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New Phytologist

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643870/type-iii-metacaspases-calcium-dependent-activity-proposes-new-function-for-the-p10-domain
#1
Marina Klemenčič, Christiane Funk
Metacaspases are a subgroup of caspase homologues represented in bacteria, algae and plants. Although type I and type II metacaspases are present in plants, recently discovered and uncharacterized type III metacaspases can only be found in algae which have undergone secondary endosymbiosis. We analysed the expression levels of all 13 caspase homologues in the cryptophyte Guillardia theta in vivo and biochemically characterized its only type III metacaspase, GtMC2, in vitro. Type III metacaspase GtMC2 was shown to be an endopeptidase with a preference for basic amino acids in the P1 position, which exhibited specific N-terminal proteolytic cleavage for full catalytic efficiency...
June 23, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643868/the-potassium-battery-a-mobile-energy-source-for-transport-processes-in-plant-vascular-tissues
#2
REVIEW
Ingo Dreyer, Judith Lucia Gomez-Porras, Janin Riedelsberger
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. References SUMMARY: Plant roots absorb potassium ions from the soil and transport them in the xylem via the transpiration stream to the shoots. There, in source tissues where sufficient chemical energy (ATP) is available, K(+) is loaded into the phloem and then transported with the phloem stream to other parts of the plant; in part, transport is also back to the roots. This, at first sight, futile cycling of K(+) has been uncovered to be part of a sophisticated mechanism that (1) enables the shoot to communicate its nutrient demand to the root, (2) contributes to the K(+) nutrition of transport phloem tissues and (3) transports energy stored in the K(+) gradient between phloem cytosol and the apoplast...
June 23, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643848/the-impact-of-alternative-trait-scaling-hypotheses-for-the-maximum-photosynthetic-carboxylation-rate-vcmax-on-global-gross-primary-production
#3
Anthony P Walker, Tristan Quaife, Peter M van Bodegom, Martin G De Kauwe, Trevor F Keenan, Joanna Joiner, Mark R Lomas, Natasha MacBean, Chongang Xu, Xiaojuan Yang, F Ian Woodward
The maximum photosynthetic carboxylation rate (Vcmax ) is an influential plant trait that has multiple scaling hypotheses, which is a source of uncertainty in predictive understanding of global gross primary production (GPP). Four trait-scaling hypotheses (plant functional type, nutrient limitation, environmental filtering, and plant plasticity) with nine specific implementations were used to predict global Vcmax distributions and their impact on global GPP in the Sheffield Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (SDGVM)...
June 23, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636198/actin-filament-reorganisation-controlled-by-the-scar-wave-complex-mediates-stomatal-response-to-darkness
#4
Jean-Charles Isner, Zaoxu Xu, Joaquim Miguel Costa, Fabien Monnet, Thomas Batstone, Xiaobin Ou, Michael J Deeks, Bernard Genty, Kun Jiang, Alistair M Hetherington
Stomata respond to darkness by closing to prevent excessive water loss during the night. Although the reorganisation of actin filaments during stomatal closure is documented, the underlying mechanisms responsible for dark-induced cytoskeletal arrangement remain largely unknown. We used genetic, physiological and cell biological approaches to show that reorganisation of the actin cytoskeleton is required for dark-induced stomatal closure. The opal5 mutant does not close in response to darkness but exhibits wild-type (WT) behaviour when exposed to abscisic acid (ABA) or CaCl2 ...
June 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636081/cell-size-and-wall-dimensions-drive-distinct-variability-of-earlywood-and-latewood-density-in-northern-hemisphere-conifers
#5
Jesper Björklund, Kristina Seftigen, Fritz Schweingruber, Patrick Fonti, Georg von Arx, Marina V Bryukhanova, Henri E Cuny, Marco Carrer, Daniele Castagneri, David C Frank
Interannual variability of wood density - an important plant functional trait and environmental proxy - in conifers is poorly understood. We therefore explored the anatomical basis of density. We hypothesized that earlywood density is determined by tracheid size and latewood density by wall dimensions, reflecting their different functional tasks. To determine general patterns of variability, density parameters from 27 species and 349 sites across the Northern Hemisphere were correlated to tree-ring width parameters and local climate...
June 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631815/expansion-of-sesquiterpene-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-in-pepper-confers-nonhost-resistance-to-the-irish-potato-famine-pathogen
#6
Hyun-Ah Lee, Sejun Kim, Seungill Kim, Doil Choi
Chemical barriers contribute to nonhost resistance, which is defined as the resistance of an entire plant species to nonadapted pathogen species. However, the molecular basis of metabolic defense in nonhost resistance remains elusive. Here, we report genetic evidence for the essential role of phytoalexin capsidiol in nonhost resistance of pepper (Capsicum spp.) to potato late blight Phytophthora infestans using transcriptome and genome analyses. Two different genes for capsidiol biosynthesis, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS) and 5-epi-aristolochene-1,3-dihydroxylase (EAH), belong to multigene families...
June 20, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627019/identification-of-differentially-regulated-maize-proteins-conditioning-sugarcane-mosaic-virus-systemic-infection
#7
Hui Chen, Yanyong Cao, Yiqing Li, Zihao Xia, Jipeng Xie, John P Carr, Boming Wu, Zaifeng Fan, Tao Zhou
Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is the most important cause of maize dwarf mosaic disease. To identify maize genes responsive to SCMV infection and that may be involved in pathogenesis, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed using the first and second systemically infected leaves (termed 1 SL and 2 SL, respectively). Seventy-one differentially expressed proteins were identified in 1 SL and 2 SL upon SCMV infection. Among them, eight proteins showed the same changing patterns in both 1 SL and 2 SL. Functional annotations of regulated proteins and measurement of photosynthetic activity revealed that photosynthesis was more inhibited and defensive gene expression more pronounced in 1 SL than in 2 SL...
June 19, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626951/considering-the-unintentional-consequences-of-pollinator-gardens-for-urban-native-plants-is-the-road-to-extinction-paved-with-good-intentions
#8
Anna L Johnson, Andrea M Fetters, Tia-Lynn Ashman
Urban centers are important foci for plant biodiversity and yet widespread planting of wildflower gardens in cities to sustain pollinator biodiversity is on the rise, without full consideration of potential ecological consequences. The impact of intentional wildflower plantings on remnant native plant diversity in urban and peri-urban settings has not received attention, although shared pollinators are likely to mediate several types of biotic interactions between human-introduced plants and remnant native ones...
June 19, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621813/legacy-effects-of-drought-on-plant-soil-feedbacks-and-plant-plant-interactions
#9
Aurore Kaisermann, Franciska T de Vries, Robert I Griffiths, Richard D Bardgett
Interactions between aboveground and belowground biota have the potential to modify ecosystem responses to climate change, yet little is known about how drought influences plant-soil feedbacks with respect to microbial mediation of plant community dynamics. We tested the hypothesis that drought modifies plant-soil feedback with consequences for plant competition. We measured net pairwise plant-soil feedbacks for two grassland plant species grown in monoculture and competition in soils that had or had not been subjected to a previous drought; these were then exposed to a subsequent drought...
June 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620999/two-silene-vulgaris-copper-transporters-residing-in-different-cellular-compartments-confer-copper-hypertolerance-by-distinct-mechanisms-when-expressed-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#10
Yanbang Li, Mazhar Iqbal, Qianqian Zhang, Cornelis Spelt, Mattijs Bliek, Henk W J Hakvoort, Francesca M Quattrocchio, Ronald Koes, Henk Schat
Silene vulgaris is a metallophyte of calamine, cupriferous and serpentine soils all over Europe. Its metallicolous populations are hypertolerant to zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) or nickel (Ni), compared with conspecific nonmetallicolous populations. These hypertolerances are metal-specific, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated the role of HMA5 copper transporters in Cu-hypertolerance of a S. vulgaris copper mine population. Cu-hypertolerance in Silene is correlated and genetically linked with enhanced expression of two HMA5 paralogs, SvHMA5I and SvHMA5II, each of which increases Cu tolerance when expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana...
June 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620956/functional-characterization-of-two-half-size-abc-transporter-genes-in-aluminium-accumulating-buckwheat
#11
Gui Jie Lei, Kengo Yokosho, Naoki Yamaji, Miho Fujii-Kashino, Jian Feng Ma
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is able to detoxify high aluminium (Al) internally by sequestering it to the vacuoles in the leaves; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this sequestration are unknown. We performed proteomic analysis with the leaf tonoplast-rich fraction and identified two half-size ABC transporters; FeASL1.1 and FeALS1.2. We investigated the gene expression patterns and subcellular localization. To demonstrate their physiological role, we expressed FeALS1.1 or FeALS1.2 in the Arabidopsis atals1 mutant under the control of AtALS1 promoter...
June 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620915/gas-exchange-recovery-following-natural-drought-is-rapid-unless-limited-by-loss-of-leaf-hydraulic-conductance-evidence-from-an-evergreen-woodland
#12
Robert P Skelton, Timothy J Brodribb, Scott A M McAdam, Patrick J Mitchell
Drought can cause major damage to plant communities, but species damage thresholds and postdrought recovery of forest productivity are not yet predictable. We used an El Niño drought event as a natural experiment to test whether postdrought recovery of gas exchange could be predicted by properties of the water transport system, or if metabolism, primarily high abscisic acid concentration, might delay recovery. We monitored detailed physiological responses, including shoot sapflow, leaf gas exchange, leaf water potential and foliar abscisic acid (ABA), during drought and through the subsequent rehydration period for a sample of eight canopy and understory species...
June 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618009/evidence-of-an-evolutionary-hourglass-pattern-in-herbivory-induced-transcriptomic-responses
#13
Matthew Durrant, Justin Boyer, Wenwu Zhou, Ian T Baldwin, Shuqing Xu
Herbivory-induced defenses are specific and activated in plants when elicitors, frequently found in the herbivores' oral secretions, are introduced into wounds during attack. While complex signaling cascades are known to be involved, it remains largely unclear how natural selection has shaped the evolution of these induced defenses. We analyzed herbivory-induced transcriptomic responses in wild tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, using a phylotranscriptomic approach that measures the origin and sequence divergence of herbivory-induced genes...
June 15, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617955/expression-atlas-and-comparative-coexpression-network-analyses-reveal-important-genes-involved-in-the-formation-of-lignified-cell-wall-in-brachypodium-distachyon
#14
Richard Sibout, Sebastian Proost, Bjoern Oest Hansen, Neha Vaid, Federico M Giorgi, Severine Ho-Yue-Kuang, Frédéric Legée, Laurent Cézart, Oumaya Bouchabké-Coussa, Camille Soulhat, Nicholas Provart, Asher Pasha, Philippe Le Bris, David Roujol, Herman Hofte, Elisabeth Jamet, Catherine Lapierre, Staffan Persson, Marek Mutwil
While Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is an emerging model for grasses, no expression atlas or gene coexpression network is available. Such tools are of high importance to provide insights into the function of Brachypodium genes. We present a detailed Brachypodium expression atlas, capturing gene expression in its major organs at different developmental stages. The data were integrated into a large-scale coexpression database ( www.gene2function.de), enabling identification of duplicated pathways and conserved processes across 10 plant species, thus allowing genome-wide inference of gene function...
June 15, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609015/wuschel-related-homeobox4-wox4-like-genes-regulate-cambial-cell-division-activity-and-secondary-growth-in-populus-trees
#15
Melis Kucukoglu, Jeanette Nilsson, Bo Zheng, Salma Chaabouni, Ove Nilsson
Plant secondary growth derives from the meristematic activity of the vascular cambium. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cell divisions in the cambium are regulated by the transcription factor WOX4, a key target of the CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION (ESR)-RELATED 41 (CLE41) signaling pathway. However, function of the WOX4-like genes in plants that are dependent on a much more prolific secondary growth, such as trees, remains unclear. Here, we investigate the role of WOX4 and CLE41 homologs for stem secondary growth in Populus trees...
June 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608990/a-transgenic-strategy-for-controlling-plant-bugs-adelphocoris-suturalis-through-expression-of-double-stranded-rna-homologous-to-fatty-acyl-coenzyme-a-reductase-in-cotton
#16
Jing Luo, Sijia Liang, Jianying Li, Zhongping Xu, Lun Li, Bangqin Zhu, Zhe Li, Chaoliang Lei, Keith Lindsey, Lizhen Chen, Shuangxia Jin, Xianlong Zhang
Plant bugs (Miridae species), which are sap-sucking insects, have emerged as major pests of cotton in China. Most Miridae species are not sensitive to commercial Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton, resulting in significant economic losses and an increased application of insecticide, which eventually may compromise the future of Bt cotton. We demonstrate that FATTY ACYL-COA REDUCTASE (AsFAR) plays an essential role in the reproduction of the bug Adelphocoris suturalis. Down-regulation of AsFAR expression by injection of double-stranded RNA suppresses ovarian development and female fertility, resulting in females producing few viable offspring...
June 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608615/circular-linkages-between-soil-biodiversity-fertility-and-plant-productivity-are-limited-to-topsoil-at-the-continental-scale
#17
Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Jeff R Powell, Kelly Hamonts, Frank Reith, Pauline Mele, Mark V Brown, Paul G Dennis, Belinda C Ferrari, Anna Fitzgerald, Andrew Young, Brajesh K Singh, Andrew Bissett
The current theoretical framework suggests that tripartite positive feedback relationships between soil biodiversity, fertility and plant productivity are universal. However, empirical evidence for these relationships at the continental scale and across different soil depths is lacking. We investigate the continental-scale relationships between the diversity of microbial and invertebrate-based soil food webs, fertility and above-ground plant productivity at 289 sites and two soil depths, that is 0-10 and 20-30 cm, across Australia...
June 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608591/intraspecific-genetic-diversity-modulates-plant-soil-feedback-and-nutrient-cycling
#18
Marina Semchenko, Sirgi Saar, Anu Lepik
Plant genetic diversity can affect ecosystem functioning by enhancing productivity, litter decomposition and resistance to natural enemies. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that genetic diversity may influence ecosystem processes by eliciting functional plasticity among individuals encountering kin or genetically diverse neighbourhoods. We used soil conditioned by groups of closely related (siblings) and diverse genotypes of Deschampsia cespitosa - a species known to exhibit kin recognition via root exudation - to investigate the consequences of kin interactions for root litter decomposition and negative feedback between plants and soil biota...
June 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608555/epistasis-%C3%A3-environment-interactions-among-arabidopsis-thaliana-glucosinolate-genes-impact-complex-traits-and-fitness-in-the-field
#19
Rachel E Kerwin, Julie Feusier, Alise Muok, Catherine Lin, Brandon Larson, Daniel Copeland, Jason A Corwin, Matthew J Rubin, Marta Francisco, Baohua Li, Bindu Joseph, Cynthia Weinig, Daniel J Kliebenstein
Despite the growing number of studies showing that genotype × environment and epistatic interactions control fitness, the influences of epistasis × environment interactions on adaptive trait evolution remain largely uncharacterized. Across three field trials, we quantified aliphatic glucosinolate (GSL) defense chemistry, leaf damage, and relative fitness using mutant lines of Arabidopsis thaliana varying at pairs of causal aliphatic GSL defense genes to test the impact of epistatic and epistasis × environment interactions on adaptive trait variation...
June 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598036/gmtir1-gmafb3-based-auxin-perception-regulated-by-mir393-modulates-soybean-nodulation
#20
Zhaoming Cai, Youning Wang, Lin Zhu, Yinping Tian, Liang Chen, Zhengxi Sun, Ihteram Ullah, Xia Li
Auxins play important roles in the nodulation of legumes. However, the mechanism by which auxin signaling regulates root nodulation is largely unknown. In particular, the role of auxin receptors and their regulation in determinate nodule development remains elusive. We checked the expression pattern of the auxin receptor GmTIR1/GmAFB3 genes in soybean. We analyzed the functions of GmTIR1/AFB3 in the regulation of rhizobial infection and nodule number, and also tested the functions of miR393 during nodulation and its relationship with GmTIR1/AFB3...
June 9, 2017: New Phytologist
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