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Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926135/a-spatial-approach-to-combatting-wildlife-crime
#1
Sally C Faulkner, Michael C A Stevens, Stephanie S Romañach, Peter A Lindsey, Steven C Le Comber
Poaching can have devastating impacts on animal and plant numbers, and in many countries has reached crisis levels, with illegal hunters employing increasingly sophisticated techniques. Here, we show how geographic profiling - a mathematical technique originally developed in criminology and recently applied to animal foraging and epidemiology - can be adapted for use in investigations of wildlife crime, using data from an eight-year study in Savé Valley Conservancy, Zimbabwe that in total includes more than 10,000 incidents of illegal hunting and the deaths of 6,454 wild animals...
September 19, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877382/incorporating-fragmentation-and-non-native-species-into-distribution-models-to-inform-fluvial-fish-conservation
#2
Andrew T Taylor, Monica Papeş, James M Long
Fluvial fishes face increased imperilment from anthropogenic activities, but the specific factors contributing most to range declines are often poorly understood. For example, the shoal bass (Micropterus cataractae) is a fluvial-specialist species experiencing continual range loss, yet how perceived threats have contributed to range loss is largely unknown. We employed species distribution models (SDMs) to disentangle which factors are contributing most to shoal bass range loss by estimating a potential distribution based on natural abiotic factors and by estimating a series of current, occupied distributions that also incorporated variables characterizing land cover, non-native species, and fragmentation intensity (no fragmentation, dams only, and dams and large impoundments)...
September 6, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861944/a-novel-application-of-cultural-consensus-models-to-evaluate-conservation-education-programs
#3
K A I Nekaris, Sharon McCabe, Denise Spaan, Muhammad Imron Ali, Vincent Nijman
Conservation professionals recognize the need to evaluate education initiatives with a flexible approach that is culturally appropriate. Cultural-consensus theory (CCT) provides a framework for measuring the extent to which beliefs are communally held and has long been applied by social scientists. In a conservation-education context, we applied CCT and used free lists (i.e., a list of items on a topic stated in order of cultural importance) and domain analysis (analysis of how free lists go together within a cultural group) to evaluate a conservation education program in which we used a children's picture book to increase knowledge about and empathy for a critically endangered mammal, the Javan slow loris (Nycticebus javanicus)...
September 1, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861904/equity-trade-offs-in-conservation-decision-making
#4
Elizabeth A Law, Nathan J Bennett, Christopher D Ives, Rachel Friedman, Katrina J Davis, Carla Archibald, Kerrie A Wilson
Conservation decisions increasingly involve multiple environmental and social objectives, which result in complex decision contexts with high potential for trade-offs. Improving social equity is one such objective that is often considered an enabler of successful outcomes and a virtuous ideal in itself. Despite its idealized importance in conservation policy, social equity is often highly simplified or ill-defined and is applied uncritically. What constitutes equitable outcomes and processes is highly normative and subject to ethical deliberation...
September 1, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861903/patterns-and-biases-of-climate-change-threats-in-the-iucn-red-list
#5
Nicholas Trull, Monika Böhm, Jamie Carr
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List assessments rely on published data and expert inputs, and biases can be introduced where underlying definitions and concepts are ambiguous. Consideration of climate-change threat is no exception, and recently numerous approaches to assessing the threat of climate change to species have been developed. We explored IUCN Red List assessments of amphibians and birds to determine whether species listed as threatened by climate change display distinct patterns in terms of habitat occupied and additional nonclimatic threats faced...
August 31, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856773/untangling-the-proximate-causes-and-underlying-drivers-of-deforestation-and-forest-degradation-in-myanmar
#6
Cheng Ling Lim, Graham W Prescott, Jose Don T De Alban, Alan D Ziegler, Edward L Webb
Political transitions often trigger substantial environmental changes. In particular, deforestation can result from the complex interplay among the components of a system-actors, institutions, and existing policies-adapting to new opportunities. A dynamic conceptual map of system components is particularly useful for systems in which multiple actors, each with different worldviews and motivations, may be simultaneously trying to alter different facets of the system, unaware of the impacts on other components...
August 30, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856730/exceptional-responders-in-conservation
#7
Gerald Post, Jonas Geldmann
Conservation operates within complex systems with incomplete knowledge of the system and the interventions. This frequently results in the inability to find generally applicable solutions to the threats faced by Earth's vanishing wildlife. One approach used in medicine, and the social sciences has been to develop a deeper understanding of the positive outliers. Where such outliers share similar characteristics, they may be considered: "exceptional responders". Here we present a framework for identifying exceptional responders in conservation...
August 30, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856725/practitioner-and-scientist-perceptions-of-successful-amphibian-conservation
#8
Helen M R Meredith, Freya St John, Ben Collen, Simon A Black, Richard A Griffiths
Conservation requires successful outcomes. However, success is perceived in many different ways depending on the desired outcome, which can vary according to numerous factors. We analysed perceptions of success among 355 scientists and practitioners working on amphibian conservation from over 150 organisations in more than 50 countries. Respondents identified four types of success: species and habitat improvements (84% of respondents); effective programme management (36%); outreach initiatives such as education and public engagement (25%); and the application of science-based conservation (15%)...
August 29, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841243/untangling-outcomes-of-de-jure-and-de-facto-community-based-management-of-natural-resources
#9
REVIEW
Meghna Agarwala, Joshua R Ginsberg
We systematically reviewed the literature on the tragedy of the commons and common-property resources. We segregated studies by legal management regimes (de jure regimes) and management that develops in practice (de facto regimes) to understand how the structure of regime formation affects the outcome of community management on sustainability of resource use. De facto regimes, developed within the community, are more likely to have positive impacts on the resource. However, de facto regimes are fragile and not resilient in the face of increased population pressure and unregulated markets, and de facto management regimes are less successful where physical exclusion of external agents from resources is more difficult...
August 25, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833471/perceived-barriers-to-and-drivers-of-community-participation-in-protected-area-governance
#10
Caroline Ward, George Holmes, Lindsay Stringer
Protected areas (PAs) are a frequently used conservation strategy, yet their socio-economic impacts on local communities remain contentious. A shift towards increased local community participation in PA governance has sought to deliver benefits for human well-being as well as biodiversity. Although participation is considered critical to the success of PAs, few studies have investigated individuals' decisions to participate and what this means for how local people experience the costs and benefits of conservation...
August 17, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815742/look-to-the-past-for-an-optimistic-future
#11
LETTER
Aaron O'Dea, Erin Dillon, Andrew Altieri, Mauro Lepore
Conservation Paleobiology is a framework that allows the fossil record to guide conservation efforts. Scientists now use fossils to successfully reconstruct pre-human baselines of populations, communities and ecosystems to create conservation targets, establish long-term records to contextualise modern-day change, and predict future conservation needs (Dietl et al. 2015, Finnegan et al. 2015, Barnosky et al. 2017). Often, however, the prognosis is rather pessimistic because the fossil record reveals the bleak truth of what has been lost since the arrival of humans...
August 17, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815735/traps-and-transformations-influencing-the-financial-viability-of-tourism-on-private-land-conservation-areas
#12
Hayley S Clements, Graeme S Cumming
The ability of private conservation organizations to remain financially viable is a key factor influencing their effectiveness. A third of financially-motivated private land conservation areas (PLCAs) surveyed previously in South Africa were found to be unprofitable, raising questions about their ability to effectively adapt their business models to their socioeconomic environment. In any complex system, options for later adaptation can be constrained by starting conditions ('path dependence'). We tested three hypothesized drivers that might create path dependence in PLCA business models: (H1) land asset size (large mammalian game abundance is constrained by available land area); (H2) infrastructural asset extent (the introduction of charismatic predators, such as lion, requires substantial infrastructural investment); and (H3) productivity (rainfall limits vegetation and thereby game abundance)...
August 17, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815792/understanding-implications-of-consumer-behavior-for-wildlife-farming-and-sustainable-wildlife-trade
#13
A Nuno, J M Blumenthal, T J Austin, J Bothwell, G Ebanks-Petrie, B J Godley, A C Broderick
Unsustainable wildlife trade affects biodiversity and the livelihoods of communities dependent upon those resources. Wildlife farming has often been proposed to promote sustainable trade but characterizing markets and understanding consumer behaviour remain neglected, but essential, steps with important implications for its design and evaluation. We used sea turtle trade in the Cayman Islands as a case study - where turtle meat for consumption has been produced for almost 50 years, to explore consumer preferences towards wild-sourced (illegal) and farmed (legal) products and potential conservation implications...
August 16, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776761/fishing-gear-restrictions-and-biomass-gains-for-coral-reef-fishes-in-marine-protected-areas
#14
Stuart J Campbell, Graham J Edgar, Rick D Stuart-Smith, German Soler, Amanda E Bates
Strong empirical evidence supports recovery of reef fish populations with fishery closures. In countries where full exclusion of people from fishing may be perceived as inequitable, fishing gear restrictions on non-selective and destructive gears may offer socially relevant management alternatives to build recovery of fish biomass. Even so, very few studies have statistically compared the responses of tropical reef fisheries to alternative management strategies. Here we test for the effects of fishery closures and fishing gear restrictions on tropical reef fish biomass, at the community and family level, at 1,396 underwater surveys conducted at 617 unique sites across a spatial hierarchy within 22 global marine ecoregions representing five realms...
August 4, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766846/managing-conflicts-between-economic-activities-and-threatened-migratory-marine-species-toward-creating-a-multiobjective-blue-economy
#15
Linda R Harris, Ronel Nel, Herman Oosthuizen, Mike Meyer, Deon Kotze, Darrell Anders, Steven McCue, Santosh Bachoo
Harnessing the economic potential of the oceans is key to combating poverty, enhancing food security, and strengthening economies. But the concomitant risk of intensified resource extraction to migratory species is worrying given that these species contribute to important ecological processes, often underpin alternatively livelihoods, and many are already threatened. We thus sought to quantify the potential conflict between key economic activities (five fisheries and hydrocarbon exploitation) and sea turtle migration corridors in a region with rapid economic development: Southern and East Africa...
August 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766818/the-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-relictum-in-the-endemic-avifauna-of-eastern-cuba
#16
Letícia Soares, Peter Marra, Lindsey Gray, Robert E Ricklefs
Island populations are vulnerable to introduced pathogens, as evidenced by extinction or population decline of several endemic Hawaiian birds caused by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium relictum (order Haemosporida). We analyzed blood samples from 363 birds caught near Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, for the presence of haemosporidian infections. We characterized parasite lineages by determining nucleotide variation of the parasite's mitochondrial cyt b gene. Fifty-nine individuals were infected, and we identified 7 lineages of haemosporidian parasites...
August 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766741/the-role-of-social-license-in-conservation
#17
Dave Kendal, Rebecca M Ford
"Threatened species programs need a social license to justify public funding" (Zander et al. 2014). Or do they? There is growing acceptance within conservation science that community support for and engagement in ecosystem management programs is likely to lead to better conservation outcomes (Marvier & Wong 2012). However, the language used to characterize relations between conservation and the community is important, and use of the term social license may not always be a useful way to describe this relationship...
August 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766738/major-shifts-in-amazon-wildlife-populations-from-recent-climatic-intensification
#18
Richard Bodmer, Pedro Mayor, Miguel Antunez, Kimberlyn Chota, Tula Fang, Pablo Puertas, Marlini Pittet, Maire Kirkland, Mike Walkey, Claudia Rios, Pedro Perez-Peña, Peter Henderson, William Bodmer, Andy Bicerra, Joseph Zegarra, Emma Docherty
In the western Amazon basin, recent intensification of river level cycles has increased flooding during the wet seasons and decreased precipitation during the dry season. Greater than normal floods occurred in 2009 and in all years from 2011-2015 during high water seasons, and a drought occurred during the 2010 low water season. During these years, we surveyed populations of terrestrial, arboreal and aquatic wildlife in a seasonally flooded Amazonian forest to study the consequences of intensification of climatic fluctuations to wildlife populations and in turn resource use by traditional people...
August 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755447/matches-and-mismatches-between-conservation-investments-and-biodiversity-values-in-the-european-union
#19
David Sánchez-Fernández, Pedro Abellán, Pedro Aragón, Sara Varela, Mar Cabeza
Recently, the European Commission adopted a new strategy to halt the loss of biodiversity. Member states are expected to favour a more effective collection and redistribution of European Union (EU) funds under the current Multiannual Financial Framework for 2014-2020. Because of the large spatial variation in the distribution of biodiversity and conservation needs at the continental scale, EU instruments should ensure that countries with higher biodiversity values get more funds and resources for the conservation of this biodiversity than other countries...
July 28, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726340/factors-influencing-property-selection-for-conservation-revolving-funds
#20
Mathew J Hardy, James A Fitzsimons, Sarah A Bekessy, Ascelin Gordon
Finding sustainable ways to increase the amount of private land protected for biodiversity is a challenge for many conservation organizations. In a number of countries, organizations use 'revolving fund' programs, whereby land is purchased, and then on-sold to conservation-minded owners with a condition to enter into a conservation covenant or easement. The proceeds from sale are then used to purchase, protect and on-sell additional properties, incrementally increasing the amount of protected private land. As the effectiveness of this approach relies upon selecting the right properties, we sought to explore the factors currently considered by practitioners and how these are integrated into decision-making...
July 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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