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Marine Environmental Research

Matthew R Lee, Rodrigo Torres, Patricio H Manríquez
Climate change due to increased anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere is causing an increase in seawater temperatures referred to as ocean warming and a decrease in seawater pH, referred to as ocean acidification. The meiofauna play an important role in the ecology of marine ecosystems and the functions they provide. Using microcosms, meiofaunal assemblages were exposed to two temperatures (15 and 19 °C) and two pHs (pCO2 of 400 and 1000 ppm), both individually and in combination, for a period of 90 days. The hypothesis that increased temperature will increase meiofaunal abundance was not supported...
September 8, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Xiaojie Wang, Lulu Song, Yi Chen, Haoyu Ran, Jiakun Song
Ocean acidification is predicted to affect a wide diversity of marine organisms. However, no studies have reported the effects of ocean acidification on Indian Ocean fish. We have used the Indian Ocean medaka (Oryzias melastigma) as a model species for a marine fish that lives in coastal waters. We investigated the impact of ocean acidification on the embryonic development and the stereotyped escape behavior (mediated by the Mauthner cell) in newly hatched larvae. Newly fertilized eggs of medaka were reared in seawater at three different partial pressures of carbon dioxide (pCO2): control at 450 μatm, moderate at 1160 μatm, and high at 1783 μatm...
September 6, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Ronald A Kastelein, Nancy Jennings, Aimée Kommeren, Lean Helder-Hoek, Jessica Schop
The foundations of offshore wind turbines are attached to the sea bed by percussion pile driving. Pile driving sounds may affect the behavior of fish. Acoustic dose-behavioral response relationships were determined for sea bass in a pool exposed for 20 min to pile driving sounds at seven mean received root-mean-square sound pressure levels [SPLrms; range: 130-166 dB re 1 μPa; single strike sound exposure level (SELss) range: 122-158; 6 dB steps]. Initial responses (sudden, short-lived changes in swimming speed and direction) and sustained responses (changes in school cohesion, swimming depth, and speed) were quantified...
August 31, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Shima Shamkhali Chenar, Zhiqiang Deng
This paper presents an artificial intelligence-based approach to identifying environmental indicators of oyster norovirus outbreaks in coastal waters. It was found that oyster norovirus outbreaks are generally linked to the extreme combination of antecedent environmental conditions characterized by low water temperature, low solar radiation, low gage height, low salinity, strong wind, and heavy precipitation. Among the six environmental indicators, the most important three indicators, including water temperature, solar radiation and gage height, are capable of explaining 77...
August 25, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Iacopo Bertocci, Fabio Badalamenti, Sabrina Lo Brutto, Barbara Mikac, Carlo Pipitone, Eugenia Schimmenti, Tomás Vega Fernández, Luigi Musco
Biogenic reefs, such as those produced by tube-dwelling polychaetes of the genus Sabellaria, are valuable marine habitats which are a focus of protection according to European legislation. The achievement of this goal is potentially hindered by the lack of essential empirical data, especially in the Mediterranean Sea. This study addresses some of the current knowledge gaps by quantifying and comparing multi-scale patterns of abundance and distribution of two habitat-forming species (Sabellaria alveolata and S...
August 24, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Laura Núñez-Pons, Iacopo Bertocci, Garen Baghdasarian
Warming oceans menace reef ecosystems by disrupting symbiosis between cnidarians and Symbiodinium zooxanthellae, thus triggering bleach episodes. Temperature fluctuations promote adjustments in physiological variables and symbiont composition, which can cause stress responses, but can also yield adaptation if fitter host-symbiont homeostasis are achieved. To understand such processes manipulative studies are required, but many reef-building cnidarians pose limitations to experimental prospects. We exposed Exaiptasia anemones to Gradual Thermal Stress (GTS) and Heat Shock (HS) exposures and monitored chlorophyll and symbiont dynamics to test the phenotypic plasticity of these photosynthetic holobionts...
August 24, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Virginia Echavarri-Bravo, Lynn Paterson, Thomas J Aspray, Joanne S Porter, Michael K Winson, Mark G J Hartl
Scarce information is available regarding the fate and toxicology of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the marine environment, especially when compared to other environmental compartments. Hence, the antibacterial activity of the NM-300 AgNPs (OECD programme) and a household product containing colloidal AgNPs (Mesosilver) was investigated using marine bacteria, pure cultures and natural mixed populations (microcosm approach). Bacterial susceptibility to AgNPs was species-specific, with Gram negative bacteria being more resistant than the Gram positive species (NM-300 concentration used ranged between 0...
August 22, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Diego K Kersting, José R García-March
A long-term experimental approach was undertaken to assess viability and resilience of the endangered Mediterranean fan mussel Pinna nobilis. Artificial and natural recruitment, mortality, population traits and juvenile growth were assessed in seasonal and annual surveys. In the Columbretes Islands, P. nobilis thrives in differing substrate types, from coarse sand to boulders, in Cymodocea nodosa meadows and among rhodoliths, and is always found sharing habitat with the less abundant sibling species P. rudis...
August 19, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
N Servetto, S Rossi, V Fuentes, G Alurralde, C Lagger, R Sahade
Antarctic ecosystems present highly marked seasonal patterns in energy input, which in turn determines the biology and ecology of marine invertebrate species. This relationship is stronger at lower levels of the food web, while upper levels may be less dependent on primary production pulses. The pennatulid Malacobelemnon daytoni, is one of the most abundant species in Potter Cove, Antarctica. In order to assess its trophic ecology and energetic strategies, its biochemical (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids), Fatty Acid (FA) and Stable Isotope (SI) (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) compositions were studied over a year-round period...
August 12, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Yaping Wu, Yanchen Zhu, Juntian Xu
The intertidal flat is an important intermediate ecosystem characterized by abrupt fluctuations of some environmental factors. As a major contributor to coastal primary productivity, benthic diatoms have to cope up with these fluctuating conditions, such as variations in salinity and light. In this study, we used a typical benthic diatom, Nitzschia sp., to investigate how the photosynthetic performance of a benthic species responded to coupled stresses of high salinity and simulated sunlight. Results showed that their responses were largely dependent on the spectra of light they received...
August 12, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Laura Fernandes de Barros Marangoni, Joseane Aparecida Marques, Gustavo Adolpho Santos Duarte, Cristiano Macedo Pereira, Emiliano Nicolas Calderon, Clovis Barreira E Castro, Adalto Bianchini
Seawater contamination with metals, such as copper (Cu), is a notable local impact threatening coral reefs. Cu effects on biomarkers associated with photosynthesis, oxidative status and calcification were evaluated in the Brazilian coral Mussismilia harttii using a marine mesocosm facility. Polyps were kept under control conditions (1.9 μg L(-1) Cu) or exposed to dissolved Cu (3.0, 4.8, and 6.7 μg L(-1)) for 12 days. Photochemical efficiency of the photosystem II of symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) was measured and polyps were analyzed for antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and carbonic anhydrase Ca-ATPase, Mg-ATPase and (Ca,Mg)-ATPase activities after 12 days...
August 10, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Jonny Beyer, Norman W Green, Steven Brooks, Ian J Allan, Anders Ruus, Tânia Gomes, Inger Lise N Bråte, Merete Schøyen
The blue mussel (Mytilus spp.) is widely used as a bioindicator for monitoring of coastal water pollution (mussel watch programs). Herein we provide a review of this study field with emphasis on: the suitability of Mytilus spp. as environmental sentinels; uptake and bioaccumulation patterns of key pollutant classes; the use of Mytilus spp. in mussel watch programs; recent trends in Norwegian mussel monitoring; environmental quality standards and background concentrations of key contaminants; pollutant effect biomarkers; confounding factors; particulate contaminants (microplastics, engineered nanomaterials); climate change; harmonization of monitoring procedures; and the use of deployed mussels (transplant caging) in pollution monitoring...
August 3, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Merete Schøyen, Ian J Allan, Anders Ruus, Jarle Håvardstun, Dag Ø Hjermann, Jonny Beyer
Contaminant bioaccumulation was studied in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis spp.) using the harbor waters of Kristiansand (Norway) as a case study. A suite of chemical contaminants (trace metals, PAHs and PCBs) was analyzed in caged and native mussels as well as in passive samplers (Diffusive Gradients in Thin films (DGT)-devices and silicone rubbers) placed alongside the mussels for estimation of contaminant concentrations in water and uptake rates and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in mussels during a six-months deployment period...
August 2, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
María M Mendez, Juan P Livore, Javier A Calcagno, Gregorio Bigatti
Recreational activities can be an important source of anthropogenic disturbance in intertidal benthic assemblages. On rocky shores, activities such as trampling, snorkeling and the handling of organisms may have a negative effect on benthic communities by modifying the abundance and distribution of key species. Here, we describe and quantify impacts due to recreational activities on benthic communities on a Patagonian rocky shore by investigating their resilience to two types of human disturbance: vehicle traffic and human trampling...
August 1, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Paula J Cárcamo, Eduardo Hernández-Miranda, Rodrigo Veas, Renato A Quiñones
Faunal assemblages of subtidal sedimentary environments are key components of coastal ecosystems. Benthic communities inhabiting the coastal zone near urban centers in Concepción Bay (Chile) have been described as highly disturbed (i.e. impoverished in diversity and species richness). This is due to the frequent presence of hypoxic conditions at the bottom due to the intrusion of low oxygen Equatorial Subsurface Water, high natural productivity and the high load of organic matter generated by several anthropogenic activities...
July 25, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Carlos Marques, Vânia P Roberto, Luís Granadeiro, Marlene Trindade, Paulo J Gavaia, Vincent Laizé, M Leonor Cancela, Ignacio Fernández
The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor belonging to the NR1I sub-family and a known master regulator of xenobiotic metabolism. New roles have been recently proposed in mammals through its activation by vitamin K (VK) such as regulation of glucose metabolism, bone homeostasis, reproduction, neuronal development and cognitive capacities. In marine fish species little is known about PXR and its potential roles. Here, expression patterns of pxr transcripts and conservation of protein domains were determined in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis), a marine flatfish model species in aquatic ecotoxicology...
July 23, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Naissa Maria Danielli, Rafael Trevisan, Danielle Ferraz Mello, Kelvis Fischer, Vanessa Schadeck Deconto, Adalto Bianchini, Afonso Celso Dias Bainy, Alcir Luiz Dafre
Nrf2 is a well-known transcription factor controlling a number of antioxidant defense-related genes, which is understudied in bivalves. In this study, oysters Crassostrea gigas were exposed for 24, 48 and 96 h to 10 or 30 μM tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a classic Nrf2 activator. At 96 h, a clear induction of GSH-related antioxidant defenses was observed in gills of tBHQ-exposed animals, including GSH, glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR). Unexpectedly, the activities of GST, GPx and GR were significantly decreased 24 h after tBHQ treatment, suggesting a possible inhibition, which was supported by in vitro experiments...
July 22, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Adriana Brizon Portugal, Fabrício Lopes Carvalho, Marcelo de Oliveira Soares, Paulo Antunes Horta, José Marcos de Castro Nunes
The structure of marine macroalgal communities and morpho-functional groups were investigated in a poorly characterized region on the Tropical Southwestern Atlantic coast, Brazil. The survey was conducted at six rocky shores located on the mainland and on coastal islands distributed inside a marine protected area (MPA) and outside the MPA (near a densely populated area). We hypothesized that tropical rocky shores inside the MPA and islands have higher species richness, diversity, and evenness of marine macroalgae...
July 21, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Paula S M Celis-Plá, Brezo Martínez, Nathalie Korbee, Jason M Hall-Spencer, Félix L Figueroa
Global warming and ocean acidification are increasingly affecting coastal ecosystems, with impacts that vary regionally depending upon local biogeography. Ocean acidification drives shifts in seaweed community dominance that depend on interactions with other factors such as light and nutrients. In this study, we investigated the photophysiological responses in the brown macroalgae species Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss with important structural role in the coastal Mediterranean communities. These algae were collected in the Cabo de Gata-Nijar Natural Park in ultraoligotrophic waters (algae exposed under high irradiance and less nutrient conditions) vs...
July 20, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Wenguang Liu, Zonghe Yu, Xiande Huang, Yu Shi, Jianshi Lin, Hua Zhang, Xuejie Yi, Maoxian He
In this study, shell growth, shell microstructure, and expression levels of shell matrix protein genes (aspein, n16, and nacrein) that play a key role in the CaCO3 crystal polymorphism (calcite and aragonite) of the shell were investigated in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata at pH 8.10, 7.70, and 7.40. We found that the shell length and total weight index did not vary significantly between oysters reared at pH 8.10 and 7.70, but was significantly lower at pH 7.40. Calcium content and shell hardness were not significantly different between pH 8...
July 20, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
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