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Marine Environmental Research

J R Renz, M Powilleit, M Gogina, M L Zettler, C Morys, S Forster
BIOIRRIGATION: the animal-induced exchange of solutes between pore water and overlying water - is a key process in sediments with profound implications for biogeochemical processes such as nutrient cycling and organic matter regeneration at the sediment water interface. There is an urgent need to understand how a changing environment will affect the irrigation activity of macrofauna and vice versa. A shift in species composition (e.g. from deep burrowing species to smaller, more opportunistic and shallow burrowing species) will have large effects on bioirrigation and thus on ecosystem function (such as benthic pelagic coupling)...
September 11, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Eva Rothäusler, Luca Rugiu, Veijo Jormalainen
Intensifying environmental changes due to climate change affect marine species worldwide. Herein, we experimentally tested if the combination of forecasted warming and hyposalinity adversely affected growth, receptacle formation, and photosynthesis of three marginal populations of the brown alga Fucus from the northern Baltic Sea. Growth was not impaired by the projected consequences of climate change but genotypes varied in their responses, suggesting existence of genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity...
September 10, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
M L Bender, M Frantzen, L Camus, S Le Floch, J Palerud, J Nahrgang
The present study investigates the potential long-term physiological effects on maturing polar cod (Boreogadus saida), an Arctic key species, after an acute exposure (48 h) to environmentally realistic concentrations of either mechanically dispersed oil (MDO), chemically dispersed oil (CDO) or burned oil residues (BO) (N = 58-60 per treatment). Following exposure, fish were monitored in a common tank supplied with clean water for a seven-month period coinciding with the period of reproductive development...
September 5, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Sanjeev Kumar, P S Bhavya, R Ramesh, G V M Gupta, Fidel Chiriboga, Arvind Singh, Indrani Karunasagar, Ashwin Rai, Ann-Sofi Rehnstam-Holm, Lars Edler, Anna Godhe
As projected by climate change models, increase in sea surface temperature and precipitation in the future may alter nutrient cycling in the coastal regions due to potential changes in phytoplankton community structure and their ability to assimilate nitrogen (N) and carbon (C). An experiment simulating different temperature and salinity conditions (28° C-35 ambient conditions, 28º C-31, 31º C-35 and 31º C-31) in mesocosms containing 1000 L of coastal water from the Arabian Sea was performed and N uptake rates were measured using 15 N tracer technique on 2nd , 5th , 7th and 10th day of the experiment...
September 4, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Yong Zhang, Tifeng Wang, He Li, Nanou Bao, Jason M Hall-Spencer, Kunshan Gao
Coastal and offshore waters in the South China Sea are warming and becoming acidified due to rising atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2 ), yet the combined effects of these two stressors are poorly known. Here, we carried out shipboard incubations at ambient (398 μatm) and elevated (934 μatm) pCO2 at in situ and in situ+1.8 °C temperatures and we measured primary productivity at two coastal and two offshore stations. Both warming and increased CO2 levels individually increased phytoplankton productivity at all stations, but the combination of high temperature and high CO2 did not, reflecting an antagonistic effect...
August 29, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Xiaoshou Liu, Qinghe Liu, Yan Zhang, Er Hua, Zhinan Zhang
The Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM) is a seasonal hydrological phenomenon with significant effects on benthic animals. Based on a range of biological traits, including feeding type, tail shape, adult body length, body shape and life history (c-p value), the biological trait analysis (BTA) of marine nematodes in the southern Yellow Sea was studied in June 2003 (summer) and January 2004 (winter) in order to reveal the effects of YSCWM on benthic animals. In terms of biological traits composition of marine nematode assemblages, results of ANOSIM showed that there were no significant differences among sites inside the YSCMW area...
August 28, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Lucia De Marchi, Victor Neto, Carlo Pretti, Federica Chiellini, Andrea Morelli, Amadeu M V M Soares, Etelvina Figueira, Rosa Freitas
Salinity plays a fundamental role in naturally fluctuating environments such as estuaries influencing physiological and biochemical performance of inhabiting biota. Moreover salinity is considered one of the main factors influencing nanoparticles' stability. Thus, the aim of the present paper was to show the impacts induced by different salinities (control-28 and 21) on the chemical behavior of water dispersible multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs-COOH) and the consequent toxicity in the common ragworm Hediste diversicolor, after long term exposure...
August 27, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Carolina Madeira, Miguel C Leal, Mário S Diniz, Henrique N Cabral, Catarina Vinagre
Extreme events associated with global warming, such as ocean heat waves, can have contrasting fitness consequences for different species, thereby modifying the structure and composition of marine communities. Here, we examined the effects of a laboratory simulated heat wave on the physiology and performance of two Indo-Pacific crustacean species: the shrimp Rhynchocinetes durbanensis and the hermit crab Calcinus laevimanus. We exposed the crustaceans to a control temperature or to a +5 °C temperature (25 °C vs 30 °C) for two consecutive weeks, and weekly analyzed protective proteins, antioxidant activity, and lipid peroxides in muscle and visceral mass...
August 27, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Meina Duan, Deqi Xiong, Xue Bai, Yali Gao, Yijun Xiong, Xiang Gao, Guanghui Ding
Stranding of oil onto a coastline after an oil spill threatens the health of marine benthic organisms. Here, the transgenerational effects of exposure to stranded heavy fuel oil (HFO) on the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius were assessed. The column containing gravel coated with HFO was prepared in the laboratory to simulate HFO-contaminated gravel shorelines. Adult sea urchins were exposed for 21 days to either a HFO-oiled gravel column at the oil loading of 3000 μg oil/g gravel or a non-HFO-oiled gravel column (as the control treatment) and then offspring were either exposed to HFO or ambient seawater conditions...
August 17, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Rebecca L Morris, Aline S Martinez, Louise B Firth, Ross A Coleman
The field of eco-engineering has burgeoned in recent years in response to the proliferation of artificial structures. Adding water-retaining features to seawalls has been successful in increasing biodiversity relative to the surrounding structure. Artificial rock pools may not, however, completely mimic natural rock pools. Here, we compared natural colonisation, through dispersal and recruitment, of intertidal mobile species to water-retaining flowerpots on seawalls with that into rock pools. This represents the more usual 'passive' approach to eco-engineering where features are built to enhance biodiversity and are allowed to colonise naturally, as opposed to seeding or transplanting organisms to features...
August 13, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
S Fernández-Boo, M H Pedrosa-Oliveira, A Afonso, F Arenas, F Rocha, L M P Valente, B Costas
Innate immune status of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus population from two different rocky shore beaches in the northern Portuguese coast was evaluated for a period of one year. Although some ecological studies regarding the effect of toxics on the immune parameters of the sea urchin were made in Portuguese waters, there is a current lack of knowledge concerning their immune status all over the year. In perspective of a changing ecosystem in these waters due to global warming and colonization of new species, it is important to assess the status of the major species living in the area...
August 11, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Roslizawati Ab Lah, Brendan P Kelaher, Daniel Bucher, Kirsten Benkendorff
Rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide are driving ocean warming and acidification. This could cause stress resulting in decreases in nutritional quality of marine species for human consumption, if environmental changes go beyond the optimal range for harvested species. To evaluate this, we used ambient and near-future elevated temperatures and pCO2 to assess impacts on the proximate nutritional composition (moisture, ash, protein, and lipids), fatty acids and trace elements of the foot tissue of Turbo militaris, a commercially harvested marine snail from south-eastern Australia...
August 11, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Camilla Campanati, Sam Dupont, Gray A Williams, Vengatesen Thiyagarajan
Anthropogenically-induced ocean acidification (OA) scenarios of decreased pH and altered carbonate chemistry are threatening the fitness of coastal species and hence near-shore ecosystems' biodiversity. Differential tolerances to OA between species at different trophic levels, for example, may alter species interactions and impact community stability. Here we evaluate the effect of OA on the larval stages of the rock oyster, Saccostrea cucullata, a dominant Indo-Pacific ecosystem engineer, and its key predator, the whelk, Reishia clavigera...
August 11, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Robert H Ong, Andrew J C King, M Julian Caley, Benjamin J Mullins
Light distribution on coral reefs is very heterogeneous at the microhabitat level and is an important determinant of coral thermal microenvironments. This study implemented a solar load model that uses a backward ray-tracing method to estimate macroscale and microscale variations of solar irradiance penetrating the ocean surface and impacting the surfaces of coral colonies. We then explored whether morphological characteristics such as tissue darkness (or pigmentation) and thickness may influence the amount of light captured and its spectral distribution by two contrasting coral colony morphologies, branching and massive...
August 11, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Lauren M Fletcher, Javier Atalah, Barrie M Forrest
The colonial ascidian Didemnum vexillum is a high-profile marine invader, with a geographically widespread distribution after introductions to several temperate regions. D. vexillum has been the focus of several eradication and control programmes globally and the need for specific biological knowledge that relates to establishment processes, persistence, impacts and potential for spread remains. The present study describes temporal patterns of D. vexillum percent cover on experimental substrates over 1.5-years in relation to seasonality of substratum availability, in conjunction with key physical (i...
August 7, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
T Bond, J C Partridge, M D Taylor, T J Langlois, B E Malseed, L D Smith, D L McLean
Information on the potential ecological value of offshore oil and gas infrastructure is required as it reaches the end of its operational life and decisions must be made regarding the best practice option for decommissioning. This study uses baited remote underwater stereo-video systems to assess fish assemblages along an offshore subsea pipeline and in adjacent natural seabed habitats at ∼140 m depth on the North West Shelf of Western Australia. A total of 955 fish from 40 species and 25 families were recorded...
August 4, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
A Dunham, S K Archer, S C Davies, L A Burke, J Mossman, J R Pegg, E Archer
Biogenic habitats play important roles in shallow-water ecosystems, but their roles in deeper waters are less well-studied. We quantitatively assessed 19 glass sponge reefs in the Salish Sea for live reef-building sponge cover and biodiversity, explored potential drivers behind variation observed among reefs, and quantified individual and collective roles the reefs play in filtration and carbon removal. The reefs support diverse and abundant communities of invertebrates and fish, with 115 unique taxonomic groups observed...
August 3, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Caitlin R Fong, Kendall S Chancellor, Julianna J Renzi, De'Marcus R Robinson, Paul H Barber, Sennai Y Habtes, Peggy Fong
Worldwide, many coral reef ecosystems have shifted from coral to algal dominance, yet the ecological function of these emergent communities remains relatively unknown. Turbinaria ornata, a macroalga with a rapidly expanding range in the South Pacific, forms dense stands on hard substrate, likely providing ecological services unique from corals. While generally unpalatable, T. ornata can function as a secondary foundation species and hosts an epibiont community that may provide overlooked trophic resources in phase shifted reef ecosystems...
August 3, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Carlos Navarro-Barranco, Marta Florido, Macarena Ros, Pablo González-Romero, José Manuel Guerra-García
There is an increasing concern about the ecosystem consequences of altering macroalgal assemblages. Many macrophytes are foundation species in coastal habitats, supporting much of the biodiversity of these ecosystems by providing essential resources such as food and habitat. The addition of invasive species strongly contributes to habitat modification, but the bottom-up impacts of non-native macroalgae on higher trophic levels remains difficult to predict. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the invasive macroalga Asparagopsis taxiformis on biodiversity by comparing the mobile macrofauna inhabiting this species to the dominant native species Halopteris scoparia...
July 29, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Andrea Dell'Apa, Karen Carney, Theresa M Davenport, Melissa Vernon Carle
A systematic review of scientific papers on the potential impacts of climate-driven environmental changes on tuna and billfish in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) was conducted to identify the climate-driven pressures and their associated potential impacts on the reproductive success and survival of tuna and billfish, and which of those impacts may have more relevance for their management and conservation in the GOM by 2050. An Impact Screening Analysis (ISA) was developed to evaluate the potential climate impacts discovered in the literature synthesis by assessing each impact against four criteria, and assigning it a ranking based on likelihood of occurrence (High, Medium, or Low)...
July 29, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
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