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New Phytologist

Phillip A Conklin, Josh Strable, Shujie Li, Michael J Scanlon
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. References SUMMARY: Comparisons of concepts in monocot and eudicot leaf development are presented, with attention to the morphologies and mechanisms separating these angiosperm lineages. Monocot and eudicot leaves are distinguished by the differential elaborations of upper and lower leaf zones, the formation of sheathing/nonsheathing leaf bases and vasculature patterning. We propose that monocot and eudicot leaves undergo expansion of mediolateral domains at different times in ontogeny, directly impacting features such as venation and leaf bases...
August 14, 2018: New Phytologist
Cheng Xiong, Dan Luo, Aihua Lin, Chunli Zhang, Libo Shan, Ping He, Bo Li, Qiaomei Zhang, Bin Hua, Zilv Yuan, Hanxia Li, Junhong Zhang, Changxian Yang, Yongen Lu, Zhibiao Ye, Taotao Wang
Carotenoids play important roles in many biological processes, such as light harvesting, photoprotection and visual attraction in plants. However, the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis is still not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that SlBBX20, a B-box (BBX) zinc-finger transcription factor, is a positive regulator of carotenoid accumulation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Overexpression of SlBBX20 leads to dark green fruits and leaves and higher levels of carotenoids relative to the wild-type. Interactions between SlBBX20 and DE-ETIOLATED 1 (SlDET1) lead to the ubiquitination and 26S proteasome-mediated degradation of SlBBX20...
August 13, 2018: New Phytologist
Keiko U Torii, Shinya Hagihara, Naoyuki Uchida, Koji Takahashi
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: Plant biologists have been fascinated by auxin - a small chemical hormone so simple in structure yet so powerful - which regulates virtually every aspect of plant growth, development and behavior. Synthetic chemistry has played a major role in unraveling the physiological effects of auxin and the application of synthetic analogs has had a dramatic effect on tissue culture, horticulture and the agriculture of economically relevant plant species. Chemical genetics of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, has helped to elucidate the nuclear auxin signaling pathway mediated by the receptor, TIR1, and opened the door to structure-guided, rational designs of auxin agonists and antagonists...
August 7, 2018: New Phytologist
J Marty Kranabetter, Rachael Harman-Denhoed, Barbara J Hawkins
Quantifying nutritional dynamics of free-living saprotrophs and symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi in the field is challenging, but the stoichiometry of fruiting bodies (sporocarps) may be an effective methodology for this purpose. Carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations of soils, foliage and 146 sporocarp collections were analyzed from 14 Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii stands across a podzolization gradient on Vancouver Island (Canada). N and P concentrations were considerably higher in saprotrophic fungi...
August 7, 2018: New Phytologist
Anna L Johnson, Tia-Lynn Ashman
Pollination is known to be sensitive to environmental change but we lack direct estimates of how quantity and quality of pollen transferred between plant species shifts along disturbance gradients. This limits our understanding of how species compositional change impacts pollen receipt per species and structure of pollen transfer networks. We constructed pollen transfer networks along a plant invasion gradient in the Hawaiian dry tropical forest ecosystem. Flowers and stigmas were collected from both native and introduced plants, pollen was identified and enumerated and floral traits were measured...
August 7, 2018: New Phytologist
Alessandro Alboresi, Mattia Storti, Tomas Morosinotto
Contents 1 I. 1 II. 2 III. 3 IV. 4 V. 4 5 References 5 SUMMARY: Photosynthetic electron transport requires continuous modulation to maintain the balance between light availability and metabolic demands. Multiple mechanisms for the regulation of electron transport have been identified and are unevenly distributed among photosynthetic organisms. Flavodiiron proteins (FLVs) influence photosynthetic electron transport by accepting electrons downstream of photosystem I to reduce oxygen to water. FLV activity has been demonstrated in cyanobacteria, green algae and mosses to be important in avoiding photosystem I overreduction upon changes in light intensity...
August 7, 2018: New Phytologist
Marilyn J Roossinck
I. II. III. IV. References SUMMARY: Plants and microorganisms have been interacting in both positive and negative ways for millions of years. They are also frequently infected with viruses that can have positive or negative impacts. A majority of virus families with members that infect fungi have counterparts that infect plants, and in some cases the phylogenetic analyses of these virus families indicate transmission between the plant and fungal kingdoms. These similarities reflect the host relationships; fungi are evolutionarily more closely related to animals than to plants but share very few viral signatures with animal viruses...
August 7, 2018: New Phytologist
Jakob Bönnighausen, Nicolas Schauer, Wilhelm Schäfer, Jörg Bormann
Fusarium graminearum is a filamentous ascomycete and the causal agent of Fusarium head blight on wheat that threatens food and feed production worldwide as infection reduces crop yield both quantitatively by interfering with kernel development and qualitatively by poisoning any remaining kernels with mycotoxins. In wheat, F. graminearum infects spikelets and colonizes the entire head by growing through the rachis node at the bottom of each spikelet. Without the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), the pathogen cannot penetrate the rachis node and wheat is able to resist colonization...
August 7, 2018: New Phytologist
Camille E Wendlandt, John U Regus, Kelsey A Gano-Cohen, Amanda C Hollowell, Kenjiro W Quides, Jonathan Y Lyu, Eunice S Adinata, Joel L Sachs
Efficient host control predicts the extirpation of ineffective symbionts, but they are nonetheless widespread in nature. We tested three hypotheses for the maintenance of symbiotic variation in rhizobia that associate with a native legume: partner mismatch between host and symbiont, such that symbiont effectiveness varies with host genotype; resource satiation, whereby extrinsic sources of nutrients relax host control; and variation in host control among host genotypes. We inoculated Acmispon strigosus from six populations with three Bradyrhizobium strains that vary in symbiotic effectiveness on sympatric hosts...
August 6, 2018: New Phytologist
Xiao-Lin Sui, Ting Zhang, Yu-Qing Tian, Rui-Juan Xue, Ai-Rong Li
Despite their ubiquitous distribution and significant ecological roles, soil microorganisms have long been neglected in investigations addressing parasitic plant-host interactions. Because nutrient deprivation is a primary cause of host damage by parasitic plants, we hypothesized that beneficial soil microorganisms conferring nutrient benefits to parasitized hosts may play important roles in alleviating damage. We conducted a pot cultivation experiment to test the inoculation effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae), a rhizobium (Rhizobium leguminosarum) and their interactive effects, on alleviation of damage to a legume host (Trifolium repens) by two root hemiparasitic plants with different nutrient requirements (N-demanding Pedicularis rex and P-demanding P...
August 5, 2018: New Phytologist
Chiara Perico, Imogen Sparkes
Organelle movement and positioning are correlated with plant growth and development. Movement characteristics are seemingly erratic yet respond to external stimuli including pathogens and light. Given these clear correlations, we still do not understand the specific roles that movement plays in these processes. There are few exceptions including organelle inheritance during cell division and photorelocation of chloroplasts to prevent photodamage. The molecular and biophysical components that drive movement can be broken down into cytoskeletal components, motor proteins and tethers, which allow organelles to physically interact with one another...
August 5, 2018: New Phytologist
Bruno Clair, Barbara Ghislain, Jonathan Prunier, Romain Lehnebach, Jacques Beauchêne, Tancrède Alméras
To grow straight, plants need a motor system that controls posture by generating forces to offset gravity. This motor function in trees was long thought to be only controlled by internal forces induced in wood. Here we provide evidence that bark is involved in the generation of mechanical stresses in several tree species. Saplings of nine tropical species were grown tilted and staked in a shadehouse and the change in curvature of the stem was measured after releasing from the pole and after removing the bark...
August 4, 2018: New Phytologist
Vijai Bhadauria, Ron MacLachlan, Curtis Pozniak, Aurelie Cohen-Skalie, Li Li, Jerlene Halliday, Sabine Banniza
Colletotrichum lentis causes anthracnose, which is a serious disease on lentil and can account for up to 70% crop loss. Two pathogenic races, 0 and 1, have been described in the C. lentis population from lentil. To unravel the genetic control of virulence, an isolate of the virulent race 0 was sequenced at 1481-fold genomic coverage. The 56.10-Mb genome assembly consists of 50 scaffolds with N50 scaffold length of 4.89 Mb. A total of 11 436 protein-coding gene models was predicted in the genome with 237 coding candidate effectors, 43 secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes and 229 carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), suggesting a contraction of the virulence gene repertoire in C...
August 4, 2018: New Phytologist
Jan Muhr, Susan Trumbore, Niro Higuchi, Norbert Kunert
Nonstructural carbon (NSC) reserves act as buffers to sustain tree activity during periods when carbon (C) assimilation does not meet C demand, but little is known about their age and accessibility; we designed a controlled girdling experiment in the Amazon to study tree survival on NSC reserves. We used bomb-radiocarbon (14 C) to monitor the time elapsed between C fixation and release ('age' of substrates). We simultaneously monitored how the mobilization of reserve C affected δ13 CO2 . Six ungirdled control trees relied almost exclusively on recent assimilates throughout the 17 months of measurement...
August 1, 2018: New Phytologist
Michael J Gundale, David A Wardle, Paul Kardol, Marie-Charlotte Nilsson
The study of interactions and feedbacks between plants and soils is a rapidly expanding research area, and a primary tool used in this field is to perform glasshouse experiments where soil biota are manipulated. Recently, there has been vigorous debate regarding the correctness of methods for carrying out these types of experiment, and specifically whether it is legitimate to mix soils from different sites or plots (mixed soil sampling, MSS) or not (independent soil sampling, ISS) to create either soil inoculum treatments or subjects...
August 1, 2018: New Phytologist
Noah W Sokol, Sara E Kuebbing, Elena Karlsen-Ayala, Mark A Bradford
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is primarily formed from plant inputs, but the relative carbon (C) contributions from living root inputs (i.e. rhizodeposits) vs litter inputs (i.e. root + shoot litter) are poorly understood. Recent theory suggests that living root inputs exert a disproportionate influence on SOC formation, but few field studies have explicitly tested this by separately tracking living root vs litter inputs as they move through the soil food web and into distinct SOC pools. We used a manipulative field experiment with an annual C4 grass in a forest understory to differentially track its living root vs litter inputs into the soil and to assess net SOC formation over multiple years...
August 1, 2018: New Phytologist
Charles Ampomah-Dwamena, Amali H Thrimawithana, Supinya Dejnoprat, David Lewis, Richard V Espley, Andrew C Allan
MYB transcription factors (TFs) regulate diverse plant developmental processes and understanding their roles in controlling pigment accumulation in fruit is important for developing new cultivars. In this study, we characterised kiwifruit TFMYB7, which was found to activate the promoter of the kiwifruit lycopene beta-cyclase (AdLCY-β) gene that plays a key role in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. To determine the role of MYB7, we analysed gene expression and metabolite profiles in Actinidia fruit which show different pigment profiles...
August 1, 2018: New Phytologist
Gabriel Arellano, Nagore G Medina, Sylvester Tan, Mohizah Mohamad, Stuart J Davies
What causes individual tree death in tropical forests remains a major gap in our understanding of the biology of tropical trees and leads to significant uncertainty in predicting global carbon cycle dynamics. We measured individual characteristics (diameter at breast height, wood density, growth rate, crown illumination and crown form) and environmental conditions (soil fertility and habitat suitability) for 26 425 trees ≥ 10 cm diameter at breast height belonging to 416 species in a 52-ha plot in Lambir Hills National Park, Malaysia...
August 1, 2018: New Phytologist
Qing Huan, Zhiwei Mao, Kang Chong, Jingyu Zhang
Vernalization, the requirement of plants for long-term exposure to low environmental temperature for flowering, is an epigenetic phenomenon. Histone modification regulation has been revealed in vernalization, but is limited to key genes. Now, we know that VRN1 is epigenetically critical for monocots. Genome-wide analysis is still unavailable, however. We performed chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing for H3K4me3/H3K27me3 in Brachypodium distachyon to obtain a global view of histone modifications in vernalization on a genome-wide scale and for different pathways/genes...
July 31, 2018: New Phytologist
Tino Kreszies, Nandhini Shellakkutti, Alina Osthoff, Peng Yu, Jutta A Baldauf, Viktoria V Zeisler-Diehl, Kosala Ranathunge, Frank Hochholdinger, Lukas Schreiber
Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is more drought tolerant than other cereals, thus making it an excellent model for the study of the chemical, transcriptomic and physiological effects of water deficit. Roots are the first organ to sense soil water deficit. Therefore, we studied the response of barley seminal roots to different water potentials induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000. We investigated changes in anatomical parameters by histochemistry and microscopy, quantitative and qualitative changes in suberin composition by analytical chemistry, transcript changes by RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq), and the radial water and solute movement of roots using a root pressure probe...
July 28, 2018: New Phytologist
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