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New Phytologist

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328177/maternal-vernalization-and-vernalization-pathway-genes-influence-progeny-seed-germination
#1
Gabriela A Auge, Logan K Blair, Hannah Neville, Kathleen Donohue
Different life stages frequently respond to the same environmental cue to regulate development so that each life stage is matched to its appropriate season. We investigated how independently each life stage can respond to shared environmental cues, focusing on vernalization, in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. We first tested whether effects of rosette vernalization persisted to influence seed germination. To test whether genes in the vernalization flowering pathway also influence germination, we assessed germination of functional and nonfunctional alleles of these genes and measured their level of expression at different life stages in response to rosette vernalization...
March 22, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328079/intraspecific-chemical-communication-in-microalgae
#2
REVIEW
Marianna Venuleo, John A Raven, Mario Giordano
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. References SUMMARY: The relevance of infochemicals in the relationships between organisms is emerging as a fundamental aspect of aquatic ecology. Exchanges of chemical cues are likely to occur not only between organisms of different species, but also between conspecific individuals. Especially intriguing is the investigation of chemical communication in microalgae, because of the relevance of these organisms for global primary production and their key role in trophic webs...
March 22, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323330/insights-on-the-evolutionary-origin-of-detarioideae-a-clade-of-ecologically-dominant-tropical-african-trees
#3
Manuel de la Estrella, Félix Forest, Jan J Wieringa, Marie Fougère-Danezan, Anne Bruneau
African tropical forests are generally considered less diverse than their Neotropical and Asian counterparts. By contrast, the Detarioideae is much more diverse in Africa than in South America and Asia. To better understand the evolution of this contrasting diversity pattern, we investigated the biogeographical and ecological origin of this subfamily, testing whether they originated in dry biomes surrounding the Tethys Seaway as currently hypothesized for many groups of Leguminosae. We constructed the largest time-calibrated phylogeny for the subfamily to date, reconstructed ancestral states for geography and biome/habitat, estimated diversification and extinction rates, and evaluated biome/habitat and geographic shifts in Detarioideae...
March 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322452/macrocyclization-by-asparaginyl-endopeptidases
#4
REVIEW
Amy M James, Joel Haywood, Joshua S Mylne
Contents I. II. III. IV. References SUMMARY: Plant asparaginyl endopeptidases (AEPs) are important for the post-translational processing of seed storage proteins via cleavage of precursor proteins. Some AEPs also function as peptide bond-makers during the biosynthesis of several unrelated classes of cyclic peptides, namely the kalata-type cyclic peptides, PawS-Derived Peptides and cyclic knottins. These three families of gene-encoded peptides have different evolutionary origins, but all have recruited AEPs for their maturation...
March 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322451/genome-wide-association-studies-with-proteomics-data-reveal-genes-important-for-synthesis-transport-and-packaging-of-globulins-in-legume-seeds
#5
Christine Le Signor, Delphine Aimé, Amandine Bordat, Maya Belghazi, Valérie Labas, Jérôme Gouzy, Nevin D Young, Jean-Marie Prosperi, Olivier Leprince, Richard D Thompson, Julia Buitink, Judith Burstin, Karine Gallardo
Improving nutritional seed quality is an important challenge in grain legume breeding. However, the genes controlling the differential accumulation of globulins, which are major contributors to seed nutritional value in legumes, remain largely unknown. We combined a search for protein quantity loci with genome-wide association studies on the abundance of 7S and 11S globulins in seeds of the model legume species Medicago truncatula. Identified genomic regions and genes carrying polymorphisms linked to globulin variations were then cross-compared with pea (Pisum sativum), leading to the identification of candidate genes for the regulation of globulin abundance in this crop...
March 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318016/the-transporter-synpam71-is-located-in-the-plasma-membrane-and-thylakoids-and-mediates-manganese-tolerance-in-synechocystis-pcc6803
#6
Chiara Gandini, Sidsel Birkelund Schmidt, Søren Husted, Anja Schneider, Dario Leister
Manganese (Mn) is an essential constituent of photosystem II (PSII) and therefore indispensable for oxygenic photosynthesis. Very little is known about how Mn is transported, delivered and retained in photosynthetic cells. Recently, the thylakoid-localized transporter PAM71 has been linked to chloroplast Mn homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we characterize the function of its homolog in Synechocystis (SynPAM71). We used a loss-of-function line (ΔSynPAM71), wild-type (WT) cells exposed to Mn stress and strains expressing a tagged variant of SynPAM71 to characterize the role of SynPAM71 in cyanobacterial Mn homeostasis...
March 20, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318011/explosive-seed-dispersal
#7
LETTER
Hugo Hofhuis, Angela Hay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304077/alternative-electron-transport-mediated-by-flavodiiron-proteins-is-operational-in-organisms-from-cyanobacteria-up-to-gymnosperms
#8
Petr Ilík, Andrej Pavlovič, Roman Kouřil, Alessandro Alboresi, Tomas Morosinotto, Yagut Allahverdiyeva, Eva-Mari Aro, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Toshiharu Shikanai
Photo-reduction of O2 to water mediated by flavodiiron proteins (FDPs) represents a safety valve for the photosynthetic electron transport chain in fluctuating light. So far, the FDP-mediated O2 photo-reduction has been evidenced only in cyanobacteria and the moss Physcomitrella; however, a recent phylogenetic analysis of transcriptomes of photosynthetic organisms has also revealed the presence of FDP genes in several nonflowering plant groups. What remains to be clarified is whether the FDP-dependent O2 photo-reduction is actually operational in these organisms...
March 17, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294342/resolution-of-deep-eudicot-phylogeny-and-their-temporal-diversification-using-nuclear-genes-from-transcriptomic-and-genomic-datasets
#9
Liping Zeng, Ning Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Peter K Endress, Jie Huang, Hong Ma
Explosive diversification is widespread in eukaryotes, making it difficult to resolve phylogenetic relationships. Eudicots contain c. 75% of extant flowering plants, are important for human livelihood and terrestrial ecosystems, and have probably experienced explosive diversifications. The eudicot phylogenetic relationships, especially among those of the Pentapetalae, remain unresolved. Here, we present a highly supported eudicot phylogeny and diversification rate shifts using 31 newly generated transcriptomes and 88 other datasets covering 70% of eudicot orders...
March 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295393/diverse-mechanisms-of-resistance-to-pseudomonas-syringae-in-a-thousand-natural-accessions-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#10
André C Velásquez, Matthew Oney, Bethany Huot, Shu Xu, Sheng Yang He
Plants are continuously threatened by pathogen attack and, as such, they have evolved mechanisms to evade, escape and defend themselves against pathogens. However, it is not known what types of defense mechanisms a plant would already possess to defend against a potential pathogen that has not co-evolved with the plant. We addressed this important question in a comprehensive manner by studying the responses of 1041 accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana to the foliar pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000...
March 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295392/erecta-signaling-controls-arabidopsis-inflorescence-architecture-through-chromatin-mediated-activation-of-pre1-expression
#11
Hanyang Cai, Lihua Zhao, Lulu Wang, Man Zhang, Zhenxia Su, Yan Cheng, Heming Zhao, Yuan Qin
Flowering plants display a remarkable diversity in inflorescence architecture, and pedicel length is one of the key contributors to this diversity. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the receptor-like kinase ERECTA (ER) mediated signaling pathway plays important roles in regulating inflorescence architecture by promoting cell proliferation. However, the regulating mechanism remains elusive in the pedicel. Genetic interactions between ERECTA signaling and the chromatin remodeling complex SWR1 in the control of inflorescence architecture were studied...
March 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295376/both-maternally-and-paternally-imprinted-genes-regulate-seed-development-in-rice
#12
Jingya Yuan, Sushu Chen, Wu Jiao, Longfei Wang, Limei Wang, Wenxue Ye, Jie Lu, Delin Hong, Siliang You, Zhukuan Cheng, Dong-Lei Yang, Z Jeffrey Chen
Genetic imprinting refers to the unequal expression of paternal and maternal alleles of a gene in sexually reproducing organisms, including mammals and flowering plants. Although many imprinted genes have been identified in plants, the functions of these imprinted genes have remained largely uninvestigated. We report genome-wide analysis of gene expression, DNA methylation and small RNAs in the rice endosperm and functional tests of five imprinted genes during seed development using Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated gene9 (CRISPR/Cas9) gene editing technology...
March 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295373/building-a-better-foundation-improving-root-trait-measurements-to-understand-and-model-plant-and-ecosystem-processes
#13
M Luke McCormack, Dali Guo, Colleen M Iversen, Weile Chen, David M Eissenstat, Christopher W Fernandez, Le Li, Chengen Ma, Zeqing Ma, Hendrik Poorter, Peter B Reich, Marcin Zadworny, Amy Zanne
Trait-based approaches provide a useful framework to investigate plant strategies for resource acquisition, growth, and competition, as well as plant impacts on ecosystem processes. Despite significant progress capturing trait variation within and among stems and leaves, identification of trait syndromes within fine-root systems and between fine roots and other plant organs is limited. Here we discuss three underappreciated areas where focused measurements of fine-root traits can make significant contributions to ecosystem science...
March 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295374/physiological-and-structural-tradeoffs-underlying-the-leaf-economics-spectrum
#14
Yusuke Onoda, Ian J Wright, John R Evans, Kouki Hikosaka, Kaoru Kitajima, Ülo Niinemets, Hendrik Poorter, Tiina Tosens, Mark Westoby
The leaf economics spectrum (LES) represents a suite of intercorrelated leaf traits concerning construction costs per unit leaf area, nutrient concentrations, and rates of carbon fixation and tissue turnover. Although broad trade-offs among leaf structural and physiological traits have been demonstrated, we still do not have a comprehensive view of the fundamental constraints underlying the LES trade-offs. Here, we investigated physiological and structural mechanisms underpinning the LES by analysing a novel data compilation incorporating rarely considered traits such as the dry mass fraction in cell walls, nitrogen allocation, mesophyll CO2 diffusion and associated anatomical traits for hundreds of species covering major growth forms...
March 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277624/plant-phylogeny-as-a-window-on-the-evolution-of-hyperdiversity-in-the-tropical-rainforest-biome
#15
REVIEW
Wolf L Eiserhardt, Thomas L P Couvreur, William J Baker
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. References SUMMARY: Tropical rainforest (TRF) is the most species-rich terrestrial biome on Earth, harbouring just under half of the world's plant species in c. 7% of the land surface. Phylogenetic trees provide important insights into mechanisms underpinning TRF hyperdiversity that are complementary to those obtained from the fossil record. Phylogenetic studies of TRF plant diversity have mainly focused on whether this biome is an evolutionary 'cradle' or 'museum', emphasizing speciation and extinction rates...
March 9, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277621/starch-as-a-determinant-of-plant-fitness-under-abiotic-stress
#16
REVIEW
Matthias Thalmann, Diana Santelia
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: Abiotic stresses, such as drought, high salinity and extreme temperatures, pose one of the most important constraints to plant growth and productivity in many regions of the world. A number of investigations have shown that plants, including several important crops, remobilize their starch reserve to release energy, sugars and derived metabolites to help mitigate the stress. This is an essential process for plant fitness with important implications for plant productivity under challenging environmental conditions...
March 9, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277611/e-subgroup-ppr-protein-defective-kernel-36-is-required-for-multiple-mitochondrial-transcripts-editing-and-seed-development-in-maize-and-arabidopsis
#17
Gang Wang, Mingyu Zhong, Bilian Shuai, Jiandong Song, Jie Zhang, Liang Han, Huiling Ling, Yuanping Tang, Guifeng Wang, Rentao Song
Mitochondria are semi-autonomous organelles that are the powerhouse of the cells. Plant mitochondrial RNA editing guided by pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins is essential for energy production. We identify a maize defective kernel mutant dek36, which produces small and collapsed kernels, leading to embryos and/or seedlings lethality. Seed filling in dek36 is drastically impaired, in line with the defects observed in the organization of endosperm transfer tissue. Positional cloning reveals that DEK36, encoding a mitochondria-targeted E+ subgroup PPR protein, is required for mitochondrial RNA editing at atp4-59, nad7-383 and ccmFN -302, thus resulting in decreased activities of mitochondrial complex I, complex III and complex IV in dek36...
March 9, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277608/real-time-detection-of-proteolysis1-prt1-mediated-ubiquitination-via-fluorescently-labeled-substrate-probes
#18
Augustin C Mot, Erik Prell, Maria Klecker, Christin Naumann, Frederik Faden, Bernhard Westermann, Nico Dissmeyer
The N-end rule pathway has emerged as a major system for regulating protein functions by controlling their turnover in medical, animal and plant sciences as well as agriculture. Although novel functions and enzymes of the pathway have been discovered, the ubiquitination mechanism and substrate specificity of N-end rule pathway E3 ubiquitin ligases have remained elusive. Taking the first discovered bona fide plant N-end rule E3 ligase PROTEOLYSIS1 (PRT1) as a model, we used a novel tool to molecularly characterize polyubiquitination live, in real time...
March 9, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277605/community-recommendations-on-terminology-and-procedures-used-in-flooding-and-low-oxygen-stress-research
#19
LETTER
Rashmi Sasidharan, Julia Bailey-Serres, Motoyuki Ashikari, Brian J Atwell, Timothy D Colmer, Kurt Fagerstedt, Takeshi Fukao, Peter Geigenberger, Kim H Hebelstrup, Robert D Hill, Michael J Holdsworth, Abdelbagi M Ismail, Francesco Licausi, Angelika Mustroph, Mikio Nakazono, Ole Pedersen, Pierdomenico Perata, Margret Sauter, Ming-Che Shih, Brian K Sorrell, Gustavo G Striker, Joost T van Dongen, James Whelan, Shi Xiao, Eric J W Visser, Laurentius A C J Voesenek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272836/mapping-carbon-fate-during-bleaching-in-a-model-cnidarian-symbiosis-the-application-of-13-c-metabolomics
#20
Katie E Hillyer, Daniel A Dias, Adrian Lutz, Ute Roessner, Simon K Davy
Coral bleaching is a major threat to the persistence of coral reefs. Yet we lack detailed knowledge of the metabolic interactions that determine symbiosis function and bleaching-induced change. We mapped autotrophic carbon fate within the free metabolite pools of both partners of a model cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis (Aiptasia-Symbiodinium) during exposure to thermal stress via the stable isotope tracer ((13) C bicarbonate), coupled to GC-MS. Symbiont photodamage and pronounced bleaching coincided with substantial increases in the turnover of non(13) C-labelled pools in the dinoflagellate (lipid and starch store catabolism)...
March 8, 2017: New Phytologist
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