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New Phytologist

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211601/biogeography-of-nodulated-legumes-and-their-nitrogen-fixing-symbionts
#1
REVIEW
Janet I Sprent, Julie Ardley, Euan K James
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. References SUMMARY: In the last decade, analyses of both molecular and morphological characters, including nodulation, have led to major changes in our understanding of legume taxonomy. In parallel there has been an explosion in the number of genera and species of rhizobia known to nodulate legumes. No attempt has been made to link these two sets of data or to consider them in a biogeographical context. This review aims to do this by relating the data to the evolution of the two partners: it highlights both longitudinal and latitudinal trends and considers these in relation to the location of major land masses over geological time...
February 17, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211583/in%C3%A2-situ-temperature-response-of-photosynthesis-of-42-tree-and-liana-species-in-the-canopy-of-two-panamanian-lowland-tropical-forests-with-contrasting-rainfall-regimes
#2
Martijn Slot, Klaus Winter
Tropical forests contribute significantly to the global carbon cycle, but little is known about the temperature response of photosynthetic carbon uptake in tropical species, and how this varies within and across forests. We determined in situ photosynthetic temperature-response curves for upper canopy leaves of 42 tree and liana species from two tropical forests in Panama with contrasting rainfall regimes. On the basis of seedling studies, we hypothesized that species with high photosynthetic capacity - light-demanding, fast-growing species - would have a higher temperature optimum of photosynthesis (TOpt ) than species with low photosynthetic capacity - shade-tolerant, slow-growing species - and that, therefore, TOpt would scale with the position of a species on the slow-fast continuum of plant functional traits...
February 17, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211582/what-can-genome-wide-association-studies-tell-us-about-the-evolutionary-forces-maintaining-genetic-variation-for-quantitative-traits
#3
REVIEW
Emily B Josephs, John R Stinchcombe, Stephen I Wright
I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Understanding the evolutionary forces that shape genetic variation within species has long been a goal of evolutionary biology. Integrating data for the genetic architecture of traits from genome-wide association mapping studies (GWAS) along with the development of new population genetic methods for identifying selection in sequence data may allow us to evaluate the roles of mutation-selection balance and balancing selection in shaping genetic variation at various scales...
February 17, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205289/functionally-dissimilar-neighbors-accelerate-litter-decomposition-in-two-grass-species
#4
Lou Barbe, Vincent Jung, Andreas Prinzing, Anne-Kristel Bittebiere, Olaf Butenschoen, Cendrine Mony
Plant litter decomposition is a key regulator of nutrient recycling. In a given environment, decomposition of litter from a focal species depends on its litter quality and on the efficiency of local decomposers. Both may be strongly modified by functional traits of neighboring species, but the consequences for decomposition of litter from the focal species remain unknown. We tested whether decomposition of a focal plant's litter is influenced by the functional-trait dissimilarity to the neighboring plants. We cultivated two grass species (Brachypodium pinnatum and Elytrigia repens) in experimental mesocosms with functionally similar and dissimilar neighborhoods, and reciprocally transplanted litter...
February 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205242/one-way-or-another-iron-uptake-in-plants
#5
Huei-Hsuan Tsai, Wolfgang Schmidt
Iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P), the latter taken up by plants as phosphate (Pi), are two essential nutrients that determine species distribution and often limit crop yield as a result of their low availability in most soils. Pi-deficient plants improve the interception of Pi by increasing the density of root hairs, thereby expanding the volume of soil to be explored. The increase in root hair frequency results mainly from attenuated primary root growth, a process that was shown to be dependent on the availability of external Fe...
February 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205240/the-influence-of-climatic-niche-preferences-on-the-population-genetic-structure-of-a-mistletoe-species-complex
#6
Santiago Ramírez-Barahona, Clementina González, Antonio González-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco Ornelas
The prevalent view on genetic structuring in parasitic plants is that host-race formation is caused by varying degrees of host specificity. However, the relative importance of ecological niche divergence and host specificity to population differentiation remains poorly understood. We evaluated the factors associated with population differentiation in mistletoes of the Psittacanthus schiedeanus complex (Loranthaceae) in Mexico. We used genetic data from chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites to study population genetic structure and tested its association with host preferences and climatic niche variables...
February 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195346/herbivore-induced-plant-volatiles-and-tritrophic-interactions-across-spatial-scales
#7
Yavanna Aartsma, Felix J J A Bianchi, Wopke van der Werf, Erik H Poelman, Marcel Dicke
Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are an important cue used in herbivore location by carnivorous arthropods such as parasitoids. The effects of plant volatiles on parasitoids have been well characterised at small spatial scales, but little research has been done on their effects at larger spatial scales. The spatial matrix of volatiles ('volatile mosaic') within which parasitoids locate their hosts is dynamic and heterogeneous. It is shaped by the spatial pattern of HIPV-emitting plants, the concentration, chemical composition and breakdown of the emitted HIPV blends, and by environmental factors such as wind, turbulence and vegetation that affect transport and mixing of odour plumes...
February 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195333/arabidopsis-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-plant-u-box13-pub13-regulates-chitin-receptor-lysin-motif-receptor-kinase5-lyk5-protein-abundance
#8
Dehua Liao, Yangrong Cao, Xun Sun, Catherine Espinoza, Cuong T Nguyen, Yan Liang, Gary Stacey
Long-chain chitooligosaccharides are fungal microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) that are recognized by LYSIN MOTIF RECEPTOR KINASE5 (LYK5), inducing the formation of a complex with CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE1 (CERK1). Formation of this complex leads to activation of the CERK1 intracellular kinase domain and induction of plant innate immunity in Arabidopsis. We found that addition of chitooctaose induced LYK5 protein accumulation as a result of de novo gene expression and the inhibition of LYK5 protein degradation...
February 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195328/visualization-of-xylem-embolism-by-x-ray-microtomography-a-direct-test-against-hydraulic-measurements
#9
Markus Nolf, Rosana Lopez, Jennifer M R Peters, Richard J Flavel, Leah S Koloadin, Iain M Young, Brendan Choat
X-ray microtomography (microCT) is becoming a valuable noninvasive tool for advancing our understanding of plant-water relations. Laboratory-based microCT systems are becoming more affordable and provide better access than synchrotron facilities. However, some systems come at the cost of comparably lower signal quality and spatial resolution than synchrotron facilities. In this study, we evaluated laboratory-based X-ray microCT imaging as a tool to nondestructively analyse hydraulic vulnerability to drought-induced embolism in a woody plant species...
February 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191645/sticking-to-cellulose-exploiting-arabidopsis-seed-coat-mucilage-to-understand-cellulose-biosynthesis-and-cell-wall-polysaccharide-interactions
#10
Jonathan S Griffiths, Helen M North
The cell wall defines the shape of cells and ultimately plant architecture. It provides mechanical resistance to osmotic pressure while still being malleable and allowing cells to grow and divide. These properties are determined by the different components of the wall and the interactions between them. The major components of the cell wall are the polysaccharides cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. Cellulose biosynthesis has been extensively studied in Arabidopsis hypocotyls, and more recently in the mucilage-producing epidermal cells of the seed coat...
February 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191641/genetic-variation-and-host-parasite-specificity-of-striga-resistance-and-tolerance-in-rice-the-need-for-predictive-breeding
#11
Jonne Rodenburg, Mamadou Cissoko, Nicholas Kayongo, Ibnou Dieng, Jenipher Bisikwa, Runyambo Irakiza, Isaac Masoka, Charles A O Midega, Julie D Scholes
The parasitic weeds Striga asiatica and Striga hermonthica cause devastating yield losses to upland rice in Africa. Little is known about genetic variation in host resistance and tolerance across rice genotypes, in relation to virulence differences across Striga species and ecotypes. Diverse rice genotypes were phenotyped for the above traits in S. asiatica- (Tanzania) and S. hermonthica-infested fields (Kenya and Uganda) and under controlled conditions. New rice genotypes with either ecotype-specific or broad-spectrum resistance were identified...
February 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191633/why-we-need-more-nonseed-plant-models
#12
REVIEW
Stefan A Rensing
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: Out of a hundred sequenced and published land plant genomes, four are not of flowering plants. This severely skewed taxonomic sampling hinders our comprehension of land plant evolution at large. Moreover, most genetically accessible model species are flowering plants as well. If we are to gain a deeper understanding of how plants evolved and still evolve, and which of their developmental patterns are ancestral or derived, we need to study a more diverse set of plants...
February 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186635/diversification-of-rosaceae-since-the-late-cretaceous-based-on-plastid-phylogenomics
#13
Shu-Dong Zhang, Jian-Jun Jin, Si-Yun Chen, Mark W Chase, Douglas E Soltis, Hong-Tao Li, Jun-Bo Yang, De-Zhu Li, Ting-Shuang Yi
Phylogenetic relationships in Rosaceae have long been problematic because of frequent hybridisation, apomixis and presumed rapid radiation, and their historical diversification has not been clarified. With 87 genera representing all subfamilies and tribes of Rosaceae and six of the other eight families of Rosales (outgroups), we analysed 130 newly sequenced plastomes together with 12 from GenBank in an attempt to reconstruct deep relationships and reveal temporal diversification of this family. Our results highlight the importance of improving sequence alignment and the use of appropriate substitution models in plastid phylogenomics...
February 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186632/norwood-a-gene-expression-resource-for-evo-devo-studies-of-conifer-wood-development
#14
Soile Jokipii-Lukkari, David Sundell, Ove Nilsson, Torgeir R Hvidsten, Nathaniel R Street, Hannele Tuominen
The secondary xylem of conifers is composed mainly of tracheids that differ anatomically and chemically from angiosperm xylem cells. There is currently no high-spatial-resolution data available profiling gene expression during wood formation for any coniferous species, which limits insight into tracheid development. RNA-sequencing data from replicated, high-spatial-resolution section series throughout the cambial and woody tissues of Picea abies were used to generate the NorWood.conGenIE.org web resource, which facilitates exploration of the associated gene expression profiles and co-expression networks...
February 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186631/dna-methylation-and-gene-expression-regulation-associated-with-vascularization-in-sorghum-bicolor
#15
Gina M Turco, Kaisa Kajala, Govindarajan Kunde-Ramamoorthy, Chew-Yee Ngan, Andrew Olson, Shweta Deshphande, Denis Tolkunov, Barbara Waring, Scott Stelpflug, Patricia Klein, Jeremy Schmutz, Shawn Kaeppler, Doreen Ware, Chia-Lin Wei, J Peter Etchells, Siobhan M Brady
Plant secondary cell walls constitute the majority of plant biomass. They are predominantly found in xylem cells, which are derived from vascular initials during vascularization. Little is known about these processes in grass species despite their emerging importance as biomass feedstocks. The targeted biofuel crop Sorghum bicolor has a sequenced and well-annotated genome, making it an ideal monocot model for addressing vascularization and biomass deposition. Here we generated tissue-specific transcriptome and DNA methylome data from sorghum shoots, roots and developing root vascular and nonvascular tissues...
February 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186629/evolutionary-asymmetry-in-the-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-conservatism-in-fungal-morphology-does-not-predict-host-plant-growth
#16
Alexander M Koch, Pedro M Antunes, Hafiz Maherali, Miranda M Hart, John N Klironomos
Although arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are obligate symbionts that can influence plant growth, the magnitude and direction of these effects are highly variable within fungal genera and even among isolates within species, as well as among plant taxa. To determine whether variability in AM fungal morphology and growth is correlated with AM fungal effects on plant growth, we established a common garden experiment with 56 AM fungal isolates comprising 17 genera and six families growing with three plant host species...
February 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185279/variation-in-seed-size-is-structured-by-dispersal-syndrome-and-cone-morphology-in-conifers-and-other-nonflowering-seed-plants
#17
Andrew B Leslie, Jeremy M Beaulieu, Sarah Mathews
Seed size varies tremendously in plants and its evolution is influenced by multiple ecological and biological factors that are difficult to disentangle. In this study, we focus on understanding the role of seed dispersal by animals in the evolution of seed size in conifers, the most diverse extant nonflowering seed plant group. Relationships among seed size, dispersal syndrome, climate and cone morphology were analyzed across conifers using quantitative models of character evolution and phylogenetic regression techniques...
February 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181244/plant-functional-traits-and-canopy-structure-control-the-relationship-between-photosynthetic-co2-uptake-and-far-red-sun-induced-fluorescence-in-a-mediterranean-grassland-under-different-nutrient-availability
#18
Mirco Migliavacca, Oscar Perez-Priego, Micol Rossini, Tarek S El-Madany, Gerardo Moreno, Christiaan van der Tol, Uwe Rascher, Anna Berninger, Verena Bessenbacher, Andreas Burkart, Arnaud Carrara, Francesco Fava, Jin-Hong Guan, Tiana W Hammer, Kathrin Henkel, Enrique Juarez-Alcalde, Tommaso Julitta, Olaf Kolle, M Pilar Martín, Talie Musavi, Javier Pacheco-Labrador, Andrea Pérez-Burgueño, Thomas Wutzler, Sönke Zaehle, Markus Reichstein
Sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) in the far-red region provides a new noninvasive measurement approach that has the potential to quantify dynamic changes in light-use efficiency and gross primary production (GPP). However, the mechanistic link between GPP and SIF is not completely understood. We analyzed the structural and functional factors controlling the emission of SIF at 760 nm (F760 ) in a Mediterranean grassland manipulated with nutrient addition of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) or nitrogen-phosphorous (NP)...
February 9, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181238/tree-species-diversity-affects-decomposition-through-modified-micro-environmental-conditions-across-european-forests
#19
François-Xavier Joly, Alexandru Milcu, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Loreline-Katia Jean, Filippo Bussotti, Seid Muhie Dawud, Sandra Müller, Martina Pollastrini, Karsten Raulund-Rasmussen, Lars Vesterdal, Stephan Hättenschwiler
Different tree species influence litter decomposition directly through species-specific litter traits, and indirectly through distinct modifications of the local decomposition environment. Whether these indirect effects on decomposition are influenced by tree species diversity is presently not clear. We addressed this question by studying the decomposition of two common substrates, cellulose paper and wood sticks, in a total of 209 forest stands of varying tree species diversity across six major forest types at the scale of Europe...
February 9, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176339/phylogeographic-insights-on-the-evolutionary-breakdown-of-heterostyly
#20
Wei Zhou, Spencer C H Barrett, Hai-Dong Li, Zhi-Kun Wu, Xin-Jia Wang, Hong Wang, De-Zhu Li
The breakdown of heterostyly to homostyly is a classic system for the investigation of evolutionary transitions from outcrossing to selfing. Loss of sexual polymorphism is characterized by changes to population morph structure and floral morphology. Here, we used molecular phylogeography to investigate the geographical context for the breakdown process in Primula chungensis, a species with distylous and homostylous populations. We genotyped plants from 20 populations throughout the entire range in south-west China using the chloroplast intergenic spacer (trnL-trnF), nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci, and determined the genetic relationships among populations and the variation in floral traits associated with homostyle evolution...
February 8, 2017: New Phytologist
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