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Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188969/interpreting-beta-diversity-components-over-time-to-conserve-metacommunities-in-highly-dynamic-ecosystems
#1
Albert Ruhí, Thibault Datry, John L Sabo
The concept of 'metacommunity', or a set of local communities linked by dispersal, has gained great popularity among community ecologists over the last decade. However, whereas metacommunity research mostly addresses questions on spatial biodiversity patterns at the regional scale, conservation planning requires quantifying temporal variation in those metacommunities, and the contributions that individual (local) habitats make to regional dynamics. Here we propose that recent advances in diversity partitioning methods may allow for a better understanding of metacommunity dynamics and for the identification of keystone habitats...
February 11, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186361/habitat-as-a-mediator-of-mesopredator-driven-mammal-extinction
#2
Peter J McDonald, Catherine E M Nano, Simon J Ward, Alistair Stewart, Chris R Pavey, Gary W Luck, Chris R Dickman
A prevailing view in dryland systems is that mammals are constrained by the scarcity of fertile soils and primary productivity. An alternative view is that predation is a primary driver of mammal assemblages, especially in Australia, where two introduced mesopredators - the feral cat Felis catus and red fox Vulpes vulpes - have decimated the dryland mammal fauna. We evaluate productivity (bottom-up) versus predation (top-down) as drivers of native mammal assemblage structure in dryland Australia. We find that predation is likely a major driver of extant mammal richness, but that its effect is strongly mediated by habitat type...
February 10, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186345/quantifying-the-extent-of-protected-area-downgrading-downsizing-and-degazettement-in-australia
#3
Carly N Cook, Rebecca S Valkan, Michael B Mascia, Melodie McGeoch
The use of total area protected as the predominant indicator of progress in building protected areas (PAs) is receiving growing criticism. Documenting the full dynamics of a PA network, both in terms of the gains and losses in protection, provides a much more informative approach to tracking progress. To this end, there has been growing emphasis on documenting examples of PADDD: Protected Area Downgrading, Downsizing and Degazettement. Studies of PADDD events generally fail to place these losses in the context of gains in protection, omitting important elements of PA network dynamics...
February 10, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164376/using-individual-condition-measures-to-predict-the-long-term-importance-of-habitat-extent-for-population-persistence
#4
Anita J Cosgrove, Todd J McWhorter, Martine Maron
Habitat loss and fragmentation are causing widespread population declines, but identifying how and when to intervene remains challenging. Predicting where localized extinctions are likely to occur and implementing management actions before losses eventuate may be more cost-effective than trying to re-establish lost populations. Early indicators of pressure on populations could be used to make such predictions. In 2009/2010, the presence of Eastern Yellow Robins (Eopsaltria australis) within 42 sites in a fragmented region of eastern Australia was found to be unrelated to woodland extent within 500 m of a site, but the robins' heterophil:lymphocyte ratios (an indicator of chronic stress) were elevated in less-wooded sites...
February 6, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155240/need-for-conservation-planning-in-postconflict-colombia
#5
LETTER
Pablo Jose Negret, James Allan, Alexander Braczkowski, Martine Maron, James E M Watson
More than 80% of recent major armed conflicts have taken place in biodiversity hotspots, including the Tropical Andes which is home to the world's highest concentrations of bird, mammal, and amphibian species, and more than ten percent of all vascular plant species (Mittermeier et al. 2004; Hanson et al. 2009). Armed conflicts not only seriously impact social and political systems, but also have important ramifications for biodiversity, from the time preparations for conflict start through to the post-conflict period (Machlis & Hanson 2008)...
February 3, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151557/a-global-review-of-seabird-mortality-caused-by-land-based-artificial-lights
#6
REVIEW
Airam Rodríguez, Nick D Holmes, Peter G Ryan, Kerry-Jayne Wilson, Lucie Faulquier, Yovana Murillo, André F Raine, Jay Penniman, Verónica Neves, Beneharo Rodríguez, Juan J Negro, André Chiaradia, Peter Dann, Tracy Anderson, Benjamin Metzger, Masaki Shirai, Lorna Deppe, Jennifer Wheeler, Peter Hodum, Catia Gouveia, Vanda Carmo, Gilberto P Carreira, Luis Delgado-Alburqueque, Carlos Guerra-Correa, François-Xavier Couzi, Marc Travers, Matthieu Le Corre
Artificial lights at night cause high mortality of seabirds, one of the most endangered groups of birds globally. Fledglings of burrow-nesting seabirds, and to a lesser extent adults, are grounded by lights when they fly at night. We review the current state of knowledge of light attraction, identify information gaps and propose measures to address the problem. Although other avian families such as Alcidae and Anatidae can be involved, the most affected seabirds are petrels and shearwaters: at least 56 species, more than one-third of them (24) threatened, are grounded by lights...
February 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130909/the-importance-of-incorporating-functional-habitats-into-conservation-planning-for-highly-mobile-species-in-dynamic-systems
#7
Matthew H Webb, Aleks Terauds, Ayesha Tulloch, Phil Bell, Dejan Stojanovic, Robert Heinsohn
The distribution of mobile species in dynamic systems can vary greatly over time and space. Estimating their population size and geographic range can be problematic, with serious implications for conservation assessments. Scarce data on mobile species and the resources they need can also limit the type of analytical approaches available to derive such estimates. Here we quantify dynamic change in availability and use of key ecological resources required for breeding (i.e. food and nesting sites) for a critically endangered nomadic habitat specialist, the swift parrot (Lathamus discolor)...
January 28, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102907/global-lessons-from-successful-rhinoceros-conservation-in-nepal
#8
Achyut Aryal, Krishna Prasad Acharya, Uttam Babu Shrestha, Maheshwar Dhakal, David Raubenhiemer, Wendy Wright
Global populations of rhinoceros have declined alarmingly, from about 500,000 at the beginning of the 20(th) century to 29,000 in 2016, largely due to an escalation of poaching for rhinoceros horn (Traffic 2016; Biggs et al. 2013). The current global rhino population is comprised of three Asian Species and two African species, the latter located in South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, Namibia and Zimbabwe,. In Africa, the Southern white rhinoceros population is estimated at 20,700; and there are estimated to be around 4,885 black rhinoceros...
January 19, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092422/international-consensus-principles-for-ethical-wildlife-control
#9
Sara Dubois, Nicole Fenwick, Erin A Ryan, Liv Baker, Sandra E Baker, Ngaio J Beausoleil, Scott Carter, Barbara Cartwright, Federico Costa, Chris Draper, John Griffin, Adam Grogan, Gregg Howald, Bidda Jones, Kate E Littin, Amanda T Lombard, David J Mellor, Daniel Ramp, Catherine A Schuppli, David Fraser
Human-wildlife conflicts are commonly addressed by excluding, relocating, or lethally controlling animals with the goal of preserving public health and safety, protecting property, or conserving other valued wildlife. However, declining wildlife populations, a lack of efficacy of control methods in achieving desired outcomes, and changes in how people value animals have triggered widespread acknowledgment of the need for ethical and evidence-based approaches to managing such conflicts. We explored international perspectives on and experiences with human-wildlife conflicts to develop principles for ethical wildlife control...
January 16, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079282/troubling-issues-at-the-frontier-of-animal-tracking-for-conservation-and-management
#10
Steven J Cooke, Vivian M Nguyen, Steven T Kessel, Nigel E Hussey, Nathan Young, Adam T Ford
Developments in electronic tagging and tracking, including biotelemetry and biologging, have provided unprecedented insight into the ecology of wild animals (Cooke et al. 2004) and revealed hidden movement patterns, habitat associations, animal-environment interactions, and mortality rates for even the most cryptic of species (Hussey et al. 2015; Kays et al. 2015). Natural history, ecology (including movement ecology), conservation, and resource management have all benefitted from the application of this technology...
January 12, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075039/using-dna-barcoding-to-track-seafood-mislabeling-in-los-angeles-restaurants
#11
Demian A Willette, Sara E Simmonds, Samantha H Cheng, Sofia Esteves, Tonya L Kane, Hayley Nuetzel, Nicholas Pilaud, Rita Rachmawati, Paul H Barber
Seafood mislabeling is common in both domestic and international markets. Previous studies on seafood fraud often report high rates of mislabeling (e.g. >70%), but these studies have been limited to a single sampling year, making it difficult to assess the impact of stricter governmental truth-in-labeling regulations. This study uses DNA barcoding to assess seafood mislabeling in Los Angeles over a four-year period. Sushi restaurants had a consistently high percentage of mislabeling (47%) from 2012 to 2015, yet mislabeling was not homogenous across species...
January 11, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074624/assessing-the-sustainability-of-waiwai-subsistence-hunting-in-guyana-with-implications-for-co-management-in-amazonian-indigenous-reserves
#12
Christopher A Shaffer, Marissa S Milstein, Charakura Yukuma, Elisha Marawanaru, Phillip Suse
While hunting is a key component of the subsistence strategies of many Amazonians, it is also one of the most important threats to wildlife conservation throughout South America. As indigenous reserves now make up more than 20% of Amazonia, effective conservation often requires working closely with indigenous groups as shared stakeholders in the management of hunting. We present a novel approach to co-management that integrates hunter generated harvesting data with spatially explicit, biodemographic modeling to assess the sustainability of the subsistence hunting of indigenous Waiwai in Guyana...
January 11, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074559/effects-of-traffic-noise-on-tree-frog-stress-levels-immunity-and-color-signaling
#13
Mathieu Troïanowski, Nathalie Mondy, Adeline Dumet, Caroline Arcanjo, Thierry Lengagne
During the last decade, many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of noise pollution on acoustic communication. Surprisingly, while it is known that noise exposure strongly influences health in humans, studies on wildlife remain scarce. In order to gain insight into the consequences of traffic noise exposure, we experimentally manipulated traffic noise exposure as well as the endocrine status of animals to investigate physiological and phenotypic consequences of noise pollution in an anuran species...
January 11, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074500/level-of-environmental-threat-posed-by-horticultural-trade-in-cactaceae
#14
Ana Novoa, Johannes J Le Roux, David M Richardson, John R U Wilson
Ornamental horticulture has been identified as an important threat to plant biodiversity and the major pathway for plant invasions worldwide. In this context, the family Cactaceae is particularly interesting and challenging for three main reasons-it is considered the fifth most threatened major taxonomic group in the world; several cactus species are amongst the most widespread and damaging invasive species; and Cactaceae is one of the most popular horticultural plant groups. Based on CITES trade data and the eleven main auction sites selling cacti on the internet we document a substantial global trade from and to almost all continents...
January 11, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042667/the-difficulties-of-systematic-reviews
#15
REVIEW
Martin J Westgate, David B Lindenmayer
The need for robust evidence to support conservation actions has driven the adoption of systematic approaches to research synthesis in ecology. However, applying systematic review to complex or open questions remains challenging, and this task is becoming more difficult as the quantity of scientific literature increases. Here, we draw on the science of linguistics for guidance as to why the process of identifying and sorting information during systematic review remains so labor-intensive, and to provide potential solutions...
January 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995662/effects-of-preference-heterogeneity-among-landowners-on-spatial-conservation-prioritization
#16
Anne Sofie Elberg Nielsen, Niels Strange, Hans Henrik Bruun, Jette Bredahl Jacobsen
The participation of private landowners in conservation is crucial to efficient biodiversity conservation. This is especially the case in settings where the share of private ownership is large and the economic costs associated with the public land acquisition are high. We examine the revealed participation choice of Danish forest owners in a voluntary conservation program, and use the results to spatially predict the likelihood of participation for the full population of Danish forest owners. The outcome is included in a probability model for species survival...
December 20, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991681/assessing-the-shelf-life-of-cost-efficient-conservation-plans-in-canada-s-farmland
#17
Cassandra M Robillard, Jeremy T Kerr
High conservation costs within agricultural regions warrant spatial prioritization approaches that explicitly consider land prices, to produce reserve sets that accomplish targets efficiently. However, land use changes within these regions, and delays between plan design and implementation, may render optimized plans obsolete before implementation occurs. An initiative to acquire and restore habitat for species at risk in Canada's farmland was simulated to measure the shelf-life of cost-efficient conservation plans, given observed changes in land acquisition costs and in agricultural intensity from Censuses of Agriculture from 1986 to 2011...
December 19, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982493/control-of-invasive-rats-on-islands-and-priorities-for-future-action
#18
REVIEW
Quiterie Duron, Aaron B Shiels, Eric Vidal
Invasive rats are one of the world's most successful animal groups that cause native species extinctions and ecosystem change, particularly on islands. On large islands, rat eradication is often impossible and population control, defined as the local limitation of rat abundance, is now "routinely" performed on many of the world's islands as an alternative restoration tool. However, a synthesis including the various motivations, techniques, costs, and success levels from such rat control projects is lacking...
December 16, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982481/consistency-of-effects-of-tropical-forest-disturbance-on-species-composition-and-richness-relative-to-use-of-indicator-taxa
#19
N E Stork, D S Srivastava, P Eggleton, M Hodda, G Lawson, R R B Leakey, A D Watt
A citation-classic study published almost twenty years ago found that the species richness of eight taxa each responded differently to anthropogenic disturbance in Cameroon forests. Recent developments in conservation biology suggest that net number of species is an insensitive measure of change and that understanding which species are affected by disturbance is more important. In addition, it is recognized that all disturbance types are not equal in their effect on species and that grouping species according to function rather than taxonomy is more informative of responses of biodiversity to change...
December 16, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976422/desert-pastoralists-negative-and-positive-effects-on-rare-wildlife-in-the-gobi
#20
REVIEW
L Stefan Ekernas, Wesley M Sarmento, Hannah S Davie, Richard P Reading, James Murdoch, Ganchimeg J Wingard, Sukh Amgalanbaatar, Joel Berger
In arid regions of the developing world, pastoralists and livestock commonly inhabit protected areas, resulting in human-wildlife conflict. Conflict is inextricably linked to the ecological processes shaping relationships between pastoralists and native herbivores and carnivores. To elucidate relationships underpinning human-wildlife conflict, we synthesized 15 years of ecological and ethnographic data from Ikh Nart Nature Reserve in Mongolia's Gobi steppe. The density of argali (Ovis ammon), the world's largest wild sheep, at Ikh Nart was among the highest in Mongolia, yet livestock were >90% of ungulate biomass and dogs >90% of large-carnivore biomass...
December 15, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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