georgina Estrada-Navarrete, Federico Sánchez, Ramiro Lascano
Root hair curling is the early and essential morphological change for the success of the symbiotic interaction between legumes and rhizobia. At this stage rhizobia grow as infection thread within root hair and are internalized into the plant cells via endocytosis, where PI3K enzyme plays important roles. Former studies of our group showed that stress conditions affect previous stages of the symbiotic interaction, from 2 to 30 min post-inoculation, which we call as very early host-responses, and affect symbiosis establishment...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Ze Wu, Jiahui Liang, Chengpeng Wang, Xin Zhao, Xionghui Zhong, Xing Cao, Guoqing Li, Junna He, Mingfang Yi
Although HsfA3 (heat stress transcription factor A3) is well characterized in heat stress, its roles in other abiotic stresses are less clear. Here, we isolated two homologous HsfA3 genes, LlHsfA3A and LlHsfA3B, from lily (Lilium longiflorum). Both genes were induced by heat stress, but not salt stress. Overexpressing LlHsfA3A in Arabidopsis enhanced its basal and acquired thermotolerance, while overexpressing LlHsfA3B just enhanced its acquired thermotolerance. However, both overexpressed plants showed hypersensitivity to salt stress, and a lack of sucrose exacerbated this salt sensitivity...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
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