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Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004598/combined-use-of-edna-metabarcoding-and-video-surveillance-for-the-assessment-of-fish-biodiversity
#1
Michal Stat, Jeffrey John, Joseph D DiBattista, Stephen J Newman, Michael Bunce, Euan S Harvey
Monitoring communities of fish is important for the management and health of fisheries and marine ecosystems. Baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVs) are one of the most effective non-destructive techniques for sampling bony fishes and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays, and skates). However, while BRUVs can sample visually conspicuous biota, some taxa are under-sampled or not recorded at all. Here, we compared the diversity of fishes characterised using BRUVs with metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA) extracted from seawater...
July 13, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004143/limits-of-monetization-in-protecting-ecosystem-services
#2
Julia Temel, Aled Jones, Nikoleta Jones, Lenke Balint
The monetary valuation of ecosystem services is gaining traction in policy and business communities. Several tools and decision-making processes have been proposed, including criteria to assess the appropriateness of using monetary valuation for biodiversity conservation outcomes. These criteria include measures such as scale, uniqueness, and threat. We used case studies of monetization projects for which the outcomes were measured to explore the limitations and application of these criteria. There was limited evidence of the effectiveness of such schemes...
July 13, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004134/meta-analysis-of-the-effects-of-upstream-land-cover-on-stream-recovery
#3
Bronwen Stanford, Holly Jones, Erika Zavaleta
Unpredictable or variable ecosystem recovery from disturbance presents a challenge to conservation, particularly as the scale of human disturbance continues to increase. Theory suggests that land cover and disturbance characteristics should influence recovery, but individual studies of disturbance and recovery frequently struggle to uncover generalizable patterns due to high levels of site-specific variation. To understand how land cover, disturbance type, and disturbance duration influence ecosystem recovery, we performed a global meta-analysis of stream recovery from disturbances that affect water quality (e...
July 13, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998590/effects-of-howler-monkey-reintroduction-on-ecological-interactions-and-processes
#4
Luísa Genes, Fernando A S Fernandez, Fernando Z Vaz-de-Mello, Patrícia da Rosa, Eduardo Fernandez, Alexandra S Pires
Rewilding has been an increasingly popular tool to restore plant-animal interactions and ecological processes impaired by defaunation. However, the re-establishment of such processes has seldom been assessed. Here, we investigate the restoration of ecological interactions following the reintroduction of the brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba) to a defaunated Atlantic forest site. We expected the reintroduction to restore plant-animal interactions and interactions between howlers and dung beetles, which promote secondary seed dispersal...
July 12, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992628/linkages-between-measures-of-biodiversity-and-community-resilience-in-pacific-island-agroforests
#5
Tamara Ticktin, Shimona Quazi, Rachel Dacks, Mesulame Tora, Ashley McGuigan, Zoe Hastings, Alivereti Naikatini
Designing agroecosystems that are compatible with the conservation of biodiversity is a top conservation priority. However, the social variables that drive native biodiversity conservation in these systems are poorly understood. We devised a new approach to identify social-ecological linkages that affect conservation outcomes in agroecosystems and in social-ecological systems more broadly. We focused on coastal agroforests in Fiji, which, like agroforests across other small Pacific Islands, are critical to food security, contain much of the country's remaining lowland forests, and have rapidly declining levels of native biodiversity...
July 10, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987850/implicit-decision-framing-as-an-unrecognized-source-of-confusion-in-endangered-species-classification
#6
Jonathan W Cummings, Sarah J Converse, David R Smith, Steve Morey, Michael C Runge
Legal classification of species requires scientific and values-based components, and how those components interact depends on how people frame the decision. Is classification a negotiation of trade-offs, a decision on how to allocate conservation efforts, or simply a comparison of the biological status of a species to a legal standard? The answers to problem-framing questions such as these influence decision making in species classifications. However, in our experience decision makers, staff biologists, and stakeholders often have differing perspectives of the decision problem and assume different framings...
July 10, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29972268/the-impacts-of-tropical-forest-disturbance-on-species-vital-rates
#7
Cindy C P Cosset, James J Gilroy, David P Edwards
Tropical forests are experiencing enormous threats from deforestation and habitat degradation. Much of our knowledge on the impacts of these land-use changes on tropical species comes from studies examining patterns of richness and abundance. Demographic vital rates (survival, reproduction and movement) can also be impacted by land-use change in a way that increases species vulnerability to local extinction, but in many cases these impacts may not be manifested in short-term changes in abundance or species richness...
July 4, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974516/assessing-sensitivities-of-marine-areas-to-stressors-based-on-biological-traits
#8
Judi E Hewitt, Carolyn J Lundquist, Joanne Ellis
Analysis of the biological traits (BTA) that control how organisms interact with their environment has been used to identify environmental drivers or impacts across large-scales and to explain the importance of biodiversity loss. However, BTA could also be used within risk assessment frameworks or conservation planning by understanding the groups of traits that predict the sensitivity of observed habitats or communities to specific human activities. Deriving sensitivity from biological traits should extend sensitivity predictions to a variety of habitats, especially those in which it would be difficult to conduct experiments due to for example depth, risk to gear and human life and at scales larger than the normal scale of experiments...
July 3, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968335/an-adaptive-method-for-identifying-marine-areas-of-high-conservation-priority
#9
Isabel Afán, Joan Giménez, Manuela G Forero, Francisco Ramírez
Identifying priority areas for biodiversity conservation is particularly challenging in the marine environment due to the open and dynamic nature of the ocean, the paucity of information on species distribution, and the necessary balance between marine biodiversity conservation and essential supporting services such as seafood provision. We used the Patagonian seabird breeding community as a case study to propose an integrated and adaptive method for delimiting key marine areas for conservation. Priority areas were defined through a free decision-support tool (Marxan) that included projected at-sea distributions of seabirds (approximately 2,225,000 individuals of 14 species); BirdLife Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) for pelagic bird species; and the economic costs of potential regulations in fishing practices...
July 3, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962096/the-racovitzan-impediment-and-the-hidden-biodiversity-of-unexplored-environments
#10
Gentile Francesco Ficetola, Claudia Canedoli, Fabio Stock
Awareness of our limits has been an incitement to develop knowledge through the history. In the last years, the incompleteness of biodiversity knowledge has been formalized through the definition of a number of "shortfalls", which identify the many facets of biodiversity for which we are far from having exhaustive information (Hortal et al. 2015). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
July 1, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956854/great-barrier-reef-recovery-through-multiple-interventions
#11
Scott A Condie, Éva E Plagányi, Elisabetta B Morello, Karlo Hock, Roger Beeden
The decline of coral cover on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR) has largely been attributed to the cumulative pressures of tropical cyclones, temperature induced coral bleaching, and predation by crown of thorns starfish (CoTS). In such a complex system, the effectiveness of any management intervention will only become apparent over decadal timescales. Systems modeling approaches are therefore essential in formulating and testing alternative management strategies. We have developed a meta-community model incorporating the cumulative pressures of tropical cyclones, coral bleaching, predation, and competition between corals on a network of reefs...
June 29, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956374/public-perception-of-river-fish-biodiversity-in-four-european-countries
#12
Sophia Kochalski, Carsten Riepe, Marie Fujitani, Øystein Aas, Robert Arlinghaus
Freshwater biodiversity is rapidly declining worldwide. Public support for biodiversity conservation is shaped by people's values and their knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards the environmental domain. This study reports the results of the first multi-national, representative survey of the general public´s perceptions of river fish biodiversity in four European countries (France, Germany, Norway, Sweden; 1000 respondents per country). We confirm the expectation of many biodiversity scientists that the public has limited knowledge of freshwater fishes...
June 28, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29947116/the-crucial-but-underrepresented-role-of-philosophy-in-conservation-science-curricula
#13
David Saltz, James Justus, Buddy Huffaker
Sciences are often categorized as basic or applied. The former focus on explaining processes and generating knowledge; the latter focus on harnessing that knowledge for practical applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 26, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29947087/diverging-response-patterns-of-terrestrial-and-aquatic-species-to-hydromorphological-restoration
#14
Francesca Pilotto, Jonathan D Tonkin, Kathrin Januschke, Armin W Lorenz, Jonas Jourdan, Andrea Sundermann, Daniel Hering, Stefan Stoll, Peter Haase
Although experiences with ecological restoration continue to accumulate, the effectiveness of restoration for biota remains debated. We complemented a traditional taxonomic analysis approach with information on 56 species traits to uncover the responses of three aquatic (fish, macroinvertebrates, macrophytes) and two terrestrial (carabid beetles, floodplain vegetation) biotic groups to 43 hydromorphological river restoration projects in Germany. All taxonomic groups responded positively to restoration, as shown by increased taxonomic richness (10-164%) and trait diversity (15-120%)...
June 26, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29943862/meta-analysis-of-the-effects-of-rice-field-abandonment-on-biodiversity-in-japan
#15
Chieko Koshida, Naoki Katayama
Farmland abandonment is increasing worldwide. Concurrently, a concept that views this as an opportunity for biodiversity restoration ('rewilding') is drawing attention. Because of a lack of data, however, it remains inconclusive whether farmland abandonment increases biodiversity in different farmland types and corresponding environments. Information is particularly scarce for Asia, home to one-third of identified biodiversity hotspots and where the dominant farmlands, i.e., rice fields, are often viewed as substitutes for natural wetlands...
June 26, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935028/genome-sequencing-and-conservation-genomics-in-the-scandinavian-wolverine-population
#16
Robert Ekblom, Birte Brechlin, Jens Persson, Linnéa Smeds, Malin Johansson, Jessica Magnusson, Øystein Flagstad, Hans Ellegren
Genetic approaches have proved valuable to the study and conservation of endangered populations, especially for monitoring programs, and there is potential for further developments in this direction by extending analyses to the genomic level. We assembled the genome of the wolverine (Gulo gulo), a mustelid that in Scandinavia has recently recovered from a significant population decline, and obtained a 2.42 Gb draft sequence representing >85% of the genome and including >21,000 protein-coding genes. We then performed whole-genome re-sequencing of 10 Scandinavian wolverines and found that genetic diversity was among the lowest detected in a red-listed population (mean genome-wide nucleotide diversity of 0...
June 23, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923638/ten-year-assessment-of-the-100-priority-questions-for-global-biodiversity-conservation
#17
Tommaso Jucker, Bonnie Wintle, Gorm Shackelford, Pierre Bocquillon, Jan Laurens Geffert, Tim Kasoar, Eszter Kovacs, Hannah S Mumby, Chloé Orland, Judith Schleicher, Eleanor R Tew, Aiora Zabala, Tatsuya Amano, Alexandra Bell, Boris Bongalov, Josephine M Chambers, Colleen Corrigan, América P Durán, Leslie-Anne Duvic-Paoli, Caroline Emilson, Jéssica Fonseca da Silva, Emma E Garnett, Elizabeth J Green, Miriam K Guth, Andrew Hacket-Pain, Amy Hinsley, Javier Igea, Martina Kunz, Sarah H Luke, William Lynam, Philip A Martin, Matheus H Nunes, Nancy Ockendon, Aly Pavitt, Charlotte L R Payne, Victoria Plutshack, Tim T Rademacher, Rebecca J Robertson, David C Rose, Anca Serban, Benno I Simmons, Erik J S Emilson, Catherine Tayleur, Claire F R Wordley, Nibedita Mukherjee
In 2008, a group of conservation scientists compiled a list of 100 priority questions for the conservation of the world's biodiversity [Sutherland et al. (2009) Conservation Biology, 23, 557-567]. However, now almost a decade later, no one has yet published a study gauging how much progress has been made in addressing these 100 high-priority questions in the peer-reviewed literature. Here we take a first step toward re-examining the 100 questions and identify key knowledge gaps that still remain. Through a combination of a questionnaire and a literature review, we evaluated each of the 100 questions on the basis of two criteria: relevance and effort...
June 20, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923231/the-relative-role-of-captive-breeding-and-of-zoo-bred-animals-in-north-american-conservation-translocations
#18
REVIEW
Typhenn A Brichieri-Colombi, Natasha A Lloyd, Jana M Mcpherson, Axel Moehrenschlager
With the loss of biodiversity accelerating, conservation translocations such as reintroductions are becoming an increasingly common conservation tool. Conservation translocations must source individuals for release from either wild or captive-bred populations. We asked what proportion of North American conservation translocations rely on captive breeding, and to what extent zoos and aquaria (hereafter zoos) fulfill captive breeding needs. Our comprehensive literature review indicates that North American conservation translocations published before 2014 involved captive breeding for 162 (58%) of the 279 animal species translocated...
June 19, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920775/making-habitat-connectivity-a-reality
#19
Annika T H Keeley, Galli Basson, D Richard Cameron, Nicole E Heller, Patrick R Huber, Carrie A Schloss, James H Thorne, Adina M Merenlender
For over 40 years, habitat corridors have been a solution for sustaining wildlife in fragmented landscapes, and now are often suggested as a climate adaptation strategy. However, while a plethora of connectivity plans exist, protecting and restoring habitat connectivity through on-the-ground action has been slow. We identified implementation challenges and opportunities through a literature review of project implementation, a science-practice workshop, and interviews with conservation professionals. Our research indicates that connectivity challenges and solutions tend to be context-specific, dependent on land ownership patterns, socioeconomic factors, and the policy framework...
June 19, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896899/population-viability-and-harvest-sustainability-for-madagascar-lemurs
#20
Cara E Brook, James P Herrera, Cortni Borgerson, Emma Fuller, Pascal Andriamahazoarivosoa, B J Rodolph Rasolofoniaina, J L Rado Ravoavy Randrianasolo, Z R Eli Rakotondrafarasata, Hervet J Randriamady, Andrew P Dobson, Christopher D Golden
Subsistence hunting presents a conservation challenge, by which biodiversity preservation must be balanced with safeguarding of human livelihoods. Globally, subsistence hunting threatens primate populations, including Madagascar's endemic lemurs. We used a classic conservation biology tool, population viability analysis (PVA), to assess the sustainability of lemur hunting in Makira Natural Park, Madagascar. We identified trends in seasonal hunting of eleven Makira lemur species from household interview data, estimated local lemur densities for a subset of species in populations adjacent to focal villages, and quantified extinction vulnerability for these populations, based on species-specific demographic parameters and empirically-derived hunting rates...
June 13, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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