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New Phytologist

Xiao-Han Yin, Frank Sterck, Guang-You Hao
Some temperate tree species mitigate the negative impacts of frost-induced xylem cavitation by restoring impaired hydraulic function via positive pressures, and may therefore be more resistant to frost fatigue (the phenomenon that post-freezing xylem becomes more susceptible to hydraulic dysfunction) than nonpressure-generating species. We test this hypothesis and investigate underlying anatomical/physiological mechanisms. Using a common garden experiment, we studied key hydraulic traits and detailed xylem anatomical characteristics of 18 sympatric tree species...
April 23, 2018: New Phytologist
Patricia L Sáez, Lohengrin A Cavieres, Jeroni Galmés, Eustaquio Gil-Pelegrín, José Javier Peguero-Pina, Domingo Sancho-Knapik, Mercedes Vivas, Carolina Sanhueza, Constanza F Ramírez, Betsy K Rivera, Luis J Corcuera, León A Bravo
The Antarctic Peninsula has experienced a rapid warming in the last decades. Although recent climatic evidence supports a new tendency towards stabilization of temperatures, the impacts on the biosphere, and specifically on Antarctic plant species, remain unclear. We evaluated the in situ warming effects on photosynthesis, including the underlying diffusive, biochemical and anatomical determinants, and the relative growth of two Antarctic vascular species, Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica, using open top chambers (OTCs) and gas exchange measurements in the field...
April 23, 2018: New Phytologist
Guiping Ren, Lingfei Li, Yuhua Huang, Yaqin Wang, Wenbin Zhang, Rouyan Zheng, Chunmei Zhong, Xiaojing Wang
Cell expansion is a key determinant for the final size and shape of plant organ, and is regulated by various phytohormones. Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) consist of a superfamily involved in multiple aspects of organ morphogenesis. However, little is known about WIP-type ZFP function in phytohormone-mediated organ growth. Using reverse genetics, RNA-seq and phytohormone quantification, we elucidated the role of a new WIP-type ZFP from Gerbera hybrida, GhWIP2, in controlling organ growth via regulation of cell expansion...
April 22, 2018: New Phytologist
Nicolas Denancé, Boris Szurek, Erin L Doyle, Emmanuelle Lauber, Lisa Fontaine-Bodin, Sébastien Carrère, Endrick Guy, Ahmed Hajri, Aude Cerutti, Tristan Boureau, Stéphane Poussier, Matthieu Arlat, Adam J Bogdanove, Laurent D Noël
Xanthomonas transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are injected inside plant cells to promote host susceptibility by enhancing transcription of host susceptibility genes. TALE-encoding (tal) genes were thought to be absent from Brassicaceae-infecting Xanthomonas campestris (Xc) genomes based on four reference genomic sequences. We discovered tal genes in 26 of 49 Xc strains isolated worldwide and used a combination of single molecule real time (SMRT) and tal amplicon sequencing to yield a near-complete description of the TALEs found in Xc (Xc TALome)...
April 20, 2018: New Phytologist
Gao Chen, Zheng-Wei Wang, Ping Wen, Wei Wei, Ya Chen, Hui Ai, Wei-Bang Sun
Vespicochory, seed dispersal by hornets, is an uncommon seed dispersal pattern in angiosperms. To date, this phenomenon has been recorded in only four families. Because of its rarity, the causes and consequences of vespicochory remain unclear. Hence, this seed dispersal syndrome is often regarded as anecdotal. Through field investigations, chemical analyses, electrophysiological tests, identification of chemosensory proteins from the antennae of hornets, and behavioral assays, we investigated whether olfactory and/or visual cues of the diaspores of Stemona tuberosa mediate the behavior of the social hornets and maintain their mutualism...
April 20, 2018: New Phytologist
Patrícia V Ellsworth, Patrick Z Ellsworth, Nuria K Koteyeva, Asaph B Cousins
Diffusion of CO2 from the leaf intercellular air space to the site of carboxylation (gm ) is a potential trait for increasing net rates of CO2 assimilation (Anet ), photosynthetic efficiency, and crop productivity. Leaf anatomy plays a key role in this process; however, there are few investigations into how cell wall properties impact gm and Anet . Online carbon isotope discrimination was used to determine gm and Anet in Oryza sativa wild-type (WT) plants and mutants with disruptions in cell wall mixed-linkage glucan (MLG) production (CslF6 knockouts) under high- and low-light growth conditions...
April 20, 2018: New Phytologist
Wenhui Zheng, Yahong Lin, Wenqin Fang, Xu Zhao, Yi Lou, Guanghui Wang, Huawei Zheng, Qifu Liang, Yakubu Saddeeq Abubakar, Stefan Olsson, Jie Zhou, Zonghua Wang
Endosomal sorting machineries regulate the transport of their cargoes among intracellular compartments. However, the molecular nature of such intracellular trafficking processes in pathogenic fungal development and pathogenicity remains unclear. Here, we dissect the roles and molecular mechanisms of two sorting nexin proteins and their cargoes in endosomal recycling in Fusarium graminearum using high-resolution microscopy and high-throughput co-immunoprecipitation strategies. We show that the sorting nexins, FgSnx41 and FgSnx4, interact with each other and assemble into a functionally interdependent heterodimer through their respective BAR domains...
April 20, 2018: New Phytologist
Matthew J Rubin, Marcus T Brock, Robert L Baker, Stephanie Wilcox, Kyle Anderson, Seth J Davis, Cynthia Weinig
Circadian rhythms are key regulators of diverse biological processes under controlled settings. Yet, the phenotypic and fitness consequences of quantitative variation in circadian rhythms remain largely unexplored in the field. As with other pathways, phenotypic characterization of circadian outputs in the field may reveal novel clock functions. Across consecutive growing seasons, we test for associations between clock variation and flowering phenology, plant size, shoot architecture, and fruit set in clock mutants and segregating progenies of Arabidopsis thaliana expressing quantitative variation in circadian rhythms...
April 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Ellen L Fry, David J Eldridge, Franciska T de Vries, Peter Manning, Kelly Hamonts, Jens Kattge, Gerhard Boenisch, Brajesh K Singh, Richard D Bardgett
We lack strong empirical evidence for links between plant attributes (plant community attributes and functional traits) and the distribution of soil microbial communities at large spatial scales. Using datasets from two contrasting regions and ecosystem types in Australia and England, we report that aboveground plant community attributes, such as diversity (species richness) and cover, and functional traits can predict a unique portion of the variation in the diversity (number of phylotypes) and community composition of soil bacteria and fungi that cannot be explained by soil abiotic properties and climate...
April 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Johannes W Goessling, Yanyan Su, Paulo Cartaxana, Christian Maibohm, Lars F Rickelt, Erik C L Trampe, Sandra L Walby, Daniel Wangpraseurt, Xia Wu, Marianne Ellegaard, Michael Kühl
The optical properties of diatom silicate frustules inspire photonics and nanotechnology research. Whether light interaction with the nano-structure of the frustule also affects diatom photosynthesis has remained unclear due to lack of information on frustule optical properties under more natural conditions. Here we demonstrate that the optical properties of the frustule valves in water affect light harvesting and photosynthesis in live cells of centric diatoms (Coscinodiscus granii). Microscale cellular mapping of photosynthesis around localized spot illumination demonstrated optical coupling of chloroplasts to the valve wall...
April 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Fathi Berrabah, Thierry Balliau, El Hosseyn Aït-Salem, Jeoffrey George, Michel Zivy, Pascal Ratet, Benjamin Gourion
Massive intracellular populations of symbiotic bacteria, referred to as rhizobia, are housed in legume root nodules. Little is known about the mechanisms preventing the development of defense in these organs although genes such as symCRK and DNF2 of the model legume Medicago truncatula are required for this control after rhizobial internalization in host nodule cells. Here we investigated the molecular basis of the symbiotic control of immunity. Proteomic analysis was performed to compare functional (wild-type) and defending nodules (symCRK)...
April 18, 2018: New Phytologist
Lifei Chen, Dandan Yang, Youwei Zhang, Limin Wu, Yaoyao Zhang, Lei Ye, Changtian Pan, Yanjun He, Li Huang, Yong-Ling Ruan, Gang Lu
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulate diverse aspects of plant growth. However, their potential role in reproductive development remains elusive. Here, we discovered an unique role of SlMPK20, a plant-specific group D MAPK, in pollen development in tomato. RNAi-mediated suppression of SlMPK20 or its knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 significantly reduced or completely abolished pollen viability, respectively, with no effects on maternal fertility. Cell biology and gene expression analyses established that SlMPK20 exerts its role specifically at the uni-to-binucleate transition during microgametogenesis...
April 18, 2018: New Phytologist
Hai-Fei Yan, Cai-Yun Zhang, Arne A Anderberg, Gang Hao, Xue-Jun Ge, John J Wiens
What causes the disparity in biodiversity among regions is a fundamental question in biogeography, ecology, and evolutionary biology. Evolutionary and biogeographic processes (speciation, extinction, dispersal) directly determine species richness patterns, and can be studied using integrative phylogenetic approaches. However, the strikingly high richness of East Asia relative to other Northern Hemisphere regions remains poorly understood from this perspective. Here, for the first time, we test two general hypotheses (older colonization time, faster diversification rate) to explain this pattern, using the plant tribe Lysimachieae (Primulaceae) as a model system...
April 17, 2018: New Phytologist
J Mason Earles, Jens T Stevens, Or Sperling, Jessica Orozco, Malcolm P North, Maciej A Zwieniecki
Rising temperatures and extended periods of drought compromise tree hydraulic and carbohydrate systems, threatening forest health globally. Despite winter's biological significance to many forests, the effects of warmer and dryer winters on tree hydraulic and carbohydrate status have largely been overlooked. Here we report a sharp and previously unknown decline in stem water content of three conifer species during California's anomalous 2015 mid-winter drought that was followed by dampened spring starch accumulation...
April 16, 2018: New Phytologist
Caiyun Liu, Zhigang Li, Junjie Xing, Jun Yang, Zhao Wang, Hong Zhang, Deng Chen, You-Liang Peng, Xiao-Lin Chen
Protein post-translational modifications play critical roles in cellular processes, development and stress response. The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) to proteins is one of the essential modifications in eukaryotes, but its function remains largely unknown in plant pathogenic fungi. We present a comprehensive analysis combined with proteomic, molecular and cellular approaches to explore the roles of sumoylation in the model plant fungal pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae. We found the SUMO pathway plays key roles in colony growth, conidia formation and virulence to the host, as well as cell-cycle-related phenotypes...
April 16, 2018: New Phytologist
Jay W Wason, Katherine S Anstreicher, Nathan Stephansky, Brett A Huggett, Craig R Brodersen
During drought, xylem sap pressures can approach or exceed critical thresholds where gas embolisms form and propagate through the xylem network, leading to systemic hydraulic dysfunction. The vulnerability segmentation hypothesis (VSH) predicts that low-investment organs (e.g. leaf petioles) should be more vulnerable to embolism spread compared to high-investment, perennial organs (e.g. trunks, stems), as a means of mitigating embolism spread and excessive negative pressures in the perennial organs. We tested this hypothesis by measuring air-seeding thresholds using the single-vessel air-injection method and calculating hydraulic safety margins in four northern hardwood tree species of the northeastern United States, in both saplings and canopy height trees, and at five points along the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum...
April 16, 2018: New Phytologist
Iman Kamranfar, Gang-Ping Xue, Takayuki Tohge, Mastoureh Sedaghatmehr, Alisdair R Fernie, Salma Balazadeh, Bernd Mueller-Roeber
Leaf senescence is a key process in plants that culminates in the degradation of cellular constituents and massive reprogramming of metabolism for the recovery of nutrients from aged leaves for their reuse in newly developing sinks. We used molecular-biological and metabolomics approaches to identify NAC transcription factor (TF) RD26 as an important regulator of metabolic reprogramming in Arabidopsis thaliana. RD26 directly activates CHLOROPLAST VESICULATION (CV), encoding a protein crucial for chloroplast protein degradation, concomitant with an enhanced protein loss in RD26 overexpressors during senescence, but a reduced decline of protein in rd26 knockout mutants...
April 16, 2018: New Phytologist
Martino E Malerba, Maria M Palacios, Yussi M Palacios Delgado, John Beardall, Dustin J Marshall
Cell size correlates with most traits among phytoplankton species. Theory predicts that larger cells should show poorer photosynthetic performance, perhaps due to reduced intracellular self-shading (i.e. package effect). Yet current theory relies heavily on interspecific correlational approaches and causal relationships between size and photosynthetic machinery have remained untested. As a more direct test, we applied 250 generations of artificial selection (c. 20 months) to evolve the green microalga Dunaliella teriolecta (Chlorophyta) toward different mean cell sizes, while monitoring all major photosynthetic parameters...
April 15, 2018: New Phytologist
Yongjia Zhong, Yuguang Wang, Jiangfan Guo, Xinlu Zhu, Jing Shi, Qiuju He, Yu Liu, Yunrong Wu, Li Zhang, Qundan Lv, Chuanzao Mao
Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development, but the molecular mechanism determining how plants sense external inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels and reprogram transcriptional and adaptive responses is incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the function of OsSPX6 (hereafter SPX6), an uncharacterized member of SPX domain (SYG1, Pho81 and XPR1)-containing proteins in rice, using reverse genetics and biochemical approaches. Transgenic plants overexpressing SPX6 exhibited decreased Pi concentrations and suppression of phosphate starvation-induced (PSI) genes...
April 15, 2018: New Phytologist
Ge Zi Li, Zhan Qi Wang, Kengo Yokosho, Bing Ding, Wei Fan, Qiao Qiao Gong, Gui Xin Li, Yun Rong Wu, Jian Li Yang, Jian Feng Ma, Shao Jian Zheng
Whilst WRKY transcription factors are known to be involved in diverse plant responses to biotic stresses, their involvement in abiotic stress tolerance is poorly understood. OsFRDL4, encoding a citrate transporter, has been reported to be regulated by ALUMINUM (Al) RESISTANCE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 1 (ART1) in rice, but whether it is also regulated by other transcription factors is unknown. We define the role of OsWRKY22 in response to Al stress in rice by using mutation and transgenic complementation assays, and characterize the regulation of OsFRDL4 by OsWRKY22 via yeas one-hybrid, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and ChIP-quantitative PCR...
April 15, 2018: New Phytologist
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