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New Phytologist

Shanwei Li, Huaijian Dong, Weike Pei, Chaonan Liu, Sha Zhang, Tiantian Sun, Xiuhua Xue, Haiyun Ren
Pollen tube tip growth is an extreme form of polarized cell growth, which requires polarized exocytosis based on a dynamic actin cytoskeleton. However, the molecular basis for the connection between actin filaments and exocytic vesicles is unclear. Here, we identified a Lilium longiflorum pollen-specific formin (LlFH1) and found that it localized at the apical vesicles and plasma membrane (PM). Overexpression of LlFH1 induced excessive actin cables in the tube tip region, and downregulation of LlFH1 eliminated the actin fringe...
January 16, 2017: New Phytologist
Peter Civáň, Terence A Brown
The nonbrittle rachis, resulting in a seed head which does not shatter at maturity, is one of the key phenotypes that distinguishes domesticated barley from its wild relatives. The phenotype is associated with two loci, Btr1 and Btr2, with all domesticated barleys thought to have either a 1 bp deletion in Btr1 or an 11 bp deletion in Btr2. We used a PCR genotyping method with 380 domesticated barley landraces to identify those with the Btr1 deletion and those with the Btr2 deletion. We discovered two landraces, from Serbia and Greece, that had neither deletion...
January 16, 2017: New Phytologist
Thibault Leroy, Camille Roux, Laure Villate, Catherine Bodénès, Jonathan Romiguier, Jorge A P Paiva, Carole Dossat, Jean-Marc Aury, Christophe Plomion, Antoine Kremer
Historical trajectories of tree species during the late Quaternary have been well reconstructed through genetic and palaeobotanical studies. However, many congeneric tree species are interfertile, and the timing and contribution of introgression to species divergence during their evolutionary history remains largely unknown. We quantified past and current gene flow events between four morphologically divergent oak species (Quercus petraea, Q. robur, Q. pyrenaica, Q. pubescens), by two independent inference methods: diffusion approximation to the joint frequency spectrum (∂a∂i) and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC)...
January 13, 2017: New Phytologist
Nicky Atkinson, Nuno Leitão, Douglas J Orr, Moritz T Meyer, Elizabete Carmo-Silva, Howard Griffiths, Alison M Smith, Alistair J McCormick
Introducing components of algal carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) into higher plant chloroplasts could increase photosynthetic productivity. A key component is the Rubisco-containing pyrenoid that is needed to minimise CO2 retro-diffusion for CCM operating efficiency. Rubisco in Arabidopsis was re-engineered to incorporate sequence elements that are thought to be essential for recruitment of Rubisco to the pyrenoid, namely the algal Rubisco small subunit (SSU, encoded by rbcS) or only the surface-exposed algal SSU α-helices...
January 13, 2017: New Phytologist
Thierry Rouxel, Marie-Hélène Balesdent
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. References SUMMARY: In agricultural systems, major (R) genes for resistance in plants exert strong selection pressure on cognate/corresponding avirulence effector genes of phytopathogens. However, a complex interplay often exists between trade-offs linked to effector function and the need to escape R gene recognition. Here, using the Leptosphaeria maculans-oilseed rape pathosystem we review evolution of effectors submitted to multiple resistance gene selection. Characteristics of this pathosystem include a crop in which resistance genes have been deployed intensively resulting in 'boom and bust' cycles; a fungal pathogen with a high adaptive potential in which seven avirulence genes are cloned and for which population surveys have been coupled with molecular analysis of events responsible for virulence...
January 13, 2017: New Phytologist
Handong Su, Yalin Liu, Qianhua Dong, Chao Feng, Jing Zhang, Yang Liu, James A Birchler, Fangpu Han
The genomic stability of all organisms requires precise cell division with proper chromosome orientation. The Bub1-H2Aph-Sgo1 pathway and spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) components have been identified in yeast and mammals that are important for sister centromere orientation and chromosome segregation. However, their roles in plants are not clear. Maize meiotic mutants and minichromosomes were used to study the role of H2AThr133 phosphorylation and SAC components in sister centromere orientation and chromosome segregation...
January 12, 2017: New Phytologist
Guanghui Xu, Xufeng Wang, Cheng Huang, Dingyi Xu, Dan Li, Jinge Tian, Qiuyue Chen, Chenglong Wang, Yameng Liang, Yaoyao Wu, Xiaohong Yang, Feng Tian
Maize (Zea mays) tassels underwent profound morphological changes during maize domestication and improvement. Although a number of genes affecting maize inflorescence development have been identified, the genetic basis of the morphological changes in maize tassels since domestication is not well understood. Here, using a large population of 866 maize-teosinte BC2 S3 recombinant inbred lines genotyped using 19 838 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, we performed high-resolution quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for five tassel morphological traits...
January 9, 2017: New Phytologist
Sean W Graham, Vivienne K Y Lam, Vincent S F T Merckx
I. II. III. References SUMMARY: We examine recent evidence for ratchet-like genome degradation in mycoheterotrophs, plants that obtain nutrition from fungi. Initial loss of the NADH dehydrogenase-like (NDH) complex may often set off an irreversible evolutionary cascade of photosynthetic gene losses. Genes for plastid-encoded subunits of RNA polymerase and photosynthetic enzymes with secondary functions (Rubisco and ATP synthase) can persist initially, with nonsynchronous and quite broad windows in the relative timing of their loss...
January 9, 2017: New Phytologist
José Javier Peguero-Pina, Sergio Sisó, Jaume Flexas, Jeroni Galmés, Ana García-Nogales, Ülo Niinemets, Domingo Sancho-Knapik, Miguel Ángel Saz, Eustaquio Gil-Pelegrín
Leaf mass per area (LMA) has been suggested to negatively affect the mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm ), which is the most limiting factor for area-based photosynthesis (AN ) in many Mediterranean sclerophyll species. However, despite their high LMA, these species have similar AN to plants from other biomes. Variations in other leaf anatomical traits, such as mesophyll and chloroplast surface area exposed to intercellular air space (Sm /S and Sc /S), may offset the restrictions imposed by high LMA in gm and AN in these species...
January 6, 2017: New Phytologist
Mónica R Carvalho, Robert Turgeon, Thomas Owens, Karl J Niklas
Although much is known about the hydraulics of xylem, the hydraulic interconnectivity and dimensional scaling of phloem with respect to xylem in leaves has not been adequately studied to test alternative hydraulic architectural rules such as da Vinci's rule or Murray's rule, or physiological models such as Münch's Pressure Flow hypothesis. Using confocal and electron microscopy as well as mathematical analyses, we examined the hydraulic architecture of the mature leaves of the model species Populus tremula × alba across all seven hierarchical orders of the vascular branching...
January 5, 2017: New Phytologist
C Kevin Boyce, Ying Fan, Maciej A Zwieniecki
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: Flowering plants can be far more productive than other living land plants. Evidence is reviewed that productivity would have been uniformly lower and less CO2 -responsive before angiosperm evolution, particularly during the early evolution of vascular plants and forests in the Devonian and Carboniferous. This introduces important challenges because paleoecological interpretations have been rooted in understanding of modern angiosperm-dominated ecosystems...
January 5, 2017: New Phytologist
Anna Ostendorp, Steffen Pahlow, Lena Krüßel, Patrizia Hanhart, Marcel Y Garbe, Jennifer Deke, Patrick Giavalisco, Julia Kehr
Phloem sap contains a large number of macromolecules, including proteins and RNAs from different classes. Proteome analyses of phloem samples from different plant species under denaturing conditions identified hundreds of proteins potentially involved in diverse processes. Surprisingly, these studies also found a significant number of ribosomal and proteasomal proteins. This led to the suggestion that active ribosome and proteasome complexes might be present in the phloem, challenging the paradigm that protein synthesis and turnover are absent from the enucleate sieve elements of angiosperms...
January 4, 2017: New Phytologist
Catherine Damerval, Annette Becker
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: Ranunculales, the sister group to all other eudicots, encompasses species with a remarkable floral diversity, which are currently emerging as new model organisms to address questions relating to the genetic architecture of flower morphology and its evolution. These questions concern either traits only found in members of the Ranunculales or traits that have convergently evolved in other large clades of flowering plants. We present recent results obtained on floral organ identity and number, symmetry evolution and spur formation in Ranunculales species...
January 4, 2017: New Phytologist
Daijiang Li, Anthony R Ives, Donald M Waller
Phylogenetic and functional trait-based analyses inform our understanding of community composition, yet methods for quantifying the overlap in information derived from functional traits and phylogenies remain underdeveloped. Does adding traits to analyses of community composition reduce the phylogenetic signal in the residual variation? If not, then measured functional traits alone may be insufficient to explain community assembly. We propose a general statistical framework to quantify the proportion of phylogenetic pattern in community composition that remains after including measured functional traits...
January 3, 2017: New Phytologist
Frank Gaupels, Jörg Durner, Karl-Heinz Kogel
Rapid long-distance signalling is an emerging topic in plant research, and is particularly associated with responses to biotic and abiotic stress. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to pathogen attack is dependent on nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). By comparison, systemic wound responses (SWRs) and systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) to abiotic stress encounters are triggered by rapid waves of H2 O2 , calcium and electrical signalling. Efforts have been made to decipher the relationship between redox messengers, calcium and other known systemic defence signals...
January 3, 2017: New Phytologist
Jian-Fei Kuang, Jian-Ye Chen, Xun-Cheng Liu, Yan-Chao Han, Yun-Yi Xiao, Wei Shan, Yang Tang, Ke-Qiang Wu, Jun-Xian He, Wang-Jin Lu
Fruit ripening is a complex, genetically programmed process involving the action of critical transcription factors (TFs). Despite the established significance of dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB) TFs in plant abiotic stress responses, the involvement of DREBs in fruit ripening is yet to be determined. Here, we identified four genes encoding ripening-regulated DREB TFs in banana (Musa acuminata), MaDREB1, MaDREB2, MaDREB3, and MaDREB4, and demonstrated that they play regulatory roles in fruit ripening...
January 3, 2017: New Phytologist
Sini Mursinoff, Ayco J M Tack
Theory suggests that below-ground spatial heterogeneity may mediate host-parasite evolutionary dynamics and patterns of local adaptation, but this has rarely been tested in natural systems. Here, we test experimentally for the impact of spatial variation in the abiotic and biotic soil environment on the evolutionary outcome of the interaction between the host plant Plantago lanceolata and its specialist foliar pathogen Podosphaera plantaginis. Plants showed no adaptation to the local soil environment in the absence of natural enemies...
January 2, 2017: New Phytologist
Merlin Sheldrake, Nicholas P Rosenstock, Daniel Revillini, Pål Axel Olsson, Scott Mangan, Emma J Sayer, Håkan Wallander, Benjamin L Turner, Edmund V J Tanner
Tropical forest productivity is sustained by the cycling of nutrients through decomposing organic matter. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play a key role in the nutrition of tropical trees, yet there has been little experimental investigation into the role of AM fungi in nutrient cycling via decomposing organic material in tropical forests. We evaluated the responses of AM fungi in a long-term leaf litter addition and removal experiment in a tropical forest in Panama. We described AM fungal communities using 454-pyrosequencing, quantified the proportion of root length colonised by AM fungi using microscopy, and estimated AM fungal biomass using a lipid biomarker...
January 2, 2017: New Phytologist
Lukas Fasbender, Daniel Maurer, Jürgen Kreuzwieser, Ines Kreuzer, Waltraud X Schulze, Jörg Kruse, Dirk Becker, Saleh Alfarraj, Rainer Hedrich, Christiane Werner, Heinz Rennenberg
The present study was performed to elucidate the fate of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) derived from protein of prey caught by carnivorous Dionaea muscipula. For this, traps were fed (13) C/(15) N-glutamine (Gln). The release of (13) CO2 was continuously monitored by isotope ratio infrared spectrometry. After 46 h, the allocation of C and N label into different organs was determined and tissues were subjected to metabolome, proteome and transcriptome analyses. Nitrogen of Gln fed was already separated from its C skeleton in the decomposing fluid secreted by the traps...
January 2, 2017: New Phytologist
Yanfang Du, Lei Liu, Manfei Li, Shuang Fang, Xiaomeng Shen, Jinfang Chu, Zuxin Zhang
UNBRANCHED3 (UB3), a member of the SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SPL) gene family, regulates kernel row number by negatively modulating the size of the inflorescence meristem in maize. However, the regulatory pathway by which UB3 mediates branching remains unknown. We introduced the UB3 into rice and maize to reveal its effects in the two crop plants, respectively. Furthermore, we performed transcriptome sequencing and protein-DNA binding assay to elucidate the regulatory pathway of UB3. We found that UB3 could bind and regulate the promoters of LONELY GUY1 (LOG1) and Type-A response regulators (ARRs), which participate in cytokinin biosynthesis and signaling...
January 1, 2017: New Phytologist
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