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Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776761/fishing-gear-restrictions-and-biomass-gains-for-coral-reef-fishes-in-marine-protected-areas
#1
Stuart J Campbell, Graham J Edgar, Rick D Stuart-Smith, German Soler, Amanda E Bates
Strong empirical evidence supports recovery of reef fish populations with fishery closures. In countries where full exclusion of people from fishing may be perceived as inequitable, fishing gear restrictions on non-selective and destructive gears may offer socially relevant management alternatives to build recovery of fish biomass. Even so, very few studies have statistically compared the responses of tropical reef fisheries to alternative management strategies. Here we test for the effects of fishery closures and fishing gear restrictions on tropical reef fish biomass, at the community and family level, at 1,396 underwater surveys conducted at 617 unique sites across a spatial hierarchy within 22 global marine ecoregions representing five realms...
August 4, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766846/managing-conflicts-between-economic-activities-and-threatened-migratory-marine-species-toward-creating-a-multiobjective-blue-economy
#2
Linda R Harris, Ronel Nel, Herman Oosthuizen, Mike Meyer, Deon Kotze, Darrell Anders, Steven McCue, Santosh Bachoo
Harnessing the economic potential of the oceans is key to combating poverty, enhancing food security, and strengthening economies. But the concomitant risk of intensified resource extraction to migratory species is worrying given that these species contribute to important ecological processes, often underpin alternatively livelihoods, and many are already threatened. We thus sought to quantify the potential conflict between key economic activities (five fisheries and hydrocarbon exploitation) and sea turtle migration corridors in a region with rapid economic development: Southern and East Africa...
August 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766818/the-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-relictum-in-the-endemic-avifauna-of-eastern-cuba
#3
Letícia Soares, Peter Marra, Lindsey Gray, Robert E Ricklefs
Island populations are vulnerable to introduced pathogens, as evidenced by extinction or population decline of several endemic Hawaiian birds caused by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium relictum (order Haemosporida). We analyzed blood samples from 363 birds caught near Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, for the presence of haemosporidian infections. We characterized parasite lineages by determining nucleotide variation of the parasite's mitochondrial cyt b gene. Fifty-nine individuals were infected, and we identified 7 lineages of haemosporidian parasites...
August 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766741/the-role-of-social-license-in-conservation
#4
Dave Kendal, Rebecca M Ford
"Threatened species programs need a social license to justify public funding" (Zander et al. 2014). Or do they? There is growing acceptance within conservation science that community support for and engagement in ecosystem management programs is likely to lead to better conservation outcomes (Marvier & Wong 2012). However, the language used to characterize relations between conservation and the community is important, and use of the term social license may not always be a useful way to describe this relationship...
August 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766738/major-shifts-in-amazon-wildlife-populations-from-recent-climatic-intensification
#5
Richard Bodmer, Pedro Mayor, Miguel Antunez, Kimberlyn Chota, Tula Fang, Pablo Puertas, Marlini Pittet, Maire Kirkland, Mike Walkey, Claudia Rios, Pedro Perez-Peña, Peter Henderson, William Bodmer, Andy Bicerra, Joseph Zegarra, Emma Docherty
In the western Amazon basin, recent intensification of river level cycles has increased flooding during the wet seasons and decreased precipitation during the dry season. Greater than normal floods occurred in 2009 and in all years from 2011-2015 during high water seasons, and a drought occurred during the 2010 low water season. During these years, we surveyed populations of terrestrial, arboreal and aquatic wildlife in a seasonally flooded Amazonian forest to study the consequences of intensification of climatic fluctuations to wildlife populations and in turn resource use by traditional people...
August 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755447/matches-and-mismatches-between-conservation-investments-and-biodiversity-values-in-the-european-union
#6
David Sánchez-Fernández, Pedro Abellán, Pedro Aragón, Sara Varela, Mar Cabeza
Recently, the European Commission adopted a new strategy to halt the loss of biodiversity. Member states are expected to favour a more effective collection and redistribution of European Union (EU) funds under the current Multiannual Financial Framework for 2014-2020. Because of the large spatial variation in the distribution of biodiversity and conservation needs at the continental scale, EU instruments should ensure that countries with higher biodiversity values get more funds and resources for the conservation of this biodiversity than other countries...
July 28, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741747/defending-the-scientific-integrity-of-conservation-policy-processes
#7
Carlos Carroll, Brett Hartl, Gretchen T Goldman, Daniel J Rohlf, Adrian Treves, Jeremy T Kerr, Euan G Ritchie, Richard T Kingsford, Katherine E Gibbs, Martine Maron, James E M Watson
Government agencies faced with politically controversial decisions often discount or ignore scientific information, whether from agency staff or nongovernmental scientists. Recent developments in scientific integrity (the ability to perform, use, communicate, and publish science free from censorship or political interference) in Canada, Australia, and the United States demonstrate a similar trajectory. A perceived increase in scientific-integrity abuses provokes concerted pressure by the scientific community, leading to efforts to improve scientific-integrity protections under a new administration...
July 25, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726340/factors-influencing-property-selection-for-conservation-revolving-funds
#8
Mathew J Hardy, James A Fitzsimons, Sarah A Bekessy, Ascelin Gordon
Finding sustainable ways to increase the amount of private land protected for biodiversity is a challenge for many conservation organizations. In a number of countries, organizations use 'revolving fund' programs, whereby land is purchased, and then on-sold to conservation-minded owners with a condition to enter into a conservation covenant or easement. The proceeds from sale are then used to purchase, protect and on-sell additional properties, incrementally increasing the amount of protected private land. As the effectiveness of this approach relies upon selecting the right properties, we sought to explore the factors currently considered by practitioners and how these are integrated into decision-making...
July 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722213/countering-resistance-to-protected-area-extension
#9
David Lindenmayer, Simon Thorn, Reed Noss
The establishment of protected areas is a critical strategy for conserving biodiversity. Key policy directives like the Aichi targets seek to expand protected areas to 17% of the earth's land surface, with calls by some conservation biologists for much more. However, in places such as the USA, Germany and Australia, attempts to increase protected areas are meeting strong resistance from communities, industry groups, and governments. Here we provide case studies of such resistance and suggest four ways to tackle this problem: (1) Broaden the case for protected areas beyond just nature conservation, to include the economic, human health, and other benefits, and translate these into a persuasive business case for protected areas...
July 19, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714583/mapping-social-ecological-vulnerability-to-inform-local-decision-making
#10
Lauric Thiault, Paul Marshall, Stefan Gelcich, Antoine Collin, Frédérique Chlous, Joachim Claudet
An overarching challenge of natural resource management and biodiversity conservation is that relationships between human and nature are difficult to integrate into tools that can effectively guide decision-making. Social-ecological vulnerability offers a valuable framework for identifying and understanding important social-ecological linkages, and the implications of dependencies and other feedback loops in the system. Unfortunately its implementation at local scales has hitherto been limited, due at least in part to the lack of operational tools for spatial representation of social-ecological vulnerability...
July 17, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703325/effectiveness-of-protected-areas-for-vertebrates-based-on-taxonomic-and-phylogenetic-diversity
#11
Qing Quan, Xianli Che, Yongjie Wu, Yuchun Wu, Qiang Zhang, Min Zhang, Fasheng Zou
Establishing protected areas is the primary goal and tool for preventing irreversible biodiversity loss. However, the effectiveness of protected areas that target specific species has been questioned for some time, because targeting key species for conservation may impair the integral regional pool of species diversity and phylogenetic and functional diversity are seldom considered. We first assessed the efficacy of protected areas in China for the conservation of phylogenetic diversity using the ranges and phylogenies of 2279 terrestrial vertebrates...
July 13, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703324/scaling-range-sizes-to-threats-for-robust-predictions-of-risks-to-biodiversity
#12
David A Keith, H Resit Akçakaya, Nicholas J Murray
Assessments of risk to biodiversity often rely on spatial distributions of species and ecosystems. Range size metrics used extensively in these assessments, such as Area of Occupancy (AOO), are sensitive to measurement scale, prompting proposals to measure them at finer scales, or a variery of different scales based on the shape of the distribution or ecological characteristics of the biota. Despite its dominant role in Red List assessments for decades, appropriate spatial scales of AOO for predicting risks of species extinction or ecosystem collapse remain untested and contentious...
July 13, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703295/expanding-career-pathways-in-conservation-science
#13
Erika Zavaleta, Clare Aslan, Wendy Palen, Tom Sisk, Maureen E Ryan, Brett Dickson
Since its inception, conservation biology has inspired thousands of students, spurred the creation of new initiatives, organizations and agencies, and informed conservation efforts worldwide. Nevertheless, global biodiversity loss is accelerating (Butchart et al. 2010), and our field needs to change to keep pace with mounting challenges. Conservation would benefit if scientists more enthusiastically pushed the institutional boundaries of our field through their efforts to expand their own and others' career options and professional opportunities...
July 13, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685859/bird-community-responses-to-habitat-creation-in-a-long-term-large-scale-natural-experiment
#14
Robin C Whytock, Elisa Fuentes-Montemayor, Kevin Watts, Patanjaly Barbosa De Andrade, Rory Whytock, Paul French, Nicholas Macgregor, Kirsty J Park
Ecosystem function and resilience are compromised when habitats become fragmented due to land-use change. This has led to national and international conservation strategies aimed at restoring habitat extent and improving functional connectivity (i.e. maintaining dispersal processes). However, biodiversity responses to landscape-scale habitat creation and the relative importance of spatial and temporal scales is poorly understood, and there is disagreement over which conservation strategies should be prioritised...
July 7, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685853/developing-an-interdisciplinary-and-cross-sectoral-community-of-practice-in-the-domain-of-forests-and-livelihoods
#15
Cristy Watkins, Jennifer Zavaleta, Sarah Wilson, Scott Francisco
Although significant resources are being spent researching and fostering the relationship between forests and livelihoods to promote mutually beneficial outcomes, critical gaps in our understanding persist. A core reason for such gaps is that researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers lack the structured space to interact and collaborate, which is essential for effective, interdisciplinary research, practice, and evaluation. Thus, scientific findings, policy recommendations, and measured outcomes have not always been synthesized into deep, systemic understanding; learning from practice and implementation does not easily find its way into scientific analyses--; and science often fails to influence policy...
July 7, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678438/examining-the-relationship-between-local-extinction-risk-and-position-in-range
#16
Elizabeth H Boakes, Nicholas J B Isaac, Richard A Fuller, Georgina M Mace, Philip J K McGowan
Over half of globally threatened animal species have experienced rapid geographic range loss. Identifying the parts of species' distributions most vulnerable to extinction would benefit conservation planning. However, previous studies give little consensus on whether ranges decline to the core or edge. Here we build on previous work by using empirical data to examine the position of recent local extinctions within species' geographic ranges, addressing range position as a continuum and exploring the influence of environmental factors...
July 5, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678422/redistribution-of-benefits-but-not-defection-in-a-fisheries-bycatch-reduction-management-initiative
#17
T R McClanahan, J K Kosgei
Reducing the capture of small fish, discards, and by-catch is a primary concern of fisheries mangers that propose to maintain high yields, species diversity, and associated ecosystem functions. Modified fishing gear is one of the primary ways to reduce by-catch and capture of small fish. The outcomes of gear modification may depend on competition with other gears using similar fishing grounds and resources and the subsequent adoption or defection of fishers using modified gears. We evaluated the adoption, size, catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE), yield, and income responses among gears in a coral reef fishery where a 3-cm escape gap was introduced into traditional traps...
July 5, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671308/biological-parameters-used-in-setting-captive-breeding-quotas-for-indonesia-s-breeding-facilities
#18
Jordi Janssen, Serene C L Chng
The commercial captive breeding of wildlife is often seen as a potential conservation tool to relieve pressure off wild populations, but laundering of wild-sourced specimens as captive-bred can seriously undermine these and provide a false sense of sustainability. Indonesia has been at the centre of such controversy, therefore we examine Indonesia's captive breeding production plan (CBPP) for 2016. A number of the quotas were found to be based on inaccurate and unrealistic biological parameters, and included species with no reported breeding stock...
July 3, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664996/gaps-and-opportunities-for-the-world-heritage-convention-to-contribute-to-global-wilderness-conservation
#19
James R Allan, Cyril Kormos, Tilman Jaeger, Oscar Venter, Bastian Bertzky, Yichuan Shi, Brendan Mackey, Remco van Merm, Elena Osipova, James E M Watson
Wilderness areas are ecologically intact landscapes predominantly free of human uses, especially industrial scale activities, which result in significant biophysical disturbance. This definition does not exclude indigenous peoples and local communities who live in wilderness areas, depending on them for subsistence, and who have developed deep bio-cultural connections. Wilderness areas are important for biodiversity conservation, along with sustaining key ecological processes, and ecosystem services that underpin planetary life-support systems...
June 30, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657164/monitoring-imperfect-detection-and-risk-optimization-of-a-tasmanian-devil-insurance-population
#20
Tracy M Rout, Chris Baker, Stewart Huxtable, Brendan A Wintle
Most species are imperfectly detected during biological surveys, creating uncertainty around their abundance or presence at a given location. Decision-makers managing threatened or pest species are regularly faced with this uncertainty, and there are a growing number of examples of managers dealing with imperfect detection. Wildlife diseases have the potential to drive species to extinction, and as such managing species with disease is an important part of conservation. Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD) is one such disease that led to the listing of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) as endangered...
June 28, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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