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Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783096/all-roads-lead-to-rome-towards-understanding-different-avenues-of-tolerance-to-huanglongbing-in-citrus-cultivars
#1
Nabil Killiny, Shelley E Jones, Yasser Nehela, Faraj Hijaz, Manjul Dutt, Frederick G Gmitter, Jude W Grosser
Citrus tolerance to huanglongbing could result from tolerance to the pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and/or to its vector Diaphorina citri. Field observations and greenhouse-controlled studies showed that some citrus cultivars were more tolerant than others. However, the mechanism(s) behind the tolerance has not been determined yet. Using GC-MS, we investigated the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the non-volatile metabolite profiles of two tolerant citrus cultivars- Australian finger lime, 'LB8-9' Sugar Belle® mandarin hybrid, and a recently released mandarin hybrid 'Bingo'...
May 18, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778840/identification-of-a-novel-promoter-from-banana-aquaporin-family-gene-matip1-2-which-responses-to-drought-and-salt-stress-in-transgenic-arabidopsis-thaliana
#2
Shun Song, Yi Xu, Dongmei Huang, Hongxia Miao, Juhua Liu, Caihong Jia, Wei Hu, Ana Valeria Valarezo, Biyu Xu, Zhiqiang Jin
Drought and salt stresses often affect plant growth and crop yields. Identification of promoters involved in drought and salt stress responses is of great significance for genetic improvement of crop resistance. Our previous studies showed that aquaporin can respond to drought and salt stresses, but its promoter has not yet been reported in plants. In the present study, cis-acting elements of MaAQP family member promoters were systematically analyzed in banana. Expression of MaTIP1; 2 was induced by drought and salt stresses but not sensitive to cold stress, waterlogging stress, or mechanical damage, and its promoter contained five stress-related cis-acting elements...
May 17, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778838/changes-in-cell-wall-pectins-and-their-relation-to-postharvest-mesocarp-softening-of-hass-avocados-persea-americana-mill
#3
Bruno G Defilippi, Troy Ejsmentewicz, María Paz Covarrubias, Orianne Gudenschwager, Reinaldo Campos-Vargas
The avocado is a climacteric fruit and begins a softening process after harvest. During ripening, the mesocarp changes in texture, and this affects fruit quality and cold storage capacity. Softening is commonly associated with cell wall disassembly in climacteric fruits. However, changes in the cell wall structure and composition during avocado softening are poorly understood. To understand this process, cell wall pectins in "Hass" avocado fruit were studied during ripening at 20 °C after harvest and after cold storage...
May 17, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787936/dynamic-remobilization-of-leaf-nitrogen-components-in-relation-to-photosynthetic-rate-during-grain-filling-in-maize
#4
Xiaohuan Mu, Qinwu Chen, Fanjun Chen, Lixing Yuan, Guohua Mi
Remobilization of leaf nitrogen (N) contributes greatly to grain N in maize, but leads to low photosynthetic rate (Pn ). Pn is determined by various N components involving in light harvest and CO2 reduction. However, it is less clear which N component is the major contributor for the reduction of photosynthesis in modern stay-green maize hybrids. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between remobilization of different N components and Pn during grain filling stage under low N (no N application) and high N (180 kg N ha-1 ) in a field experiment...
May 16, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793181/exogenously-applied-spermidine-alleviates-photosynthetic-inhibition-under-drought-stress-in-maize-zea-mays-l-seedlings-associated-with-changes-in-endogenous-polyamines-and-phytohormones
#5
Lijie Li, Wanrong Gu, Jing Li, Congfeng Li, Tenglong Xie, Danyang Qu, Yao Meng, Caifeng Li, Shi Wei
Drought stress (DS) is a major environmental factor limiting plant growth and crop productivity worldwide. It has been established that exogenous spermidine (Spd) stimulates plant tolerance to DS. The effects of exogenous Spd on plant growth, photosynthetic performance, and chloroplast ultrastructure as well as changes in endogenous polyamines (PAs) and phytohormones were investigate in DS-resistant (Xianyu 335) and DS-sensitive (Fenghe 1) maize seedlings under well-watered and DS treatments. Exogenous Spd alleviated the stress-induced reduction in growth, photosynthetic pigment content, photosynthesis rate (Pn ) and photochemical quenching (qP ) parameters, including the maximum photochemistry efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) (Fv /Fm ), PSII operating efficiency (ФPSII), and qP coefficient...
May 15, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783097/regulation-of-phytosterol-biosynthetic-pathway-during-drought-stress-in-rice
#6
M S Sujith Kumar, Ibandalin Mawlong, Kishwar Ali, Aruna Tyagi
Plants respond to drought stress in the form of various physio-biochemical and molecular changes at both cellular and molecular levels. Drought stress causes the destruction of cell membranes by disintegration of membrane lipids. One of the major groups of membrane lipids that plays important role in preserving the integrity of cell membranes is phytosterols. HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) is the principal enzyme in the biosynthesis of plant sterols, synthesized via mevalonic acid pathway. Phospholipid: sterol acyltransferase (PSAT) is another important enzyme that plays an important role in turnover of phytosterols into steryl esters and helps maintain homeostasis of membrane lipids...
May 15, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775864/exogenous-hydrogen-peroxide-inhibits-primary-root-gravitropism-by-regulating-auxin-distribution-during-arabidopsis-seed-germination
#7
Lina Zhou, Hongzhou Hou, Tao Yang, Yuke Lian, Yan Sun, Zhiyuan Bian, Chongying Wang
Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is the key factor in many physiological and metabolic processes in plants. During seed germination, exogenous H2 O2 application influences gravitropism and induces curvature of the primary root in grass pea and pea seedlings. However, it remains unclear whether and how this happens in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, the effect of exogenous H2 O2 on the gravitropic response of primary roots during Arabidopsis seed germination was studied using histology and molecular biology approaches...
May 15, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775862/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-a-max2-ortholog-from-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-l
#8
Tingting Cheng, Donghua Wang, Yongfeng Wang, Shumeng Zhang, Chao Zhang, Shudong Liu, Yajun Xi, Fengli Sun
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a sustainable cellulosic energy crop with high biomass yield on marginal soils. Tillering, an important agronomic characteristic related to biomass production in gramineous plants, is regulated by complex interacting factors, such as plant hormones. Strigolactones (SLs) comprise a novel class of plant hormones that inhibit shoot branching. The MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2)/DWARF 3 (D3)/RAMOSUS (RMS4) genes encode proteins involved in the SL signaling pathway in various plants...
May 15, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787935/functional-characterization-of-the-eugenol-synthase-gene-rcegs1-in-rose
#9
Huijun Yan, Sylvie Baudino, Jean-Claude Caissard, Florence Nicolè, Hao Zhang, Kaixue Tang, Shubin Li, Shugang Lu
The floral volatile compound eugenol is an important constituent in many aromatic plants, being a floral attractant for pollinators as well as having antimicrobial activity. Rose flowers emit eugenol and its derivatives. We recently reported a eugenol synthase gene (RcEGS1) (JQ522949) that was present in petals of R. chinensis cv. Old Blush. RcEGS1 has its highest expression levels in the petals compared to other tissues; it has higher transcript levels at the developmental blooming stage and lower levels at budding and senescence stages...
May 10, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783182/effects-of-overproduced-ethylene-on-the-contents-of-other-phytohormones-and-expression-of-their-key-biosynthetic-genes
#10
Weiqiang Li, Rie Nishiyama, Yasuko Watanabe, Chien Van Ha, Mikiko Kojima, Ping An, Lei Tian, Chunjie Tian, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Ethylene is involved in regulation of various aspects of plant growth and development. Physiological and genetic analyses have indicated the existence of crosstalk between ethylene and other phytohormones, including auxin, cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), brassinosteroid (BR) and strigolactone (SL) in regulation of different developmental processes. However, the effects of ethylene on the biosynthesis and contents of these hormones are not fully understood...
May 10, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772493/tissue-physiological-metabolic-adaptability-in-young-and-old-leaves-of-reed-phragmites-communis-in-songnen-grassland
#11
Rui Guo, Zhenzi Bai, Ji Zhou, XiuLi Zhong, FengXue Gu, Qi Liu, HaoRu Li
Common reed (Phragmites communis) is widely distributed as the dominant plant species in the Songnen Plain of China. The aim of this study was to investigate different physiological adaptive mechanisms to salinity tolerance between young and old leaves. The profiles of 68 metabolites were measured and studied in reed leaves by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. The nitrogen, carbon, and pigment contents showed stronger growth inhibition for older leaves with salinity stress. In young leaves, high K+ contents not only promoted cell growth, but also prevented influx of superfluous Na+ ions in cells; the Ca2+ accumulation in old leaves implied that Ca2+ triggered the SOS-Na+ exclusion system and reduced Na+ toxicity...
May 9, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783183/identification-of-novel-phosphatidic-acid-binding-domain-on-sphingosine-kinase-1-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#12
Shatakshi Pandit, Vikram Dalal, Girish Mishra
Phosphatidic acid (PA) is an important lipid signaling molecule which interacts with Arabidopsis thaliana Sphingosine kinase1 (AtSPHK1) during several abiotic stresses particularly drought stress as a result of Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in guard cells. PA molecules respond by generating lipid signal and/or by binding and translocating target proteins to membrane. However, site of interaction and role of PA binding to AtSPHK1 is not clear yet. Owing to the importance of AtSPHK1 during stress signaling it is imperative to decipher the site of PA interaction with AtSPHK1...
May 8, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772492/high-copper-content-in-vineyard-soils-promotes-modifications-in-photosynthetic-parameters-and-morphological-changes-in-the-root-system-of-red-niagara-plantlets
#13
Vítor Gabriel Ambrosini, Daniel José Rosa, George Wellington Bastos de Melo, Jovani Zalamena, Cesar Cella, Daniela Guimarães Simão, Leandro Souza da Silva, Henrique Pessoa Dos Santos, Moreno Toselli, Tadeu Luis Tiecher, Gustavo Brunetto
High copper (Cu) soil contents, due to the continuous vineyard application of Cu fungicides throughout the years, may impair the growth of the shoot and modify the structure of the root system. The current study aimed to investigate the threshold levels of available Cu in the soil causing toxicity effects in young grapevine plants of 'Red Niagara' cultivated in clay soils. Grapevine plantlets were cultivated in pots containing vineyard devoted soils with increasing contents of available Cu (25, 80, 100 and 165 mg kg-1 ), for 53 days...
May 8, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758473/genome-wide-analysis-of-poplar-saur-gene-family-and-expression-profiles-under-cold-polyethylene-glycol-and-indole-3-acetic-acid-treatments
#14
Wenfang Hu, Hanwei Yan, Shuangshuang Luo, Feng Pan, Yue Wang, Yan Xiang
Small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) proteins play an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development. Here, we identified 105 SAUR genes and comprehensively analyzed them in Populus trichocarpa. Based on the phylogenetic relationships, the PtSAURs were classified into ten subfamilies. Of the 105 PtSAURs, 100 were randomly distributed along the nineteen chromosomes, while the remaining genes were located along unassigned scafoolds. These genes mainly evolved through segmental duplications. In total, 94 PtSAURs contained no introns, and each group had a similar conserved motif structure...
May 8, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775863/superoxide-o-2-accumulation-contributes-to-symptomless-type-i-nonhost-resistance-of-plants-to-biotrophic-pathogens
#15
András Künstler, Renáta Bacsó, Réka Albert, Balázs Barna, Zoltán Király, Yaser Mohamed Hafez, József Fodor, Ildikó Schwarczinger, Lóránt Király
Nonhost resistance is the most common form of disease resistance exhibited by plants against most pathogenic microorganisms. Type I nonhost resistance is symptomless (i.e. no macroscopically visible cell/tissue death), implying an early halt of pathogen growth. The timing/speed of defences is much more rapid during type I nonhost resistance than during type II nonhost and host ("gene-for-gene") resistance associated with a hypersensitive response (localized necrosis, HR). However, the mechanism(s) underlying symptomless (type I) nonhost resistance is not entirely understood...
May 7, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754773/genome-editing-in-plants-advancing-crop-transformation-and-overview-of-tools
#16
Tariq Shah, Tayyaba Andleeb, Sadia Lateef, Mehmood Ali Noor
Genome manipulation technology is one of emerging field which brings real revolution in genetic engineering and biotechnology. Targeted editing of genomes pave path to address a wide range of goals not only to improve quality and productivity of crops but also permit to investigate the fundamental roots of biological systems. These goals includes creation of plants with valued compositional properties and with characters that confer resistance to numerous biotic and abiotic stresses. Numerous novel genome editing systems have been introduced during the past few years; these comprise zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9)...
May 7, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778839/spermidine-mediated-hydrogen-peroxide-signaling-enhances-the-antioxidant-capacity-of-salt-stressed-cucumber-roots
#17
Jianqiang Wu, Sheng Shu, Chengcheng Li, Jin Sun, Shirong Guo
Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is a key signaling molecule that mediates a variety of physiological processes and defense responses against abiotic stress in higher plants. In this study, our aims are to clarify the role of H2 O2 accumulation induced by the exogenous application of spermidine (Spd) to cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings in regulating the antioxidant capacity of roots under salt stress. The results showed that Spd caused a significant increase in endogenous polyamines and H2 O2 levels, and peaked at 2 h after salt stress...
May 5, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753981/expression-of-hydroxytyrosol-and-oleuropein-biosynthetic-genes-are-correlated-with-metabolite-accumulation-during-fruit-development-in-olive-olea-europaea-cv-koroneiki
#18
Niki Mougiou, Fotini Trikka, Emmanouil Trantas, Filippos Ververidis, Antonios Makris, Anagnostis Argiriou, Konstantinos E Vlachonasios
Olive tree is one of the most valuable crops cultivated for its oil that is rich in antioxidants. The beneficial effects of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol (HT), the most abundant and the most powerful antioxidant respectively, as well as tyrosol, HT's precursor molecule, are well studied however their biosynthetic pathways are not yet clarified. The transcriptome analysis of the young olive fruit, cultivar "Koroneiki", revealed transcripts of all the enzymes used to reconstitute the biosynthetic pathway of tyrosol and HT in other organisms...
May 5, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753136/the-allelochemical-trans-cinnamic-acid-stimulates-salicylic-acid-production-and-galactose-pathway-in-maize-leaves-a-potential-mechanism-of-stress-tolerance
#19
Fabrizio Araniti, Antonio Lupini, Antonio Mauceri, Antonino Zumbo, Francesco Sunseri, Maria Rosa Abenavoli
In this study, the effects (5 days) of the secondary metabolite trans-cinnamic acid on maize leaves (Zea mays L.), through a physiological and an untargeted metabolomic approach, were evaluated. A reduction in leaf growth and development accompanied by a decrease in protein content was observed in treated seedlings. Besides, trans-cinnamic acid stimulated the photosynthetic machinery with a significant increment in pigment content (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids), a stimulation of the light adapted PSII efficiency (ɸII ) as well as the chlorophyll a fluorescence (YNO ), the apparent electron transport rate, and the regulated dissipation of the energy (YNPQ )...
May 5, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751252/drought-induced-changes-of-leaf-to-root-relationships-in-two-tomato-genotypes
#20
Tommaso Michele Moles, Lorenzo Mariotti, Leandro Federico De Pedro, Lorenzo Guglielminetti, Piero Picciarelli, Andrea Scartazza
Water deficit triggers a dynamic and integrated cross-talk between leaves and roots. Tolerant plants have developed several physiological and molecular mechanisms to establish new cell metabolism homeostasis, avoiding and/or escaping from permanent impairments triggered by drought. Two tomato genotypes (a Southern Italy landrace called Ciettaicale and the well-known commercial cultivar Moneymaker) were investigated at vegetative stage to assess leaf and root metabolic strategies under 20 days of water deficit...
May 5, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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