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Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639329/estimating-abundance-without-recaptures-of-marked-pallid-sturgeon-in-the-mississippi-river
#1
Nicholas A Friedenberg, Jan J Hoover, Krista Boysen, K Jack Killgore
Abundance estimates are essential for estimating the viability of populations and the risks posed by alternative management actions. An effort to estimate abundance via a repeated mark-recapture experiment may fail to recapture marked individuals. We present a framework for obtaining lower bounds on abundance in the absence of recaptures for both panmictic and spatially-structured populations. We applied this nil-recapture method to data from a 12-year survey of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the lower and middle Mississippi River; none of the 241 individuals marked were recaptured in the survey...
June 22, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639356/bias-in-protected-area-location-and-its-effects-on-long-term-aspirations-of-biodiversity-conventions
#2
Oscar Venter, Ainhoa Magrach, Nick Outram, Carissa Joy Klein, Moreno Di Marco, James E M Watson
To contribute to the aspirations of recent international biodiversity conventions, protected areas (PAs) must be strategically located, and not simply established on economically marginal lands as they have in the past. With refined international commitments under the Convention of Biodiversity to target protected areas in places of 'importance to biodiversity', this may now be the case. Here we analyze location biases in PAs globally over both historic (pre-2004) and recent time periods. Discouragingly, we find that both old and new protected areas are not targeting places with high concentration of threatened vertebrate species...
June 21, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631859/determining-the-drivers-of-population-structure-in-a-highly-urbanized-landscape-to-inform-conservation-planning
#3
Henri A Thomassen, Ryan J Harrigan, Kathleen Semple Delaney, Seth P D Riley, Laurel E K Serieys, Katherine Pease, Robert K Wayne, Thomas B Smith
Understanding the environmental contributors to population structure is of paramount importance for conservation in urbanized environments. We used spatially-explicit models to determine genetic population structure under current and future environmental conditions across a highly fragmented, human-dominated environment in Southern California to assess the effects of natural ecological variation and urbanization. We focused on seven common species with diverse habitat requirements, home range sizes, and dispersal abilities...
June 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618067/prospects-for-stakeholder-coordination-by-protected-area-managers-in-europe
#4
Brady J Mattsson, Harald Vacik
Growing resource demands by humans, invasive species, natural hazards, and a changing climate are creating broad-scale impacts and have created the need for broader-extent conservation activities that span ownerships and even political borders. Implementing regional-scale conservation brings great challenges, and learning how to overcome these challenges is essential for maintaining biodiversity (i.e., richness and evenness of biological communities) and ecosystem functions and services across scales and borders in the face of system change...
June 15, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612963/the-effectiveness-of-surrogate-taxa-to-conserve-freshwater-biodiversity
#5
David R Stewart, Zachary E Underwood, Frank J Rahel, Annika W Walters
Establishing protected areas has long been an effective conservation strategy, and is often based on more readily surveyed species. The potential of any freshwater taxa to be a surrogate of other aquatic groups has not been fully explored. We compiled occurrence data on 72 species of freshwater fish, amphibians, mussels, and aquatic reptiles for the Great Plains, Wyoming. We used hierarchical Bayesian multi-species mixture models and MaxEnt models to describe species distributions, and program Zonation to identify conservation priority areas for each aquatic group...
June 14, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612939/using-soundscapes-to-detect-variable-degrees-of-human-influence-on-tropical-forests-in-papua-new-guinea
#6
Zuzana Burivalova, Michael Towsey, Tim Boucher, Anthony Truskinger, Cosmas Apelis, Paul Roe, Edward T Game
There is global concern about tropical forest degradation, in part, because of the associated loss of biodiversity. Communities and indigenous people play a fundamental role in tropical forest management and they are often efficient at preventing forest degradation. However, monitoring changes in biodiversity due to degradation, especially at a scale appropriate to local tropical forest management, is marred with difficulties including the need for expert training, inconsistency across observers, and the lack of baseline or reference data...
June 14, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598528/use-of-radar-detectors-to-track-attendance-of-albatrosses-at-fishing-vessels
#7
H Weimerskirch, D P Filippi, J Collet, S M Waugh, S C Patrick
Despite international waters covering over 60% of the world's oceans, our understanding of how fisheries in these regions shape ecosystem processes is surprisingly poor. Seabirds are known to forage at fishing vessels, with potential deleterious effects for their population, but the extent of overlap and behavior in relation to ships are poorly known. Using novel biologging devices, which can detect radar emissions to record the position of boats and seabirds, we measured the true extent of the overlap between seabirds and fishing vessels, and generated estimates of the intensity of fishing and distribution of vessels in international waters...
June 9, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585338/research-priorities-for-conservation-and-natural-resource-management-in-oceania-s-small-island-developing-states
#8
REVIEW
R Weeks, V M Adams
For conservation science to effectively inform management, research must focus on creating the scientific knowledge required to solve conservation problems. We report the outcomes of an exercise to identify research questions that, if answered, would increase the effectiveness of conservation and natural resource management practice and policy within Oceania's small island developing states. Respondents from academia, government, and nongovernment organizations across the region surveyed online proposed 270 questions, and subsequently identified 38 of these as high priority...
June 6, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574184/land-use-history-as-a-guide-for-forest-conservation-and-management
#9
Cathy Whitlock, Daniele Colombaroli, Marco Conedera, Willy Tinner
Conservation efforts to protect forested landscapes are challenged by climate projections that suggest significant restructuring of vegetation and disturbance regimes in the future. In this regard, paleoecological records that describe ecosystem responses to past variations in climate, fire and human activity offer critical information for assessing present landscape conditions and future landscape vulnerability. We illustrate this point drawing on eight sites in the northwest U.S., New Zealand, Patagonia, and central and southern Europe that have experienced different levels of climate and land-use change...
June 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574183/quantitative-tools-for-implementing-the-new-definition-of-significant-portion-of-the-range-in-the-endangered-species-act
#10
REVIEW
Julia E Earl, Sam Nicol, Ruscena Wiederholt, Jay E Diffendorfer, Darius Semmens, D T Tyler Flockhart, Brady J Mattsson, Gary McCracken, D Ryan Norris, Wayne E Thogmartin, Laura López-Hoffman
In July 2014, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service announced a new policy interpretation for the Endangered Species Act. According to the Act, a species must be listed as threatened or endangered if it is determined to be threatened or endangered in a significant portion of its range. The 1973 law does not define "significant portion of its range," leading to concerns that interpretations of "significant" by federal agencies and the courts could be inconsistent. The 2014 policy seeks to provide consistency by establishing that a portion of the range should be considered significant if the associated individuals' "removal would cause the entire species to become endangered or threatened...
June 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556528/managing-conflict-between-large-carnivores-and-livestock
#11
REVIEW
Lily M Van Eeden, Mathew S Crowther, Chris R Dickman, David W Macdonald, William J Ripple, Euan G Ritchie, Thomas M Newsome
Large carnivores are persecuted globally because they threaten human industries and livelihoods. How this conflict is managed has consequences for the conservation of large carnivores and biodiversity more broadly. Mitigating human-predator conflict should be evidence-based and accommodate people's values while also protecting carnivores. Despite much research into human-large carnivore coexistence strategies, there have been limited attempts to document the success of conflict mitigation strategies on a global scale...
May 29, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489264/critical-factors-for-the-recovery-of-marine-mammals
#12
Heike K Lotze, Joanna Mills Flemming, Anna M Magera
Over the past decades, much research has focused on understanding the critical factors for marine extinctions with the aim of preventing further species losses in the oceans. Although conservation and management strategies are enabling several species and populations to recover, others remain at low abundance levels or experience further declines. To understand these discrepancies, we asked which intrinsic and extrinsic factors are critical for the recovery of marine mammals. Building on a published database on abundance trends of 137 marine mammal populations worldwide, we compiled data on 28 potential critical factors and used random forests and additive mixed models in our analytical approach...
May 10, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474816/the-rise-of-glyphosate-and-new-opportunities-for-biosentinel-early-warning-studies
#13
Zoe Kissane, Jill M Shephard
Glyphosate has become the most commonly used herbicide worldwide, with a reputation of being environmentally benign, non-toxic and safe to wildlife and humans. However, studies have indicated its toxicity has been underestimated, and that its persistence in the environment is greater than once thought. Its actions as a neurotoxin and endocrine disruptor indicate its potential to act in similar ways to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as the organochlorine (OC) chemicals dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dioxin...
May 5, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474803/using-citizen-science-butterfly-counts-to-predict-species-population-trends
#14
Emily B Dennis, Byron J T Morgan, Tom M Brereton, David B Roy, Richard Fox
Citizen scientists are increasingly engaged in gathering biodiversity information, but trade-offs are often required between public engagement goals and reliable data collection. We compare population estimates derived from the first four years (2011-2014) of a short-duration citizen science project (Big Butterfly Count, BBC), to those from long-running, standardized monitoring data collected by experienced observers (UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme, UKBMS), for 18 widespread butterfly species. BBC data are gathered during an annual, three-week period, whereas UKBMS sampling takes place over six months each year...
May 5, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464304/quantifying-the-conservation-gains-from-shared-access-to-linear-infrastructure
#15
Claire A Runge, Ayesha I T Tulloch, Ascelin Gordon, Jonathan R Rhodes
The proliferation of linear infrastructure such as roads and rail is a major global driver of cumulative biodiversity loss. Creative interventions to minimise the impacts of this infrastructure whilst still allowing development to meet human population growth and resource consumption demands are urgently required. One strategy for reducing habitat loss associated with development is to encourage linear infrastructure providers and users to share infrastructure networks. Here we quantify the reductions in biodiversity impact and capital cost under linear infrastructure sharing and demonstrate this approach with a case study in South Australia...
May 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464290/testing-for-thresholds-of-ecosystem-collapse-in-seagrass-meadows
#16
Sean D Connell, Milena Fernandes, Owen W Burnell, Zoë A Doubleday, Kingsley J Griffin, Andrew D Irving, Jonathan Y S Leung, Samuel Owen, Bayden D Russell, Laura J Falkenberg
While the public's value of 'healthy' environments is renown, the science and management of ecosystem health has not been as simple. Ecological systems can be dynamic and unpredictable, with shifts from one ecosystem state to another often considered 'surprising'. This unpredictability is often thought to be due to ecological thresholds, where small cumulative increases in an environmental stressor drives a much greater consequence than would be predicted from linear effects, suggesting an unforeseen tipping point is crossed...
May 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464283/a-view-of-the-global-conservation-job-market-and-how-to-succeed-in-it
#17
Jane Lucas, Evan Gora, Alfonso Alonso
The high demand for conservation-based work is creating a need for conservation-focused training of current and future graduate students. While many graduates with tertiary degrees in biology are finding careers outside of academia, many programs and mentors continue to prepare students to follow in the footsteps of their professors. Unfortunately, information regarding how to appropriately prepare for today's job market and find success in conservation careers is limited in detail and scope. This problem is further complicated by the differing needs of conservation positions distributed among diverse employers in both economically advanced and developing regions across the globe...
May 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464282/using-a-bayesian-network-to-clarify-areas-requiring-research-in-a-host-pathogen-system
#18
D S Bower, K Mengersen, R A Alford, L Schwarzkopf
Bayesian network analyses can integrate complex relationships to examine a range of hypotheses and identify areas that lack associated empirical studies, to prioritise future research. We examined complex relationships in host and pathogen biology to examine disease-driven decline by the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a pathogen that is reducing amphibian biodiversity globally. We constructed a Bayesian network consisting of a range of behavioural, genetic, physiological, and environmental variables that influence disease, and used them to predict host population trends (the variable 'Population trend' which could be declining or stable)...
May 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440021/global-patterns-and-trends-in-human-wildlife-conflict-compensation
#19
Jeremy Ravenelle, Philip J Nyhus
Human-wildlife conflict is a major conservation challenge, and compensation for wildlife damage is a widely used economic tool to mitigate this conflict. The effectiveness of this management tool is widely debated. The relative importance of factors associated with compensation success is unclear and little is known about global geographic or taxonomic differences in the application of compensation programs. We carried out a review of the compensation scholarship to examine geographic and taxonomic gaps, analyze patterns of positive and negative comments related to compensation, and assess the relative magnitude of global compensation payments...
April 25, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425128/understanding-the-effects-of-different-social-data-on-selecting-priority-conservation-areas
#20
Azadeh Karimi, Ayesha I T Tulloch, Greg Brown, Marc Hockings
Conservation success is contingent on assessing social as well as environmental factors so that cost-effective implementation of strategies and actions can be placed in a broad social-ecological context. Until now, the focus has been on how to include spatially-explicit social data in conservation planning, whereas the value of different kinds of social data has received limited attention. In a regional systematic conservation planning case study in Australia, we examined the spatial concurrence of a range of spatially-explicit social values and preferences collected using public participation GIS (PPGIS) methods with biological data...
April 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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