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Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139572/exposing-ecological-and-economic-costs-of-the-research-implementation-gap-and-compromises-in-decision-making
#1
Santtu Kareksela, Atte Moilanen, Olli Ristaniemi, Reima Välivaara, Janne S Kotiaho
The frequently discussed gap between conservation science and practice is manifest in the gap between spatial conservation prioritization plans and their implementation. We analyzed the research-implementation gap of 1 zoning case by comparing results of a spatial prioritization analysis aimed at avoiding ecological impact of peat mining in a regional zoning process with the final zoning plan. We examined the relatively complex planning process to determine the gaps among research, zoning, and decision making...
November 15, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124788/need-for-multiscale-planning-for-conservation-of-urban-bats
#2
Travis Gallo, Elizabeth W Lehrer, Mason Fidino, R Julia Kilgour, Patrick J Wolff, Seth Magle
For over a century there have been continual efforts to incorporate nature into urban planning. These efforts - known as urban reconciliation- aim to manage and create habitats that support biodiversity within cities. Given that species select habitat at different spatial scales, understanding the scale at which urban species respond to their environment is critical to the success of urban reconciliation efforts. We assessed species-habitat relationships for common bat species at local (50-m), medium (500-m), and broad (1-km) spatial scales in the Chicago metropolitan area and predicted bat activity across the greater Chicago region...
November 10, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114934/illegal-fishing-and-territorial-user-rights-in-chile
#3
Rodrigo Oyanedel, Andres Keim, Juan Carlos Castilla, Stefan Gelcich
Illegal fishing poses a major threat for the conservation of marine resources worldwide. However, there is still limited empirical research that quantifies illegal catch levels. This study uses the Randomized Response Technique to estimate the proportion of divers, and the quantities extracted of illegal "loco" (Concholepas concholepas), a gastropod managed for the past 17 years through a Territorial User Rights for Fisheries system (TURFs) in Chile. Results show that illegal fishing is widespread along the TURFs system, with official reported landings accounting for only 14- 30% of the total loco extraction...
November 7, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094402/black-swans-cognition-and-the-power-of-learning-from-failure
#4
Allison S Catalano, Kent Redford, Richard Margoluis, Andrew T Knight
Failure carries undeniable stigma and is difficult to confront for individuals, teams, and organizations. Disciplines such as commercial and military aviation, medicine, and business have long histories of grappling with it, beginning with the recognition that failure is inevitable in every human endeavor. While conservation may arguably be more complex, conservation professionals can draw upon the research and experience of these other disciplines to institutionalize activities and attitudes that foster learning from failures, whether they are minor setbacks or major disasters...
November 1, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086438/using-machine-learning-to-disentangle-homonyms-in-large-text-corpora
#5
Uri Roll, Ricardo A Correia, Oded Berger-Tal
Systematic reviews are an increasingly popular decision-making tool which provides an unbiased summary of evidence to support conservation action. These reviews bridge the gap between researchers and managers by presenting a comprehensive overview of all studies relating to a particular topic and identify specifically where and under which conditions an effect is present. However, several technical challenges can severely hinder the feasibility and applicability of systematic reviews. One such challenge is the presence of homonyms - terms that share spelling but differ in meaning...
October 31, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080297/a-role-for-selective-contraception-of-individuals-in-conservation-management-programs
#6
REVIEW
Holly R Cope, Carolyn J Hogg, Peter J White, Catherine A Herbert
Contraception has an established role to play in managing overabundant populations and preventing undesirable breeding in zoos. We propose that it can also be used strategically and selectively in conservation management programs to increase the genetic and behavioural quality of the animals. In captive breeding programs, it is becoming increasingly important to maximise the retention of genetic diversity by managing the reproductive contribution of each individual, and preventing genetically suboptimal breeding, through the use of selective contraception...
October 28, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077226/species-composition-of-the-international-shark-fin-trade-assessed-through-a-retail-market-survey-in-hong-kong
#7
Andrew T Fields, Gunter A Fischer, Stanley K H Shea, Huarong Zhang, Debra L Abercrombie, Kevin A Feldheim, Elizabeth A Babcock, Demian D Chapman
The shark fin trade is a major driver of shark exploitation in fisheries all over the world, most of which are not managed on a species-specific basis. Species-specific trade information highlights taxa of particular concern and can be used to assess the efficacy of management measures and anticipate emerging threats. The species composition of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China, one of the world's largest fin trading hubs, was partially assessed in 1999-2001. We randomly selected and genetically identified fin trimmings (n = 4,800), produced during fin processing, from the retail market of Hong Kong in 2014-2015 to assess contemporary species composition of the fin trade...
October 27, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076179/the-ecological-consequences-of-forest-elephant-declines-for-afrotropical-forests
#8
John R Poulsen, Cooper Rosin, Amelia Meier, Emily Mills, Chase Nunez, Sally E Koerner, Emily Blanchard, Jennifer Callejas, Sarah Moore, Mark Sowers
Poaching is rapidly extirpating African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) from most of their historical range, leaving vast areas of elephant-free tropical forest. Elephants are ecological engineers that create and maintain forest habitat, thus their loss will have strong consequences for the composition and structure of Afrotropical forests. We evaluated the roles of forest elephants in seed dispersal, nutrient recycling, and herbivory and physical damage to predict the cascading ecological effects of their population declines...
October 27, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072342/use-of-long-term-data-to-evaluate-loss-and-endangerment-status-of-natura-2000-habitats-and-effects-of-protected-areas
#9
Marianna Biró, János Bölöni, Zsolt Molnár
Habitat loss is a key driver of biodiversity loss. However, hardly any long-term time series analyses of habitat loss are available above the local scale for finer-level habitat categories. In this paper we analyse, from a long-term perspective, the habitat specificity of habitat area loss, the change in trends since the fall of communism and the impact of protected areas on habitat loss. We studied twenty semi-natural habitat types in 5000 randomly selected localities over seven time periods between 1783 and 2013, using historical maps, archival and recent aerial/satellite imagery, botanical descriptions and field data...
October 26, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071748/challenges-and-opportunities-for-transboundary-conservation-of-migratory-birds-in-the-east-asian-australasian-flyway
#10
Ding Li Yong, Anuj Jain, Yang Liu, Muhammad Iqbal, Chang-Yong Choi, Nicola J Crockford, Spike Millington, Jennifer Provencher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068497/leveraging-natural-capital-to-solve-the-shared-education-and-conservation-crisis
#11
Kathryn T Stevenson, M Nils Peterson, Robert R Dunn
Education and conservation have a shared crisis: neither fully serves diverse populations. Where poverty, race, and ethnicity covary, those left behind educationally are disproportionately from underrepresented groups. Global achievement gaps associated with socioeconomic and minority status have existed for decades (Morgan et al. 2016). These populations are also underrepresented in conservation professions; thus, conservation decisions often reflect the views of elites (Foster et al. 2014). Conservation and education have shared problems, and we argue they have shared solutions...
October 25, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068083/threats-to-biodiversity-from-cumulative-human-impacts-in-one-of-north-america-s-last-wildlife-frontiers
#12
Nancy Shackelford, Rachel J Standish, William Ripple, Brian M Starzomski
Land-use change is the largest proximate threat to biodiversity, yet remains one of the most complex to manage. In British Columbia (BC), where large mammals roam extensive tracts of intact habitat, continued land-use development is of global concern. Extant mammal diversity in BC is unrivalled in North America owing, in part, to its unique position at the intersection of alpine, boreal and temperate biomes. Despite high conservation values, understanding of cumulative ecological impacts from human development is limited...
October 25, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067718/estimating-the-extinction-date-of-the-thylacine-with-mixed-certainty-data
#13
Colin J Carlson, Alexander L Bond, Kevin R Burgio
The thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus), one of Australia's most characteristic megafauna, was the largest marsupial carnivore until hunting, and potentially disease, drove it to extinction in 1936. Though thylacines were restricted to Tasmania for two millennia prior to their extinction, recent "plausible" sightings on the Cape York Peninsula in northern Queensland have emerged, leading some to speculate the species may persist, undetected. Here we show that the continued survival of the thylacine is entirely implausible based on most current mathematical theories of extinction...
October 25, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063710/adaptive-social-impact-management-for-conservation-and-environmental-management
#14
Maery Kaplan-Hallam, Nathan J Bennett
Concerns about the social consequences of conservation have spurred increased attention the monitoring and evaluation of the social impacts of conservation projects. This has resulted in a growing body of research that demonstrates how conservation can produce both positive and negative social, economic, cultural, health, and governance consequences for local communities. Yet, the results of social monitoring efforts are seldom applied to adaptively manage conservation projects. Greater attention is needed to incorporating the results of social impact assessments in long-term conservation management to minimize negative social consequences and maximize social benefits...
October 24, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030915/political-transition-and-emergent-forest-conservation-issues-in-myanmar
#15
REVIEW
Graham W Prescott, William J Sutherland, Daniel Aguirre, Matthew Baird, Vicky Bowman, Jake Brunner, Grant M Connette, Martin Cosier, David Dapice, Jose Don T De Alban, Alex Diment, Julia Fogerite, Jefferson Fox, Win Hlaing, Saw Htun, Jack Hurd, Katherine LaJeunesse Connette, Felicia Lasmana, Cheng Ling Lim, Antony Lynam, Aye Chan Maung, Benjamin McCarron, John F McCarthy, William J McShea, Frank Momberg, Myat Su Mon, Than Myint, Robert Oberndorf, Thaung Naing Oo, Jacob Phelps, Madhu Rao, Dietrich Schmidt-Vogt, Hugh Speechly, Oliver Springate-Baginski, Robert Steinmetz, Kirk Talbott, Maung Maung Than, Tint Lwin Thaung, Salai Cung Lian Thawng, Kyaw Min Thein, Shwe Thein, Robert Tizard, Tony Whitten, Guy Williams, Trevor Wilson, Kevin Woods, Alan D Ziegler, Michal Zrust, Edward L Webb
Political and economic transitions have had substantial impacts on forest conservation. Where transitions are underway or anticipated, historical precedent and methods for systematically assessing future trends should be used to anticipate likely threats to forest conservation and design appropriate and prescient policy measures to counteract them. Myanmar is transitioning from an authoritarian, centralized state with a highly regulated economy to a more decentralized and economically liberal democracy and is working to end a long-running civil war...
October 14, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992381/the-self-sabotage-of-conservation-reply-to-manfredo-et-al
#16
Christopher D Ives, Joern Fischer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992363/revisiting-the-challenge-of-intentional-value-shift-reply-to-ives-and-fischer
#17
Michael J Manfredo, Jeremy T Bruskotter, Tara L Teel, David C Fulton, Shigehiro Oishi, Ayse K Uskul, Kent H Redford, Shalom H Schwartz, Robert Arlinghaus, Shinobu Kitayama, Leeann Sullivan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990208/the-effectiveness-of-terrestrial-protected-areas-for-lake-fish-community-conservation
#18
Cindy Chu, Lucy Ellis, Derrick T de Kerckhove
Protected areas are established globally to conserve biodiversity, and associated ecosystem services and cultural values. However, freshwater protected areas are rare even though freshwater ecosystems and their biodiversity are among the most imperilled in the world. Conservation actions within terrestrial protected areas such as development or resource extraction regulations may spill over to benefit the freshwater ecosystems within their boundaries. Using a dataset of 175 lakes across Ontario (Canada), we compared common fish assemblage status indicators; species richness, Shannon's diversity index, catch-per-unit-effort, and normalized length size spectra, to evaluate whether terrestrial protected areas benefit lake fish assemblages...
October 8, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984998/biofluorescence-as-a-survey-tool-for-cryptic-marine-species
#19
Maarten De Brauwer, Jean-Paul A Hobbs, Rohani Ambo-Rappe, Jamaluddin Jompa, Euan S Harvey, Jennifer L McIlwain
As ecosystems come under increasing anthropogenic pressure, rare species face the highest risk of extinction. Paradoxically, rare species often lack data necessary to evaluate their conservation status, because of the challenges detecting species with low abundance. One group of fishes subject to this under-sampling bias are those with cryptic body patterns. Twenty-one percent of the cryptic fish species assessed for their extinction risk (IUCN) are data deficient. We developed a non-destructive method for surveying cryptically patterned marine fishes based on the presence of biofluorescence...
October 6, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981964/long-distance-flights-and-high-risk-breeding-by-nomadic-waterbirds-on-desert-salt-lakes
#20
Reece D Pedler, Raoul F H Ribot, Andrew T D Bennett
Understanding and conserving mobile species presents complex challenges, especially for animals in stochastic or changing environments. Nomadic waterbirds must locate temporary water in arid biomes where rainfall is highly unpredictable in space and time. To achieve this they need to travel over vast spatial scales and time arrival to exploit pulses in food resources. How they achieve this is an enduring mystery.  We investigated these challenges in the colonial-nesting Banded Stilt (Cladorhynchus leucocephalus), a nomadic shorebird of conservation concern...
October 5, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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