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Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research

Miftahul Ilmi, Muhammad Y Abduh, Arne Hommes, Jozef G M Winkelman, Chusnul Hidayat, Hero J Heeres
Fatty acid butyl esters were synthesized from sunflower oil with 1-butanol using a homogeneous Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a biphasic organic (triglyceride, 1-butanol, hexane)- water (with enzyme) system in a continuous setup consisting of a cascade of a stirred tank reactor and a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS), the latter being used for integrated reaction and liquid-liquid separation. A fatty acid butyl ester yield up to 93% was obtained in the cascade when operated in a once-through mode...
January 17, 2018: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Arturo N Manzano Martínez, Kevin M P van Eeten, Jaap C Schouten, John van der Schaaf
This paper presents the micromixing times in a rotor-stator spinning disc reactor. Segregation indices are obtained at different rotational speeds performing the Villermaux-Dushman parallel-competitive reaction scheme. Consequently, the corresponding micromixing times are calculated using the engulfment model, while considering the self-engulfment effect. It was found that the segregation index decreases with an increasing disc speed. Furthermore, for the investigated operational conditions, the estimated micromixing times are in the range of 1...
November 15, 2017: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Johan van den Bergh, Igor V Babich, Paul O'Connor, Jacob A Moulijn
ZnCl2 hydrate, the main molten salt used in biomass conversion, combined with low concentration HCl is an excellent solvent for the dissolution and hydrolysis of the carbohydrates present in lignocellulosic biomass. The most recalcitrant carbohydrate, cellulose, is dissolved in a residence time less than 1 h under mild conditions without significant degradation. This technology is referred to as BIOeCON-solvent technology. Separation of the sugars from the solution is the main challenge. The earlier conclusion regarding the potential of zeolite beta for selective adsorption has been used as the basis of a scale-up study...
November 15, 2017: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Lalit S Gangurde, Guido S J Sturm, Tushar J Devadiga, Andrzej I Stankiewicz, Georgios D Stefanidis
The complexity and challenges in noncontact temperature measurements inside microwave-heated catalytic reactors are presented in this paper. A custom-designed microwave cavity has been used to focus the microwave field on the catalyst and enable monitoring of the temperature field in 2D. A methodology to study the temperature distribution in the catalytic bed by using a thermal camera in combination with a thermocouple for a heterogeneous catalytic reaction (methane dry reforming) under microwave heating has been demonstrated...
November 15, 2017: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Jenny N M Tan-Soetedjo, Henk H van de Bovenkamp, Ria M Abdilla, Carolus B Rasrendra, Jacob van Ginkel, Hero J Heeres
We here report experimental and kinetic modeling studies on the conversion of sucrose to levulinic acid (LA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in water using sulfuric acid as the catalyst. Both compounds are versatile building blocks for the synthesis of various biobased (bulk) chemicals. A total of 24 experiments were performed in a temperature window of 80-180 °C, a sulfuric acid concentration between 0.005 and 0.5 M, and an initial sucrose concentration between 0.05 and 0.5 M. Glucose, fructose, and HMF were detected as the intermediate products...
November 15, 2017: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Wim Buijs, Stijn de Flart
Several reactions, known from other amine systems for CO2 capture, have been proposed for Lewatit R VP OC 1065. The aim of this molecular modeling study is to elucidate the CO2 capture process: the physisorption process prior to the CO2-capture and the reactions. Molecular modeling yields that the resin has a structure with benzyl amine groups on alternating positions in close vicinity of each other. Based on this structure, the preferred adsorption mode of CO2 and H2O was established. Next, using standard Density Functional Theory two catalytic reactions responsible for the actual CO2 capture were identified: direct amine and amine-H2O catalyzed formation of carbamic acid...
November 1, 2017: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Michael Welte, Kent Warren, Jonathan R Scheffe, Aldo Steinfeld
We report on the experimental performance of a solar aerosol reactor for carrying out the combined thermochemical reduction of CeO2 and reforming of CH4 using concentrated radiation as the source of process heat. The 2 kWth solar reactor prototype utilizes a cavity receiver enclosing a vertical Al2O3 tube which contains a downward gravity-driven particle flow of ceria particles, either co-current or counter-current to a CH4 flow. Experimentation under a peak radiative flux of 2264 suns yielded methane conversions up to 89% at 1300 °C for residence times under 1 s...
September 20, 2017: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Marcella Porru, Leyla Özkan
This work investigates the design of alternative monitoring tools based on state estimators for industrial crystallization systems with nucleation, growth, and agglomeration kinetics. The estimation problem is regarded as a structure design problem where the estimation model and the set of innovated states have to be chosen; the estimator is driven by the available measurements of secondary variables. On the basis of Robust Exponential estimability arguments, it is found that the concentration is distinguishable with temperature and solid fraction measurements while the crystal size distribution (CSD) is not...
August 30, 2017: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Mohammad Banaei, Jeroen Jegers, Martin van Sint Annaland, Johannes A M Kuipers, Niels G Deen
The hydrodynamics and heat transfer of cylindrical gas-solid fluidized beds for polyolefin production was investigated with the two-fluid model (TFM) based on the kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF). It was found that the fluidized bed becomes more isothermal with increasing superficial gas velocity. This is mainly due to the increase of solids circulation and improvement in gas solid contact. It was also found that the average Nusselt number weakly depends on the gas velocity. The TFM results were qualitatively compared with simulation results of computational fluid dynamics combined with the discrete element model (CFD-DEM)...
August 2, 2017: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Caleb F Anderson, Honggang Cui
Many diseases can be characterized by the abnormal activity exhibited by various biomolecules, the targeting of which can provide therapeutic and diagnostic utility. Recent trends in medicine and nanotechnology have prompted the development of protease-sensitive nanomaterials systems for therapeutic, diagnostic, and theranostic applications. These systems can act specifically in response to the target enzyme and its associated disease conditions, thus enabling personalized treatment and improved prognosis. In this Review, we discuss recent advancements in the development of protease-responsive materials for imaging and drug delivery and analyze several representative systems to illustrate their key design principles...
May 24, 2017: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Álvaro E Carlos Varas, E A J F Peters, J A M Kuipers
We report a computational fluid dynamics-discrete element method (CFD-DEM) simulation study on the interplay between mass transfer and a heterogeneous catalyzed chemical reaction in cocurrent gas-particle flows as encountered in risers. Slip velocity, axial gas dispersion, gas bypassing, and particle mixing phenomena have been evaluated under riser flow conditions to study the complex system behavior in detail. The most important factors are found to be directly related to particle cluster formation. Low air-to-solids flux ratios lead to more heterogeneous systems, where the cluster formation is more pronounced and mass transfer more influenced...
May 17, 2017: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Slaviša Jović, Yashasvi Laxminarayan, Jos Keurentjes, Jaap Schouten, John van der Schaaf
The drying of dichloromethane with a molecular sieve 3A packed bed process is modeled and experimentally verified. In the process, the dichloromethane is dried in the liquid phase and the adsorbent is regenerated by water desorption with dried dichloromethane product in the vapor phase. Adsorption equilibrium experiments show that dichloromethane does not compete with water adsorption, because of size exclusion; the pure water vapor isotherm from literature provides an accurate representation of the experiments...
May 3, 2017: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Smitha Sundaram, Gunther Kolb, Volker Hessel, Qi Wang
Two novel routes for the production of gasoline from pyrolysis oil (from timber pine) and biogas (from ley grass) are simulated, followed by a cradle-to-gate life-cycle assessment of the two production routes. The main aim of this work is to conduct a holistic evaluation of the proposed routes and benchmark them against the conventional route of producing gasoline from natural gas. A previously commercialized method of synthesizing gasoline involves conversion of natural gas to syngas, which is further converted to methanol, and then as a last step, the methanol is converted to gasoline...
March 29, 2017: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Qian Yu, Jorge de la P Delgado, Rens Veneman, Derk W F Brilman
In this work, the chemical and thermal stability of a primary amine-functionalized ion-exchange resin (Lewatit VP OC 1065) is studied in view of the potential options of regenerating this sorbent in a CO2 removal application. The adsorbent was treated continuously in the presence of air, different O2/CO2/N2 mixtures, concentrated CO2, and steam, and then the remaining CO2 adsorption capacity was measured. Elemental analysis, BET/BJH analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis were applied to characterize adsorbent properties...
March 29, 2017: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Adam van de Haar, Carsten Trapp, Kai Wellner, Robert de Kler, Gerhard Schmitz, Piero Colonna
The capture of CO2 from power plant flue gases provides an opportunity to mitigate emissions that are harmful to the global climate. While the process of CO2 capture using an aqueous amine solution is well-known from experience in other technical sectors (e.g., acid gas removal in the gas processing industry), its operation combined with a power plant still needs investigation because in this case, the interaction with power plants that are increasingly operated dynamically poses control challenges. This article presents the dynamic modeling of CO2 capture plants followed by a detailed validation using transient measurements recorded from the pilot plant operated at the Maasvlakte power station in the Netherlands...
February 22, 2017: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Tobias Hübner, Markus Roth, Frédéric Vogel
Hydrothermal oxidation (HTO) provides an efficient technique to completely destroy wet organic wastes. In this study, HTO was applied to treat fecal sludge at well-defined experimental conditions. Four different kinetic models were adjusted to the obtained data. Among others, a distributed activation energy model (DAEM) was applied. A total of 33 experiments were carried out in an unstirred batch reactor with pressurized air as the oxidant at temperatures of <470 °C, oxygen-to-fuel equivalence ratios between 0 and 1...
November 23, 2016: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Joon Bok Lee, Eyal Dassau, Ravi Gondhalekar, Dale E Seborg, Jordan E Pinsker, Francis J Doyle
Development of an effective artificial pancreas (AP) controller to deliver insulin autonomously to people with type 1 diabetes mellitus is a difficult task. In this paper, three enhancements to a clinically validated AP model predictive controller (MPC) are proposed that address major challenges facing automated blood glucose control, and are then evaluated by both in silico tests and clinical trials. First, the core model of insulin-blood glucose dynamics utilized in the MPC is expanded with a medically inspired personalization scheme to improve controller responses in the face of inter- and intra-individual variations in insulin sensitivity...
November 23, 2016: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Michael Welte, Rafik Barhoumi, Adrian Zbinden, Jonathan R Scheffe, Aldo Steinfeld
We report on the experimental demonstration of an aerosol solar reactor for the thermal reduction of ceria, as part of a thermochemical redox cycle for splitting H2O and CO2. The concept utilizes a cavity-receiver enclosing an array of alumina tubes, each containing a downward gravity-driven aerosol flow of ceria particles countercurrent to an inert sweep gas flow for intrinsic separation of reduced ceria and oxygen. A 2 kWth lab-scale prototype with a single tube was tested under radiative fluxes approaching 4000 suns, yielding reaction extents of up to 53% of the thermodynamic equilibrium at 1919 K within residence times below 1 s...
October 12, 2016: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Claudia Houben, Gabit Nurumbetov, David Haddleton, Alexei A Lapkin
An immersion Raman probe was used in emulsion copolymerization reactions to measure monomer concentrations and particle sizes. Quantitative determination of monomer concentrations is feasible in two-monomer copolymerizations, but only the overall conversion could be measured by Raman spectroscopy in a four-monomer copolymerization. The feasibility of measuring monomer conversion and particle size was established using partial least-squares (PLS) calibration models. A simplified theoretical framework for the measurement of particle sizes based on photon scattering is presented, based on the elastic-sphere-vibration and surface-tension models...
December 30, 2015: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Brenda R Carrillo-Conde, Erik Brewer, Anthony Lowman, Nicholas A Peppas
Oral administration of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) may enable the localized treatment of infections or other conditions in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) as well as systemic diseases. As with the development of oral protein biotherapeutics, one of the most challenging tasks in antibody therapies is the loss of biological activity due to physical and chemical instabilities. New families of complexation hydrogels with pH-responsive properties have demonstrated to be excellent transmucosal delivery vehicles...
October 28, 2015: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
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