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Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489264/critical-factors-for-the-recovery-of-marine-mammals
#1
Heike K Lotze, Joanna Mills Flemming, Anna M Magera
Over the past decades, much research has focused on understanding the critical factors for marine extinctions with the aim of preventing further species losses in the oceans. Although conservation and management strategies are enabling several species and populations to recover, others remain at low abundance levels or experience further declines. To understand these discrepancies, we asked which intrinsic and extrinsic factors are critical for the recovery of marine mammals. Building on a published database on abundance trends of 137 marine mammal populations worldwide, we compiled data on 28 potential critical factors and used random forests and additive mixed models in our analytical approach...
May 10, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474816/the-rise-of-glyphosate-and-new-opportunities-for-biosentinel-early-warning-studies
#2
Zoe Kissane, Jill M Shephard
Glyphosate has become the most commonly used herbicide worldwide, with a reputation of being environmentally benign, non-toxic and safe to wildlife and humans. However, studies have indicated its toxicity has been underestimated, and that its persistence in the environment is greater than once thought. Its actions as a neurotoxin and endocrine disruptor indicate its potential to act in similar ways to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as the organochlorine (OC) chemicals dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dioxin...
May 5, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474803/using-citizen-science-butterfly-counts-to-predict-species-population-trends
#3
Emily B Dennis, Byron J T Morgan, Tom M Brereton, David B Roy, Richard Fox
Citizen scientists are increasingly engaged in gathering biodiversity information, but trade-offs are often required between public engagement goals and reliable data collection. We compare population estimates derived from the first four years (2011-2014) of a short-duration citizen science project (Big Butterfly Count, BBC), to those from long-running, standardized monitoring data collected by experienced observers (UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme, UKBMS), for 18 widespread butterfly species. BBC data are gathered during an annual, three-week period, whereas UKBMS sampling takes place over six months each year...
May 5, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464304/quantifying-the-conservation-gains-from-shared-access-to-linear-infrastructure
#4
Claire A Runge, Ayesha I T Tulloch, Ascelin Gordon, Jonathan R Rhodes
The proliferation of linear infrastructure such as roads and rail is a major global driver of cumulative biodiversity loss. Creative interventions to minimise the impacts of this infrastructure whilst still allowing development to meet human population growth and resource consumption demands are urgently required. One strategy for reducing habitat loss associated with development is to encourage linear infrastructure providers and users to share infrastructure networks. Here we quantify the reductions in biodiversity impact and capital cost under linear infrastructure sharing and demonstrate this approach with a case study in South Australia...
May 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464290/testing-for-thresholds-of-ecosystem-collapse-in-seagrass-meadows
#5
Sean D Connell, Milena Fernandes, Owen W Burnell, Zoë A Doubleday, Kingsley J Griffin, Andrew D Irving, Jonathan Y S Leung, Samuel Owen, Bayden D Russell, Laura J Falkenberg
While the public's value of 'healthy' environments is renown, the science and management of ecosystem health has not been as simple. Ecological systems can be dynamic and unpredictable, with shifts from one ecosystem state to another often considered 'surprising'. This unpredictability is often thought to be due to ecological thresholds, where small cumulative increases in an environmental stressor drives a much greater consequence than would be predicted from linear effects, suggesting an unforeseen tipping point is crossed...
May 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464283/a-view-of-the-global-conservation-job-market-and-how-to-succeed-in-it
#6
Jane Lucas, Evan Gora, Alfonso Alonso
The high demand for conservation-based work is creating a need for conservation-focused training of current and future graduate students. While many graduates with tertiary degrees in biology are finding careers outside of academia, many programs and mentors continue to prepare students to follow in the footsteps of their professors. Unfortunately, information regarding how to appropriately prepare for today's job market and find success in conservation careers is limited in detail and scope. This problem is further complicated by the differing needs of conservation positions distributed among diverse employers in both economically advanced and developing regions across the globe...
May 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464282/using-a-bayesian-network-to-clarify-areas-requiring-research-in-a-host-pathogen-system
#7
D S Bower, K Mengersen, R A Alford, L Schwarzkopf
Bayesian network analyses can integrate complex relationships to examine a range of hypotheses and identify areas that lack associated empirical studies, to prioritise future research. We examined complex relationships in host and pathogen biology to examine disease-driven decline by the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a pathogen that is reducing amphibian biodiversity globally. We constructed a Bayesian network consisting of a range of behavioural, genetic, physiological, and environmental variables that influence disease, and used them to predict host population trends (the variable 'Population trend' which could be declining or stable)...
May 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440021/global-patterns-and-trends-in-human-wildlife-conflict-compensation
#8
Jeremy Ravenelle, Philip J Nyhus
Human-wildlife conflict is a major conservation challenge, and compensation for wildlife damage is a widely used economic tool to mitigate this conflict. The effectiveness of this management tool is widely debated. The relative importance of factors associated with compensation success is unclear and little is known about global geographic or taxonomic differences in the application of compensation programs. We carried out a review of the compensation scholarship to examine geographic and taxonomic gaps, analyze patterns of positive and negative comments related to compensation, and assess the relative magnitude of global compensation payments...
April 25, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425128/understanding-the-effects-of-different-social-data-on-selecting-priority-conservation-areas
#9
Azadeh Karimi, Ayesha I T Tulloch, Greg Brown, Marc Hockings
Conservation success is contingent on assessing social as well as environmental factors so that cost-effective implementation of strategies and actions can be placed in a broad social-ecological context. Until now, the focus has been on how to include spatially-explicit social data in conservation planning, whereas the value of different kinds of social data has received limited attention. In a regional systematic conservation planning case study in Australia, we examined the spatial concurrence of a range of spatially-explicit social values and preferences collected using public participation GIS (PPGIS) methods with biological data...
April 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399327/problems-with-reductive-polygon-based-methods-for-estimating-species-ranges-reply-to-pimm-et%C3%A2-al-2017
#10
A Townsend Peterson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399326/unfulfilled-promise-of-data-driven-approaches-response-to-peterson-et%C3%A2-al
#11
Stuart L Pimm, Grant Harris, Clinton N Jenkins, Natalia Ocampo-Peñuela, Binbin V Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384391/trends-in-anecdotal-fox-sightings-in-tasmania-accounted-for-by-psychological-factors
#12
Clive A Marks, Malcolm Clark, David Obendorf, Graham P Hall, Inês Soares, Filipe Pereira
There has been little evaluation of anecdotal sightings as a means to confirm new incursions of invasive species. This paper explores the potential for equivocal information communicated by the media to account for patterns of anecdotal reports. In 2001 it was widely reported that red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) had been deliberately released in the island state of Tasmania (Australia), although this claim was later revealed to be baseless. Regardless, by 2013 a total of 3153 anecdotal fox sightings had been reported by members of the public and this implied the wide distribution of foxes...
April 6, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383758/applying-network-theory-to-prioritize-multi-species-habitat-networks-that-are-robust-to-climate-and-land-use-change
#13
Cécile H Albert, Bronwyn Rayfield, Maria Dumitru, Andrew Gonzalez
Designing connected landscapes is among the most widespread strategies for achieving biodiversity conservation targets. The challenge lies in simultaneously satisfying the connectivity needs of multiple species at multiple spatial scales under uncertain climate and land-use change. To evaluate the contribution of remnant habitat fragments to the connectivity of regional habitat networks, we develop a framework integrating uncertainty in climate and land-use change projections with the latest developments in network connectivity research and spatial, multi-purpose conservation prioritization...
April 6, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370371/a-critical-evaluation-of-the-historical-fire-regime-concept-in-conservation
#14
REVIEW
Johanna Freeman, Leda Kobziar, Elizabeth White Rose, Wendell Cropper
Prescribed fire has gained widespread acceptance as a conservation tool, due to the recognition that fire is a process essential to the maintenance of native biodiversity in many terrestrial communities. Approaches to developing fire prescriptions vary greatly between continents, but scientists and practitioners stand to benefit from knowledge sharing across world regions. In North America, decisions about how and when to apply prescribed fire are typically based on the historical fire regime concept (HFRC), which holds that replicating the pattern of fires ignited by lightning and/or pre-industrial humans will best promote native species in fire-prone regions...
March 31, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370297/a-condition-metric-for-eucalyptus-woodland-derived-from-expert-evaluations
#15
Steve J Sinclair, Matthew J Bruce, Peter Griffioen, Amanda Dodd, Matthew D White
The evaluation of ecosystem quality is important for land management and land-use planning. Evaluation is unavoidably subjective, and robust metrics must be based on consensus and the structured use of observations. This paper presents a means of building and testing metrics based on expert evaluation data, using a transparent and repeatable process. We gather quantitative evaluation data from a defined expert group, about the quality of synthetic (fictional) grassy woodland sites. We use these data to train a model (an ensemble of thirty bagged regression trees) capable of predicting the perceived quality of similar synthetic woodlands using a set of thirteen site variables as inputs...
March 31, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370319/historical-spatial-reconstruction-of-a-spawning-aggregation-fishery
#16
Sarah M Buckley, Ruth H Thurstan, Andrew Tobin, John M Pandolfi
Aggregations forming for breeding are a critical ecological process for many species, yet these aggregations are also inherently vulnerable to exploitation. Documenting the decline of exploited populations that form breeding aggregations is becoming increasingly common, but studies tend to focus upon catch rate, often overlooking reductions in geographic range. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that catch rate and occupancy of exploited fish spawning aggregations (FSAs) decline in synchrony over time...
March 29, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339135/integrated-models-to-support-multiobjective-ecological-restoration-decisions
#17
Hannah Fraser, Libby Rumpff, Jian D L Yen, Doug Robinson, Brendan A Wintle
Many objectives motivate ecological restoration including improving vegetation condition, increasing the range and abundance of threatened species, and improving aggregate measures of biodiversity such as richness and diversity. While ecological models have been used to examine the outcomes of ecological restoration, there are few attempts to develop models to account for multiple, potentially competing objectives. We develop the first predictive model that integrates a vegetation-focused state-and-transition model with species distribution models for birds...
March 24, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339121/connecting-today-s-climates-to-future-analogs-to-facilitate-species-movement-under-climate-change
#18
Caitlin E Littlefield, Brad H McRae, Julia Michalak, Joshua J Lawler, Carlos Carroll
Increasing connectivity is an important strategy for facilitating species range shifts and maintaining biodiversity in the face of climate change. To date, however, few studies have included future climate projections in efforts to prioritize areas for increasing connectivity. Here, we identify key areas likely to facilitate climate-induced species movement across western North America. Using historical climate datasets and future climate projections, we mapped potential routes between current climates and their future analogs with a novel moving-window analysis based on electrical circuit theory...
March 24, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328146/conservation-and-the-four-rs-which-are-rescue-rehabilitation-release-and-research
#19
REVIEW
Graham H Pyke, Judit K Szabo
Vertebrate animals can be injured or threatened with injury through human activities, thus warranting their 'rescue'. Details of wildlife Rescue, Rehabilitation, Release, and associated Research (our 4 R's) are often recorded in large databases, resulting in a wealth of information. This information has huge research potential and can contribute to our understanding of animal biology, anthropogenic impacts on wildlife, and species conservation. However, such databases have been little used, few studies have evaluated factors influencing success of rehabilitation and/or release, recommended actions to conserve threatened species have rarely arisen, and direct benefits for species conservation are yet to be demonstrated...
March 22, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319283/critically-evaluating-best-management-practices-for-preventing-freshwater-turtle-extinctions
#20
R J Spencer, J U Van Dyke, Michael B Thompson
Ex situ conservation tools, such as captive breeding for reintroduction, are considered last resort to help recover threatened or endangered species. However, they may also provide alternative strategies where reducing threats directly is difficult or ineffective. Headstarting, or captive rearing of eggs or neonate animals and subsequent release into the wild, has been controversial for decades. A major criticism is that headstarting is a symptomatic treatment of conservation problems (halfway technology), however, it may provide a mechanism to address multiple threats, particularly in close proximity of population centres...
March 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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