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New Phytologist

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444962/fine-scale-species-distribution-changes-in-a-mixed-oak-stand-over-two-successive-generations
#1
Laura Truffaut, Emilie Chancerel, Alexis Ducousso, Jean Luc Dupouey, Vincent Badeau, François Ehrenmann, Antoine Kremer
Large-scale tree distribution changes have received considerable attention but underlying demo-genetic mechanisms are less well documented. We used a diachronic approach to track species shifts in a mixed oak stand (Quercus petraea-Quercus robur) at a fine spatiotemporal scale. Species assignment was made using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) fingerprints employing clustering and parentage analysis. Mating patterns and reproductive success were assessed by parentage analysis. Plot-based inventories of soil parameters and sapling densities provided ecological and demographic information, respectively...
April 26, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444797/the-transcription-factor-myb115-contributes-to-the-regulation-of-proanthocyanidin-biosynthesis-and-enhances-fungal-resistance-in-poplar
#2
Lijun Wang, Lingyu Ran, Yisu Hou, Qiaoyan Tian, Chaofeng Li, Rui Liu, Di Fan, Keming Luo
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are major defense phenolic compounds in the leaves of poplar (Populus spp.) in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Transcriptional regulation of PA biosynthetic genes by the MYB-basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-WD40 complexes in poplar is not still fully understood. Here, an Arabidopsis TT2-like gene MYB115 was isolated from Populus tomentosa and characterized by various molecular, genetic and biochemical approaches. MYB115 restored PA productions in the seed coat of the Arabidopsis tt2 mutant...
April 26, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440582/phytochrome-interacting-factors-mediate-metabolic-control-of-the-circadian-system-in-arabidopsis
#3
Ekaterina Shor, Inyup Paik, Shlomit Kangisser, Rachel Green, Enamul Huq
The circadian (c. 24 h) system has a central role in regulating the timing and coordination of photosynthesis, and in turn photosynthesis and photosynthetic products which are controlled by the circadian clock feedback to affect the circadian oscillator that generates rhythms. However, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which this feedback occurs. One group of likely candidates for signal transduction to the circadian clock are the PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) family of transcription factors which have been shown to be involved in numerous signaling pathways in Arabidopsis...
April 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440574/a-worldview-of-root-traits-the-influence-of-ancestry-growth-form-climate-and-mycorrhizal-association-on-the-functional-trait-variation-of-fine-root-tissues-in-seed-plants
#4
Oscar J Valverde-Barrantes, Grégoire T Freschet, Catherine Roumet, Christopher B Blackwood
Fine-root traits play key roles in ecosystem processes, but the drivers of fine-root trait diversity remain poorly understood. The plant economic spectrum (PES) hypothesis predicts that leaf and root traits evolved in coordination. Mycorrhizal association type, plant growth form and climate may also affect root traits. However, the extent to which these controls are confounded with phylogenetic structuring remains unclear. Here we compiled information about root and leaf traits for > 600 species. Using phylogenetic relatedness, climatic ranges, growth form and mycorrhizal associations, we quantified the importance of these factors in the global distribution of fine-root traits...
April 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440558/what-determines-organ-size-differences-between-species-a-meta-analysis-of-the-cellular-basis
#5
Ayelén Gázquez, Gerrit T S Beemster
Little is known about how the characteristic differences in organ size between species are regulated. At the cellular level, the size of an organ is strictly regulated by cell division and expansion during its development. We performed a meta-analysis of the growth parameters of roots, and Graminae and eudicotyledonous leaves, to address the question of how quantitative variation in these two processes contributes to size differences across a range of species. We extracted or derived cellular parameters from published kinematic growth analyses...
April 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436561/the-interplay-between-aridity-and-competition-determines-colonization-ability-exclusion-and-ecological-segregation-in-the-heteroploid-brachypodium-distachyon-species-complex
#6
Pedro J Rey, Antonio J Manzaneda, Julio M Alcántara
A higher competitive advantage of polyploid plants compared with their parental diploids is frequently invoked to explain their establishment success, colonization of novel environments and cytotypic ecological segregation, yet there is scarce experimental evidence supporting such hypotheses. Here, we investigated whether differential competitive ability of species of the Brachypodium distachyon (Poaceae) species complex, a model system for genomic, ecological and evolutionary studies of temperate grasses, contributes to explaining their ecological segregation as well as their coexistence in diploid/allotetraploid contact zones...
April 24, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429538/finding-a-partner-in-the-ocean-molecular-and-evolutionary-bases-of-the-response-to-sexual-cues-in-a-planktonic-diatom
#7
Swaraj Basu, Shrikant Patil, Daniel Mapleson, Monia Teresa Russo, Laura Vitale, Cristina Fevola, Florian Maumus, Raffaella Casotti, Thomas Mock, Mario Caccamo, Marina Montresor, Remo Sanges, Maria Immacolata Ferrante
Microalgae play a major role as primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. Cell signalling regulates their interactions with the environment and other organisms, yet this process in phytoplankton is poorly defined. Using the marine planktonic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata, we investigated the cell response to cues released during sexual reproduction, an event that demands strong regulatory mechanisms and impacts on population dynamics. We sequenced the genome of P. multistriata and performed phylogenomic and transcriptomic analyses, which allowed the definition of gene gains and losses, horizontal gene transfers, conservation and evolutionary rate of sex-related genes...
April 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418582/cop1-conveys-warm-temperature-information-to-hypocotyl-thermomorphogenesis
#8
Young-Joon Park, Hyo-Jun Lee, Jun-Ho Ha, Jae Young Kim, Chung-Mo Park
Plants adjust their architecture to optimize growth and reproductive success under changing climates. Hypocotyl elongation is a pivotal morphogenic trait that is profoundly influenced by light and temperature conditions. While hypocotyl photomorphogenesis has been well characterized at the molecular level, molecular mechanisms underlying hypocotyl thermomorphogenesis remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the E3 ubiquitin ligase CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) conveys warm temperature signals to hypocotyl thermomorphogenesis...
April 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418581/leaf-rust-infection-reduces-herbivore-induced-volatile-emission-in-black-poplar-and-attracts-a-generalist-herbivore
#9
Franziska Eberl, Almuth Hammerbacher, Jonathan Gershenzon, Sybille B Unsicker
Plants release complex volatile blends after separate attack by herbivores and pathogens, which play many roles in interactions with other organisms. Large perennials are often attacked by multiple enemies, but the effect of combined attacks on volatile emission is rarely studied, particularly in trees. We infested Populus nigra trees with a pathogen, the rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina, and Lymantria dispar caterpillars alone and in combination. We investigated poplar volatile emission and its regulation, as well as the behavior of the caterpillars towards volatiles from rust-infected and uninfected trees...
April 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418161/explaining-the-apparent-paradox-of-persistent-selection-for-early-flowering
#10
Emily J Austen, Locke Rowe, John R Stinchcombe, Jessica R K Forrest
Decades of observation in natural plant populations have revealed pervasive phenotypic selection for early flowering onset. This consistent pattern seems at odds with life-history theory, which predicts stabilizing selection on age and size at reproduction. Why is selection for later flowering rare? Moreover, extensive evidence demonstrates that flowering time can and does evolve. What maintains ongoing directional selection for early flowering? Several non-mutually exclusive processes can help to reconcile the apparent paradox of selection for early flowering...
April 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418074/the-effects-of-genome-duplications-in-a-community-context
#11
REVIEW
Kari A Segraves
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. References SUMMARY: Whole-genome duplication (WGD), or polyploidy, has important effects on the genotype and phenotype of plants, potentially altering ecological interactions with other organisms. Even though the connections between polyploidy and species interactions have been recognized for some time, we are only just beginning to test whether WGD affects community context. Here I review the sparse information on polyploidy and community context and then present a set of hypotheses for future work...
April 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418070/a-signature-of-tree-health-shifts-in-the-microbiome-and-the-ecological-drivers-of-horse-chestnut-bleeding-canker-disease
#12
Britt Koskella, Sean Meaden, William J Crowther, Roosa Leimu, C Jessica E Metcalf
Host susceptibility to pathogens can be shaped by genetic, ecological, and evolutionary factors. The ability to predict the spread of disease therefore requires an integrated understanding of these factors, including effects of pests on pathogen growth and competition between pathogens and commensal microbiota for host resources. We examined interactions between the leaf-mining moth Cameraria ohridella, the bacterial causal agent of bleeding canker disease Pseudomonas syringae pv aesculi, and the bark-associated microbiota of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees...
April 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407265/oshac4-is-critical-for-arsenate-tolerance-and-regulates-arsenic-accumulation-in-rice
#13
Jiming Xu, Shulin Shi, Lei Wang, Zhong Tang, Tingting Lv, Xinlu Zhu, Xiaomeng Ding, Yifeng Wang, Fang-Jie Zhao, Zhongchang Wu
Soil contamination with arsenic (As) can cause phytotoxicity and elevated As accumulation in rice grain. Here, we used a forward genetics approach to investigate the mechanism of arsenate (As(V)) tolerance and accumulation in rice. A rice mutant hypersensitive to As(V), but not to As(III), was isolated. Genomic resequencing and complementation tests were used to identify the causal gene. The function of the gene, its expression pattern and subcellular localization were characterized. OsHAC4 is the causal gene for the As(V)-hypersensitive phenotype...
April 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407259/the-verticillium-specific-protein-vdscp7-localizes-to-the-plant-nucleus-and-modulates-immunity-to-fungal-infections
#14
Lisha Zhang, Hao Ni, Xuan Du, Sheng Wang, Xiao-Wei Ma, Thorsten Nürnberger, Hui-Shan Guo, Chenlei Hua
Fungal pathogens secrete effector proteins to suppress plant basal defense for successful colonization. Resistant plants, however, can recognize effectors by cognate R proteins to induce effector-triggered immunity (ETI). By analyzing secretomes of the vascular fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae, we identified a novel secreted protein VdSCP7 that targets the plant nucleus. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged VdSCP7 gene with either a mutated nuclear localization signal motif or with additional nuclear export signal was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana, and investigated for induction of plant immunity...
April 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407256/phytaspase-mediated-precursor-processing-and-maturation-of-the-wound-hormone-systemin
#15
Roman E Beloshistov, Konrad Dreizler, Raisa A Galiullina, Alexander I Tuzhikov, Marina V Serebryakova, Sven Reichardt, Jane Shaw, Michael E Taliansky, Jens Pfannstiel, Nina V Chichkova, Annick Stintzi, Andreas Schaller, Andrey B Vartapetian
Peptide hormones are implicated in many important aspects of plant life and are usually synthesized as precursor proteins. In contrast to animals, data for plant peptide hormone maturation are scarce and the specificity of processing enzyme(s) is largely unknown. Here we tested a hypothesis that processing of prosystemin, a precursor of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) wound hormone systemin, is performed by phytaspases, aspartate-specific proteases of the subtilase family. Following the purification of phytaspase from tomato leaves, two tomato phytaspase genes were identified, the cDNAs were cloned and the recombinant enzymes were obtained after transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana...
April 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407248/evolutionary-priority-effects-persist-in-anthropogenically-created-habitats-but-not-through-nonnative-plant-invasion
#16
Angela J Brandt, William G Lee, Andrew J Tanentzap, Ella Hayman, Tadashi Fukami, Barbara J Anderson
Evolutionary priority effects, where early-arriving lineages occupy niche space via diversification and preclude dominance of later arrivals, have been observed in alpine and forest communities. However, the potential for evolutionary priority effects to persist in an era of rapid global change remains unclear. Here, we use a natural experiment of historical disturbance in New Zealand to test whether anthropogenic changes in available habitat and nonnative invasion eliminate the role of evolutionary priority effects in community assembly...
April 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401984/the-methuselah-of-plant-diaspores-sphagnum-spores-can-survive-in-nature-for-centuries
#17
LETTER
Zhao-Jun Bu, Sebastian Sundberg, Lu Feng, Hong-Kai Li, Hong-Yan Zhao, Hong-Chun Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401981/changes-in-richness-and-community-composition-of-ectomycorrhizal-fungi-among-altitudinal-vegetation-types-on-mount-kinabalu-in-borneo
#18
József Geml, Luis N Morgado, Tatiana A Semenova-Nelsen, Menno Schilthuizen
The distribution patterns of tropical ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi along altitudinal gradients remain largely unknown. Furthermore, despite being an iconic site for biodiversity research, virtually nothing is known about the diversity and spatial patterns of fungi on Mt Kinabalu and neighbouring mountain ranges. We carried out deep DNA sequencing of soil samples collected between 425 and 4000 m above sea level to compare richness and community composition of ECM fungi among altitudinal forest types in Borneo...
April 12, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397963/c3-c4-intermediates-may-be-of-hybrid-origin-a-reminder
#19
Gudrun Kadereit, Katharina Bohley, Maximilian Lauterbach, Delphine T Tefarikis, Joachim W Kadereit
The currently favoured model of the evolution of C4 photosynthesis relies heavily on the interpretation of the broad phenotypic range of naturally growing C3 -C4 intermediates as proxies for evolutionary intermediate steps. On the other hand, C3 -C4 intermediates had earlier been interpreted as hybrids or hybrid derivates. By first comparing experimentally generated with naturally growing C3 -C4 intermediates, and second summarising either direct or circumstantial evidence for hybridisation in lineages comprising C3 , C4 and C3 -C4 intermediates, we conclude that a possible hybrid origin of C3 -C4 intermediates deserves careful examination...
April 11, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397275/the-physcomitrella-patens-exocyst-subunit-exo70-3d-has-distinct-roles-in-growth-and-development-and-is-essential-for-completion-of-the-moss-life-cycle
#20
Anamika Rawat, Lucie Brejšková, Michal Hála, Fatima Cvrčková, Viktor Žárský
The exocyst, an evolutionarily conserved secretory vesicle-tethering complex, spatially controls exocytosis and membrane turnover in fungi, metazoans and plants. The exocyst subunit EXO70 exists in multiple paralogs in land plants, forming three conserved clades with assumed distinct roles. Here we report functional analysis of the first moss exocyst subunit to be studied, Physcomitrella patens PpEXO70.3d (Pp1s97_91V6), from the, as yet, poorly characterized EXO70.3 clade. Following phylogenetic analysis to confirm the presence of three ancestral land plant EXO70 clades outside angiosperms, we prepared and phenotypically characterized loss-of-function Ppexo70...
April 11, 2017: New Phytologist
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