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Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB

Fei-Fei Xi, Li-Li Guo, Yi-He Yu, Yan Wang, Qiong Li, Hui-Li Zhao, Guo-Hai Zhang, Da-Long Guo
Enzymes and non-enzyme elements related to the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbic acid (AsA), glutathione (GSH), NADPH oxidase (NOX), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion (O2(-)), lipoxygenase (LOX) and malondialdehyde (MDA), were measured in 'Kyoho' and its early ripening bud mutant 'Fengzao' to compare ROS level changes and investigate the potential roles of ROS in grape berry development and the ripening process. In addition, the anthocyanin and sugar contents as well as berry diameter were also investigated at different berry development stages...
August 9, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Abhishek Shetty, Thejaswini Venkatesh, Padmanaban S Suresh, Rie Tsutsumi
The plant derived xanthanoid gambogic acid (GA) is well known for its anticancer activity. To date, biological actions of GA on plant system have not been reported. In the present study, we evaluated the potential acute genotoxic activity of GA, and its antigenotoxic potential against H2O2 induced genetic damage using Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay under hydroponic conditions. There was a significant decrease in the percentage of mitotic index/prophase index with the increase in clastogenicity percentage in a dose and time-dependent manner when Allium cepa bulbs were exposed to GA at 0...
August 5, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Chokri Hafsi, Hanen Falleh, Mariem Saada, Riadh Ksouri, Chedly Abdelly
Salinity and K(+) deficiency are two environmental constraints that generally occur simultaneously under field conditions, resulting in severe limitation of plant growth and productivity. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of salinity, either separately applied or in combination with K(+) deficiency, on growth, photosynthetic performance, secondary metabolites content, and related antioxidant capacity in Sulla carnosa. Seedlings were grown hydroponically under sufficient (6000 μM) or low (60 μM) K(+) supply with 100 mM NaCl (C + S and D + S treatments, respectively)...
August 4, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Alka Gupta, Anuradha Nair, Anand Ballal, Rajani Kant Chittela
Translin is a DNA/RNA binding protein involved in DNA repair and RNA metabolism. Previously, we had shown that rice translin (221 amino acids) exhibits biochemical activities similar to that of the human translin protein. Here we report the role of the C-terminal random coil in rice translin function by analyzing truncation (after 215(th) residue, Tra - 215) and substitution mutant proteins (Ser216Ala, Lys217Ala, Gln218Ala, Glu219Ala). Circular Dichroism (CD) analysis of Tra-215 showed deviations in comparison to Tra-WT...
August 4, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Kalimuthu Balasaraswathi, Sivalingam Jayaveni, Janardhanam Sridevi, Dhanasingh Sujatha, Kavati Phebe Aaron, Chellan Rose
Chromium-induced toxicity and mechanisms of cell death involved in plants are yet to be fully elucidated. To understand the events of these processes, the stress response of the soybean plant using trivalent and hexavalent chromium compounds, namely, basic chromium sulphate (BCS) and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was investigated. The leaf surface morphology for stomatal aperture, wax deposition and presence of trichomes for chromium accumulation was examined by SEM-EDAX and light microscopy. The leaf mesophyll cell integrity was identified by trypan blue staining; chlorophyll autofluorescence, ROS generation and mitochondrial function were studied by fluorescence microscopy using different dyes...
August 2, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Ambrus Rév, Brigitta Tóth, Ádám Solti, Gyula Sipos, Ferenc Fodor
Sewage sludge (SS) originating from communal wastewater is a hazardous material but have a potentially great nutritive value. Its disposal after treatment in agricultural lands can be a very economical and safe way of utilization once fast growing, high biomass, perennial plants of renewable energy production are cultivated. Szarvasi-1 energy grass (Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus cv. Szarvasi-1), a good candidate for this application, was grown in hydroponics in order to assess its metal accumulation and tolerance under increasing SS amendments...
August 1, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Clara Martín-Fernández, Ádám Solti, Viktória Czech, Krisztina Kovács, Ferenc Fodor, Agustín Gárate, Lourdes Hernández-Apaolaza, Juan J Lucena
The growing concern over the environmental risk of synthetic chelate application promotes the search for alternatives in Fe fertilization, such as biodegradable chelating agents and natural complexing agents. In this work, plant responses to the application of several Fe treatments (chelates and complexes) was analyzed to study their potential use in Fe fertilization under calcareous conditions. Thus, the root ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity of soybean (Glycine max cv. Klaxon) plants was determined, and the effectiveness of the Fe chelates and complexes assessed in a pot experiment, by SPAD and fluorescence induction measurements, and the determination of Fe distribution in plant and soil...
August 1, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Stefano Moscatello, Simona Proietti, Angela Augusti, Andrea Scartazza, Robert P Walker, Franco Famiani, Alberto Battistelli
The effect of late summer - autumn limitation of phloem export on growth, photosynthesis and storage carbohydrate accumulation, was evaluated in walnut (Juglans regia L.). This was done by girdling current years shoots, with either all or with only a third of the leaves left in place. Nineteen days after girdling, photosynthesis was greatly reduced and after 46 days, it was about 70% lower in both girdling treatments compared to the control (ungirdled shoots). This reduction is consistent with a feed-back effect of an increased carbohydrate content of the leaves...
July 31, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Rebeca Rivas, Gabriella Frosi, Diego G Ramos, Silvia Pereira, Ana M Benko-Iseppon, Mauro G Santos
Calotropis procera is a C3 plant native from arid environmental zones. It is an evergreen, shrubby, non-woody plant with intense photosynthetic metabolism during the dry season. We measured photosynthetic parameters and leaf biochemical traits, such as gas exchange, photochemical parameters, A/Ci analysis, organic solutes, and antioxidant enzymes under controlled conditions in potted plants during drought stress, and following recovery conditions to obtain a better insight in the drought stress responses of C...
July 31, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Torkel Berglund, Anders Wallström, Tuong-Van Nguyen, Cecilia Laurell, Anna B Ohlsson
The effects of nicotinamide (NIC) and its natural plant metabolites nicotinic acid (NIA) and trigonelline (TRIG) were studied with respect to defense in plant cell cultures. NIC and NIA could protect against oxidative stress damage caused by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), which generates free radicals. Damage was analyzed as DNA strand breaks in cell cultures of Pisum sativum (garden pea), Daucus carota (carrot), Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides (hybrid aspen) and Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle), monitored by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay), and assays of cell leakage in C...
July 29, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Paweł Czerniewicz, Hubert Sytykiewicz, Roma Durak, Beata Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Grzegorz Chrzanowski
One of the earliest responses of plants to insects' attack is generation of reactive oxygen species. However, the elevated level of ROS can elicit oxidative burst within plant tissues, and plants employ antioxidant systems against these radicals. Due to their chemical structures, polyphenols are able to diminish the level of ROS. Thus, we investigated the role of phenolic compounds in oxidative stress within winter triticale caused by Sitobion avenae and Oulema melanopus. It was found, that infestation by insects induced a high increase in the content of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radical within resistant Lamberto cv...
July 29, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Pia Muhammad Adnan Ramzani, Mark S Coyne, Shazia Anjum, Waqas-Ud-Din Khan, Muhammad Iqbal
In situ immobilization of Cd is desirable due to the damaging effects of ex situ remediation techniques on soil. In this greenhouse study, the role of biochar (BC), chitosan (CH), and green waste (GW) was studied for in-situ Cd immobilization and alleviating Cd toxicity in mung bean seedlings. Amendments were applied at rates of 0.5% and 1% (w/w). The minimum mean value of Cd, in root, shoot, and soil (DTPA-Cd) (12.2, 4.7, and 0.7 mg kg(-1), respectively), occurred in the Cd + 1% CH treatment compared to all Cd amended treatments...
July 27, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Ana Luengo Escobar, Franklin Magnum de Oliveira Silva, Patricio Acevedo, Adriano Nunes-Nesi, Miren Alberdi, Marjorie Reyes-Díaz
UV-B radiation induces several physiological and biochemical effects that can influence regulatory plant processes. Vaccinium corymbosum responds differently to UV-B radiation depending on the UV-B resistance of cultivars, according to their physiological and biochemical features. In this work, the effect of two levels of UV-B radiation during long-term exposure on the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and the expression of genes associated with flavonoid biosynthesis as well as the absolute quantification of secondary metabolites were studied in two contrasting UV-B-resistant cultivars (Legacy, resistant and Bluegold, sensitive)...
July 27, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Irene Recchia, Francesca Sparla, Paolo Pupillo
Since spring ephemerals are credited to be all "sun" species with unusually elevate photosynthesis, in contrast to shade-tolerant trees and understory geophytes with a long aboveground cycle, we examined the photosynthetic efficiency of 6 woody species, 9 long-cycle geophytes, and 8 spring ephemeral geophytes using blue flashes of increasing energy with the Imaging PAM fluorometer. Several parameters were obtained: quantum yield of electron transport (ΦETR) or of PSII (ΦPSII), maximum measured photosynthesis rate (ETRhv), maximum extrapolated rate of photosynthesis (ETRem), half-saturating photon flux density (KPAR), and in some cases photochemical (qP) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ)...
July 24, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Maila P Dias, Matheus S Bastos, Vanessa B Xavier, Eduardo Cassel, Leandro V Astarita, Eliane R Santarém
Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) represent an alternative to improve plant growth and yield as well as to act as agents of biocontrol. This study characterized isolates of Streptomyces spp. (Stm) as PGPR, determined the antagonism of these isolates against Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis (Pcb), evaluated the ability of Stm on promoting growth and modulating the defense-related metabolism of tomato plants, and the potential of Stm isolates on reducing soft rot disease in this species...
July 20, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Guoming Shen, Jiankang Niu, Zhenxu Deng
The aim of this research was to investigate how exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) alleviates cadmium (Cd) toxicity in purple flowering stalk (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) and evaluate whether it could be a potential choice for phytoremediation. Purple flowering stalk seedlings were cultivated in a hydroponic system with Cd at various concentrations (0-100 μmol L(-1)) as controls and Cd plus ABA as the treatment in the growth media. The soluble proteins, chlorophyll contents and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme system were determined by previously established biochemical methods...
July 20, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Tomasz Hura, Michał Dziurka, Katarzyna Hura, Agnieszka Ostrowska, Kinga Dziurka, Joanna Gadzinowska
The aim of the experiment was to determine phytohormone profile of triticale and quality-based relationships between the analyzed groups of phytohormones. The study involved two triticale phenotypes, a long-stemmed one and a semi-dwarf one with Dw1 gene, differing in mechanisms of acclimation to drought and controlled by wheat or rye genome. Water deficit in the leaves triggered a specific phytohormone response in both winter triticale phenotypes attributable to the dominance of wheat (semi-dwarf cultivar) or rye (long-stemmed cultivar) genome...
July 19, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Zongqi Xu, Peng Lei, Xiao Pang, Huashan Li, Xiaohai Feng, Hong Xu
Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a microbe-secreted isopeptide shown to promote growth and enhance crop stress tolerance. However, its downstream signaling pathways are unknown. Here, we studied γ-PGA-induced tolerance to salt and cold stresses. Pretreatment with γ-PGA contributed to enhance stress tolerance of canola seedlings by promoting proline accumulation and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) improvement. Further, Ca(2+), H2O2, brassinolide, and jasmonic acid were found to be involved in the γ-PGA-induced process...
July 17, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
D B Shelke, M Pandey, G C Nikalje, B N Zaware, P Suprasanna, T D Nikam
Salt stress affects all the stages of plant growth however seed germination and early seedling growth phases are more sensitive and can be used for screening of crop germplasm. In this study, we aimed to find the most effective indicators of salt tolerance for screening ten genotypes of soybean (SL-295, Gujosoya-2, PS-1042, PK-1029, ADT-1, RKS-18, KDS-344, MAUS-47, Bragg and PK-416). The principal component analysis (PCA) resulted in the formation of three different clusters, salt sensitive (SL-295, Gujosoya-2, PS-1042 and ADT-1), salt tolerant (MAUS-47, Bragg and PK-416) and moderately tolerant/sensitive (RKS-18, PK-1029 and KDS-344) suggesting that there was considerable genetic variability for salt tolerance in the soybean genotypes...
July 16, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Heba Talat Ebeed, Nemat Mohamed Hassan, Alshafei Mohammed Aljarani
Polyamines (PAs) can improve drought stress tolerance in plants; however, very limited information is available on the mechanism of action of exogenous application by different methods under drought stress in wheat. The present study investigates the mechanism through which seed priming and foliar spraying with PAs protect wheat plants from drought stress. 10 days old wheat seedlings were exposed to drought stress by withholding water alone or with 100 μM PAs solutions (putrescine, Put; spermine, Spm; and mixture of Put and Spm for 10 h seed-priming or three foliar sprays during withholding water...
July 15, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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