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Journal of Plant Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644971/simultaneous-silencing-of-ghfad2-1-and-ghfatb-enhances-the-quality-of-cottonseed-oil-with-high-oleic-acid
#1
Feng Liu, Yan-Peng Zhao, Hua-Guo Zhu, Qian-Hao Zhu, Jie Sun
Cottonseed oil has become an important source of edible oil due to its significant cost advantage. However, there is a growing concern over its fatty acid composition and nutritional value. In Gossypium hirsutum, GhFAD2-1 and GhFATB encoding the microsomal oleate desaturase and palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase, respectively, play critical roles in regulating the proportions of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in cottonseed lipids. In this study, RNAi technology was used to simultaneously inhibit the expression levels of GhFAD2-1 and GhFATB to improve the quality of cottonseed oil by increasing oleic acid content...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647601/benzaldehyde-dehydrogenase-driven-phytoalexin-biosynthesis-in-elicitor-treated-pyrus-pyrifolia-cell-cultures
#2
Shashank Sagar Saini, Deepa Teotia, Mariam Gaid, Anirudh Thakur, Ludger Beerhues, Debabrata Sircar
Pyrus pyrifolia (Asian pear) cell cultures respond to yeast extract (YE) treatment by accumulating benzoate-derived biphenyl phytoalexins, namely, noraucuparin and aucuparin. Biphenyl phytoalexins are defense-marker metabolites of the sub-tribe Malinae of the family Rosaceae. The substrates for biphenyl biosynthesis are benzoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, which combine in the presence of biphenyl synthase (BIS) to produce 3,5-dihydroxybiphneyl. In the non-β-oxidative pathway, benzoyl-CoA is directly derived from benzoic acid in a reaction catalyzed by benzoate-CoA ligase (BZL)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644970/overexpression-of-populus%C3%A3-canescens-isoprene-synthase-gene-in-camelina-sativa-leads-to-alterations-in-its-growth-and-metabolism
#3
Lorenzo Rossi, Monica Borghi, Jinfen Yang, De-Yu Xie
Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is a hemiterpene molecule. It has been estimated that the plant kingdom emits 500-750 million tons of isoprene in the environment, half of which results from tropical broadleaf trees and the remainder from shrubs. Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) is an emerging bioenergy plant for biodiesel. In this study, we characterized isoprene formation following a diurnal/nocturnal cycle in wild-type Camelina plants. To understand the potential effects of isoprene emission on this herbaceous plant, a gray poplar Populus×canescens isoprene synthase gene (PcISPS) was overexpressed in Camelina...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646681/proteomic-analysis-of-developing-wheat-grains-infected-by-powdery-mildew-blumeria-graminis-f-sp-tritici
#4
Jie Li, Xi-Wen Yang, Yong-Chun Li, Ji-Shan Niu, De-Xian He
Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) infection greatly interferes with the normal source-sink relationships and always causes tremendous loss of yield and quality in wheat. To better understand the impact of this pathogen on grain development, proteome characterization during grain development in susceptible wheat cultivar Xinong 979 infected by powdery mildew was investigated by 2-DE and tandem MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Identification of 111 differentially expressed protein spots representing 85 unique proteins and six expression patterns showed a chronological description of wheat grain formation...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641150/polyamine-and-tyramine-involvement-in-nacl-induced-improvement-of-cd-resistance-in-the-halophyte-inula-chrithmoides-l
#5
Rim Ghabriche, Tahar Ghnaya, Mejda Mnasri, Hanen Zaier, Raoudha Baioui, Delphine Vromman, Chedly Abdelly, Stanley Lutts
The aim of the present work was to analyze the impact of salinity on the plant response to Cd toxicity in the Mediterranean halophyte species Inula crithmoides. For this purpose, cuttings were cultivated hydroponically during 21d in the presence of 0, 25 or 50μM CdCl2 combined or not with 0, 100, 200 and 400mM NaCl. The obtained data demonstrated that, in the absence of Cd, NaCl strongly increased plant growth (the maximal dry weight being observed at 100mM) and enhanced the Na(+)/K(+) ratio in the shoot. Cd alone strongly affected plant growth in this halophyte...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618258/differential-physiological-and-genetic-responses-of-five-european-scots-pine-provenances-to-induced-water-stress
#6
Ana Carvalho, Ivo Pavia, Cláudia Fernandes, Jani Pires, Carlos Correia, Eunice Bacelar, José Moutinho-Pereira, Maria João Gaspar, João Bento, Maria Emília Silva, José Luís Lousada, José Lima-Brito
Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) is the conifer with widest natural distribution area. Portugal constitutes its westernmost limit of distribution. Most of the Portuguese populations were planted but two autochthonous populations were recently ascribed to 'Serra do Gerês' (NW Portugal), and seem to be well adapted to the temperate climate. However, the ongoing climate changes may compromise their survival. With this study we intend to evaluate the anatomic-physiological and genetic responses of Scots pine from five European provenances ('Gerês', 'Puebla de Lillo', 'Montes Universales', Germany and Sweden) to three water availability regimes, in order to determine which one(s) present higher resistance to drought...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609668/post-anthesis-nitrate-uptake-is-critical-to-yield-and-grain-protein-content-in-sorghum-bicolor
#7
Belinda Worland, Nicole Robinson, David Jordan, Susanne Schmidt, Ian Godwin
Crops only use ∼50% of applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer creating N losses and pollution. Plants need to efficiently uptake and utilize N to meet growing global food demands. Here we investigate how the supply and timing of nitrate affects N status and yield in Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). Sorghum was grown in pots with either 10mM (High) or 1mM (Low) nitrate supply. Shortly before anthesis the nitrate supply was either maintained, increased 10-fold or eliminated. Leaf sheaths of sorghum grown with High nitrate accumulated nitrate in concentrations >3-times higher than leaves...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641151/%C3%AE-tip-aquaporin-distribution-and-size-tonoplast-variation-in-storage-cells-of-vicia-faba-cotyledons-at-seed-maturation-and-germination-stages
#8
Emile Béré, Karima Lahbib, Bruno Merceron, Pierrette Fleurat-Lessard, Néziha Ghanem Boughanmi
Vacuoles have been shown to undergo deep modifications in relation to plant developmental stages and in the maintaining the cellular homeostasis. In this context, we studied the variations of the vacuolar membrane size and α-TIP aquaporin distribution at early and advanced seed stages of maturation, germination and embryo growth in Vicia faba cotyledon storage cells.
June 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618259/synthesis-of-tricyclic-butenolides-and-comparison-their-effects-with-known-smoke-butenolide-kar1
#9
Ewa Krawczyk, Marek Koprowski, Danuta Cembrowska-Lech, Agata Wójcik, Jan Kępczyński
Plant-derived smoke - butenolide, called at present karrikin 1 (KAR1) is known as an important inductor of seed germination and seedling growth. In this study, tricyclic butenolides were synthesized and their effects on germination of dormant and non-dormant Avena fatua caryopses were compared, as were also their effects versus those of KAR1 on seedling growth. KAR1 was found to be most effective and to completely remove dormancy. Butenolides, rac-8 and (S)-8a, showed a low stimulatory effect on germination of dormant caryopses, visible only when applied at very high concentrations...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614755/copper-and-nickel-co-treatment-alters-metal-uptake-and-stress-parameters-of-salix-purpurea%C3%A3-viminalis
#10
Kinga Drzewiecka, Mirosław Mleczek, Monika Gąsecka, Zuzanna Magdziak, Anna Budka, Tamara Chadzinikolau, Zygmunt Kaczmarek, Piotr Goliński
Simultaneous treatment of Salix purpurea×viminalis with copper (Cu(2+)) and nickel (Ni(2+)) altered metal phytoextraction rates in favor of leaves. Still, metal translocation patters remained unaffected (roots≈rods>leaves≥shoots), reaching ∼20 and 14.5mgkg(-1) dry weight in roots for Cu and Ni, respectively. Biometric parameters revealed overall growth inhibition correlated with Cu content in leaves, thus proving its negative effect on photosynthesis. Metal toxicity was strongly affirmed in the case of roots (∼90% loss of root biomass at 3mM), rather than in the above-ground organs...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609667/transcriptional-response-of-a-novel-hpcdpk1-kinase-gene-from-hippeastrum-x-hybr-to-wounding-and-fungal-infection
#11
Agnieszka Pawełek, Maria Duszyn, Brygida Świeżawska, Adriana Szmidt-Jaworska, Krzysztof Jaworski
Calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPK) are well established plant sensor and effectors for calcium ions and participate in regulation of multiple abiotic and biotic stress responses in plant cells. Here we present the identification and characterization of a new CDPK kinase gene from bulbous plant Hippeastrum x hybr. and examine the role of this kinase in stress responses leading to phytoalexin (PA) production in plant tissues. In the previous research, it was shown that Hippeastrum bulbs mechanically wounded or infected with Peyronellaea curtisii (=Phoma narcissi) are inducted to an antifungal red substance synthesis...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609666/the-hippeastrum-hybridum-pepr1-gene-hppepr1-encodes-a-functional-guanylyl-cyclase-and-is-involved-in-early-response-to-fungal-infection
#12
Brygida Świeżawska, Krzysztof Jaworski, Maria Duszyn, Agnieszka Pawełek, Adriana Szmidt-Jaworska
It is generally known that cyclic GMP widespread in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, is involved in essential cellular processes and stress signal transduction. However, in contrast to animals the knowledge about plant guanylyl cyclases (GCs) which catalyze the formation of cGMP from GTP is still quite obscure. Recent studies of plant GCs are focused on identification and functional analysis of a new family of membrane proteins called "moonlighting kinases with GC activity" with guanylyl cyclase catalytic center encapsulated within intracellular kinase domain...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641882/ferredoxin-dependent-bilin-reductases-in-eukaryotic-algae-ubiquity-and-diversity
#13
Nathan C Rockwell, J Clark Lagarias
Linear tetrapyrroles (bilins) are produced from heme by heme oxygenase, usually forming biliverdin IXα (BV). Fungi and bacteria use BV as chromophore for phytochrome photoreceptors. Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms use BV as a substrate for ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductases (FDBRs), enzymes that produce diverse reduced bilins used as light-harvesting pigments in phycobiliproteins and as photoactive photoreceptor chromophores. Bilin biosynthesis is essential for phototrophic growth in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii despite the absence of phytochromes or phycobiliproteins in this organism, raising the possibility that bilins are more generally required for phototrophic growth by algae...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623839/expression-profiles-of-genes-for-mitochondrial-respiratory-energy-dissipating-systems-and-antioxidant-enzymes-in-wheat-leaves-during-de-etiolation
#14
Elena V Garmash, Ilya O Velegzhaninov, Olga I Grabelnych, Olga A Borovik, Ekaterina V Silina, Victor K Voinikov, Tamara K Golovko
Mitochondrial respiratory components participate in the maintenance of chloroplast functional activity. This study investigates the effects 48h de-etiolation of spring wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L., var. Irgina) on the expression of genes that encode energy-dissipating respiratory components and antioxidant enzymes under continuous light conditions. The expression of AOX1a following the prolonged darkness exhibited a pattern indicating a prominent dependence on light. The expression of other respiratory genes, including NDA2, NDB2, and UCP1b, increased during de-etiolation and dark-to-light transition; however, changes in the expression of these genes occurred later than those in AOX1a expression...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619535/evolution-and-regulation-of-bigelowiella-natans-light-harvesting-antenna-system
#15
Jonathan A D Neilson, Pattarasiri Rangsrikitphoti, Dion G Durnford
Bigelowiella natans is a mixotrophic flagellate and member of the chlorarachniophytes (Rhizaria), whose plastid is derived from a green algal endosymbiont. With the completion of the B. natans nuclear genome we are able to begin the analysis of the structure, function and evolution of the photosynthetic apparatus. B. natans has undergone substantial changes in photosystem structure during the evolution of the plastid from a green alga. While Photosystem II (PSII) composition is well conserved, Photosystem I (PSI) composition has undergone a dramatic reduction in accessory protein subunits...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619534/cryptochrome-photoreceptors-in-green-algae-unexpected-versatility-of-mechanisms-and-functions
#16
Tilman Kottke, Sabine Oldemeyer, Sandra Wenzel, Yong Zou, Maria Mittag
Green algae have a highly complex and diverse set of cryptochrome photoreceptor candidates including members of the following subfamilies: plant, plant-like, animal-like, DASH and cryptochrome photolyase family 1 (CPF1). While some green algae encode most or all of them, others lack certain members. Here we present an overview about functional analyses of so far investigated cryptochrome photoreceptors from the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (plant and animal-like cryptochromes) and Ostreococcus tauri (CPF1) with regard to their biological significance and spectroscopic properties...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610707/ptaureo1a-and-ptaureo1b-knockout-mutants-of-the-diatom-phaeodactylum-tricornutum-are-blocked-in-photoacclimation-to-blue-light
#17
Marcus Mann, Manuel Serif, Torsten Jakob, Peter G Kroth, Christian Wilhelm
Aureochromes are blue light receptors specifically found in photosynthetic Stramenopiles (algae). Four different Aureochromes have been identified in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum (PtAUREO 1a, 1b, 1c, and 2). Since blue light is necessary for high light acclimation in diatoms, it has been hypothesized that Aureochromes might play an important role in the light acclimation capacity of diatoms. This hypothesis was supported by an RNAi knockdown line of PtAUREO1a, which showed a phenotype different from wild type cells when grown in either blue or red light...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600926/the-role-of-cell-walls-and-pectins-in-cation-exchange-and-surface-area-of-plant-roots
#18
A Szatanik-Kloc, J Szerement, G Józefaciuk
We aimed to assess role of cell walls in formation of cation exchange capacity, surface charge, surface acidity, specific surface, water adsorption energy and surface charge density of plant roots, and to find the input of the cell wall pectins to the above properties. Whole roots, isolated cell walls and the residue after the extraction of pectins from the cell walls of two Apiaceae L. species (celeriac and parsnip) were studied using potentiometric titration curves and water vapor adsorption - desorption isotherms...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575747/reactive-oxygen-species-induced-by-heat-stress-during-grain-filling-of-rice-oryza-sativa-l-are-involved-in-occurrence-of-grain-chalkiness
#19
Chetphilin Suriyasak, Keisuke Harano, Koichiro Tanamachi, Kazuhiro Matsuo, Aina Tamada, Mari Iwaya-Inoue, Yushi Ishibashi
Heat stress during grain filling increases rice grain chalkiness due to increased activity of α-amylase, which hydrolyzes starch. In rice and barley seeds, reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced after imbibition induce α-amylase activity via regulation of gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) levels during seed germination. Here, we examined whether ROS is involved in induction of grain chalkiness by α-amylase in developing rice grains under heat stress. To elucidate the role of ROS in grain chalkiness, we grew post-anthesis rice plants (Oryza sativa L...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578080/nitrogen-source-preference-in-blueberry-vaccinium-sp-enhanced-shoot-nitrogen-assimilation-in-response-to-direct-supply-of-nitrate
#20
Douglas S Alt, John W Doyle, Anish Malladi
Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) is thought to display a preference for the ammonium (NH4(+)) form over the nitrate (NO3(-)) form of inorganic nitrogen (N). This N-source preference has been associated with a generally low capacity to assimilate the NO3(-) form of N, especially within the shoot tissues. Nitrate assimilation is mediated by nitrate reductase (NR), a rate limiting enzyme that converts NO3(-) to nitrite (NO2(-)). We investigated potential limitations of NO3(-) assimilation in two blueberry species, rabbiteye (Vaccinium ashei) and southern highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum) by supplying NO3(-) to the roots, leaf surface, or through the cut stem...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
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