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Journal of Plant Physiology

Gabriella Frosi, Vanessa A Barros, Marciel T Oliveira, Mariana Santos, Diego G Ramos, Leonor C Maia, Mauro G Santos
In seasonal dry tropical forests, plants are subjected to severe water deficit, and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) or inorganic phosphorus supply (Pi) can mitigate the effects of water deficit. This study aimed to assess the physiological performance of Poincianella pyramidalis subjected to water deficit in combination with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and leaf inorganic phosphorus (Pi) supply. The experiment was conducted in a factorial arrangement of 2 water levels (+H2O and -H2O), 2 AMF levels (+AMF and -AMF) and 2Pi levels (+Pi and -Pi)...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Ana Claver, Raquel Rey, M Victoria López, Rafael Picorel, Miguel Alfonso
We studied erucic acid accumulation in the biodiesel feedstock Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) as a first step towards the development of a sustainable strategy for biofuel production in the EU territory. To that end, two inbred Pennycress lines of European origin, "NASC" and "French," were cultivated in a controlled chamber and in experimental field plots, and their growth, seed production and seed oil characteristics analyzed. Differences in some agronomical traits like vernalization (winter-French versus spring-NASC), flowering time (delayed in the French line) and seed production (higher in the French line) were detected...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Rafael V Ribeiro, Eduardo C Machado, José R Magalhães Filho, Ana Karla M Lobo, Márcio O Martins, Joaquim A G Silveira, Xinyou Yin, Paul C Struik
Spraying sucrose inhibits photosynthesis by impairing Rubisco activity and stomatal conductance (gs), whereas increasing sink demand by partially darkening the plant stimulates sugarcane photosynthesis. We hypothesized that the stimulatory effect of darkness can offset the inhibitory effect of exogenous sucrose on photosynthesis. Source-sink relationship was perturbed in two sugarcane cultivars by imposing partial darkness, spraying a sucrose solution (50mM) and their combination. Five days after the onset of the treatments, the maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and the initial slope of A-Ci curve (k) were estimated by measuring leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Sirinapa Chungopast, Mallika Duangkhet, Shigeyuki Tajima, Jian Feng Ma, Mika Nomura
Iron is an essential nutrient for legume-rhizobium symbiosis and accumulates abundantly in the nodules. However, the concentration of free iron in the cells is strictly controlled to avoid toxicity. It is known that ferritin accumulates in the cells as an iron storage protein. During nodule senescence, the expression of the ferritin gene, Ljfer1, was induced in Lotus japonicus. We investigated a signal transduction pathway leading to the increase of Ljfer1 in the nodule. The Ljfer1 promoter of L. japonicus contains a conserved Iron-Dependent Regulatory Sequence (IDRS)...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Hong Phuong Nguyen, Ho Young Jeong, Seung Ho Jeon, Donghyuk Kim, Chanhui Lee
Pectin methylesterases (PMEs, EC belonging to carbohydrate esterase family 8 cleave the ester bond between a galacturonic acid and an methyl group and the resulting change in methylesterification level plays an important role during the growth and development of plants. Optimal pectin methylesterification status in each cell type is determined by the balance between PME activity and post-translational PME inhibition by PME inhibitors (PMEIs). Rice contains 49 PMEIs and none of them are functionally characterized...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Amed Salazar-Blas, Laura Noriega-Calixto, María E Campos, Delfeena Eapen, Tania Cruz-Vázquez, Luis Castillo-Olamendi, Gabriela Sepulveda-Jiménez, Helena Porta, Joseph G Dubrovsky, Gladys I Cassab
Hydrotropism is the directional root growth response determined by water stimulus. In a water potential gradient system (WPGS) the roots of the Arabidopsis wild type have a diminished root growth compared to normal medium (NM). In contrast, the altered hydrotropic response1 (ahr1) mutant roots maintain their robust growth in the same WPGS. The aims of this work were to ascertain how ahr1 roots could sustain growth in the WPGS, with a special focus on the integration of cellular processes involved in the signaling that determines root growth during abiotic stress and their relation to hydrotropism...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Milan Pavlík, Veronika Zemanová, Daniela Pavlíková, Pavlína Kyjaková, Tomáš Hlavsa
Relatively little is known about why odd-numbered fatty acids (OFAs) can be synthesized only by some plant species. We aimed at determining whether there is a relationship between the effects of Cd-induced oxidative stress on unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs) and their degradation products, especially OFAs. Plants with different ability to accumulate Cd - Noccaea praecox from Mežica, Slovenia (Me) and two ecotypes of Noccaea caerulescens from Ganges, France (Ga) and Redlschlag, Austria (Re) were cultivated in pot experiments...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Feng Jin, Jing Li, Qi Ding, Qing-Song Wang, Xin-Qiang He
Seasonal cycling of growth and dormancy is an important feature for the woody plants growing in temperate zone, and dormancy is an effective strategy for surviving the winter stress. But the mechanisms of dormancy maintenance and its release are still not clear, especially little information is available with regard to the changes of proteome during the process. A better understanding in the function of proteins and their related metabolic pathways would expand our knowledge of the mechanisms of dormancy maintenance and its release in trees...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Wojciech Pokora, Anna Aksmann, Agnieszka Baścik-Remisiewicz, Agnieszka Dettlaff-Pokora, Max Rykaczewski, Magdalena Gappa, Zbigniew Tukaj
The present study aimed to evaluate the possible relationship between the changes in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) content and the course of growth and reproductive processes of the cell cycle of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The peak of H2O2 observed at the beginning of the cell cycle was found to originate from Fe-SOD and Mn-SODchl. activity and result from the alternation in the photosynthetic processes caused by the dark-to-light transition of daughter cells. A rapid increase in NO concentration, observed before the light-to-dark cell transition, originated from NR and NIR activity and was followed by a photosynthesis-independent, Mn-SODchl...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Mehdi Massoumi, Frans A Krens, Richard G F Visser, Geert-Jan M De Klerk
Poor adventitious root (AR) formation is a major obstacle in micropropagation and conventional vegetative propagation of many crops. It is affected by many endogenous and exogenous factors. With respect to endogenous factors, the phase change from juvenile to adult has a major influence on AR formation and rooting is usually much reduced or even fully inhibited in adult tissues. It has been reported that the phase change is characterized by an increase in DNA-methylation and a decrease in the expression of microRNA156 (miR156)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Nabil Killiny, Shelley E Jones
Plants release volatiles to communicate with each other and to attract or repel insects. The methods used to collect volatiles are varied. Here, we describe a simple solvent-less, solid phase microextraction-based method to collect the volatiles released from intact citrus leaves. We were able to collect up to 39 volatiles from both juvenile and mature leaves. Our results indicated that juvenile leaves produced both monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, and while mature leaves continued to produce a variety of monoterpenes, their release of sesquiterpenes decreased dramatically...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Andrej Frolov, Tatiana Bilova, Gagan Paudel, Robert Berger, Gerd U Balcke, Claudia Birkemeyer, Ludger A Wessjohann
Drought is one of the most important environmental stressors resulting in increasing losses of crop plant productivity all over the world. Therefore, development of new approaches to increase the stress tolerance of crop plants is strongly desired. This requires precise and adequate modeling of drought stress. As this type of stress manifests itself as a steady decrease in the substrate water potential (ψw), agar plates infused with polyethylene glycol (PEG) are the perfect experimental tool: they are easy in preparation and provide a constantly reduced ψw, which is not possible in soil models...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Vera Herbel, Julia Sieber-Frank, Michael Wink
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are produced by all living organisms and play an important role in innate immunity because they are readily available and non-specific against invading pathogenic microorganisms. Snakin-2 (SN2) from tomato is a short, cationic peptide that forms lethal pores in biomembranes of microbes. In plant cells, SN2 is produced as a prepeptide with a signal sequence for ER targeting and an acidic region to decrease toxicity in the producing organism. Gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR in tomato plants demonstrated that SN2 is constitutively expressed, mostly in leaves and flowers...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Jun Tominaga, Haruka Mizutani, Daisuke Horikawa, Yasutoshi Nakahara, Tsuneaki Takami, Wataru Sakamoto, Atsushi Sakamoto, Hiroshi Shimada
In the dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the cotyledon chloroplast biogenesis factor AtCYO1 is crucial for the biogenesis of cotyledon chloroplasts. Arabidopsis mutants lacking AtCYO1 have pale cotyledons but develop normal mature leaves. In the monocotyledonous plant Oryza sativa, the gene OsCYO1 has high sequence identity to AtCYO1, but its function is unknown. We examined the role of OsCYO1 in O. sativa. We first confirmed that transformation with OsCYO1 could recover the phenotype of the Arabidopsis cyo1 mutant...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Joanna Szewińska, Joanna Simińska, Wiesław Bielawski
Proteolysis is an important process for development and germination of cereal seeds. Among the many types of proteases identified in plants are the cysteine proteases (CPs) of the papain and legumain families, which play a crucial role in hydrolysing storage proteins during seed germination as well as in processing the precursors of these proteins and the inactive forms of other proteases. Moreover, all of the tissues of cereal seeds undergo progressive degradation via programed cell death, which is integral to their growth...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
R Montero, M Ribas-Carbó, N F Del Saz, H El Aou-Ouad, J A Berry, J Flexas, J Bota
Dark respiration measurements with open-flow gas exchange analyzers are often questioned for their low accuracy as their low values often reach the precision limit of the instrument. Respiration was measured in five species, two hypostomatous (Vitis Vinifera L. and Acanthus mollis) and three amphistomatous, one with similar amount of stomata in both sides (Eucalyptus citriodora) and two with different stomata density (Brassica oleracea and Vicia faba). CO2 differential (ΔCO2) increased two-fold with no change in apparent Rd, when the two leaves with higher stomatal density faced outside...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Maria Filek, Maria Łabanowska, Magdalena Kurdziel, Aleksandra Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Elżbieta Bednarska-Kozakiewicz
The aim of this research was to characterize the changes of structural organization of chloroplasts of sensitive (Maresi) and tolerant (Cam/B1) barley genotypes upon soil drought (10days), which was applied in two stages of plant growth, i.e. seedlings and flag leaves. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique was used for the determination of changes in the concentration and nature of long-lived radicals and metal ions (Mn, Fe), measured directly in the structures of fresh leaves, occurring after stress treatment...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
David Kaufholdt, Christin-Kirsty Baillie, Martin H Meyer, Oliver D Schwich, Ulrike L Timmerer, Lydia Tobias, Daniela van Thiel, Robert Hänsch, Ralf R Mendel
The molybdenum cofactor (Moco) is ubiquitously present in all kingdoms of life and vitally important for survival. Among animals, loss of the Moco-containing enzyme (Mo-enzyme) sulphite oxidase is lethal, while for plants the loss of nitrate reductase prohibits nitrogen assimilation. Moco is highly oxygen-sensitive, which obviates a freely diffusible pool and necessitates protein-mediated distribution. During the highly conserved Moco biosynthesis pathway, intermediates are channelled through a multi-protein complex facilitating protected transport...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Elodie Boucheron-Dubuisson, Ana I Manzano, Isabel Le Disquet, Isabel Matía, Julio Sáez-Vasquez, Jack J W A van Loon, Raúl Herranz, Eugénie Carnero-Diaz, F Javier Medina
Environmental gravity modulates plant growth and development, and these processes are influenced by the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation in meristems. Meristematic cells are characterized by the coordination between cell proliferation and cell growth, that is, by the accurate regulation of cell cycle progression and the optimal production of biomass for the viability of daughter cells after division. Thus, cell growth is correlated with the rate of ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Dimitrios Fanourakis, Dimitrios Bouranis, Habtamu Giday, Dália R A Carvalho, Abdolhossein Rezaei Nejad, Carl-Otto Ottosen
Plants grown at high relative air humidity (RH≥85%) are prone to lethal wilting upon transfer to conditions of high evaporative demand. The reduced survival of these plants is related to (i) increased cuticular permeability, (ii) changed anatomical features (i.e., longer pore length and higher stomatal density), (iii) reduced rehydration ability, (iv) impaired water potential sensitivity to leaf dehydration and, most importantly, (v) compromised stomatal closing ability. This review presents a critical analysis of the strategies which stimulate stomatal functioning during plant development at high RH...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
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