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Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921317/effects-of-economics-and-demographics-on-global-fisheries-sustainability
#1
Qi Ding, Yali Wang, Xinjun Chen, Yong Chen
A good understanding of social factors that lead to marine ecological change is important to develop sustainable global fisheries. In this study we analyzed how economic prosperity and population growth in 122 nations might ultimately affect the sustainability of their marine ecosystems during the period of 1970-2010 using a balanced panel model. We used marine Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ) catch, mean trophic level of fishery landings (MTL), the primary production required to sustain marine catch expressed as percentage of local primary production (%PPR), and the loss in secondary production index (L index) to indicate ecological changes in marine ecosystems...
December 6, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917537/reproductive-biology-for-the-assessment-of-hunting-sustainability-of-rainforest-mammal-populations-through-the-participation-of-local-communities
#2
Pedro Mayor, Hani El Bizri, Richard E Bodmer, Mark Bowler
Wildlife subsistence hunting is a major source of protein for tropical rural populations and a prominent conservation issue. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (rmax ) of populations is a key reproductive parameter in the most-used assessments of hunting sustainability. However, since researchers face severe difficulties in obtaining reproductive data in the wild, these assessments often use 'classic' reproductive rates calculated mostly from captive studies conducted 30 years ago, resulting in flaws in almost 50% of studies and hampering decision-makings on wildlife management...
December 5, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917535/structure-and-process-facilitate-integration-and-mainstreaming-in-conservation
#3
Kenneth E Wallen
Bennett and colleagues (2016) discerningly point out calls to integrate the social and natural sciences in conservation are "now routine." Yet, these calls have a limited effect as they continue to go unheeded, although "everyone working in conservation, it seems, recognizes that natural science alone cannot solve conservation problems". Highlighting the need for more comprehensive integration, the authors present a "framework for a collaborative and integrated conservation science and practice", which ostensibly contains a set of structures for interdisciplinary team science...
December 5, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901304/predicting-occurrence-of-juvenile-shark-habitat-to-improve-conservation-planning
#4
Beverly Z L Oh, Ana M M Sequeira, Mark G Meekan, Jonathan L W Ruppert, Jessica J Meeuwig
Fishing and habitat degradation have increased the extinction risk of sharks, and conservation strategies recognize that survival of juveniles is critical for the effective management of shark populations. Despite the rapid expansion of marine protected areas (MPAs) globally, the paucity of shark-monitoring data on large scales (100s-1000s km) means that the effectiveness of MPAs in halting shark declines remains unclear. Using data collected by baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVS) in northwestern Australia, we developed generalized linear models to elucidate the ecological drivers of the occurrence of juvenile shark habitat...
November 30, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868235/trait-space-of-rare-plants-in-a-fire-dependent-ecosystem
#5
Gregory M Ames, Wade A Wall, Matthew G Hohmann, Justin P Wright
The causes of species rarity are of critical concern because of the high extinction risk associated with rarity. Studies examining individual rare species have limited generality, whereas trait-based approaches offer a means to identify functional causes of rarity that can be applied to communities with disparate species pools. Differences in functional traits between rare and common species may be indicative of the functional causes of species rarity and may therefore be useful in crafting species conservation strategies...
November 21, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859602/integrating-archaeology-and-ancient-dna-to-address-invasive-species-colonization-in-the-gulf-of-alaska
#6
Catherine West, Courtney A Hofman, Steve Ebbert, John Martin, Sabrina Shirazi, Samantha Dunning, Jesus E Maldonado
The intentional and unintentional movement of plants and animals by humans has transformed ecosystems and landscapes globally. Assessing when and how a species was introduced are central to managing these transformed landscapes, particularly in island environments. In the Gulf of Alaska, there is considerable interest in the history of mammal introductions and rehabilitating Gulf of Alaska island environments by eradicating those mammals classified as invasive species. The Arctic ground squirrel (Urocitellus parryii) is of concern because of its effect on vegetation and seabirds on Gulf of Alaska islands...
November 17, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862324/aligning-science-and-policy-to-achieve-evolutionarily-enlightened-conservation-management
#7
Carly N Cook, Carla M Sgrò
There is increasing recognition amongst conservation scientists that long-term conservation outcomes could be improved through better integration of evolutionary theory into management practices. Despite concerns that the importance of key concepts emerging from evolutionary theory (i.e., important evolutionary principles and processes) are not being recognised by conservation managers, there has been little effort to determine the level of integration of evolutionary theory into conservation policy and practice...
November 11, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862294/positives-and-pathologies-of-natural-resource-management-on-private-land-conservation-areas
#8
Hayley S Clements, Graeme S Cumming
In managed natural resource systems, such as fisheries and rangelands, there is a recognized trade-off between managing for short-term benefits and managing for longer-term resilience. Management actions that stabilize ecological attributes or processes can improve productivity in the supply of ecosystems goods and services short-term, but erode system resilience at longer time scales. For example, fire suppression in rangelands can increase grass biomass short-term, but ultimately result in an undesirable, shrub-dominated system...
November 9, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783450/an-interdisciplinary-review-of-current-and-future-approaches-to-improving-human-predator-relations
#9
REVIEW
S Pooley, M Barua, W Beinart, A Dickman, G Holmes, J Lorimer, A J Loveridge, D W Macdonald, G Marvin, S Redpath, C Sillero-Zubiri, A Zimmermann, E J Milner-Gulland
In a world of shrinking habitats and increasing competition for natural resources, potentially dangerous predators bring the challenges of coexisting with wildlife sharply into focus. Through interdisciplinary collaboration between authors trained in the humanities, social sciences and natural sciences, this paper offers a review of current approaches and a vision for future approaches to understanding and mitigating adverse human-predator encounters. The paper first reviews some limitations to current approaches to mitigation...
October 26, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775847/extrapolating-cetacean-densities-to-quantitatively-assess-human-impacts-on-populations-in-the-high-seas
#10
Laura Mannocci, Jason J Roberts, David L Miller, Patrick N Halpin
As human activities expand beyond national jurisdictions to the high seas, there is increasing need to consider anthropogenic impacts to species that inhabit these waters. The current scarcity of scientific observations of cetaceans in the high seas impedes the assessment of population-level impacts of these activities. This study is directed towards an important management need in the high seas-the development of plausible density estimates to facilitate a quantitative assessment of anthropogenic impacts on cetacean populations in these waters...
October 24, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767241/a-roadmap-for-knowledge-exchange-and-mobilization-research-in-conservation-and-natural-resource-management
#11
Vivian M Nguyen, Nathan Young, Steven J Cooke
Scholars across all disciplines have long been interested in how knowledge moves within and beyond their community of peers. In conservation and natural resource management, however, we are lagging behind. Rapid environmental changes and calls for sustainable management practices mean that we urgently need to be using the best knowledge possible in forming decisions, policies, and practices to protect biodiversity and sustainably manage vulnerable natural resources. While the conservation literature on knowledge exchange (KE) and knowledge mobilization (KMb) has grown in recent years, much of it is based on context-specific case studies...
October 21, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757996/why-social-values-cannot-be-changed-for-the-sake-of-conservation
#12
Michael J Manfredo, Jeremy T Bruskotter, Tara L Teel, David Fulton, Shalom H Schwartz, Robert Arlinghaus, Shigehiro Oishi, Ayse K Uskul, Kent Redford, Shinobu Kitayama, Leeann Sullivan
The hope for creating widespread change in social values has endured among conservation professionals since early calls by Aldo Leopold for a "Land Ethic". However, there has been little serious attention in conservation to the fields of investigation that address values, how they are formed, and how they change. We introduce a social-ecological systems approach in which values are seen not just as motivational goals that people hold, but they are also deeply embedded in the world around us, in our material culture, collective behaviors, traditions, and social institutions...
October 19, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730677/antipoaching-standards-in-onshore-hydrocarbon-concessions-drawn-from-a-central-african-case-study
#13
Hadrien P A Vanthomme, Elie Tobi, Angelique F Todd, Lisa Korte, Alfonso Alonso
Unsustainable hunting outside protected areas is threatening tropical biodiversity worldwide and requires conservationists to engage increasingly in antipoaching activities. Following the example of ecocertified logging companies, we argue that other extractive industries managing large concessions should engage in antipoaching activities as part of their environmental management plans. Onshore hydrocarbon concessions should also adopt antipoaching protocols as a standard because they represent a biodiversity threat comparable to logging...
October 12, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718268/rank-aggregation-of-local-expert-knowledge-for-conservation-planning-of-the-critically-endangered-saola
#14
Nicholas M Wilkinson, Luong Van Duc
There has been much recent interest in using local knowledge and expert opinion for conservation planning, particularly for hard-to-detect species. However experts' knowledge is often geographically restricted relative to the area of interest. While it is possible to ask for direct estimation of quantities such as population size, relative abundance is easier to estimate. Here we present a new approach combining a Rapid Rural Appraisal method based on community maps with a rank aggregation procedure employing Google's PageRank algorithm...
October 8, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704619/the-contribution-of-policy-law-management-research-and-advocacy-failings-to-the-recent-extinctions-of-3-australian-vertebrate-species
#15
REVIEW
John C Z Woinarski, Stephen T Garnett, Sarah M Legge, David B Lindenmayer
Extinctions typically have ecological drivers, such as habitat loss. However, extinction events are also influenced by policy and management settings that may be antithetical to biodiversity conservation, inadequate to prevent extinction, insufficiently resourced, or poorly implemented. Three endemic Australian vertebrate species-the Christmas Island pipistrelle (Pipistrellus murrayi), Bramble Cay melomys (Melomys rubicola), and Christmas Island forest skink (Emoia nativitatis)-became extinct from 2009 to 2014...
October 5, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696559/toward-reassessing-data-deficient-species
#16
Lucie M Bland, Jon Bielby, Stephen Kearney, C David L Orme, James E M Watson, Ben Collen
One in six species (13,465 spp.) on the IUCN Red List are currently classified as Data Deficient due to lack of information on their taxonomy, population status or impact of threats. Despite the chance that many are at high risk of extinction, Data Deficient species are typically excluded from global and local conservation priorities as well as funding schemes. The number of Data Deficient species will greatly increase as the Red List becomes more inclusive of poorly known and speciose groups. A strategic approach is urgently needed to enhance the conservation value of Data Deficient assessments...
October 3, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696549/using-a-choice-experiment-and-birder-preferences-to-guide-bird-conservation-funding
#17
Rochelle Steven, James C R Smart, Clare Morrison, J Guy Castley
Conservation of biodiversity, including birds, continues to challenge natural area managers. Stated preference methods (e.g. choice experiments - CE) are increasingly used to provide data for natural ecosystem valuations. Here we use a CE to calculate birders' willingness to pay for different levels of bio-ecological attributes (threatened species, endemic species and diversity) of birding sites, with hypothetical entry fees. The CE was delivered at popular birding and avitourism sites in Australia and the United Kingdom...
October 3, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696505/effectiveness-of-africa-s-tropical-protected-areas-for-maintaining-forest-cover
#18
J Bowker
The effectiveness of parks for forest conservation is widely debated in Africa, where increasing human pressure, insufficient funding, and lack of management capacity frequently place significant demands on forest habitats. Tropical forests house a significant portion of the world's remaining biodiversity and are being heavily impacted by anthropogenic activity. We analysed park effectiveness at the individual (224 parks) and national (23 countries) level across Africa by comparing the extent of forest loss (as a proxy for deforestation) inside parks to matched unprotected control samples...
October 3, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677753/relation-between-extinction-and-assisted-colonization-of-plants-in-the-arctic-alpine-and-boreal-regions
#19
Juha Pykälä
Assisted colonization of vascular plants is considered by many ecologists to be an important tool to preserve biodiversity threatened by climate change. Here, I argue that assisted colonization may have negative consequences in arctic-alpine and boreal regions. The observed slow movement of plants towards the north has been an argument for assisted colonization. However, these range shifts may be slow because for many plants microclimatic warming (ignored by advocates of assisted colonization) has been smaller than macroclimatic warming...
September 28, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677629/setting-population-targets-for-mammals-using-body-mass-as-a-predictor-of-population-persistence
#20
Jelle P Hilbers, Luca Santini, Piero Visconti, Aafke M Schipper, Cecilia Pinto, Carlo Rondinini, Mark A J Huijbregts
Conservation planning and biodiversity assessments need quantitative targets to optimize planning options and assess the adequacy of current species protection. However, targets aiming at persistence require population-specific data, which limits their use in favor of fixed and non-specific targets, likely leading to unequal distribution of conservation efforts among species. Here we propose a method to derive equitable population targets, which are quantitative targets of population size that ensure equal probabilities of persistence across a set of species, and can be easily inferred from species-specific traits...
September 27, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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