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New Phytologist

Beibei Chen, Jinhui Chen, Qingzhang Du, Daling Zhou, Longxin Wang, Jianbo Xie, Ying Li, Deqiang Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as key regulators of complex traits, but how genetic alterations in miRNA biogenesis genes (miRBGs) affect quantitative variation has not been elucidated. We conducted transcript analyses and association genetics to investigate how miRBGs, miRNA genes (MIRNAs) and their respective targets contribute to secondary growth in a natural population of 435 Populus tomentosa individuals. This analysis identified 29 843 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; frequency > 0.10) within 682 genes (80 miRBGs, 152 MIRNAs, and 457 miRNA targets)...
June 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Charlotte E Walker, Alison R Taylor, Gerald Langer, Grażyna M Durak, Sarah Heath, Ian Probert, Toby Tyrrell, Colin Brownlee, Glen L Wheeler
Coccolithophores are globally distributed unicellular marine algae that are characterized by their covering of calcite coccoliths. Calcification by coccolithophores contributes significantly to global biogeochemical cycles. However, the physiological requirement for calcification remains poorly understood as non-calcifying strains of some commonly used model species, such as Emiliania huxleyi, grow normally in laboratory culture. To determine whether the requirement for calcification differs between coccolithophore species, we utilized multiple independent methodologies to disrupt calcification in two important species of coccolithophore: E...
June 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Bilal Ökmen, Bastian Kemmerich, Daniel Hilbig, Raphael Wemhöner, Jörn Aschenbroich, Andreas Perrar, Pitter F Huesgen, Kerstin Schipper, Gunther Doehlemann
Fungalysins from several phytopathogenic fungi have been shown to be involved in cleavage of plant chitinases. While fungal chitinases are responsible for cell wall remodeling during growth and morphogenesis, plant chitinases are important components of immunity. This study describes a dual function of the Ustilago maydis fungalysin UmFly1 in modulation of both plant and fungal chitinases. Genetic, biochemical and microscopic experiments were performed to elucidate the in vitro and in planta functions of U...
June 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Yao Bian, Chunwu Yang, Xiufang Ou, Zhibin Zhang, Bin Wang, Weiwei Ma, Lei Gong, Huakun Zhang, Bao Liu
Polyploidy is a prominent route to speciation in plants; however, this entails resolving the challenges of meiotic instability facing abrupt doubling of chromosome complement. This issue remains poorly understood. We subjected progenies of a synthetic hexaploid wheat, analogous to natural common wheat, but exhibiting extensive meiotic chromosome instability, to heat or salt stress. We selected stress-tolerant cohorts and generated their progenies under normal condition. We conducted fluorescent in situ hybridization/genomic in situ hybridization-based meiotic/mitotic analysis, RNA-Seq and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS)-mediated assay of meiosis candidate genes...
June 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Vadim Demidchik, Sergey Shabala, Stanislav Isayenkov, Tracey A Cuin, Igor Pottosin
Contents I. II. III. IV. References SUMMARY: Calcium is an essential structural, metabolic and signalling element. The physiological functions of Ca2+ are enabled by its orchestrated transport across cell membranes, mediated by Ca2+ -permeable ion channels, Ca2+ -ATPases and Ca2+ /H+ exchangers. Bioinformatics analysis has not determined any Ca2+ -selective filters in plant ion channels, but electrophysiological tests do reveal Ca2+ conductances in plant membranes. The biophysical characteristics of plant Ca2+ conductances have been studied in detail and were recently complemented by molecular genetic approaches...
June 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Jan T Burri, Hannes Vogler, Nino F Läubli, Chengzhi Hu, Ueli Grossniklaus, Bradley J Nelson
Physical forces are involved in the regulation of plant development and morphogenesis by translating mechanical stress into the modification of physiological processes, which, in turn, can affect cellular growth. Pollen tubes respond rapidly to external stimuli and provide an ideal system to study the effect of mechanical cues at the single-cell level. Here, pollen tubes were exposed to mechanical stress while monitoring the reconfiguration of their growth and recording the generated forces in real-time. We combined a lab-on-a-chip device with a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based capacitive force sensor to mimic and quantify the forces that are involved in pollen tube navigation upon confronting mechanical obstacles...
June 15, 2018: New Phytologist
Christian Ammer
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Although the relationship between species diversity and biomass productivity has been extensively studied in grasslands, the impact of tree species diversity on forest productivity, as well as the main drivers of this relationship, are still under discussion. It is widely accepted that the magnitude of the relationship between tree diversity and forest stand productivity is context specific and depends on environmental conditions, but the underlying mechanisms of this relationship are still not fully understood...
June 15, 2018: New Phytologist
Andrew V Gougherty, Steven W Gougherty
While much research has focused on the timing of individual plant phenological events, the sequence of phenological events has received considerably less attention. Here we identify drivers and patterns of flower and leaf emergence sequence (FLS) in deciduous tree species of the Great Lakes region of North America. Five hypotheses related to cold tolerance, water dynamics, seed mass, pollination syndrome, and xylem anatomy type were compared for their ability to explain FLS. Phylogenetic and geographic patterns of FLS were also assessed...
June 14, 2018: New Phytologist
Matthias Benoit, Lauriane Simon, Sophie Desset, Céline Duc, Sylviane Cotterell, Axel Poulet, Samuel Le Goff, Christophe Tatout, Aline V Probst
Developmental phase transitions are often characterized by changes in the chromatin landscape and heterochromatin reorganization. In Arabidopsis, clustering of repetitive heterochromatic loci into so-called chromocenters is an important determinant of chromosome organization in nuclear space. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in chromocenter formation during the switch from a heterotrophic to a photosynthetically competent state during early seedling development. We characterized the spatial organization and chromatin features at centromeric and pericentromeric repeats and identified mutant contexts with impaired chromocenter formation...
June 13, 2018: New Phytologist
Rongrong Yuan, Jingqiu Lan, Yuxing Fang, Hao Yu, Jinzhe Zhang, Jiaying Huang, Genji Qin
The polar transport of auxin controls many aspects of plant development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying auxin tranport regulation remain to be further elucidated. We identified a mutant named as usl1 (unflattened and small leaves) in a genetic screen in Arabidopsis thaliana. The usl1 displayed multiple aspects of developmental defects in leaves, embryogenesis, cotyledons, silique phyllotaxy and lateral roots in addition to abnormal leaves. USL1 encodes a protein orthologous to the yeast vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) 38p and human UV RADIATION RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED GENE (UVRAG)...
June 13, 2018: New Phytologist
Sina Krombach, Stefanie Reissmann, Saskia Kreibich, Florian Bochen, Regine Kahmann
The peroxisomal sterol carrier protein 2 (Scp2) of the biotrophic maize pathogen Ustilago maydis was detected in apoplastic fluid, suggesting that it might function as a secreted effector protein. Here we analyze the role of the scp2 gene during plant colonization. We used reverse genetics approaches to delete the scp2 gene, determined stress sensitivity and fatty acid utilization of mutants, demonstrated secretion of Scp2, used quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for expression analysis and expressed GFP-Scp2 fusion proteins for protein localization...
June 13, 2018: New Phytologist
Phillip E McClean, Kirstin E Bett, Robert Stonehouse, Rian Lee, Stephanie Pflieger, Samira Mafi Moghaddam, Valerie Geffroy, Phil Miklas, Sujan Mamidi
The presence of seed color in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) requires the dominant-acting P (pigment) gene, and white seed is a recessive phenotype in all domesticated races of the species. P was classically associated with seed size, thus describing it as the first genetic marker for a quantitative trait. The molecular structure of P was characterized to understand the selection of white seeds during bean diversification and the relationship of P to seed weight. P was identified by homology searches, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and gene remodeling, and confirmed by gene silencing...
June 13, 2018: New Phytologist
Nadine Brinkmann, Stefan Seeger, Markus Weiler, Nina Buchmann, Werner Eugster, Ansgar Kahmen
We assessed how the seasonal variability of precipitation δ2 H and δ18 O is propagated into soil and xylem waters of temperate trees, applied a hydrological model to estimate the residence time distribution of precipitation in the soil, and identified the temporal origin of water taken up by Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica over 4 yr. Residence times of precipitation in the soil varied between a few days and several months and increased with soil depth. On average, 50% of water consumed by trees throughout a year had precipitated during the growing season, while 40% had precipitated in the preceding winter or even earlier...
June 11, 2018: New Phytologist
Jing Che, Tomokazu Tsutsui, Kengo Yokosho, Naoki Yamaji, Jian Feng Ma
High aluminum (Al) tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa) is controlled by a Cys2His2-type zinc finger transcription factor ART1 (Al resistance transcription factor 1). There are five close homologs of ART1 in the rice genome, but the role of these homologs is unknown. We functionally characterized one of the ART1 homologs, ART2, in terms of tissue and spatial expression, subcellular localization, transcriptional activation activity, and phenotypic analysis of the knockout lines. ART2 was localized to the nucleus and showed a transcriptional activation potential in yeast...
June 11, 2018: New Phytologist
Uwe Nehls, Claude Plassard
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. References SUMMARY: Nutrient homeostasis is essential for fungal cells and thus tightly adapted to the local demand in a mycelium with hyphal specialization. Based on selected ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal models, we outlined current concepts of nitrogen and phosphate nutrition and their limitations, and included knowledge from Baker's yeast when major gaps had to be filled. We covered the entire pathway from nutrient mobilization, import and local storage, distribution within the mycelium and export at the plant-fungus interface...
June 11, 2018: New Phytologist
Kevin A Bird, Robert VanBuren, Joshua R Puzey, Patrick P Edger
Contents I. II. III. References SUMMARY: The merger of divergent genomes, via hybridization or allopolyploidization, frequently results in a 'genomic shock' that induces a series of rapid genetic and epigenetic modifications as a result of conflicts between parental genomes. This conflict among the subgenomes routinely leads one subgenome to become dominant over the other subgenome(s), resulting in subgenome biases in gene content and expression. Recent advances in methods to analyze hybrid and polyploid genomes with comparisons to extant parental progenitors have allowed for major strides in understanding the mechanistic basis for subgenome dominance...
June 8, 2018: New Phytologist
Wan Zhao, Zhongtian Xu, Xiaoming Zhang, Meiling Yang, Le Kang, Renyi Liu, Feng Cui
A large number of plant RNA viruses circulate between plants and insects. For RNA viruses, host alternations may impose a differential selective pressure on viral populations and induce variations in viral genomes. Here, we report the variations in the 3'-terminal regions of the multiple-segment RNA virus Rice stripe virus (RSV) that were discovered through de novo assembly of the genome using RNA sequencing data from infected host plants and vector insects. The newly assembled RSV genome contained 16- and 15-nt extensions at the 3'-termini of two genome segments compared with the published reference RSV genome...
June 8, 2018: New Phytologist
Lourdes Castelblanque, Begoña Balaguer, Cristina Marti, Marianela Orozco, Pablo Vera
Laticifers are specialized plant cells capable of indefinite elongation that ramify extensively and are responsible for latex biosynthesis and accumulation. However, the mechanisms underlying laticifer cell differentiation, growth and production of latex remain largely unknown. In a search for mutants showing enhanced accumulation of latex we identified two LOT OF LATEX (LOL) loci in Euphorbia lathyris. lol2 and lol5 mutants show enhanced production of latex contained within laticifer cells. The recessive lol2 mutant carries increased biosynthesis of the plant hormone jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) and therefore establishes a genetic link between jasmonic acid (JA) signaling and latex production in laticifers...
June 7, 2018: New Phytologist
Lingfei Hu, Meng Ye, Peng Kuai, Miaofen Ye, Matthias Erb, Yonggen Lou
Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of environmental stresses, including herbivory. How plants perceive herbivores on a molecular level is poorly understood. Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs), the largest subfamily of RLKs, are essential for plants to detect external stress signals, and may therefore also be involved in herbivore perception. Here, we employed RNA interference silencing, phytohormone profiling and complementation, as well as herbivore resistance assays, to investigate the requirement of an LRR-RLK for the initiation of rice (Oryza sativa) defenses against the chewing herbivore striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis...
June 7, 2018: New Phytologist
D F B Flynn, E M Wolkovich
Accurate predictions of spring plant phenology with climate change are critical for projections of growing seasons, plant communities and a number of ecosystem services, including carbon storage. Progress towards prediction, however, has been slow because the major cues known to drive phenology - temperature (including winter chilling and spring forcing) and photoperiod - generally covary in nature and may interact, making accurate predictions of plant responses to climate change complex and nonlinear. Alternatively, recent work suggests many species may be dominated by one cue, which would make predictions much simpler...
June 5, 2018: New Phytologist
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