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New Phytologist

Maren Dubbert, Christiane Werner
Plants mediate water fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. This water transfer in soils, through plants, into the atmosphere can be effectively traced by stable isotopologues of water. However, rapid dynamic processes only recently gained attention, such as adaptations in root water uptake depths (within hours to days) or the imprint of transpirational fluxes on atmospheric moisture, particularly promoted by the development of real-time in situ water vapour stable isotope observation techniques...
October 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Simone Fatichi, Christoforos Pappas, Jakob Zscheischler, Sebastian Leuzinger
Contents Summary I. Introduction II. Discrepancy in predicting the effects of rising [CO2 ] on the terrestrial C sink III. Carbon and nutrient storage in plants and its modelling IV. Modelling the source and the sink: a plant perspective V. Plant-scale water and Carbon flux models VI. Challenges for the future Acknowledgements Authors contributions References SUMMARY: The increase in atmospheric CO2 in the future is one of the most certain projections in environmental sciences. Understanding whether vegetation carbon assimilation, growth, and changes in vegetation carbon stocks are affected by higher atmospheric CO2 and translating this understanding in mechanistic vegetation models is of utmost importance...
October 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Xin-Yuan Huang, Huan Liu, Yu-Fei Zhu, Shannon R M Pinson, Hong-Xuan Lin, Mary Lou Guerinot, Fang-Jie Zhao, David E Salt
Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential micronutrient for most living organisms, including humans. Cereals such as rice are the major dietary source of Mo. However, little is known about the genetic basis of the variation in Mo content in rice (Oryza sativa) grain. We mapped a quantitative trait locus (QTL) qGMo8 that controls Mo accumulation in rice grain by using a recombinant inbred line population and a backcross introgression line population. We identified a molybdate transporter, OsMOT1;1, as the causal gene for this QTL...
October 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Monika Zwirek, Robbie Waugh, Sarah M McKim
Hordeum species develop a central spikelet flanked by two lateral spikelets at each inflorescence node. In 'two-rowed' spikes, the central spikelet alone is fertile and sets grain while in 'six-rowed' spikes, lateral spikelets can also produce grain. Induced loss-of-function alleles of any of five Six-rowed spike (VRS) genes (VRS1-5) cause complete to intermediate gains of lateral spikelet fertility. Current six-row cultivars contain natural defective vrs1 and vrs5 alleles. Little is known about VRS mechanism(s)...
October 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Shan Li, Kunsong Chen, Don Grierson
Understanding the regulation of fleshy fruit ripening is biologically important, provides insights and opportunities for controlling fruit quality, enhancing nutritional value for animals and humans and improving storage and waste reduction. The ripening regulatory network involves master- and downstream transcription factors (TFs) and hormones. Tomato is a model for ripening regulation, which requires ethylene and master TFs including NAC-NOR and the MADS-box protein MADS-RIN. Recent functional characterization showed the classical RIN-MC gene fusion, previously believed to be a loss-of-function mutation, is an active transcription factor with repressor activity...
October 17, 2018: New Phytologist
Weston L Testo, Emily Sessa, David S Barrington
Tropical mountains are disproportionately biodiverse relative to their surface area, but the processes underlying their exceptional diversity require further study. Here, we use comparative phylogenetic methods to examine the impact of the Andean orogeny on the diversification of Neotropical Phlegmariurus, a species-rich lycophyte clade. We generated a time-calibrated phylogeny of 105 species of Neotropical Phlegmariurus and estimated lineage diversification rates. We tested for correlations between lineage diversification rates and species range size, niche breadth, elevational range amplitude, and mean elevation of occurrence...
October 16, 2018: New Phytologist
Xiang Liu, Zhiyuan Ma, Marc W Cadotte, Fei Chen, Jin-Sheng He, Shurong Zhou
The effects of global change on semi-natural and agro-ecosystem functioning have been studied extensively. However, less well understood is how global change will influence fungal diseases, especially in a natural ecosystem. We use data from a 6-yr factorial experiment with warming (simulated using infrared heaters) and altered precipitation treatments in a natural Tibetan alpine meadow ecosystem, from which we tested global change effects on foliar fungal diseases at the population and community levels, and evaluated the importance of direct effects of the treatments and community-mediated (indirect) effects (through changes in plant community composition and competence) of global change on community pathogen load...
October 16, 2018: New Phytologist
Liang Kou, Shenggong Li, Huimin Wang, Xiaoli Fu, Xiaoqin Dai
Timing (phenology) and amount (production) are two integral facets of root growth, and their shifts have profound influences on belowground resource acquisition. The environmental control of, and the effects of nitrogen (N) deposition on, the production and phenology of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) roots, however, remain unclear. Using a four-year minirhizotron experiment, we explored the control of the production and three phenophases (initiation, peak, and cessation of growth) of ECM roots in two soil layers and investigated their dynamic responses to N addition in a seasonally-dry subtropical Pinus elliottii forest...
October 15, 2018: New Phytologist
Jian-Pu Han, Philipp Köster, Maria M Drerup, Martin Scholz, Shizhen Li, Kai H Edel, Kenji Hashimoto, Kazuyuki Kuchitsu, Michael Hippler, Jörg Kudla
RBOHF from Arabidopsis thaliana represents a multifunctional NADPH oxidase regulating biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, developmental processes and guard cell aperture. The molecular components and mechanisms determining RBOHF activity remain to be elucidated. Here we combined protein interaction studies, biochemical and genetic approaches with pathway reconstitution analyses to identify and characterize proteins that confer RBOHF regulation and elucidated mechanisms that adjust RBOHF activity. While the Ca2+ sensor activated kinases CIPK11 and CIPK26 constitute alternative paths for RBOHF activation, the combined activity of CIPKs and the kinase open stomata 1 (OST1) triggers complementary activation of this NADPH oxidase which is efficiently counteracted through dephosphorylation by the phosphatase ABI1...
October 15, 2018: New Phytologist
Amanda R De La Torre, Daniela Puiu, Marc W Crepeau, Kristian Stevens, Steven L Salzberg, Charles H Langley, David B Neale
Dissecting the genetic and genomic architecture of complex traits is essential to understand the forces maintaining the variation in phenotypic traits of ecological and economical importance. Whole-genome re-sequencing data was used to generate high-resolution polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and genotype individuals from common gardens across the loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) natural range. Genome-wide associations were tested with a large phenotypic dataset comprising 409 variables including morphological traits (height, diameter, carbon isotope discrimination, pitch canker resistance), and molecular traits such as metabolites and expression of xylem development genes...
October 14, 2018: New Phytologist
Liyu Chen, Lu Qin, Lili Zhou, Xinxin Li, Zhichang Chen, Lili Sun, Wenfei Wang, Zhihao Lin, Jing Zhao, Naoki Yamaji, Jian Feng Ma, Mian Gu, Guohua Xu, Hong Liao
Symbiotic nitrogen (N2 ) fixation plays a vital role in sustainable agriculture. Efficient N2 fixation requires various materials including phosphate (Pi), however, the molecular mechanism underlying the transport of Pi into nodules and bacteroids remains largely unknown. A nodule-localized Pi transporter, GmPT7 was functionally characterized in soybean (Glycine max) and its role in N2 fixation and yield was investigated via composite and whole transgenic plants. GmPT7 protein was localized to the plasma membrane and showed transport activity for Pi in yeast...
October 14, 2018: New Phytologist
Satoshi Endo, Yumi Iwai, Hiroo Fukuda
Sap molecules are transported by xylem flow throughout the whole plant body. Factors regulating the xylem transport of different molecules remain to be identified. We used fluorophores to visualize xylem transport from roots to leaves in Arabidopsis thaliana. Several previously established Arabidopsis lines with modified xylem cell walls were used to determine the contribution of xylem cell walls to xylem transport. Fluorophores underwent xylem flow-dependent transport from roots to leaves within 20 min. A comparison of rhodamine, fluorescein, and three fluorescently-labeled CLV3/ESR-related (CLE) peptides revealed cargo-dependent xylem transport patterns in terms of leaf position and vein order...
October 14, 2018: New Phytologist
Wanwan Liang, Solveig van Wersch, Meixuezi Tong, Xin Li
Intracellular nucleotide-binding (NB) and leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins function as immune receptors to recognize effectors from pathogens. They often guard host proteins that are the direct targets of those effectors. Recent findings revealed that a typical NLR sometimes cooperates with another atypical NLR for effector recognition. Here, by using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing method, knockout analysis and biochemical assays, we uncovered differential pairings of typical Toll Interleukin1 receptor (TIR) type NLR (TNL) receptor SOC3 with atypical truncated TIR-NB (TN) proteins CHS1 or TN2 to guard the homeostasis of the E3 ligase SAUL1...
October 14, 2018: New Phytologist
Izabela Fabiańska, Nina Gerlach, Juliana Almario, Marcel Bucher
Plants respond to phosphorus (P)-limitation through an array of morphological, physiological and metabolic changes which are part of the phosphate (Pi)-starvation response (PSR). This response influences the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis in most land plants. It is, however, unknown to what extent available P and the PSR redefine plant interactions with the fungal microbiota in soil. Using amplicon sequencing of the fungal taxonomical marker ITS2 we examined the changes in root-associated fungal communities in the AM non-host species Arabidopsis thaliana in response to soil amendment with P and to genetic perturbations in the plant PSR...
October 14, 2018: New Phytologist
Tong Liang, Yu Yang, Hongtao Liu
Contents Summary I. Introduction II. The UVR8-COP1 pathway III. The UVR8-WRKY36 pathway IV. The UVR8-BES1/BIM1 pathway V. Other pathways VI. Conclusion and perspectives Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light is an intrinsic part of sunlight that has significant effects on plant development and acclimation responses. UVR8 (UV Resistance Locus 8) is the long sought-after UV-B photoreceptor that mediates UV-B light perception and signal transduction. UV-B irradiation induces the monomerization and nuclear accumulation of UVR8 in plant cells to activate the UV-B signaling pathway...
October 13, 2018: New Phytologist
Juliana S Medeiros, Frederic Lens, Hafiz Maherali, Steven Jansen
Shared ancestry among species and correlation between vessel diameter and plant height can obscure the mechanisms linking vessel diameter to current climate distributions of angiosperms. Because wood is complex, various traits may interact to influence vessel function. Specifically, pit vesturing (lignified cell wall protuberances associated with bordered pits), and perforation plate morphology could alter vessel diameter versus climate versus plant height relationships. Using phylogenetically informed analyses, we tested for associations between vessel diameter, climate, and maximum plant height across angiosperm species with different pit vesturing (presence/absence) and perforation plate morphology (simple/scalariform and quantitative variation)...
October 12, 2018: New Phytologist
Ruiqin Zhong, Dongtao Cui, Zheng-Hua Ye
Secondary walls are synthesized in specialized cells, such as tracheary elements and fibers, and their remarkable strength and rigidity provide strong mechanical support to the cells and the plant body. The main components of secondary walls are cellulose, xylan, glucomannan and lignin. Biochemical, molecular and genetic studies in the past decades have led to the discovery of most of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary wall components. Cellulose is synthesized by cellulose synthase complexes in the plasma membrane and the recent success of in vitro synthesis of cellulose microfibrils by a single recombinant cellulose synthase isoform reconstituted into proteoliposomes opens new doors to further dissect the structure and functions of cellulose synthase complexes...
October 12, 2018: New Phytologist
Kunyang Zhuang, Fanying Kong, Song Zhang, Chen Meng, Minmin Yang, Zhuangbin Liu, Yong Wang, Nana Ma, Qingwei Meng
In plants, the chilling response involves decreased photosynthetic capacity and increased starch accumulation in chloroplasts. However, the mechanisms that modulate these processes remain unclear. We found that the SlWHY1 gene is significantly induced by chilling stress (4 °C) in tomato. Three SlWHY1 overexpression (OE) lines grew better than the wild type (WT) under chilling stress; the OE plants retained intact photosynthetic grana lamellae and showed enhanced hydrolysis of starch. By contrast, RNAi lines that inhibited SlWHY1 were more affected than the corresponding WT cultivar...
October 11, 2018: New Phytologist
Jun Sung Seo, Piyarut Diloknawarit, Bong Soo Park, Nam-Hai Chua
Plant immune response is initiated upon the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as elf18. Previously, we identified an Arabidopsis ELF18-INDUCED LONG NONCODING RNA 1 (ELENA1), as a positive transcriptional regulator of immune responsive genes. ELENA1 associated with Mediator subunit 19a (MED19a) to enhance enrichment of the complex on PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENE1 (PR1) promoter. In vitro and in vivo RNA-protein interaction experiments showed that ELENA1 can also interact with FIBRILLARIN 2 (FIB2)...
October 11, 2018: New Phytologist
Marco J Cabrerizo, Juan Manuel González-Olalla, Víctor J Hinojosa-López, Francisco J Peralta-Cornejo, Presentación Carrillo
Mixotrophy is a dominant metabolic strategy in ecosystems worldwide. Shifts in temperature (T) and light (i.e. the ultraviolet portion of spectrum (UVR)) are key abiotic factors that modulate the conditions under which an organism is able to live. However, whether the interaction between both drivers alters mixotrophy in a global-change context remains unassessed. To determine the T × UVR effects on relative electron transport rates, nonphotochemical quenching, bacterivory, and bacterial production, we conducted an experiment with Isochrysis galbana populations grown mixotrophically, which were exposed to 5°C of cooling and warming with respect to the control (19°C) with (or without) UVR over light-dark cycles and different timescales...
October 11, 2018: New Phytologist
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