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New Phytologist

Florian A Busch, Rowan F Sage
The biochemical model of C3 photosynthesis by Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (FvCB) assumes that photosynthetic CO2 assimilation is limited by one of three biochemical processes that are not always easily discerned. This leads to improper assessments of biochemical limitations that limit the accuracy of the model predictions. We use the sensitivity of rates of CO2 assimilation and photosynthetic electron transport to changes in O2 and CO2 concentration in the chloroplast to evaluate photosynthetic limitations...
October 21, 2016: New Phytologist
Deepa Khare, Nobukata Mitsuda, Seungchul Lee, Won-Yong Song, Daehee Hwang, Masaru Ohme-Takagi, Enrico Martinoia, Youngsook Lee, Jae-Ung Hwang
Plants reorganize their root architecture to avoid growth into unfavorable regions of the rhizosphere. In a screen based on chimeric repressor gene-silencing technology, we identified the Arabidopsis thaliana GeBP-LIKE 4 (GPL4) transcription factor as an inhibitor of root growth that is induced rapidly in root tips in response to cadmium (Cd). We tested the hypothesis that GPL4 functions in the root avoidance of Cd by analyzing root proliferation in split medium, in which only half of the medium contained toxic concentrations of Cd...
October 21, 2016: New Phytologist
Yadvinder Malhi, Cécile A J Girardin, Gregory R Goldsmith, Christopher E Doughty, Norma Salinas, Daniel B Metcalfe, Walter Huaraca Huasco, Javier E Silva-Espejo, Jhon Del Aguilla-Pasquell, Filio Farfán Amézquita, Luiz E O C Aragão, Rossella Guerrieri, Françoise Yoko Ishida, Nur H A Bahar, William Farfan-Rios, Oliver L Phillips, Patrick Meir, Miles Silman
Why do forest productivity and biomass decline with elevation? To address this question, research to date generally has focused on correlative approaches describing changes in woody growth and biomass with elevation. We present a novel, mechanistic approach to this question by quantifying the autotrophic carbon budget in 16 forest plots along a 3300 m elevation transect in Peru. Low growth rates at high elevations appear primarily driven by low gross primary productivity (GPP), with little shift in either carbon use efficiency (CUE) or allocation of net primary productivity (NPP) between wood, fine roots and canopy...
October 21, 2016: New Phytologist
Suzanne Orchard, Sally Hilton, Gary D Bending, Ian A Dickie, Rachel J Standish, Deirdre B Gleeson, Robert P Jeffery, Jeff R Powell, Christopher Walker, David Bass, Jana Monk, Anna Simonin, Megan H Ryan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: New Phytologist
Dany P Moualeu-Ngangue, Tsu-Wei Chen, Hartmut Stützel
Gas exchange (GE) and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) measurements are widely used to noninvasively study photosynthetic parameters, for example the rates of maximum Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax ), electron transport rate (J), daytime respiration (Rd ) and mesophyll conductance (gm ). Existing methods for fitting GE data (net assimilation rate-intercellular space CO2 concentration (A-Ci ) curve) are based on two assumptions: gm is unvaried with CO2 concentration in the intercellular space (Ci ); and light absorption (α) and the proportion of quanta absorbed by photosystem II (β) are constant in the data set...
October 21, 2016: New Phytologist
Marinus Pilon
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. References SUMMARY: Copper (Cu) microRNAs are upregulated by Cu deficiency and mediate the post-transcriptional downregulation of transcripts that encode Cu proteins, suggesting a role directly related to Cu. However, expression and phenotypic analyses of copper microRNA mutants and over-expressors have suggested roles mainly in tolerance to abiotic stresses. To reconcile available data, a model is proposed which emphasizes the mobile nature of copper microRNA molecules in the regulation of Cu homeostasis...
October 21, 2016: New Phytologist
Irene Perrone, Walter Chitarra, Paolo Boccacci, Giorgio Gambino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: New Phytologist
Preetisri Baskaran, Riitta Hyvönen, S Linnea Berglund, Karina E Clemmensen, Göran I Ågren, Björn D Lindahl, Stefano Manzoni
Tree growth in boreal forests is limited by nitrogen (N) availability. Most boreal forest trees form symbiotic associations with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, which improve the uptake of inorganic N and also have the capacity to decompose soil organic matter (SOM) and to mobilize organic N ('ECM decomposition'). To study the effects of 'ECM decomposition' on ecosystem carbon (C) and N balances, we performed a sensitivity analysis on a model of C and N flows between plants, SOM, saprotrophs, ECM fungi, and inorganic N stores...
October 17, 2016: New Phytologist
Bruno Guillotin, Mohammad Etemadi, Corinne Audran, Mondher Bouzayen, Guillaume Bécard, Jean-Philippe Combier
Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is a complex and finely tuned process. Previous studies have shown that, among other plant hormones, auxin plays a role in this process but the specific involvement of Aux/IAAs, the key regulators of auxin responses, is still unknown. In this study, we addressed the role of the tomato Sl-IAA27 during AM symbiosis by using Sl-IAA27-RNAi and pSL-IAA27::GUS stable tomato lines. The data show that Sl-IAA27 expression is up-regulated by the AM fungus and that silencing of Sl-IAA27 has a negative impact on AM colonization...
October 17, 2016: New Phytologist
Sofia I F Gomes, Jesús Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Martin I Bidartondo, Vincent S F T Merckx
In general, plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi exchange photosynthetically fixed carbon for soil nutrients, but occasionally nonphotosynthetic plants obtain carbon from AM fungi. The interactions of these mycoheterotrophic plants with AM fungi are suggested to be more specialized than those of green plants, although direct comparisons are lacking. We investigated the mycorrhizal interactions of both green and mycoheterotrophic plants. We used next-generation DNA sequencing to compare the AM communities from roots of five closely related mycoheterotrophic species of Thismia (Thismiaceae), roots of surrounding green plants, and soil, sampled over the entire temperate distribution of Thismia in Australia and New Zealand...
October 14, 2016: New Phytologist
Etienne Laliberté
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. References SUMMARY: Trait-based approaches have led to significant advances in plant ecology, but are currently biased toward above-ground traits. It is becoming clear that a stronger emphasis on below-ground traits is needed to better predict future changes in plant biodiversity and their consequences for ecosystem functioning. Here I propose six 'below-ground frontiers' in trait-based plant ecology, with an emphasis on traits governing soil nutrient acquisition: redefining fine roots; quantifying root trait dimensionality; integrating mycorrhizas; broadening the suite of root traits; determining linkages between root traits and abiotic and biotic factors; and understanding ecosystem-level consequences of root traits...
October 13, 2016: New Phytologist
Andrea Nardini, Tadeja Savi, Adriano Losso, Giai Petit, Serena Pacilè, Giuliana Tromba, Stefan Mayr, Patrizia Trifilò, Maria A Lo Gullo, Sebastiano Salleo
Drought-induced xylem embolism is a serious threat to plant survival under future climate scenarios. Hence, accurate quantification of species-specific vulnerability to xylem embolism is a key to predict the impact of climate change on vegetation. Low-cost hydraulic measurements of embolism rate have been suggested to be prone to artefacts, thus requiring validation by direct visualization of the functional status of xylem conduits using nondestructive imaging techniques, such as X-ray microtomography (microCT)...
October 13, 2016: New Phytologist
Mike T Page, Alex C McCormac, Alison G Smith, Matthew J Terry
Retrograde signals from the plastid regulate photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes and are essential to successful chloroplast biogenesis. One model is that a positive haem-related signal promotes photosynthetic gene expression in a pathway that is abolished by the herbicide norflurazon. Far-red light (FR) pretreatment and transfer to white light also results in plastid damage and loss of photosynthetic gene expression. Here, we investigated whether norflurazon and FR pretreatment affect the same retrograde signal...
October 13, 2016: New Phytologist
Ricardo J Stein, Stephan Höreth, J Romário F de Melo, Lara Syllwasschy, Gwonjin Lee, Mário L Garbin, Stephan Clemens, Ute Krämer
Leaf mineral composition, the leaf ionome, reflects the complex interaction between a plant and its environment including local soil composition, an influential factor that can limit species distribution and plant productivity. Here we addressed within-species variation in plant-soil interactions and edaphic adaptation using Arabidopsis halleri, a well-suited model species as a facultative metallophyte and metal hyperaccumulator. We conducted multi-element analysis of 1972 paired leaf and soil samples from 165 European populations of A...
October 13, 2016: New Phytologist
Gianpiero Vigani, Dario Di Silvestre, Anna Maria Agresta, Silvia Donnini, Pierluigi Mauri, Christian Gehl, Florian Bittner, Irene Murgia
Molybdenum (Mo) and iron (Fe) are essential micronutrients required for crucial enzyme activities in plant metabolism. Here we investigated the existence of a mutual control of Mo and Fe homeostasis in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Plants were grown under single or combined Mo and Fe starvation. Physiological parameters were measured, the ionomes of tissues and the ionomes and proteomes of root mitochondria were profiled, and the activities of molybdo-enzymes and the synthesis of molybdenum cofactor (Moco) were evaluated...
October 13, 2016: New Phytologist
Silvia Costa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: New Phytologist
Donald A Levin, Samuel V Scarpino
Dated phylogenies rarely include the divergence times of sister intraspecific taxa, and when they do little is said about this subject. We show that over 90% of the intraspecific plant taxa found in a literature search are estimated to be 5 million yr old or younger, with only 4% of taxa estimated to be over 10 million yr old or older. A Bayesian analysis of intraspecific taxon ages indicates that indeed these taxa are expected to be < 10 million yr old. This result for the young age of intraspecific taxa is consistent with the earlier observation that post-pollination reproductive barriers develop between 5 and 10 million yr after lineage splitting, thus leading to species formation...
October 11, 2016: New Phytologist
Manus P M Thoen, Nelson H Davila Olivas, Karen J Kloth, Silvia Coolen, Ping-Ping Huang, Mark G M Aarts, Johanna A Bac-Molenaar, Jaap Bakker, Harro J Bouwmeester, Colette Broekgaarden, Johan Bucher, Jacqueline Busscher-Lange, Xi Cheng, Emilie F Fradin, Maarten A Jongsma, Magdalena M Julkowska, Joost J B Keurentjes, Wilco Ligterink, Corné M J Pieterse, Carolien Ruyter-Spira, Geert Smant, Christa Testerink, Björn Usadel, Joop J A van Loon, Johan A van Pelt, Casper C van Schaik, Saskia C M van Wees, Richard G F Visser, Roeland Voorrips, Ben Vosman, Dick Vreugdenhil, Sonja Warmerdam, Gerrie L Wiegers, Joost van Heerwaarden, Willem Kruijer, Fred A van Eeuwijk, Marcel Dicke
Plants are exposed to combinations of various biotic and abiotic stresses, but stress responses are usually investigated for single stresses only. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture underlying plant responses to 11 single stresses and several of their combinations by phenotyping 350 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. A set of 214 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was screened for marker-trait associations in genome-wide association (GWA) analyses using tailored multi-trait mixed models. Stress responses that share phytohormonal signaling pathways also share genetic architecture underlying these responses...
October 4, 2016: New Phytologist
Yao Zhang, Yuancong Wang, Jingyan Liu, Yanglin Ding, Shanshan Wang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Yule Liu, Shuhua Yang
Toll/interleukin receptor (TIR)-nucleotide binding site (NB)-type (TN) proteins are encoded by a family of 21 genes in the Arabidopsis genome. Previous studies have shown that a mutation in the TN gene CHS1 activates the activation of defense responses at low temperatures. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. To genetically dissect chs1-mediated signaling, we isolated genetic suppressors of chs1-2 (soc). Several independent soc mutants carried mutations in the same TIR-NB-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) (TNL)-encoding gene SOC3, which is adjacent to CHS1 on chromosome 1...
October 4, 2016: New Phytologist
Graeme J Kettles, Carlos Bayon, Gail Canning, Jason J Rudd, Kostya Kanyuka
The fungus Zymoseptoria tritici is a strictly apoplastic, host-specific pathogen of wheat leaves and causal agent of septoria tritici blotch (STB) disease. All other plants are considered nonhosts, but the mechanism of nonhost resistance (NHR) to Z. tritici has not been addressed previously. We sought to develop Nicotiana benthamiana as a system to study NHR against Z. tritici. Fluorescence microscopy and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions were used to establish the interaction between Z...
October 3, 2016: New Phytologist
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