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New Phytologist

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457227/fast-or-slow-for-the-arborescent-lycopsids-response-to-thomas-cleal-2017-arborescent-lycophyte-growth-in-the-late-carboniferous-coal-swamps
#1
LETTER
C Kevin Boyce, William A DiMichele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457226/coordination-and-trade-offs-among-hydraulic-safety-efficiency-and-drought-avoidance-traits-in-amazonian-rainforest-canopy-tree-species
#2
Louis S Santiago, Mark E De Guzman, Christopher Baraloto, Jacob E Vogenberg, Max Brodie, Bruno Hérault, Claire Fortunel, Damien Bonal
Predicting responses of tropical forests to climate change-type drought is challenging because of high species diversity. Detailed characterization of tropical tree hydraulic physiology is necessary to evaluate community drought vulnerability and improve model parameterization. Here, we measured xylem hydraulic conductivity (hydraulic efficiency), xylem vulnerability curves (hydraulic safety), sapwood pressure-volume curves (drought avoidance) and wood density on emergent branches of 14 common species of Eastern Amazonian canopy trees in Paracou, French Guiana across species with the densest and lightest wood in the plot...
February 19, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453938/barley-stripe-mosaic-virus-infection-requires-pka-mediated-phosphorylation-of-%C3%AE-b-for-suppression-of-both-rna-silencing-and-the-host-cell-death-response
#3
Xuan Zhang, Kai Dong, Kai Xu, Kun Zhang, Xuejiao Jin, Meng Yang, Yongliang Zhang, Xianbing Wang, Chenggui Han, Jialin Yu, Dawei Li
The Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) γb protein is a viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) and symptom determinant. However, it is unclear how post-translational modification affects the different functions of γb. Here, we demonstrate that γb is phosphorylated at Ser-96 by a PKA-like kinase in vivo and in vitro. Mutant viruses containing a nonphosphorylatable substitution (BSMV S 96A or BSMV S 96R ) exhibited reduced viral accumulation in Nicotiana benthamiana due to transient induction of the cell death response that constrained the virus to necrotic areas...
February 17, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453936/a-new-method-for-the-rapid-characterization-of-root-growth-and-distribution-using-digital-image-correlation
#4
Tan Bao, Garrett W Melenka, Megan K Ljubotina, Jason P Carey, James F Cahill
Rapidly determining root growth patterns is biologically important and technically challenging. Current methods focus on direct observation of roots and require destructive excavations or time-consuming root tracing. We developed a novel methodology based on analyzing soil particle displacement, rather than direct observation of roots. This inferred root growth method uses digital image correlation (DIC) analysis, an established and high-throughput method used in many engineering and science disciplines. By applying DIC analyses to repeated images of plants grown in clear window boxes, we produced visually intuitive and quantifiable strain maps, indicating the magnitude and direction of soil movement...
February 17, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453934/distinct-domains-of-the-avrpm3-a2-f2-avirulence-protein-from-wheat-powdery-mildew-are-involved-in-immune-receptor-recognition-and-putative-effector-function
#5
Kaitlin Elyse McNally, Fabrizio Menardo, Linda Lüthi, Coraline Rosalie Praz, Marion Claudia Müller, Lukas Kunz, Roi Ben-David, Kottakota Chandrasekhar, Amos Dinoor, Christina Cowger, Emily Meyers, Mingfeng Xue, Fangsong Zeng, Shuangjun Gong, Dazhao Yu, Salim Bourras, Beat Keller
Recognition of the AVRPM3 A2/F2 avirulence protein from powdery mildew by the wheat PM3A/F immune receptor induces a hypersensitive response after co-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. The molecular determinants of this interaction and how they shape natural AvrPm3 a2/f2 allelic diversity are unknown. We sequenced the AvrPm3 a2/f2 gene in a worldwide collection of 272 mildew isolates. Using the natural polymorphisms of AvrPm3 a2/f2 as well as sequence information from related gene family members, we tested 85 single-residue-altered AVRPM3 A2/F2 variants with PM3A, PM3F and PM3F L 456P/Y458H (modified for improved signaling) in Nicotiana benthamiana for effects on recognition...
February 17, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451680/evaluating-the-kinetic-basis-of-plant-growth-from-organs-to-ecosystems
#6
REVIEW
Sean T Michaletz
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. ORCID References SUMMARY: Understanding how temperature influences the scaling of physiological rates through levels of biological organization is critical for predicting plant responses to climate. Metabolic theory predicts that many rates increase exponentially with temperature following an activation energy (E) of 0.32 eV for photosynthesis. Here, I evaluate this prediction for net photosynthesis and organ, individual, and ecosystem growth. Observed E for photosynthesis varied widely but was not statistically different from predictions, while E for organs was greater than predicted, and E for individuals and ecosystems only weakly characterized temperature responses...
February 16, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451313/drivers-and-mechanisms-of-tree-mortality-in-moist-tropical-forests
#7
REVIEW
Nate McDowell, Craig D Allen, Kristina Anderson-Teixeira, Paulo Brando, Roel Brienen, Jeff Chambers, Brad Christoffersen, Stuart Davies, Chris Doughty, Alvaro Duque, Fernando Espirito-Santo, Rosie Fisher, Clarissa G Fontes, David Galbraith, Devin Goodsman, Charlotte Grossiord, Henrik Hartmann, Jennifer Holm, Daniel J Johnson, Abd Rahman Kassim, Michael Keller, Charlie Koven, Lara Kueppers, Tomo'omi Kumagai, Yadvinder Malhi, Sean M McMahon, Maurizio Mencuccini, Patrick Meir, Paul Moorcroft, Helene C Muller-Landau, Oliver L Phillips, Thomas Powell, Carlos A Sierra, John Sperry, Jeff Warren, Chonggang Xu, Xiangtao Xu
Tree mortality rates appear to be increasing in moist tropical forests (MTFs) with significant carbon cycle consequences. Here, we review the state of knowledge regarding MTF tree mortality, create a conceptual framework with testable hypotheses regarding the drivers, mechanisms and interactions that may underlie increasing MTF mortality rates, and identify the next steps for improved understanding and reduced prediction. Increasing mortality rates are associated with rising temperature and vapor pressure deficit, liana abundance, drought, wind events, fire and, possibly, CO 2 fertilization-induced increases in stand thinning or acceleration of trees reaching larger, more vulnerable heights...
February 16, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451312/yoda-map3k-kinase-regulates-plant-immune-responses-conferring-broad-spectrum-disease-resistance
#8
Sara Sopeña-Torres, Lucía Jordá, Clara Sánchez-Rodríguez, Eva Miedes, Viviana Escudero, Sanjay Swami, Gemma López, Mariola Piślewska-Bednarek, Ines Lassowskat, Justin Lee, Yangnan Gu, Sabine Haigis, Danny Alexander, Sivakumar Pattathil, Antonio Muñoz-Barrios, Pawel Bednarek, Shauna Somerville, Paul Schulze-Lefert, Michael G Hahn, Dierk Scheel, Antonio Molina
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) cascades play essential roles in plants by transducing developmental cues and environmental signals into cellular responses. Among the latter are microbe-associated molecular patterns perceived by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which trigger immunity. We found that YODA (YDA) - a MAPK kinase kinase regulating several Arabidopsis developmental processes, like stomatal patterning - also modulates immune responses. Resistance to pathogens is compromised in yda alleles, whereas plants expressing the constitutively active YDA (CA-YDA) protein show broad-spectrum resistance to fungi, bacteria, and oomycetes with different colonization modes...
February 16, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451311/impaired-phloem-loading-in-zmsweet13a-b-c-sucrose-transporter-triple-knock-out-mutants-in-zea-mays
#9
Margaret Bezrutczyk, Thomas Hartwig, Marc Horshman, Si Nian Char, Jinliang Yang, Bing Yang, Wolf B Frommer, Davide Sosso
Crop yield depends on efficient allocation of sucrose from leaves to seeds. In Arabidopsis, phloem loading is mediated by a combination of SWEET sucrose effluxers and subsequent uptake by SUT1/SUC2 sucrose/H + symporters. ZmSUT1 is essential for carbon allocation in maize, but the relative contribution to apoplasmic phloem loading and retrieval of sucrose leaking from the translocation path is not known. Here we analysed the contribution of SWEETs to phloem loading in maize. We identified three leaf-expressed SWEET sucrose transporters as key components of apoplasmic phloem loading in Zea mays L...
February 16, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451307/phenological-responses-to-multiple-environmental-drivers-under-climate-change-insights-from-a-long-term-observational-study-and-a-manipulative-field-experiment
#10
Susana M Wadgymar, Jane E Ogilvie, David W Inouye, Arthur E Weis, Jill T Anderson
Climate change has induced pronounced shifts in the reproductive phenology of plants, yet we know little about which environmental factors contribute to interspecific variation in responses and their effects on fitness. We integrate data from a 43 yr record of first flowering for six species in subalpine Colorado meadows with a 3 yr snow manipulation experiment on the perennial forb Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae) from the same site. We analyze shifts in the onset of flowering in relation to environmental drivers known to influence phenology: the timing of snowmelt, the accumulation of growing degree days, and photoperiod...
February 16, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446835/eudicots-from-severely-phosphorus-impoverished-environments-preferentially-allocate-phosphorus-to-their-mesophyll
#11
Caio Guilherme Pereira, Peta L Clode, Rafael S Oliveira, Hans Lambers
Plants allocate nutrients to specific leaf cell types, with commelinoid monocots preferentially allocating phosphorus (P) to the mesophyll and calcium (Ca) to the epidermis, whereas the opposite is thought to occur in eudicots. However, Proteaceae from severely P-impoverished habitats present the same P-allocation pattern as monocots. This raises the question of whether preferential P allocation to mesophyll cells is a phylogenetically conserved trait, exclusive to commelinoid monocots and a few Proteaceae, or a trait that has evolved multiple times to allow plants to cope with very low soil P availability...
February 15, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436724/in-situ-mycorrhizal-function-knowledge-gaps-and-future-directions
#12
Ylva Lekberg, Thorunn Helgason
We know a lot about the potential functions of mycorrhizas, but whether or not these are realized in the field where plants simultaneously experience a range of biotic interactions and fluctuating abiotic conditions is more or less unknown. In this viewpoint, we present findings from a literature survey of papers on mycorrhizal function published in New Phytologist during the past 30 years. This survey showed that most functional studies are still conducted under controlled conditions, target mostly arbuscular and ectomycorrhizas, and focus on nutrient and carbon dynamics of the symbiosis...
February 13, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436716/chemocoding-as-an-identification-tool-where-morphological-and-dna-based-methods-fall-short-inga-as-a-case-study
#13
María-José Endara, Phyllis D Coley, Natasha L Wiggins, Dale L Forrister, Gordon C Younkin, James A Nicholls, R Toby Pennington, Kyle G Dexter, Catherine A Kidner, Graham N Stone, Thomas A Kursar
The need for species identification and taxonomic discovery has led to the development of innovative technologies for large-scale plant identification. DNA barcoding has been useful, but fails to distinguish among many species in species-rich plant genera, particularly in tropical regions. Here, we show that chemical fingerprinting, or 'chemocoding', has great potential for plant identification in challenging tropical biomes. Using untargeted metabolomics in combination with multivariate analysis, we constructed species-level fingerprints, which we define as chemocoding...
February 13, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436710/mesophyll-conductance-does-not-contribute-to-greater-photosynthetic-rate-per-unit-nitrogen-in-temperate-compared-with-tropical-evergreen-wet-forest-tree-leaves
#14
Nur H A Bahar, Lucy Hayes, Andrew P Scafaro, Owen K Atkin, John R Evans
Globally, trees originating from high-rainfall tropical regions typically exhibit lower rates of light-saturated net CO 2 assimilation (A) compared with those from high-rainfall temperate environments, when measured at a common temperature. One factor that has been suggested to contribute towards lower rates of A is lower mesophyll conductance. Using a combination of leaf gas exchange and carbon isotope discrimination measurements, we estimated mesophyll conductance (g m ) of several Australian tropical and temperate wet-forest trees, grown in a common environment...
February 13, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424932/mechanisms-of-glacial-to-future-atmospheric-co2-effects-on-plant-immunity
#15
Alex Williams, Pierre Pétriacq, Roland E Schwarzenbacher, David J Beerling, Jurriaan Ton
The impacts of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations on plant disease have received increasing attention, but with little consensus emerging on the direct mechanisms by which CO2 shapes plant immunity. Furthermore, the impact of sub-ambient CO2 concentrations, which plants have experienced repeatedly over the past 800 000 yr, has been largely overlooked. A combination of gene expression analysis, phenotypic characterisation of mutants and mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling was used to determine development-independent effects of sub-ambient CO2 (saCO2 ) and elevated CO2 (eCO2 ) on Arabidopsis immunity...
February 9, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424928/native-soils-with-their-microbiotas-elicit-a-state-of-alert-in-tomato-plants
#16
Matteo Chialva, Alessandra Salvioli di Fossalunga, Stefania Daghino, Stefano Ghignone, Paolo Bagnaresi, Marco Chiapello, Mara Novero, Davide Spadaro, Silvia Perotto, Paola Bonfante
Several studies have investigated soil microbial biodiversity, but understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant responses to soil microbiota remains in its infancy. Here, we focused on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), testing the hypothesis that plants grown on native soils display different responses to soil microbiotas. Using transcriptomics, proteomics, and biochemistry, we describe the responses of two tomato genotypes (susceptible or resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici) grown on an artificial growth substrate and two native soils (conducive and suppressive to Fusarium)...
February 9, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424440/apple-s-rnase-triggers-inhibition-of-trna-aminoacylation-by-interacting-with-a-soluble-inorganic-pyrophosphatase-in-growing-self-pollen-tubes-in%C3%A2-vitro
#17
Wei Li, Dong Meng, Zhaoyu Gu, Qing Yang, Hui Yuan, Yang Li, Qiuju Chen, Jie Yu, Chunsheng Liu, Tianzhong Li
Apple exhibits S-RNase-based self-incompatibility (SI), in which S-RNase plays a central role in rejecting self-pollen. It has been proposed that the arrest of pollen growth in SI of Solanaceae plants is a consequence of the degradation of pollen rRNA by S-RNase; however, the underlying mechanism in Rosaceae is still unclear. Here, we used S2 -RNase as a bait to screen an apple pollen cDNA library and characterized an apple soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase (MdPPa) that physically interacted with S-RNases. When treated with self S-RNases, apple pollen tubes showed a marked growth inhibition, as well as a decrease in endogenous soluble pyrophosphatase activity and elevated levels of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi)...
February 9, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424430/the-stereotyped-positioning-of-the-generative-cell-associated-with-vacuole-dynamics-is-not-required-for-male-gametogenesis-in-rice-pollen
#18
Xiaorong Huang, Xiongbo Peng, Fei Xie, Wanying Mao, Hong Chen, Meng-Xiang Sun
During male gametogenesis in cereals, the generative cell undergoes a positioning process that parallels the dynamics of the central vacuole, which is believed to be associated with generative cell movement in the male gametophyte. However, the impact of the generative cell positioning and the central vacuole dynamics on male gametogenesis has remained poorly understood. Here, we report that OsGCD1 (GAMETE CELLS DEFECTIVE1) dysfunction influenced pollen development and disrupted pollen germination. Loss of function of OsGCD1 altered the central vacuole dynamics and the generative cell was mispositioned...
February 9, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424009/living-on-next-to-nothing-tree-seedlings-can-survive-weeks-with-very-low-carbohydrate-concentrations
#19
Raphael Weber, Andrea Schwendener, Sandra Schmid, Savoyane Lambert, Erin Wiley, Simon M Landhäusser, Henrik Hartmann, Günter Hoch
The usage of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) to indicate carbon (C) limitation in trees requires knowledge of the minimum tissue NSC concentrations at lethal C starvation, and the NSC dynamics during and after severe C limitation. We completely darkened and subsequently released seedlings of two deciduous and two evergreen temperate tree species for varying periods. NSCs were measured in all major organs, allowing assessment of whole-seedling NSC balances. NSCs decreased fast in darkness, but seedlings survived species-specific whole-seedling starch concentrations as low as 0...
February 9, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418002/long-distance-rna-movement
#20
REVIEW
Julia Kehr, Friedrich Kragler
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: In higher plants, small noncoding RNAs and large messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules are transported between cells and over long distances via the phloem. These large macromolecules are thought to get access to the sugar-conducting phloem vessels via specialized plasmodesmata (PD). Analyses of the phloem exudate suggest that all classes of RNA molecules, including silencing-induced RNAs (siRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), ribosomal RNA (rRNAs) and mRNAs, are transported via the vasculature to distant tissues...
February 8, 2018: New Phytologist
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