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Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB

Indrani Manna, Maumita Bandyopadhyay
Indiscriminate uses of engineered nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) in heavy industries have ushered their introduction into the natural environment, ensuing novel interactions with biotic components of the ecosystem. Though much is known about the toxicity of NiO-NPs on animals, their phytotoxic potential is not well elucidated. NiO-NP hinders intra-cellular homeostasis by producing ROS in excess, having profound effect on the antioxidant profile of exposed animal and plant tissues. In the present study, bulbs of the model plant Allium cepa were treated with varying concentrations of NiO-NP (10 mg L(-1) - 500 mg L(-1)) to study changes in ROS production and potential genotoxic effect...
November 8, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Judit Dobránszki, Georgina Asbóth, Dávid Homoki, Piroska Bíró-Molnár, Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Judit Remenyik
The ability to use sound or ultrasound (US) to modify plant growth in vitro, and if possible, to improve yield or productivity, would benefit horticultural scientists. In this study, potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desirée) in vitro node segments with a single leaf were exposed to US (35 kHz, 70 W, for 20 min). Morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were measured. Treatment with US 24 h after ultrasonication temporarily accelerated shoot growth but inhibited the development and growth of roots due to a decrease in the level of AA directly after ultrasonication...
November 2, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Yan-Qin Ma, Dian-Zhen Li, Li Zhang, Qi Li, Jing-Wen Yao, Zheng Ma, Xuan Huang, Zi-Qin Xu
The coding sequence of IiFUL in Isatis indigotica was isolated and was used in transformation of Arabidopsis. IiFUL overexpressing Arabidopsis plants exhibited early flowering phenotype, accompanied with the reduction of flower number and the production of terminal flower on the top of the main stems. In development process, the flowers located on the top of the main stems generated a lot of variations in phenotype, including abnormal swelling of pistil, withering and numerical change of stamens and petals, appearance of stigmatoid tissues and naked ovules at the margin or inside of sepals...
November 2, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Mahesh M Mahajan, Etika Goyal, Amit K Singh, Kishor Gaikwad, Kumar Kanika
Kharchia Local, a wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar, is native to the saline-sodic soils of Pali district, Rajasthan, India and well known for its salinity stress tolerance. In the present study, we performed transcriptome sequencing to compare genome wide differential expression pattern between flag leaves of salinity stressed (15 EC) and control plants at anthesis stage. The 63.9 million paired end raw reads were assembled into 74,106 unigenes, of which, 3197 unigenes were found to be differentially expressed...
November 2, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Muhammad S Haider, Mahantesh M Kurjogi, M Khalil-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad Fiaz, Tariq Pervaiz, Songtao Jiu, Jia Haifeng, Wang Chen, Jinggui Fang
Drought is a ubiquitous abiotic factor that severely impedes growth and development of horticulture crops. The challenge postured by global climate change is the evolution of drought-tolerant cultivars that could cope with concurrent stress. Hence, in this study, biochemical, physiological and transcriptome analysis were investigated in drought-treated grapevine leaves. The results revealed that photosynthetic activity and reducing sugars were significantly diminished which were positively correlated with low stomatal conductance and CO2 exchange in drought-stressed leaves...
October 31, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Marian J McKenzie, Ronan K Y Chen, Susanna Leung, Srishti Joshi, Paula E Rippon, Nigel I Joyce, Michael T McManus
The effect of selenium (Se) application on the sulfur (S)-rich glucosinolate (GSL)-containing plant, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) was examined with a view to producing germplasm with increased Se and GSL content for human health, and to understanding the influence of Se on the regulation of GSL production. Two cultivars differing in GSL content were compared. Increased Se application resulted in an increase in Se uptake in planta, but no significant change in total S or total GSL content in either cultivar...
October 31, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Oksana Lastochkina, Ludmila Pusenkova, Ruslan Yuldashev, Marat Babaev, Svetlana Garipova, Dar'ya Blagova, Ramil Khairullin, Sasan Aliniaeifard
Endophytic strain Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) 10-4, producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and siderofores but not active in phosphate solubilization, exerted a protective effect on Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) plant grown under salinity (2% NaCl) stress. Exposure to salt stress resulted in an essential increase of proline (Pro) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the seedlings. At the same time the seedlings inoculated with B. subtilis 10-4 were characterized by decreased level of stress-induced Pro and MDA accumulation...
October 28, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Neelam Soda, Lokesh Verma, Jitender Giri
Precise genome editing is a quantum leap in the field of plant sciences. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and its associated Cas9 protein have emerged as a powerful tool for precise genome editing. CRISPR-Cas9 system introduces small heritable mutations (indels) in the genome of an organism. This system also enables precise gene characterization in plants with complex genomes. Besides, it offers new opportunities of trait stacking, where addition of desirable traits or removal of undesirable traits can be achieved simultaneously in a single event...
October 27, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Pattaranit Putpeerawit, Punchapat Sojikul, Siripong Thitamadee, Jarunya Narangajavana
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important economic crop in tropical countries. Although cassava is considered a drought-tolerant crop that can grow in arid areas, the impact of drought can significantly reduce the growth and yield of cassava storage roots. The discovery of aquaporin molecules (AQPs) in plants has resulted in a paradigm shift in the understanding of plant-water relationships, whereas the relationship between aquaporin and drought resistance in cassava still remains elusive. To investigate the potential role of aquaporin in cassava under water-deficit conditions, 45 putative MeAQPs were identified in the cassava genome...
October 27, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Carlos Eduardo Aucique-Pérez, Paulo Eduardo de Menezes Silva, Wiler Ribas Moreira, Fábio Murilo DaMatta, Fabrício Ávila Rodrigues
Considering the effect of silicon (Si) in reducing the blast symptoms on wheat in a scenario where the losses in the photosynthetic capacity of the infected plants is lowered, this study investigated the ability of using the incident light, the chloroplastidic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids) alterations and the possible role of carotenoids on the process of light dissipation on wheat plants non-supplied (-Si) or supplied (+Si) with Si and inoculated or not with Pyricularia oryzae. For + Si plants, blast severity was reduced compared to -Si plants...
October 26, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
María Urrutia, José L Rambla, Konstantinos G Alexiou, Antonio Granell, Amparo Monfort
The volatile composition of wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca) fruit differs from that of the cultivated strawberry, having more intense and fruity aromas. Over the last few years, the diploid F. vesca has been recognized as a model species for genetic studies of cultivated strawberry (F. x ananassa), and here a previously developed F. vesca/F. bucharica Near Isogenic Line collection (NIL) was used to explore genetic variability of fruit quality traits. Analysis of fruit volatiles by GC-MS in our NIL collection revealed a complex and highly variable profile...
October 25, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Jingru Zhang, Minlin Wu, Weidong Li, Genben Bai
For many centuries, Lonicera japonica has been used as an effective herb for the treatment of inflammation and swelling because of the presence of bioactive components such as chlorogenic acid (CGA). To clarify the relationship between L. japonica hydroxycinnamoyl CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) gene expression and CGA content, an HQT eukaryotic expression system was constructed using Gateway cloning. L. japonica callus transformed with HQT was obtained using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation...
October 21, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Tapan Kumar Mohanta, Tufail Bashir, Abeer Hashem, Elsayed Fathi Abd Allah
Plant abiotic stresses are the major constraint on plant growth and development, causing enormous crop losses across the world. Plants have unique features to defend themselves against these challenging adverse stress conditions. They modulate their phenotypes upon changes in physiological, biochemical, molecular and genetic information, thus making them tolerant against abiotic stresses. It is of paramount importance to determine the stress-tolerant traits of a diverse range of genotypes of plant species and integrate those traits for crop improvement...
October 21, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Flávio Henrique Silveira Rabêlo, Luiz Tadeu Jordão, José Lavres
To date, there have been no studies demonstrating the influence of sulfur (S) on the cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics, which limits the understanding of mechanisms involved in the uptake of this element. Therefore, this study was carried out in order to quantify the contribution of symplastic and apoplastic uptakes of Cd (0.1 and 0.5 mmol L(-1)) by Massai grass (Panicum maximum cv. Massai) grown under low and adequate S-supply (0.1 and 1.9 mmol L(-1)) by measuring Cd concentration in the nutrient solution (Vmax, Km, and Cmin) along the plant's exposure time (108 h) and determining Cd concentration in root symplast and apoplast...
October 21, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Bing Zhang, Xiaolin Xiao, Junqin Zong, Jingbo Chen, Jianjian Li, Hailin Guo, Jianxiu Liu
Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) is a prominent warm-season turf and forage grass species with multiple applications. In most C. dactylon cultivars and accessions, erect-growing stems (shoot) and prostrate-growing stems (stolon) often coexist. These two types of stems are both formed through tillering but grow in two directions with different tiller angles. Elucidating the mechanism of tiller angle regulation in bermudagrass could provide important clues to breed cultivars with different plant architectural features for diverse usage...
October 21, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Pabline Marinho Vieira, Mirella Pupo Santos, Cristiana Moura Andrade, Otacílio Antônio Souza-Neto, Cirano José Ulhoa, Francisco José Lima Aragão
Aquaporins (AQPs) and aquaglyceroporins (AQGPs) are integral membrane proteins that mediate the transport of water and solutes, such as glycerol and urea, across membranes. AQP and AQGP genes represent a valuable tool for biotechnological improvement of plant tolerance to environmental stresses. We previously isolated a gene encoding for an aquaglyceroporin (ThAQGP), which was up-regulated in Trichoderma harzianum during interaction with the plant pathogen Fusarium solani. This gene was introduced into Nicotiana tabacum and plants were physiologically characterized...
October 20, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Sónia Silva, Sandra C Craveiro, Helena Oliveira, António J Calado, Ricardo J B Pinto, Artur M S Silva, Conceição Santos
This study investigates the phytotoxicity of chronic exposure (up to 20 d) of different TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NP) concentrations (5, 50, 150 mg L(-1)) in Triticum aestivum. Germination was not affected by TiO2-NP exposure and seedling shoot length (3 d) was enhanced. Contrarily, plants' shoot growth (20 d) was impaired. Effects on membrane permeability and total antioxidant capacity in TiO2-NP chronic exposure were organ dependent: increased in leaves and decreased in roots. Roots also showed lower levels of lipid peroxidation...
October 19, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Fabrizio Araniti, Leonardo Bruno, Francesco Sunseri, Marianna Pacenza, Ivano Forgione, Maria Beatrice Bitonti, Maria Rosa Abenavoli
Farnesene is a sesquiterpene with semiochemical activity involved in interspecies communication. This molecule, known for its phytotoxic potential and its effects on root morphology and anatomy, caused anisotropic growth, bold roots and a "left-handedness" phenotype. These clues suggested an alteration of auxin distribution, and for this reason, the aim of the present study was to evaluate its effects on: i) PIN-FORMED proteins (PIN) distribution, involved in polar auxin transport; ii) PIN genes expression iii) apical meristem anatomy of primary root, in 7 days old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with farnesene 250 μM...
October 19, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Patrizia Rampino, Mariarosaria De Pascali, Monica De Caroli, Andrea Luvisi, Luigi De Bellis, Gabriella Piro, Carla Perrotta
Wheat, the main food source for a third of world population, appears strongly under threat because of predicted increasing temperatures coupled to drought. Plant complex molecular response to drought stress relies on the gene network controlling cell reactions to abiotic stress. In the natural environment, plants are subjected to the combination of abiotic and biotic stresses. Also the response of plants to biotic stress, to cope with pathogens, involves the activation of a molecular network. Investigations on combination of abiotic and biotic stresses indicate the existence of cross-talk between the two networks and a kind of overlapping can be hypothesized...
October 16, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
A Szatanik-Kloc, J Szerement, J Cybulska, G Jozefaciuk
It is widely believed that pectin are responsible for the vast majority of cation binding positions in the root cell walls. To estimate the role of particular kinds of pectin, we studied the cell wall material isolated from the roots of monocots (wheat and rye) and dicots (clover and lupine) before and after removal of different fractions of soluble pectin. Simultaneously PME activity and degree of pectin methylation were determined. From potentiometric titration curves cation exchange capacity, total surface charge and acidic strength of surface functional groups responsible for surface charging were determined...
October 16, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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