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New Phytologist

Fangjun Li, Maoying Li, Ping Wang, Kevin L Cox, Liusheng Duan, Jane K Dever, Libo Shan, Zhaohu Li, Ping He
Drought is a key limiting factor for cotton (Gossypium spp.) production, as more than half of the global cotton supply is grown in regions with high water shortage. However, the underlying mechanism of the response of cotton to drought stress remains elusive. By combining genome-wide transcriptome profiling and a loss-of-function screen using virus-induced gene silencing, we identified Gossypium hirsutum GhWRKY59 as an important transcription factor that regulates the drought stress response in cotton. Biochemical and genetic analyses revealed a drought stress-activated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade consisting of GhMAP3K15-Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase 4 (GhMKK4)-Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase 6 (GhMPK6) that directly phosphorylates GhWRKY59 at residue serine 221...
July 12, 2017: New Phytologist
Guillaume Théroux-Rancourt, J Mason Earles, Matthew E Gilbert, Maciej A Zwieniecki, C Kevin Boyce, Andrew J McElrone, Craig R Brodersen
The mesophyll surface area exposed to intercellular air space per leaf area (Sm ) is closely associated with CO2 diffusion and photosynthetic rates. Sm is typically estimated from two-dimensional (2D) leaf sections and corrected for the three-dimensional (3D) geometry of mesophyll cells, leading to potential differences between the estimated and actual cell surface area. Here, we examined how 2D methods used for estimating Sm compare with 3D values obtained from high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT) for 23 plant species, with broad phylogenetic and anatomical coverage...
July 10, 2017: New Phytologist
Meixuezi Tong, Tanja Kotur, Wanwan Liang, Katja Vogelmann, Tatjana Kleine, Dario Leister, Catharina Brieske, Shuhua Yang, Daniel Lüdke, Marcel Wiermer, Yuelin Zhang, Xin Li, Stefan Hoth
In both plants and animals, intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs; or Nod-like receptors) serve as immune receptors to recognize pathogen-derived molecules and mount effective immune responses against microbial infections. Plant NLRs often guard the presence or activity of other host proteins, which are the direct virulence targets of pathogen effectors. These guardees are sometimes immune-promoting components such as those in a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Plant E3 ligases serve many roles in immune regulation, but it is unclear whether they can also be guarded by NLRs...
July 10, 2017: New Phytologist
Shihao Su, Wei Xiao, Wuxiu Guo, Xinran Yao, Junqing Xiao, Ziqing Ye, Na Wang, Keyuan Jiao, Mengqi Lei, Qincheng Peng, Xiaohe Hu, Xia Huang, Da Luo
The diverse pigmentation patterns of flower corollas probably result from pollinator-mediated selection. Previous studies demonstrated that R2R3-MYB factors may have been recruited in the regulation of corolla pigmentation. However, how R2R3-MYBs became so diverse in their regulation of different pigmentation patterns remains unclear. Here, we studied a Lamiales species, Torenia fournieri, which has elaborate zygomorphic flowers with dorsal-ventral asymmetries in corolla pigmentation. We found recent gene duplication events in CYCLOIDEA-like (CYC-like) and RADIALIS-like (RAD-like) genes, and functionally analyzed three dorsal-specific expression factors: TfCYC1, TfCYC2, and TfRAD1...
July 10, 2017: New Phytologist
Feng Zhu, Tao Luo, Chaoyang Liu, Yang Wang, Hongbin Yang, Wei Yang, Li Zheng, Xue Xiao, Mingfei Zhang, Rangwei Xu, Jianguo Xu, Yunliu Zeng, Juan Xu, Qiang Xu, Wenwu Guo, Robert M Larkin, Xiuxin Deng, Yunjiang Cheng
Although the functions of carotenogenic genes are well documented, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate their expression, especially those genes involved in α - and β-branch carotenoid metabolism. In this study, an R2R3-MYB transcriptional factor (CrMYB68) that directly regulates the transformation of α- and β-branch carotenoids was identified using Green Ougan (MT), a stay-green mutant of Citrus reticulata cv Suavissima. A comprehensive analysis of developing and harvested fruits indicated that reduced expression of β-carotene hydroxylases 2 (CrBCH2) and 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 5 (CrNCED5) was responsible for the delay in the transformation of α- and β-carotene and the biosynthesis of ABA...
July 6, 2017: New Phytologist
Anna Vlašánková, Eliška Padyšáková, Michael Bartoš, Ximo Mengual, Petra Janečková, Štěpán Janeček
Since the time of Darwin, biologists have considered the floral nectar spur to be an adaptation representing a high degree of plant specialization. Nevertheless, some researchers suggest that nature is more complex and that even morphologically specialized plants attract a wide spectrum of visitors. We observed visitors on Impatiens burtonii (Balsaminaceae) and measured the depth of the proboscis insertion into the spur, the distance of the nectar surface from the spur entrance and the visitor's effectiveness...
July 5, 2017: New Phytologist
Cheryl A Kerfeld, Matthew R Melnicki, Markus Sutter, Maria Agustina Dominguez-Martin
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: The orange carotenoid protein (OCP) is a water-soluble, photoactive protein involved in thermal dissipation of excess energy absorbed by the light-harvesting phycobilisomes (PBS) in cyanobacteria. The OCP is structurally and functionally modular, consisting of a sensor domain, an effector domain and a keto-carotenoid. On photoactivation, the OCP converts from a stable orange form, OCP(O) , to a red form, OCP(R) . Activation is accompanied by a translocation of the carotenoid deeper into the effector domain...
July 4, 2017: New Phytologist
Fei Liu, Zhina Xiao, Li Yang, Qian Chen, Lu Shao, Juanxu Liu, Yixun Yu
In petunia, the production of volatile benzenoids/phenylpropanoids determines floral aroma, highly regulated by development, rhythm and ethylene. Previous studies identified several R2R3-type MYB trans-factors as positive regulators of scent biosynthesis in petunia flowers. Ethylene response factors (ERFs) have been shown to take part in the signal transduction of hormones, and regulation of metabolism and development processes in various plant species. Using virus-induced gene silencing technology, a negative regulator of volatile benzenoid biosynthesis, PhERF6, was identified by a screen for regulators of the expression of genes related to scent production...
July 4, 2017: New Phytologist
Yao-Min Cai, Jia Yu, Yuan Ge, Aleksandr Mironov, Patrick Gallois
Programmed cell death (PCD) induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in various plant physiological processes, yet its mechanism is still elusive. An activation of caspase-3-like enzymatic activity was clearly demonstrated but the role of the two known plant proteases with caspase-3-like activity, cathepsin B and proteasome subunit PBA1, remains to be established. Both genetic downregulation and chemical inhibition were used to investigate the function of cathepsin B and PBA1 in ER-stress-induced PCD (ERSID)...
July 4, 2017: New Phytologist
Sabine Güsewell, Martin H Schroth
Root structures secreting carboxylates and phosphatases are thought to enhance a plant's phosphorus (P) acquisition. But do closely related species with and without such structures really differ in root exudation, P mobilization, or ecological niche? We investigated this by comparing 23 European Carex species with and without 'dauciform roots' (DRs). Plants grown in pots with sand were screened for DR formation, phosphatase activities, carboxylate exudation, and utilization of various organic and inorganic P compounds...
July 3, 2017: New Phytologist
Heike M Müller, Nadine Schäfer, Hubert Bauer, Dietmar Geiger, Silke Lautner, Jörg Fromm, Markus Riederer, Amauri Bueno, Thomas Nussbaumer, Klaus Mayer, Saleh A Alquraishi, Ahmed H Alfarhan, Erwin Neher, Khaled A S Al-Rasheid, Peter Ache, Rainer Hedrich
Date palm Phoenix dactylifera is a desert crop well adapted to survive and produce fruits under extreme drought and heat. How are palms under such harsh environmental conditions able to limit transpirational water loss? Here, we analysed the cuticular waxes, stomata structure and function, and molecular biology of guard cells from P. dactylifera. To understand the stomatal response to the water stress phytohormone of the desert plant, we cloned the major elements necessary for guard cell fast abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and reconstituted this ABA signalosome in Xenopus oocytes...
July 3, 2017: New Phytologist
Maarten Ameye, Silke Allmann, Jan Verwaeren, Guy Smagghe, Geert Haesaert, Robert C Schuurink, Kris Audenaert
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. References SUMMARY: Plants respond to stress by releasing biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Green leaf volatiles (GLVs), which are abundantly produced across the plant kingdom, comprise an important group within the BVOCs. They can repel or attract herbivores and their natural enemies; and they can induce plant defences or prime plants for enhanced defence against herbivores and pathogens and can have direct toxic effects on bacteria and fungi...
June 30, 2017: New Phytologist
Troy S Magney, Christian Frankenberg, Joshua B Fisher, Ying Sun, Gretchen B North, Thomas S Davis, Ari Kornfeld, Katharina Siebke
Recent advances in the retrieval of Chl fluorescence from space using passive methods (solar-induced Chl fluorescence, SIF) promise improved mapping of plant photosynthesis globally. However, unresolved issues related to the spatial, spectral, and temporal dynamics of vegetation fluorescence complicate our ability to interpret SIF measurements. We developed an instrument to measure leaf-level gas exchange simultaneously with pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) and spectrally resolved fluorescence over the same field of view - allowing us to investigate the relationships between active and passive fluorescence with photosynthesis...
June 30, 2017: New Phytologist
M Asaduzzaman Prodhan, Ricarda Jost, Mutsumi Watanabe, Rainer Hoefgen, Hans Lambers, Patrick M Finnegan
Hakea prostrata (Proteaceae) has evolved in extremely phosphorus (P)-impoverished habitats. Unlike species that evolved in P-richer environments, it tightly controls its nitrogen (N) acquisition, matching its low protein concentration, and thus limiting its P requirement for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Protein is a major sink for sulfur (S), but the link between low protein concentrations and S metabolism in H. prostrata is unknown, although this is pivotal for understanding this species' supreme adaptation to P-impoverished soils...
June 28, 2017: New Phytologist
Katherine E Helliwell
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: B vitamins play essential roles in central metabolism. These organic water-soluble molecules act as, or as part of, coenzymes within the cell. Unlike land plants, many eukaryotic algae are auxotrophic for certain B vitamins. Recent progress in algal genetic resources and environmental chemistry have promoted a renewal of interest in the role of vitamins in governing phytoplankton dynamics, and illuminated amazing versatility in phytoplankton vitamin metabolism. Accumulating evidence demonstrates metabolic complexity in the production and bioavailability of different vitamin forms, coupled with specialized acquisition strategies to salvage and remodel vitamin precursors...
June 28, 2017: New Phytologist
Huan Wang, Jang-Kyun Seo, Shang Gao, Xinping Cui, Hailing Jin
Plants fine-tune their sophisticated immunity systems in response to pathogen infections. We previously showed that AtlsiRNA-1, a bacteria-induced plant endogenous small interfering RNA, silences the AtRAP gene, which encodes a putative RNA binding protein. In this study, we demonstrate that AtRAP functions as a negative regulator in plant immunity by characterizing molecular and biological responses of the knockout mutant and overexpression lines of AtRAP upon bacterial infection. AtRAP is localized in chloroplasts and physically interacts with Low Sulfur Upregulated 2 (LSU2), which positively regulates plant defense...
June 28, 2017: New Phytologist
Justin Martin, Nathaniel Looker, Zachary Hoylman, Kelsey Jencso, Jia Hu
Tree radial growth is often systematically limited by water availability, as is evident in tree ring records. However, the physiological nature of observed tree growth limitation is often uncertain outside of the laboratory. To further explore the physiology of water limitation, we observed intra-annual growth rates of four conifer species using point dendrometers and microcores, and coupled these data to observations of water potential, soil moisture, and vapor pressure deficit over 2 yr in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA...
June 27, 2017: New Phytologist
Johannes A Postma, Christian Kuppe, Markus R Owen, Nathan Mellor, Marcus Griffiths, Malcolm J Bennett, Jonathan P Lynch, Michelle Watt
OpenSimRoot is an open-source, functional-structural plant model and mathematical description of root growth and function. We describe OpenSimRoot and its functionality to broaden the benefits of root modeling to the plant science community. OpenSimRoot is an extended version of SimRoot, established to simulate root system architecture, nutrient acquisition and plant growth. OpenSimRoot has a plugin, modular infrastructure, coupling single plant and crop stands to soil nutrient and water transport models. It estimates the value of root traits for water and nutrient acquisition in environments and plant species...
June 27, 2017: New Phytologist
Ian A Dickie, Jennifer L Bufford, Richard C Cobb, Marie-Laure Desprez-Loustau, Gwen Grelet, Philip E Hulme, John Klironomos, Andreas Makiola, Martin A Nuñez, Anne Pringle, Peter H Thrall, Samuel G Tourtellot, Lauren Waller, Nari M Williams
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. References SUMMARY: Invasions of alien plants are typically studied as invasions of individual species, yet interactions between plants and symbiotic fungi (mutualists and potential pathogens) affect plant survival, physiological traits, and reproduction and hence invasion success. Studies show that plant-fungal associations are frequently key drivers of plant invasion success and impact, but clear conceptual frameworks and integration across studies are needed to move beyond a series of case studies towards a more predictive understanding...
June 26, 2017: New Phytologist
Ian T Major, Yuki Yoshida, Marcelo L Campos, George Kapali, Xiu-Fang Xin, Koichi Sugimoto, Dalton de Oliveira Ferreira, Sheng Yang He, Gregg A Howe
The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) promotes the degradation of JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins to relieve repression on diverse transcription factors (TFs) that execute JA responses. However, little is known about how combinatorial complexity among JAZ-TF interactions maintains control over myriad aspects of growth, development, reproduction, and immunity. We used loss-of-function mutations to define epistatic interactions within the core JA signaling pathway and to investigate the contribution of MYC TFs to JA responses in Arabidopsis thaliana...
June 26, 2017: New Phytologist
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