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Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411399/compassionate-versus-consequentialist-conservation
#1
Jordan O Hampton, Bruce Warburton, Peter Sandøe
Ethical treatment of wildlife and consideration of animal welfare have become important themes in conservation but ethical perspectives on how best to protect wild animals and promote their welfare are diverse. We present the advantages offered by the consequentialist 'harms' ethical framework applied to managing wild herbivores for conservation purposes. We argue that, to minimize harms while achieving conservation goals, overabundant wild herbivores should in many cases be managed through consumptive in situ killing...
November 9, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411398/open-access-and-academic-imperialism
#2
EDITORIAL
Mark Burgman
Recently, major scientific funding bodies in several European countries agreed to mandate that researchers they fund (approximately €7.6 billion annually) publish their results in open-access journals, intending to penalize authors who publish in journals that use a paywall for some or all of their articles (Enserink 2018). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 9, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411404/historical-perspectives-on-contemporary-human-environment-dynamics-in-southeast-africa
#3
REVIEW
Kristina Douglass, Jonathan Walz, Eréndira Quintana-Morales, Richard Marcus, Garth Myers, Jacques Pollini
The human communities and ecosystems of island and coastal southeast Africa face significant and linked ecological threats. Socio-ecological conditions of concern to communities, governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO's), and researchers include declining agricultural productivity, deforestation, introductions of exotic flora and fauna, coastal erosion and sedimentation, damage to marine habitats, illegal fishing and overfishing, waste pollution, salinization of fresh water supplies and rising energy demands, among others...
November 8, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30350891/shared-ways-of-thinking-in-brazil-about-the-science-practice-interface-in-ecology-and-conservation
#4
Diana Bertuol-Garcia, Carla Morsello, Charbel N El-Hani, Renata Pardini
The debate in the literature on the science-practice interface suggests a diversity of opinions on how to link science and practice to improve conservation. Understanding this diversity is key to addressing unequal power relations, avoiding the consideration of only dominant views, and identifying strategies to link science and practice. In turn, linking science and practice should promote conservation decisions that are socially robust and scientifically informed. To identify and describe the viewpoints of scientists and decision makers on how the science-practice interface should work in order to improve conservation decisions, we interviewed Brazilian scientists (ecologists and conservation scientists, n = 11) and decision makers (n = 11)...
October 23, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30350889/governing-trade-offs-in-ecosystem-services-and-disservices-to-achieve-human-wildlife-coexistence
#5
Silvia Ceaușu, Rose A Graves, Alexander K Killion, Jens-Christian Svenning, Neil H Carter
Sustaining wildlife populations, which provide both ecosystem services and disservices, represents a worldwide conservation challenge. The ecosystem services and Ostrom's social-ecological system frameworks have been adopted across natural and social sciences to characterize benefits from nature. Despite their generalizability, individually they do not include explicit tools for addressing the sustainable management of many wildlife populations. For instance, Ostrom's framework does not specifically address competing perspectives on wildlife, while the ecosystem services framework provides a limited representation of the social and governance context wherein such competing perspectives are embedded...
October 23, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30350883/application-of-next-generation-sequencing-technologies-to-conservation-of-wood-inhabiting-fungi
#6
Witoon Purahong, Tesfaye Wubet, Dirk Krüger, François Buscot
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has significantly increased knowledge of microbial communities and their distribution. However, it is still not common to apply NGS technology to the field of microbial conservation. This study aims to use NGS technologies to evaluate conservation strategies for wood-inhabiting fungi. Evaluating a deadwood experiment three years after it was established, we specifically examine which species and species combinations of trees promote the highest richness of wood-inhabiting fungi...
October 23, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30346052/effects-of-development-of-wind-energy-and-associated-changes-in-land-use-on-bird-densities-in-upland-areas
#7
Darío Fernández-Bellon, Mark W Wilson, Sandra Irwin, John O'Halloran
Wind energy development is the most recent of many pressures on upland bird communities and their habitats. Studies of birds in relation to wind energy development have focused on effects of direct mortality, but the importance of indirect effects (e.g., displacement, habitat loss) on avian community diversity and stability is increasingly being recognized. We used a control-impact study in combination with a gradient design to assess the effects of wind farms on upland bird densities and on bird species grouped by habitat association (forest and open-habitat species)...
October 22, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324667/conservation-geopolitics
#8
REVIEW
Timothy Hodgetts, Dawn Burnham, Amy Dickman, Ewan A Macdonald, David W Macdonald
We reviewed recent work concerning the impact of geopolitics on wildlife conservation (and vice versa) and identified future priorities in conservation geopolitics research. Geopolitics is understood as both an analytical focus on geopolitical practices (especially concerning the behavior) of countries with respect to territory and national security and a set of theories developed to explain and predict those behaviors. We developed a typology of core geopolitical practices of relevance to conservation: territorial practices of colonisation and the management of migrations and borders, and security practices relating to military, economic, and environmental security...
October 15, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318640/effects-of-seascape-connectivity-on-reserve-performance-along-exposed-coastlines
#9
Nicholas L Ortodossi, Ben L Gilby, Thomas A Schlacher, Rod M Connolly, Nicholas A Yabsley, Christopher J Henderson, Andrew D Olds
The spatial properties of landscapes influence numerous ecological attributes on land and in the sea, including the efficacy of conservation areas. In this context, seascape connectivity (landscape connectivity in the sea) has been shown to modify reserve performance in low-energy marine ecosystems (e.g. coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass), but it is not clear whether similar spatial linkages also shape reserve effectiveness on high-energy, exposed coastlines. We used the surf zones of ocean beaches in eastern Australia as a model system to test how seascape connectivity and reserve attributes combine to shape conservation outcomes...
October 14, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311266/circuit-theory-applications-to-connectivity-science-and-conservation
#10
REVIEW
Brett G Dickson, Christine M Albano, Miranda E Gray, Meredith L McClure, David M Theobald, Ranjan Anantharaman, Viral B Shah, Paul Beier, Joe Fargione, Kimberly R Hall, Tabitha A Graves, Josh J Lawler, Paul B Leonard, Caitlin E Littlefield, John Novembre, Carrie Schloss, Nathan Schumaker
Conservation practitioners have long recognized ecological connectivity as a global priority for preserving biodiversity and ecosystem function. In the early years of conservation biology, ecologists extended principles of island biogeography to assess connectivity using measures of source patch proximity and other metrics derivable from binary maps of habitat. From 2006-2008, the late Brad McRae introduced circuit theory to many ecologists and conservation biologists as an alternative approach to model gene flow and the dispersal or movement routes of organisms...
October 11, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311257/a-tribute-to-a-true-conservation-innovator-brad-mcrae-1966-2017
#11
Joshua Lawler, Paul Beier, Brett Dickson, Joseph Fargione, John Novembre, David Theobald
Powerful innovations can occur when a concept is taken from one field and used to solve a problem in an unrelated field. In fact, it has been shown that as the distance between a problem solver's field of technical expertise and the focal field of a problem increase, so does the probability of success. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 11, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306643/amazonian-deforestation-and-soil-biodiversity
#12
André L C Franco, Bruno W Sobral, Artur L C Silva, Diana H Wall
Clearance and perturbation of Amazonian forests are one of the greatest threats to tropical biodiversity conservation of our times. A better understanding of how soil communities respond to Amazonian deforestation is crucially needed to inform policy interventions that effectively protect biodiversity and the essential ecosystem services it provides. Here we assessed the impact of deforestation and ecosystem conversion to arable land on Amazonian soil biodiversity using a meta-analysis. We analysed 274 pairwise comparisons of soil biodiversity in Amazonian primary forests and sites under different stages of deforestation and land-use conversion - disturbed (wildfire and selective logging) and slash-and-burnt forests, pastures and cropping systems...
October 11, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306635/the-importance-of-considering-multiple-interacting-species-for-conservation-of-species-at-risk
#13
Joanna M Burgar, A Cole Burton, Jason T Fisher
Species-at-risk conservation is complex and multi-faceted. However, mitigation strategies are typically narrow in scope, an artefact of conservation research that is often limited to a single species or stressor. The ability to research an entire community of strongly interacting species would greatly enhance our ability to forge more comprehensive and effective conservation decisions. We demonstrate how camera trapping and new statistical techniques can accomplish this using threatened boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou; hereafter caribou) as a case study...
October 10, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306633/effects-of-law-enforcement-and-community-outreach-on-mammal-diversity-in-a-biodiversity-hotspot
#14
Cheng Chen, Ruichang Quan, Guanghong Cao, Hongpei Yang, A Cole Burton, Michael Meitner, Jedediah F Brodie
Management activities such as law enforcement and community outreach are thought to affect conservation outcomes in protected areas, but their importance relative to intrinsic environmental characteristics of the parks and extrinsic human pressures surrounding the parks have not been explored. Furthermore, it is not clear which is more related to conservation outcomes - the management itself or local people's perceptions of the management. Here we measured how objective (park staff-reported) and subjective (local villager-reported) levels of community outreach and law enforcement related to mammal abundance and diversity in six protected areas in Xishuangbanna, southwest China, a biodiversity hotspot with high hunting and land conversion pressures...
October 10, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30285277/predicting-the-time-needed-for-environmental-systematic-reviews-and-systematic-maps
#15
Neal R Haddaway, Martin J Westgate
Systematic reviews (SRs) and systematic mapping aim to maximize transparency and comprehensiveness while minimizing subjectivity and bias. These are time-consuming and complex tasks, so SRs are considered resource intensive, but published estimates of systematic-review resource requirements are largely anecdotal. We analyzed all Collaboration for Environmental Evidence (CEE) SRs (n = 66) and maps (n = 20) published from 2012 to 2017 to estimate the average number of articles retained at each review stage. We also surveyed 33 experienced systematic reviewers to collate information on the rate at which those stages could be completed...
October 4, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30280435/searching-for-solutions-to-the-conflict-over-europe-s-oldest-forest
#16
Maciej Kuboń, Agnieszka E Latawiec, Fabio Rubio Scarano, Adam Drosik, Bernardo B N Strassburg, Włodzimierz Grzebieniowski, Juan Gomes Bastos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264893/recognition-of-the-discipline-of-conservation-mycology
#17
Tom W May, Jerry A Cooper, Anders Dahlberg, Giuliana Furci, David W Minter, Gregory M Mueller, Alison Pouliot, Zhuliang Yang
Fungi constitute one of the major lineages of life (with organisms treated as 'fungi' also scattered in other lineages).
September 28, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30259569/characterizing-efforts-to-reduce-consumer-demand-for-wildlife-products
#18
Diogo Veríssimo, Anita K Y Wan
The unsustainable trade in wildlife is a key threat to the Earth's biodiversity. Whilst efforts to mitigate this threat have traditionally focused on regulation and enforcement, there is a growing interest in campaigns aimed at reducing consumer demand for wildlife products. In this article, we aim to characterize these behaviour change campaigns and the existing evidence around their impacts. We found a total of 236 campaigns, mainly in the grey literature. The number of campaigns grew over the last decades, although for more than 15% of the campaigns a start date was not available...
September 27, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30259577/applying-deep-learning-to-right-whale-photo-identification
#19
R Bogucki, M Cygan, C B Khan, M Klimek, J K Milczek, M Mucha
Photo identification is an important tool used in the field of conservation biology to estimate population abundance and monitor trends over time. However, manually matching photographs to known individuals is time-consuming. Motivated by recent developments in image recognition, we hosted a data science challenge on the crowdsourcing platform Kaggle to automate the identification of endangered North Atlantic right whales. The winning solution was able to automatically identify individual whales with 87% accuracy using a series of convolutional neural networks to identify the region of interest, rotate, and crop the images, create standardized 'passport' photographs, and identify the correct individual whale...
September 26, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30259575/tracking-a-half-century-of-media-reporting-on-gray-wolves
#20
Alexander K Killion, Tracy Melvin, Eric Lindquist, Neil H Carter
Natural resource and wildlife managers are challenged with balancing disparate priorities from a diversity of stakeholder groups. To manage these priorities, a firm understanding of topics salient to the public is needed. The media often report on issues of importance to the public and therefore can be useful measures of public interest. However, efficient methods for distinguishing diverse topics of a wildlife management issue reported in the media and changes in the salience of those topics have been lacking...
September 26, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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