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New Phytologist

Larissa A Ivanova, Polina K Yudina, Dina A Ronzhina, Leonid A Ivanov, Norbert Hölzel
We studied the impact of aridity on leaf and mesophyll traits in dominant and very abundant plant species of Eurasian steppe plant communities. We covered a 500-km latitudinal gradient across three vegetation zones in the Volga region of southern European Russia. Whole-leaf traits, volumetric fractions of leaf tissues, quantitative parameters of photosynthetic cells and chloroplasts, and chlorophyll, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents were analyzed and related to plant functional type (PFT), type of mesophyll anatomy, phylogeny and climate aridity...
October 20, 2017: New Phytologist
Iva Traxmandlová, James D Ackerman, Raymond L Tremblay, David L Roberts, Zuzana Štípková, Pavel Kindlmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2017: New Phytologist
Yu Yu, Tianran Jia, Xuemei Chen
Contents Summary I. II. III. IV. References SUMMARY: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, of typically 20-24 nt, that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally through sequence complementarity. Since the identification of the first miRNA, lin-4, in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in 1993, thousands of miRNAs have been discovered in animals and plants, and their regulatory roles in numerous biological processes have been uncovered. In plants, research efforts have established the major molecular framework of miRNA biogenesis and modes of action, and are beginning to elucidate the mechanisms of miRNA degradation...
October 19, 2017: New Phytologist
Yusuke Kouzai, Mamiko Kimura, Megumi Watanabe, Kazuki Kusunoki, Daiki Osaka, Tomoko Suzuki, Hidenori Matsui, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Yuki Ichinose, Kazuhiro Toyoda, Takakazu Matsuura, Izumi C Mori, Takashi Hirayama, Eiichi Miami, Yoko Nishizawa, Komaki Inoue, Yoshihiko Onda, Keiichi Mochida, Yoshiteru Noutoshi
Rhizoctonia solani is a soil-borne fungus causing sheath blight. In consistent with its necrotrophic life style, no rice cultivars fully resistant to R. solani are known, and agrochemical plant defense activators used for rice blast, which upregulate a phytohormonal salicylic acid (SA)-dependent pathway, are ineffective towards this pathogen. As a result of the unavailability of genetics, the infection process of R. solani remains unclear. We used the model monocotyledonous plants Brachypodium distachyon and rice, and evaluated the effects of phytohormone-induced resistance to R...
October 19, 2017: New Phytologist
Joan Laur, Gowsica Bojarajan Ramakrishnan, Caroline Labbé, François Lefebvre, Pietro D Spanu, Richard R Bélanger
Tritrophic interactions involving a biocontrol agent, a pathogen and a plant have been analyzed predominantly from the perspective of the biocontrol agent. We have conducted the first comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of all three organisms in an effort to understand the elusive properties of Pseudozyma flocculosa in the context of its biocontrol activity against Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei as it parasitizes Hordeum vulgare. After inoculation of P. flocculosa, the tripartite interaction was monitored over time and samples collected for scanning electron microscopy and RNA sequencing...
October 18, 2017: New Phytologist
Owen G Osborne, Rishi De-Kayne, Martin I Bidartondo, Ian Hutton, William J Baker, Colin G N Turnbull, Vincent Savolainen
Microbes can have profound effects on their hosts, driving natural selection, promoting speciation and determining species distributions. However, soil-dwelling microbes are rarely investigated as drivers of evolutionary change in plants. We used metabarcoding and experimental manipulation of soil microbiomes to investigate the impact of soil and root microbes in a well-known case of sympatric speciation, the Howea palms of Lord Howe Island (Australia). Whereas H. forsteriana can grow on both calcareous and volcanic soils, H...
October 16, 2017: New Phytologist
Huaitong Wu, Yue Tian, Qun Wan, Lei Fang, Xueying Guan, Jiedan Chen, Yan Hu, Wenxue Ye, Hua Zhang, Wangzhen Guo, Xiaoya Chen, Tianzhen Zhang
Cotton, with cellulose-enriched mature fibers, is the largest source of natural textiles. Through a map-based cloning strategy, we isolated an industrially important lint fiber development gene (Li3 ) that encodes an MYB-MIXTA-like transcription factor (MML) on chromosome D12 (GhMML4_D12). Virus-induced gene silencing or decreasing the expression of the GhMML4_D12 gene in n2 NSM plants resulted in a significant reduction in epidermal cell prominence and lint fiber production. GhMML4_D12 is arranged in tandem with GhMML3, another MIXTA gene responsible for fuzz fiber development...
October 16, 2017: New Phytologist
Ali F El Mehdawi, Ying Jiang, Zack S Guignardi, Ahmad Esmat, Marinus Pilon, Elizabeth A H Pilon-Smits, Michela Schiavon
Stanleya pinnata not only hyperaccumulates selenium (Se) to 0.5% of its dry weight, but also exhibits higher tissue Se-to-sulfur (S) ratios than other species and its surroundings. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this Se enrichment, we compared S. pinnata with the nonhyperaccumulators S. elata and Brassica juncea for selenate uptake in long- (9 d) and short-term (1 h) assays, using different concentrations of selenate and competitor sulfate. Different sulfate pre-treatments (0, 0.5, 5 mM, 3 d) were also tested for effects on selenate uptake and sulfate transporters' expression...
October 16, 2017: New Phytologist
Katherine E Helliwell, Jagroop Pandhal, Matthew B Cooper, Joseph Longworth, Ulrich Johan Kudahl, David A Russo, Eleanor V Tomsett, Freddy Bunbury, Deborah L Salmon, Nicholas Smirnoff, Phillip C Wright, Alison G Smith
The unicellular green alga Lobomonas rostrata requires an external supply of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) for growth, which it can obtain in stable laboratory cultures from the soil bacterium Mesorhizobium loti in exchange for photosynthate. We investigated changes in protein expression in the alga that allow it to engage in this mutualism. We used quantitative isobaric tagging (iTRAQ) proteomics to determine the L. rostrata proteome grown axenically with B12 supplementation or in coculture with M. loti. Data are available via ProteomeXchange (PXD005046)...
October 16, 2017: New Phytologist
Chinh-Nghia Nguyen, Laetitia Perfus-Barbeoch, Michaël Quentin, Jianlong Zhao, Marc Magliano, Nathalie Marteu, Martine Da Rocha, Nicolas Nottet, Pierre Abad, Bruno Favery
Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., are obligate endoparasites that maintain a biotrophic relationship with their hosts. They infect roots as microscopic vermiform second-stage juveniles, and establish specialized feeding structures called 'giant-cells', from which they withdraw water and nutrients. The nematode effector proteins secreted in planta are key elements in the molecular dialogue of parasitism. Here, we compared Illumina RNA-seq transcriptomes for M. incognita obtained at various points in the lifecycle, and identified 31 genes more strongly expressed in parasitic stages than in preparasitic juveniles...
October 16, 2017: New Phytologist
Andrew Lloyd, Aurélien Blary, Delphine Charif, Catherine Charpentier, Joseph Tran, Sandrine Balzergue, Etienne Delannoy, Guillem Rigaill, Eric Jenczewski
Structural variation is a major source of genetic diversity and an important substrate for selection. In allopolyploids, homoeologous exchanges (i.e. between the constituent subgenomes) are a very frequent type of structural variant. However, their direct impact on gene content and gene expression had not been determined. Here, we used a tissue-specific mRNA-Seq dataset to measure the consequences of homoeologous exchanges (HE) on gene expression in Brassica napus, a representative allotetraploid crop. We demonstrate that expression changes are proportional to the change in gene copy number triggered by the HEs...
October 16, 2017: New Phytologist
Koen J F Verhoeven, Eline H Verbon, Thomas P van Gurp, Carla Oplaat, Julie Ferreira de Carvalho, Alison M Morse, Mark Stahl, Mirka Macel, Lauren M McIntyre
Parental environments can influence offspring traits. However, the magnitude of the impact of parental environments on offspring molecular phenotypes is poorly understood. Here, we test the direct effects and intergenerational effects of jasmonic acid (JA) treatment, which is involved in herbivory-induced defense signaling, on transcriptomes and metabolomes in apomictic common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). In a full factorial crossed design with parental and offspring JA and control treatments, we performed leaf RNA-seq gene expression analysis, LC-MS metabolomics and total phenolics assays in offspring plants...
October 16, 2017: New Phytologist
Sarah V Wyse, John B Dickie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2017: New Phytologist
Dong Meng, Mingyang He, Yang Bai, Hongxia Xu, Abhaya M Dandekar, Zhangjun Fei, Lailiang Cheng
Sugars produced by photosynthesis not only fuel plant growth and development, but may also act as signals to regulate plant growth and development. This work focuses on the role of sorbitol, a sugar alcohol, in flower development and pollen tube growth of apple (Malus domestica). Transgenic 'Greensleeves' apple trees with decreased sorbitol synthesis had abnormal stamen development, a decreased pollen germination rate and reduced pollen tube growth, which were all closely related to lower sorbitol concentrations in stamens...
October 13, 2017: New Phytologist
A Carla Staver
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: Savannas are highly variable systems, and predicting variation, especially in the tree layer, represents a major unresolved challenge for forecasting biosphere responses to global change. Prediction to date has focused on disentangling interactions between resource limitation and chronic disturbances to identify what determines local savanna vegetation heterogeneity. By focusing at too fine a scale, this approach overlooks: sample size limitation arising from sparse tree distributions; stochasticity in demographic and environmental processes that is preserved as heterogeneity among tree populations with slow dynamics; and spatial self-organization...
October 13, 2017: New Phytologist
María de la O Leyva-Pérez, Jaime Jiménez-Ruiz, Carmen Gómez-Lama Cabanás, Antonio Valverde-Corredor, Juan B Barroso, Francisco Luque, Jesús Mercado-Blanco
Verticillium wilt of olive (VWO) is one of the most serious biotic constraints for this tree crop. Our knowledge of the genetics of the tolerance/resistance to this disease is very limited. Here we show that tolerance of the cv Frantoio relies on both basal and early pathogen-induced differential transcriptomic responses. A comparative transcriptomic analysis (RNA-seq) was conducted in root tissues of cvs Frantoio (VWO-tolerant) and Picual (VWO-susceptible). RNA samples originated from roots of inoculated olive plants during the early infection stages by Verticillium dahliae (highly virulent, defoliating pathotype)...
October 12, 2017: New Phytologist
Daniel J Gates, Bradley J S C Olson, Tom E Clemente, Stacey D Smith
Losses of floral pigmentation represent one of the most common evolutionary transitions in flower color, yet the genetic basis for these changes has been elucidated in only a handful of cases. Here we used crossing studies, bulk-segregant RNA sequencing, phylogenetic analyses and functional tests to identify the gene(s) responsible for the transition to white flowers in Iochroma loxense. Crosses between I. loxense and its blue-flowered sister species, I. cyaneum, suggested that a single locus controls the flower color difference and that the white allele causes a nearly complete loss of pigmentation...
October 12, 2017: New Phytologist
Antony van der Ent, Wojciech J Przybyłowicz, Martin D de Jonge, Hugh H Harris, Chris G Ryan, Grzegorz Tylko, David J Paterson, Alban D Barnabas, Peter M Kopittke, Jolanta Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: Hyperaccumulators are attractive models for studying metal(loid) homeostasis, and probing the spatial distribution and coordination chemistry of metal(loid)s in their tissues is important for advancing our understanding of their ecophysiology. X-ray elemental mapping techniques are unique in providing in situ information, and with appropriate sample preparation offer results true to biological conditions of the living plant. The common platform of these techniques is a reliance on characteristic X-rays of elements present in a sample, excited either by electrons (scanning/transmission electron microscopy), protons (proton-induced X-ray emission) or X-rays (X-ray fluorescence microscopy)...
October 10, 2017: New Phytologist
Derek T A Lamport, Li Tan, Michael Held, Marcia J Kieliszewski
Occam's Razor suggests a new model of pollen tube tip growth based on a novel Hechtian oscillator that integrates a periplasmic arabinogalactan glycoprotein-calcium (AGP-Ca(2+) ) capacitor with tip-localized AGPs as the source of tip-focussed cytosolic Ca(2+) oscillations: Hechtian adhesion between the plasma membrane and the cell wall of the growing tip acts as a piconewton force transducer that couples the internal stress of a rapidly growing wall to the plasma membrane. Such Hechtian transduction opens stretch-activated Ca(2+) channels and activates H(+) -ATPase proton pump efflux that dissociates periplasmic AGP-Ca(2+) resulting in a Ca(2+) influx that activates exocytosis of wall precursors...
October 9, 2017: New Phytologist
Samuel Lopez-Nieves, Ya Yang, Alfonso Timoneda, Minmin Wang, Tao Feng, Stephen A Smith, Samuel F Brockington, Hiroshi A Maeda
Diverse natural products are synthesized in plants by specialized metabolic enzymes, which are often lineage-specific and derived from gene duplication followed by functional divergence. However, little is known about the contribution of primary metabolism to the evolution of specialized metabolic pathways. Betalain pigments, uniquely found in the plant order Caryophyllales, are synthesized from the aromatic amino acid l-tyrosine (Tyr) and replaced the otherwise ubiquitous phenylalanine-derived anthocyanins...
October 9, 2017: New Phytologist
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