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Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319283/critically-evaluating-best-management-practices-for-preventing-freshwater-turtle-extinctions
#1
R J Spencer, J U Van Dyke, Michael B Thompson
Ex situ conservation tools, such as captive breeding for reintroduction, are considered last resort to help recover threatened or endangered species. However, they may also provide alternative strategies where reducing threats directly is difficult or ineffective. Headstarting, or captive rearing of eggs or neonate animals and subsequent release into the wild, has been controversial for decades. A major criticism is that headstarting is a symptomatic treatment of conservation problems (halfway technology), however, it may provide a mechanism to address multiple threats, particularly in close proximity of population centres...
March 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295579/estimating-freshwater-turtle-mortality-rates-and-population-declines-following-hook-ingestion
#2
David A Steen, Orin J Robinson
Freshwater turtle populations are susceptible to declines following small increases in the mortality of adults, making it essential to identify and understand potential threats. Recent research has used x-ray technology to reveal that freshwater turtles ingest fish hooks associated with recreational angling; this is concerning because hook ingestion is a known source of additive mortality for sea turtles. We used a Bayesian-modeling framework, observed rates of freshwater turtle hook ingestion, and information from sea turtles to estimate there is a 1...
March 15, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295561/effects-of-national-level-forest-management-regimes-on-non-protected-forests-of-the-himalaya
#3
Jodi S Brandt, Teri Allendorf, Volker Radeloff, Jeremy Brooks
Globally, deforestation continues, and while protected areas are effective at protecting forests, the majority of forests are not in protected areas. This raises the question how effective are different management regimes to avoid deforestation in non-protected forests. Our objective was to assess the ability of different national-level forest management regimes to safeguard forests outside of protected areas. We compared 2000-2014 deforestation rates across the temperate forests of five countries in the Himalaya (Bhutan, Nepal, China, India, and Myanmar) of which only 13% are protected...
March 15, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272844/performance-of-iucn-proxies-for-generation-length
#4
Han Chi Fung, Robin S Waples
One of the criteria used by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) to assess threat status is the rate of decline in abundance over 3 generations or 10 years, whichever is longer. The traditional method for calculating generation length (T) uses age-specific survival and fecundity, but these data are rarely available. Consequently, proxies that require less information are often used, which introduces potential biases. The IUCN recommends 2 proxies based on adult mortality rate, T̂d = α + 1/d, and reproductive life span, T̂z = α + z(*) RL, where α is age at first reproduction, d is adult mortality rate, RL is reproductive life span, and z is a coefficient derived from data for comparable species...
March 8, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272753/threats-to-intact-tropical-peatlands-and-opportunities-for-their-conservation
#5
K H Roucoux, I T Lawson, T R Baker, D Del Castillo Torres, F C Draper, O Lähteenoja, M P Gilmore, E N Honorio Coronado, T J Kelly, E T A Mitchard, C Vriesendorp
Large, intact areas of tropical peatland are highly threatened at a global scale by the expansion of commercial agriculture and other forms of economic development. Conserving peatlands on a landscape scale, with their hydrology intact, is of international conservation importance to preserve their distinctive biodiversity and ecosystem services, and maintain their resilience to future environmental change. Here, we explore the threats and opportunities for conserving remaining intact tropical peatlands. Our focus therefore largely excludes the peatlands of Indonesia and Malaysia, where extensive deforestation, drainage and conversion to plantation of peat swamp forests over the last few decades means that conservation efforts in this region are reduced to protecting small fragments of the original ecosystem, attempting to restore drained peatlands, or dissuading companies from expanding existing plantations...
March 8, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248436/defining-ecologically-relevant-scales-for-spatial-protection-with-long-term-data-on-an-endangered-seabird-and-local-prey-availability
#6
Richard B Sherley, Philna Botha, Les G Underhill, Peter G Ryan, Danie van Zyl, Andrew C Cockcroft, Robert J M Crawford, Bruce M Dyer, Timothée R Cook
Human activities are important drivers of marine ecosystem functioning. However, separating the synergistic effects of fishing and environmental variability on the prey base of non-target predators is difficult, often because prey availability estimates on appropriate scales are lacking. Understanding how prey abundance at different spatial scales links to population change can help integrate the needs of non-target predators into fisheries management by defining ecologically-relevant areas for spatial protection...
March 1, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248429/minimizing-species-extinctions-through-strategic-planning-for-conservation-fencing
#7
Jeremy L Ringma, Brendan Wintle, Richard A Fuller, Diana Fisher, Michael Bode
Conservation fences are an increasingly common management action, particularly for species threatened by invasive predators. However, unlike many conservation actions, fence networks are expanding in an unsystematic manner, generally as a reaction to local funding opportunities or threats. In a gap analysis of Australia's substantial predator exclusion fence network, we found highly uneven protection, with 67% of predator-sensitive species remaining unrepresented. Predator exclusion fences all contain small populations of threatened species, therefore a novel systematic prioritization method for expanding fence networks that explicitly incorporates population viability analysis and minimises expected species' extinctions was developed...
March 1, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245067/conservation-genomics-of-the-endangered-burmese-roofed-turtle
#8
F Gözde Çilingir, Frank E Rheindt, Kritika M Garg, Kalyar Platt, Steven G Platt, David P Bickford
The Burmese roofed turtle (Batagur trivittata) is one of the world's most endangered turtles. Only one wild population remains in Myanmar. Based on field observations, wild breeders are thought to number around a dozen. Combined in-situ and ex-situ conservation efforts for the species have raised >700 captive turtles over a decade predominantly from wild collected eggs. In one of the most comprehensive studies bridging genomic methodologies with active in-situ and ex-situ conservation efforts, we obtained ∼1500 unlinked genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from ∼40% of the turtles' remaining global population...
February 28, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240439/using-environmental-heterogeneity-to-plan-for-sea-level-rise
#9
Elizabeth A Hunter, Nathan P Nibbelink
Environmental heterogeneity is increasingly being used to select conservation areas that will provide for future biodiversity under a variety of climate scenarios. This approach, termed "conserving nature's stage" (CNS), assumes that environmental features will respond to climate change more slowly than biological communities, but is CNS effective when the stage is changing as rapidly as the climate? We tested the effectiveness of CNS to select conservation sites in salt marshes in coastal Georgia, USA, where environmental features will change rapidly due to sea level rise (SLR)...
February 27, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234428/testing-the-feasibility-of-a-hypothetical-whaling-conservation-permit-market-in-norway
#10
Biao Huang, Joshua K Abbott, Eli P Fenichel, Rachata Muneepeerakul, Charles Perrings, Leah Gerber
A "cap and trade" style system for managing whale harvests represents a potentially useful approach to resolve the current gridlock in international whale management. The establishment of whale permit markets, open to both whalers and conservationists, could reveal the strength of conservation demand. However, while much is known about demand for whale-based products there is uncertainty about demand for conservation and the willingness of conservation interests to engage in the market. This makes it difficult to predict the outcome of a hypothetical whale permit market...
February 24, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233932/how-economic-contexts-shape-calculations-of-yield-in-biodiversity-offsetting
#11
L Carver, S Sullivan
This paper describes and analyses applied practices creating numerical equivalence between sites of development impact and proposed conservation offset sites in the new conservation technology of biodiversity offsetting. Application of biodiversity offsetting metrics in development impact and mitigation assessments is considered to standardize biodiversity conservation outcomes, sometimes termed 'biodiversity yield' by consultants conducting these calculations. The youth of biodiversity offsetting in application, however, means that little is known about how biodiversity valuations and offset contracts between development and offset sites are agreed in practice, or the long-term implications for conservation outcomes...
February 24, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233917/restoration-planning-to-guide-aichi-targets-in-a-megadiverse-country
#12
Wolke Tobón, Tania Urquiza-Haas, Patricia Koleff, Matthias Schröter, Rubén Ortega-Álvarez, Julio Campo, Roberto Lindig Cisneros, José Sarukhán, Aletta Bonn
Ecological restoration has become an important conservation strategy to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystems services. To restore 15% of degraded ecosystems as stipulated by the CBD Aichi target 15, we developed a prioritization framework to identify potential priority sites for restoration in a megadiverse country. Based on a restoration planning approach and involving stakeholders and experts throughout the process, we used the most current data on biological and environmental information in Mexico to assess areas of biological importance and restoration feasibility at national scale...
February 24, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233409/on-the-functional-extinction-of-the-passenger-pigeon
#13
David L Roberts, Ivan Jarić, Andrew R Solow
The Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) was a social breeder and it has been suggested that the species experienced functional extinction, defined as a total reproductive failure, prior to its actual extinction in the early years of the 20th century. Here, we apply a novel statistical method to a record of egg specimens and so-called skin specimens to test for functional extinction. The results indicate that the species did not become functionally extinct, suggesting that proposals to reverse its rapid decline in the late 19th century could have been successful...
February 24, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233353/importance-of-including-cultural-practices-in-ecological-restoration
#14
Priscilla M Wehi, Janice M Lord
Ecosystems worldwide have a long history of traditional utilisation and management by indigenous cultures. However, environmental degradation can reduce the availability of culturally important resources. Ecological restoration aims to repair damage to ecosystems caused by human activity, but it is not clear how often restoration projects incorporate the return of harvesting or traditional life patterns for indigenous communities. We examine the interface between ecological restoration and cultural utilisation in the context of a culturally important but currently protected New Zealand bird, among award-winning restoration projects in Australasia and worldwide, and across 20 years of scientific publication in the field of Restoration Ecology...
February 24, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225163/transforming-conservation-science-and-practice-for-a-postnormal-world
#15
Matthew J Colloff, Sandra Lavorel, Lorrae E van Kerkhoff, Carina A Wyborn, Ioan Fazey, Russell Gorddard, Georgina M Mace, Wendy B Foden, Michael Dunlop, I Colin Prentice, John Crowley, Paul Leadley, Patrick Degeorges
In this essay we highlight issues to consider when reframing conservation science and practice in the context of global change. We discuss (1) new framings of the links between ecosystems and society; (2) new relationships and roles for conservation science; (3) new models of how conservation links to society and social change; (4) new approaches for implementing adaptation for conservation outcomes. We argue that reframing conservation objectives requires scientists and practitioners to implement approaches that are no longer constrained by discipline and sectoral boundaries, geopolitical polarities, or technical problematisation...
February 22, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221699/beehive-fences-as-a-multidimensional-conflict-mitigation-tool-for-farmers-coexisting-with-elephants
#16
Lucy E King, Fredrick Lala, Hesron Nzumu, Emmanuel Mwambingu, Iain Douglas-Hamilton
Increasing habitat fragmentation and human population growth in Africa has resulted in an escalation in human-elephant conflict between small-scale farmers and free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta Africana). In 2012 Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) implemented the national 10-year Conservation and Management Strategy for the Elephant in Kenya, which includes an action aimed at testing whether beehive fences can be used to mitigate human-elephant conflict. From 2012 to 2015, we field-tested the efficacy of beehive fences to protect 10 0...
February 21, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221696/using-environmental-dna-to-assess-population-wide-spatiotemporal-reserve-use
#17
Kathryn Stewart, Hongjuan Ma, Jinsong Zheng, Jianfu Zhao
Scientists increasingly rely on protected areas to assist in biodiversity conservation, yet the efficacy of these areas are rarely systematically assessed, often as a byproduct of underfunding, particularly in developing countries. Still, adaptive management strategies to maximize conservation success often rely on understanding the temporal and spatial dynamism of population therein. Environmental DNA (eDNA) has been employed as a time and cost-effective method to monitor species' distribution, with quantitative PCR (qPCR) techniques also assisting in our knowledge about abundance of aquatic taxa...
February 21, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218967/representation-of-critical-natural-capital-in-china
#18
Yihe Lü, Liwei Zhang, Yuan Zeng, Bojie Fu, Charlotte Whitham, Shuguang Liu, Bingfang Wu
Traditional means of assessing representativeness of conservation value in protected areas depend on measures of structural biodiversity. The effectiveness of priority conservation areas at representing critical natural capital (CNC) (i.e., an essential and renewable subset of natural capital) remains largely unknown. We analyzed the representativeness of CNC-conservation priority areas in national nature reserves (i.e., nature reserves under jurisdiction of the central government with large spatial distribution across the provinces) in China with a new biophysical-based composite indicator approach...
February 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218807/characterizing-fish-responses-to-a-river-restoration-over-21-years-based-on-species-traits
#19
Stefanie Höckendorff, Jonathan D Tonkin, Peter Haase, Margret Bunzel-Drüke, Olaf Zimball, Matthias Scharf, Stefan Stoll
Understanding restoration effectiveness is often impaired by a lack of quality, long-term monitoring data and, to date, few studies have used species trait information to gain insight into the processes that drive the reaction of fish communities to restoration. We examined fish community responses using a highly resolved dataset with 21 consecutive years of data (4 years pre- and 17 years post-restoration) at multiple restored and unrestored sampling reaches from a river restoration project at the Lippe River, Germany...
February 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218805/functional-nonredundancy-of-elephants-in-a-disturbed-tropical-forest
#20
Nitin Sekar, Chia-Lo Lee, Raman Sukumar
Conservation efforts are often motivated by the threat of global extinction. Yet if conservationists had more information suggesting that the local extirpation of individual species could lead to undesirable ecological effects, conservationists might more frequently attempt to protect or restore such species across their range even if they are not in danger of global extinction. Scientists have seldom measured or quantitatively predicted the functional consequences of species loss, even for large, extinction-prone species that theory suggests should be functionally unique...
February 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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