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Marine Environmental Research

Jonny Beyer, Norman W Green, Steven Brooks, Ian J Allan, Anders Ruus, Tânia Gomes, Inger Lise N Bråte, Merete Schøyen
The blue mussel (Mytilus spp.) is widely used as a bioindicator for monitoring of coastal water pollution (mussel watch programs). Herein we provide a review of this study field with emphasis on: the suitability of Mytilus spp. as environmental sentinels; uptake and bioaccumulation patterns of key pollutant classes; the use of Mytilus spp. in mussel watch programs; recent trends in Norwegian mussel monitoring; environmental quality standards and background concentrations of key contaminants; pollutant effect biomarkers; confounding factors; particulate contaminants (microplastics, engineered nanomaterials); climate change; harmonization of monitoring procedures; and the use of deployed mussels (transplant caging) in pollution monitoring...
August 3, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Merete Schøyen, Ian J Allan, Anders Ruus, Jarle Håvardstun, Dag Ø Hjermann, Jonny Beyer
Contaminant bioaccumulation was studied in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis spp.) using the harbor waters of Kristiansand (Norway) as a case study. A suite of chemical contaminants (trace metals, PAHs and PCBs) was analyzed in caged and native mussels as well as in passive samplers (Diffusive Gradients in Thin films (DGT)-devices and silicone rubbers) placed alongside the mussels for estimation of contaminant concentrations in water and uptake rates and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in mussels during a six-months deployment period...
August 2, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
María M Mendez, Juan P Livore, Javier A Calcagno, Gregorio Bigatti
Recreational activities can be an important source of anthropogenic disturbance in intertidal benthic assemblages. On rocky shores, activities such as trampling, snorkeling and the handling of organisms may have a negative effect on benthic communities by modifying the abundance and distribution of key species. Here, we describe and quantify impacts due to recreational activities on benthic communities on a Patagonian rocky shore by investigating their resilience to two types of human disturbance: vehicle traffic and human trampling...
August 1, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Paula J Cárcamo, Eduardo Hernández-Miranda, Rodrigo Veas, Renato A Quiñones
Faunal assemblages of subtidal sedimentary environments are key components of coastal ecosystems. Benthic communities inhabiting the coastal zone near urban centers in Concepción Bay (Chile) have been described as highly disturbed (i.e. impoverished in diversity and species richness). This is due to the frequent presence of hypoxic conditions at the bottom due to the intrusion of low oxygen Equatorial Subsurface Water, high natural productivity and the high load of organic matter generated by several anthropogenic activities...
July 25, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Carlos Marques, Vânia P Roberto, Luís Granadeiro, Marlene Trindade, Paulo J Gavaia, Vincent Laizé, M Leonor Cancela, Ignacio Fernández
The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor belonging to the NR1I sub-family and a known master regulator of xenobiotic metabolism. New roles have been recently proposed in mammals through its activation by vitamin K (VK) such as regulation of glucose metabolism, bone homeostasis, reproduction, neuronal development and cognitive capacities. In marine fish species little is known about PXR and its potential roles. Here, expression patterns of pxr transcripts and conservation of protein domains were determined in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis), a marine flatfish model species in aquatic ecotoxicology...
July 23, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Naissa Maria Danielli, Rafael Trevisan, Danielle Ferraz Mello, Kelvis Fischer, Vanessa Schadeck Deconto, Adalto Bianchini, Afonso Celso Dias Bainy, Alcir Luiz Dafre
Nrf2 is a well-known transcription factor controlling a number of antioxidant defense-related genes, which is understudied in bivalves. In this study, oysters Crassostrea gigas were exposed for 24, 48 and 96 h to 10 or 30 μM tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a classic Nrf2 activator. At 96 h, a clear induction of GSH-related antioxidant defenses was observed in gills of tBHQ-exposed animals, including GSH, glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR). Unexpectedly, the activities of GST, GPx and GR were significantly decreased 24 h after tBHQ treatment, suggesting a possible inhibition, which was supported by in vitro experiments...
July 22, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Adriana Brizon Portugal, Fabrício Lopes Carvalho, Marcelo de Oliveira Soares, Paulo Antunes Horta, José Marcos de Castro Nunes
The structure of marine macroalgal communities and morpho-functional groups were investigated in a poorly characterized region on the Tropical Southwestern Atlantic coast, Brazil. The survey was conducted at six rocky shores located on the mainland and on coastal islands distributed inside a marine protected area (MPA) and outside the MPA (near a densely populated area). We hypothesized that tropical rocky shores inside the MPA and islands have higher species richness, diversity, and evenness of marine macroalgae...
July 21, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Paula S M Celis-Plá, Brezo Martínez, Nathalie Korbee, Jason M Hall-Spencer, Félix L Figueroa
Global warming and ocean acidification are increasingly affecting coastal ecosystems, with impacts that vary regionally depending upon local biogeography. Ocean acidification drives shifts in seaweed community dominance that depend on interactions with other factors such as light and nutrients. In this study, we investigated the photophysiological responses in the brown macroalgae species Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss with important structural role in the coastal Mediterranean communities. These algae were collected in the Cabo de Gata-Nijar Natural Park in ultraoligotrophic waters (algae exposed under high irradiance and less nutrient conditions) vs...
July 20, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Wenguang Liu, Zonghe Yu, Xiande Huang, Yu Shi, Jianshi Lin, Hua Zhang, Xuejie Yi, Maoxian He
In this study, shell growth, shell microstructure, and expression levels of shell matrix protein genes (aspein, n16, and nacrein) that play a key role in the CaCO3 crystal polymorphism (calcite and aragonite) of the shell were investigated in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata at pH 8.10, 7.70, and 7.40. We found that the shell length and total weight index did not vary significantly between oysters reared at pH 8.10 and 7.70, but was significantly lower at pH 7.40. Calcium content and shell hardness were not significantly different between pH 8...
July 20, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
M Ballester-Moltó, P Sanchez-Jerez, F Aguado-Giménez
Particulate wastes derived from cage fish farming are a trophic resource used by wild fish. This study assesses waste consumption by wild fish and the impact on the final balance of wastes. Consumption was determined according to the difference between the particulate matter exiting the cages and that reaching 5 m away at three different depths, in the presence and absence of wild fish. Wild fish around the experimental cages were counted during feeding and non-feeding periods. A weighted abundance of 1057 fish 1000 m(-3) consumed 17...
July 20, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Danijela Šantić, Stefanija Šestanović, Ana Vrdoljak, Mladen Šolić, Grozdan Kušpilić, Živana Ninčević Gladan, Michal Koblížek
The spatial patterns of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs abundances were investigated, for the first time, in the Adriatic Sea. Also, the spatial patterns of the whole picoplankton community as well as the environmental factors that potentially influence these patterns were highlighted. AAP abundances was in average 66.9 ± 66.8 × 10(3) cell mL(-1), and their proportion in total bacteria was 7.3 ± 4.3%. These values are in the upper range of AAP abundances observed in marine environments. Multivariate analyses proved that environmental factors influenced the picoplankton community interdependently...
July 20, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Anders Ruus, Dag Ø Hjermann, Bjørnar Beylich, Merete Schøyen, Sigurd Øxnevad, Norman W Green
Mercury (Hg) in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is one of many parameters that are monitored through OSPAR's Joint Assessment and Monitoring Programme. Time series for cod in the Inner Oslofjord (Norway) go back to 1984. Until 2014, annual median Hg-concentrations in cod from the Inner Oslofjord showed both significant upward long-term (whole time series) and short-term (recent 10 years) trends (when 2015 was included, the short-term trend was not significant). However, the median length of the cod sampled also showed upward trends...
July 20, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Felipe Calleja, Cristina Galván, Ana Silió-Calzada, José A Juanes, Bárbara Ondiviela
Long-term studies are necessary to establish trends and to understand seagrasses' spatial and temporal dynamic. Nevertheless, this type of research is scarce, as the required databases are often unavailable. The objectives of this study are to create a method for mapping the seagrass Zostera noltei using remote sensing techniques, and to apply it to the characterization of the meadows' extension trend and the potential drivers of change. A time series was created using a novel method based on remote sensing techniques that proved to be adequate for mapping the seagrass in the emerged intertidal...
July 20, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Wei Shi, Yu Han, Cheng Guo, Xinguo Zhao, Saixi Liu, Wenhao Su, Yichen Wang, Shanjie Zha, Xueliang Chai, Guangxu Liu
Although the effect of ocean acidification on fertilization success of marine organisms is increasingly well documented, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. The fertilization success of broadcast spawning invertebrates depends on successful sperm-egg collisions, gamete fusion, and standard generation of Ca(2+) oscillations. Therefore, the realistic effects of future ocean pCO2 levels on these specific aspects of fertilization of Tegillarca granosa were investigated in the present study through sperm velocity trials, fertilization kinetics model analysis, and intracellular Ca(2+) assays, respectively...
July 20, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Paolo Cocci, Gilberto Mosconi, Francesco Alessandro Palermo
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent organic pollutants damaging to the marine environment and the wildlife. Herein, we investigated the effects of extracts from coastal seawaters (central Adriatic sea, Italy), showing high concentrations of PAHs, on pregnane X receptor (PXR)-transcriptional regulation of the cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) gene using seabream primary hepatocytes. The results show that concentrated extracts of seawater with original ΣPAH concentrations above the putative threshold of 30 ng L(-1) increased expression of PXR and its main target gene, CYP3A...
July 19, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
G J Watson, J M Murray, M Schaefer, A Bonner, M Gillingham
Bait collection is a multibillion dollar worldwide activity that is often managed ineffectively. For managers to understand the impacts on protected inter-tidal mudflats and waders at appropriate spatial scales macrofaunal surveys combined with video recordings of birds and bait collectors were undertaken at two UK sites. Dug sediment constituted approximately 8% of the surveyed area at both sites and is less muddy (lower organic content) than undug sediment. This may have significant implications for turbidity...
July 8, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Roberta Sanna, Silvia Siliani, Riccardo Melis, Barbara Loi, Maura Baroli, Tonina Roggio, Sergio Uzzau, Roberto Anedda
A detailed characterization of lipid extracts from gonads of P. lividus over a year has been performed combining GC and NMR measurements. For this purpose, sea urchins from two different Sardinian coastal areas were collected monthly. The results underlined a correlation between gonad fatty acids profiles and both water temperature and reproduction process. In particular, EPA and ARA appear to be the most altered fatty acids following seasonal changes. It is suggested that EPA could represent a biomarker of reproduction, reaching a content around 14% during gametogenesis, mainly due to an increase of the sn-1,3 position in TAGs...
July 8, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Yisheng Peng, Min Zhang, Shing Yip Lee
The pulmonate gastropods, Phallomedusa solida (Martens, 1878) and Ophicardelus ornatus (Férussac, 1821), exhibit characteristic distributional patterns at the upper intertidal zones in estuarine mangrove and saltmarsh habitats on the eastern Australian coast. Past studies suggested inundation condition, soil salinity, and percent of vegetation cover were responsible for these patterns. In this study, the role of environmental parameters, food availability, physical stress, and predation pressure in determining the distributional patterns of these gastropods was evaluated along transects spanning saltmarsh, mangrove, and the ecotone habitats...
July 8, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Pamela M Brannock, Jyotsna Sharma, Holly M Bik, W Kelley Thomas, Kenneth M Halanych
Nematodes are an abundant and diverse interstitial component of sedimentary habitats that have been reported to serve as important bioindicators. Though the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster occurred 60 km offshore in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) at a depth of 1525 m, oil rose to the surface and washed ashore, subjecting large segments of coastline in the northern GOM to contamination. Previous metabarcoding work shows intertidal nematode communities were negatively affected by the oil spill. Here we examine the subsequent recovery of nematode community structure at five sites along the Alabama coast over a two-year period...
July 6, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
B Unger, H Herr, H Benke, M Böhmert, P Burkhardt-Holm, M Dähne, M Hillmann, K Wolff-Schmidt, P Wohlsein, U Siebert
Records of marine debris in and attached to stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) were studied comprising information on 6587 carcasses collected along the German coast between 1990 and 2014, the decomposition state allowed for necropsy in 1622 cases. Marine debris items were recorded in 31 carcasses including 14 entanglements (5 harbour porpoises, 6 harbour seals, 3 grey seals) and 17 cases of ingestion (4 harbour porpoises, 10 harbour seals, 3 grey seals)...
July 6, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
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