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New Phytologist

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815698/altered-regulation-of-terminal-flower-1-causes-the-unique-vernalisation-response-in-an-arctic-woodland-strawberry-accession
#1
Elli A Koskela, Takeshi Kurokura, Tuomas Toivainen, Anita Sønsteby, Ola M Heide, Daniel J Sargent, Sachiko Isobe, Laura Jaakola, Hrannar Hilmarsson, Paula Elomaa, Timo Hytönen
Vernalisation requirement is an agriculturally important trait that postpones the development of cold-sensitive floral organs until the spring. The family Rosaceae includes many agriculturally important fruit and berry crops that suffer from crop losses caused by frost injury to overwintering flower buds. Recently, a vernalisation-requiring accession of the Rosaceae model woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) has been identified in northern Norway. Understanding the molecular basis of the vernalisation requirement in this accession would advance the development of strawberry cultivars better adapted to temperate climate...
August 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815610/growth-responses-to-elevated-temperatures-and-the-importance-of-ontogenetic-niche-shifts-in-bromeliaceae
#2
Lilian-Lee B Müller, Dirk C Albach, Gerhard Zotz
Epiphytic bromeliads represent a major component of Neotropical forests, but the potential effect of climate change on these plants is unclear. We investigated whether and how bromeliads are affected by the predicted 3°C temperature rise by the end of the century. We conducted growth experiments with 17 epiphytic bromeliad species at different temperatures to determine their fundamental thermal niches. By comparing those with niches for germination, we tested whether ontogenetic niche shift or niche contraction occurs in Bromeliaceae...
August 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805962/medicago-truncatula-molybdate-transporter-type-1-mtmot1-3-is-a-plasma-membrane-molybdenum-transporter-required-for-nitrogenase-activity-in-root-nodules-under-molybdenum-deficiency
#3
Manuel Tejada-Jiménez, Patricia Gil-Díez, Javier León-Mediavilla, Jiangqi Wen, Kirankumar S Mysore, Juan Imperial, Manuel González-Guerrero
Molybdenum, as a component of the iron-molybdenum cofactor of nitrogenase, is essential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. This nutrient has to be provided by the host plant through molybdate transporters. Members of the molybdate transporter family Molybdate Transporter type 1 (MOT1) were identified in the model legume Medicago truncatula and their expression in nodules was determined. Yeast toxicity assays, confocal microscopy, and phenotypical characterization of a Transposable Element from Nicotiana tabacum (Tnt1) insertional mutant line were carried out in the one M...
August 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805959/fire-ecology-of-a-tree-glacial-refugium-on-a-nunatak-with-a-view-on-alpine-glaciers
#4
Christopher Carcaillet, Olivier Blarquez
In paleoecology, the function of biomass as a fire driver has become a focus of attention in cold ecosystems, and concerns have been raised about climate in this context. Little is known about the fire frequency and fire-plant relationships during glaciation when woodlands were limited and the climate was cold. Fire history and tree biomass were reconstructed from sedimentary charcoal and macroremains, respectively, archived in lake sediments from the western Alps. Two nunataks were investigated, both with lacustrine sediments covering the last 21 000 yr at least...
August 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805249/a-non-dna-binding-activity-for-the-athb4-transcription-factor-in-the-control-of-vegetation-proximity
#5
Marçal Gallemí, Maria Jose Molina-Contreras, Sandi Paulišić, Mercè Salla-Martret, Céline Sorin, Marta Godoy, Jose Manuel Franco-Zorrilla, Roberto Solano, Jaime F Martínez-García
In plants, perception of vegetation proximity by phytochrome photoreceptors activates a transcriptional network that implements a set of responses to adapt to plant competition, including elongation of stems or hypocotyls. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factor ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX 4 (ATHB4) regulates this and other responses, such as leaf polarity. To better understand the shade regulatory transcriptional network, we have carried out structure-function analyses of ATHB4 by overexpressing a series of truncated and mutated forms and analyzing three different responses: hypocotyl response to shade, transcriptional activity and leaf polarity...
August 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805245/tropical-rainforest-carbon-sink-declines-during-el-ni%C3%A3-o-as-a-result-of-reduced-photosynthesis-and-increased-respiration-rates
#6
Molly A Cavaleri, Adam P Coble, Michael G Ryan, William L Bauerle, Henry W Loescher, Steven F Oberbauer
Changes in tropical forest carbon sink strength during El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events can indicate future behavior under climate change. Previous studies revealed ˜6 Mg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) lower net ecosystem production (NEP) during ENSO year 1998 compared with non-ENSO year 2000 in a Costa Rican tropical rainforest. We explored environmental drivers of this change and examined the contributions of ecosystem respiration (RE) and gross primary production (GPP) to this weakened carbon sink. For 1998-2000, we estimated RE using chamber-based respiration measurements, and we estimated GPP in two ways: using (1) the canopy process model MAESTRA, and (2) combined eddy covariance and chamber respiration data...
August 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800196/furthering-knowledge-of-seaweed-growth-and-development-to-facilitate-sustainable-aquaculture
#7
Bénédicte Charrier, Maria Helena Abreu, Rita Araujo, Annette Bruhn, Juliet C Coates, Olivier De Clerck, Christos Katsaros, Rafael R Robaina, Thomas Wichard
Macroalgae (seaweeds) are the subject of increasing interest for their potential as a source of valuable, sustainable biomass in the food, feed, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Compared with microalgae, the pace of knowledge acquisition in seaweeds is slower despite the availability of whole-genome sequences and model organisms for the major seaweed groups. This is partly a consequence of specific hurdles related to the large size of these organisms and their slow growth. As a result, this basic scientific field is falling behind, despite the societal and economic importance of these organisms...
August 11, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800167/a-functional-imaging-study-of-germinating-oilseed-rape-seed
#8
Eberhard Munz, Hardy Rolletschek, Steffen Oeltze-Jafra, Johannes Fuchs, André Guendel, Thomas Neuberger, Stefan Ortleb, Peter M Jakob, Ljudmilla Borisjuk
Germination, the process whereby a dry, quiescent seed springs to life, has been a focus of plant biologist for many years, yet the early events following water uptake, during which metabolism of the embryo is restarted, remain enigmatic. Here, the nature of the cues required for this restarting in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seed has been investigated. A holistic in vivo approach was designed to display the link between the entry and allocation of water, metabolic events and structural changes occurring during germination...
August 11, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800145/soil-handling-methods-should-be-selected-based-on-research-questions-and-goals
#9
LETTER
Michael J Gundale, David A Wardle, Paul Kardol, Wim H Van der Putten, Richard W Lucas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796289/medicine-is-not-health-care-food-is-health-care-plant-metabolic-engineering-diet-and-human-health
#10
REVIEW
Cathie Martin, Jie Li
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: Plants make substantial contributions to our health through our diets, providing macronutrients for energy and growth as well as essential vitamins and phytonutrients that protect us from chronic diseases. Imbalances in our food can lead to deficiency diseases or obesity and associated metabolic disorders, increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Nutritional security is now a global challenge which can be addressed, at least in part, through plant metabolic engineering for nutritional improvement of foods that are accessible to and eaten by many...
August 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795772/the-potential-of-the-spectral-water-balance-index-wabi-for-crop-irrigation-scheduling
#11
Tal Rapaport, Uri Hochberg, Amnon Cochavi, Arnon Karnieli, Shimon Rachmilevitch
Hyperspectral sensing can detect slight changes in plant physiology, and may offer a faster and nondestructive alternative for water status monitoring. This premise was tested in the current study using a narrow-band 'water balance index' (WABI), which is based on independent changes in leaf water content (1500 nm) and the efficiency of the nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) photo-protective mechanism (531 nm). The hydraulic, photo-protective and spectral behaviors of five important crops - grapevine, corn, tomato, pea and sunflower - were evaluated under water deficit conditions in order to associate the differences in stress physiology with WABI suitability...
August 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782807/moving-beyond-de-novo-clustering-in-fungal-community-ecology
#12
LETTER
Lauren C Cline, Zewei Song, Gabriel A Al-Ghalith, Dan Knights, Peter G Kennedy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782806/pervasive-interactions-between-foliar-microbes-and-soil-nutrients-mediate-leaf-production-and-herbivore-damage-in-a-tropical-forest
#13
Eric A Griffin, S Joseph Wright, Peter J Morin, Walter P Carson
Producing and retaining leaves underlie the performance and survivorship of seedlings in deeply shaded tropical forests. These habitats are characterized by conditions ideal for foliar bacteria, which can be potent plant pathogens. Leaf production, retention and susceptibility to enemies may ultimately depend upon interactions among soil nutrients and foliar microbes, yet this has never been tested. We experimentally evaluated the degree that foliar bacteria and soil resource supply mediate leaf dynamics for five common tree species (five different families) in a Panamanian forest...
August 7, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782804/discovery-of-long-distance-gamete-dispersal-in-a-lichen-forming-ascomycete
#14
Cecilia Ronnås, Silke Werth, Otso Ovaskainen, Gergely Várkonyi, Christoph Scheidegger, Tord Snäll
Accurate estimates of gamete and offspring dispersal range are required for the understanding and prediction of spatial population dynamics and species persistence. Little is known about gamete dispersal in fungi, especially in lichen-forming ascomycetes. Here, we estimate the dispersal functions of clonal propagules, gametes and ascospores of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria. We use hierarchical Bayesian parentage analysis, which integrates genetic and ecological information from multiannual colonization and dispersal source data collected in a large, old-growth forest landscape...
August 7, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782803/genomic-analyses-suggest-parallel-ecological-divergence-in-heliosperma-pusillum-caryophyllaceae
#15
Emiliano Trucchi, Božo Frajman, Thomas H A Haverkamp, Peter Schönswetter, Ovidiu Paun
The mosaic distribution of interbreeding taxa with contrasting ecology and morphology offers an opportunity to study microevolutionary dynamics during ecological divergence. We investigate here the evolutionary history of an alpine and a montane ecotype of Heliosperma pusillum (Caryophyllaceae) in the south-eastern Alps. From six pairs of geographically close populations of the two ecotypes (120 individuals) we obtained a high-coverage restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) dataset that was used for demographic inference to test the hypothesis of parallel evolution of the two ecotypes...
August 7, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776688/mosaics-often-outperform-pyramids-insights-from-a-model-comparing-strategies-for-the-deployment-of-plant-resistance-genes-against-viruses-in-agricultural-landscapes
#16
Ramses Djidjou-Demasse, Benoît Moury, Frédéric Fabre
The breakdown of plant virus resistance genes is a major issue in agriculture. We investigated whether a set of resistance genes would last longer when stacked into a single plant cultivar (pyramiding) or when deployed individually in regional mosaics (mosaic strategy). We modeled the genetic and epidemiological processes shaping the demogenetic dynamics of viruses under a multilocus gene-for-gene system, from the plant to landscape scales. The landscape consisted of many fields, was subject to seasonality, and of a reservoir hosting viruses year-round...
August 4, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771732/direct-assessment-of-the-metabolic-origin-of-carbon-atoms-in-glutamate-from-illuminated-leaves-using-13-c-nmr
#17
Cyril Abadie, Jérémy Lothier, Edouard Boex-Fontvieille, Adam Carroll, Guillaume Tcherkez
Glutamate (Glu) is the cornerstone of nitrogen assimilation and photorespiration in illuminated leaves. Despite this crucial role, our knowledge of the flux to Glu de novo synthesis is rather limited. Here, we used isotopic labelling with (13) CO2 and (13) C-NMR analyses to examine the labelling pattern and the appearance of multi-labelled species of Glu molecules to trace the origin of C-atoms found in Glu. We also compared this with (13) C-labelling patterns in Ala and Asp, which reflect citrate (and thus Glu) precursors, that is, pyruvate and oxaloacetate...
August 3, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771729/present-day-sympatry-belies-the-evolutionary-origin-of-a-high-order-polyploid
#18
Na Wei, Jacob A Tennessen, Aaron Liston, Tia-Lynn Ashman
Disentangling the evolutionary histories of polyploids, especially those with high ploidies, can reveal fundamental processes in speciation. Despite occurring frequently during evolution, the origins of many extant polyploid plant species remain largely unknown. By integrating linkage mapping, polyploid phylogeny and sex-determining region (SDR) in a unified framework, we statistically evaluated evolutionary hypotheses concerning the origin of a recently recognized decaploid strawberry (Fragaria cascadensis)...
August 3, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762506/towards-crispr-cas-crops-bringing-together-genomics-and-genome-editing
#19
REVIEW
Armin Scheben, Felix Wolter, Jacqueline Batley, Holger Puchta, David Edwards
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. References SUMMARY: With the rapid increase in the global population and the impact of climate change on agriculture, there is a need for crops with higher yields and greater tolerance to abiotic stress. However, traditional crop improvement via genetic recombination or random mutagenesis is a laborious process and cannot keep pace with increasing crop demand. Genome editing technologies such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) allow targeted modification of almost any crop genome sequence to generate novel variation and accelerate breeding efforts...
August 1, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758691/diverse-belowground-resource-strategies-underlie-plant-species-coexistence-and-spatial-distribution-in-three-grasslands-along-a-precipitation-gradient
#20
Hongbo Li, Bitao Liu, M Luke McCormack, Zeqing Ma, Dali Guo
Functional traits and their variation mediate plant species coexistence and spatial distribution. Yet, how patterns of variation in belowground traits influence resource acquisition across species and plant communities remains obscure. To characterize diverse belowground strategies in relation to species coexistence and abundance, we assessed four key belowground traits - root diameter, root branching intensity, first-order root length and mycorrhizal colonization - in 27 coexisting species from three grassland communities along a precipitation gradient...
July 31, 2017: New Phytologist
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