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Journal of Plant Physiology

Alyne O Lavinsky, Kelly C Detmann, Josimar V Reis, Rodrigo T Ávila, Matheus L Sanglard, Lucas F Pereira, Lílian M V P Sanglard, Fabrício A Rodrigues, Wagner L Araújo, Fábio M DaMatta
Silicon (Si) has been recognized as a beneficial element to improve rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain yield. Despite some evidence suggesting that this positive effect is observed when Si is supplied along the reproductive growth stage (from panicle initiation to heading), it remains unclear whether its supplementation during distinct growth phases can differentially impact physiological aspects of rice and its yield and the underlying mechanisms. Here, we investigated the effects of additions/removals of Si at different growth stages and their impacts on rice yield components, photosynthetic performance, and expression of genes (Lsi1, Lsi2 and Lsi6) involved in Si distribution within rice shoots...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Michaela Dümmer, Christian Michalski, Lars-Oliver Essen, Magnus Rath, Paul Galland, Christoph Forreiter
The ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR GTPase-ACTIVATING PROTEIN (AGD) 12, a member of the ARF-GAP protein family, affects gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana. A loss-of-function mutant lacking AGD12 displayed diminished gravitropism in roots and hypocotyls indicating that both organs are affected by this regulator. AGD12 is structurally related to ENHANCED BENDING (EHB) 1, previously described as a negative effector of gravitropism. In contrast to agd12 mutants, ehb1 loss-of function seedlings displayed enhanced gravitropic bending...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
So-Yon Park, Elizabeth Grabau
APETALA2 (AP2) belongs to the AP2/Ethylene Responsive Factor (ERF) family and regulates expression levels of downstream stress responsive genes as a transcription factor. In this study, we cloned six different isoforms of AhAP2 from peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Four isoforms (AhAP2.1, AhAP2.2, AhAP2.3 and AhAP2.4) had both AP2/ERF DNA binding domains and ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motifs. Two isoforms (AhAP2.5 and AhAP2.6) only had an EAR suppressor domain. After agroinfiltration, AhAP2.1, AhAP2...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Xiaoyan Quan, Qiufeng Qian, Zhilan Ye, Jianbin Zeng, Zhigang Han, Guoping Zhang
Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient for plants. The increasingly severe environmental problems caused by N fertilizer application urge alleviation of N fertilizer dependence in crop production. In previous studies, we identified the Tibetan wild barley accessions with high tolerance to low nitrogen (LN). In this study, metabolic analysis was done on two wild genotypes (XZ149, tolerant and XZ56, sensitive) to understand the mechanism of LN tolerance, using a hydroponic experiment. Leaf and root samples were taken at seven time points within 18 d after LN treatment, respectively...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Hafiz Mamoon Rehman, Muhammad Amjad Nawaz, Le Bao, Zahid Hussain Shah, Jae-Min Lee, Muhammad Qadir Ahmad, Gyuhwa Chung, Seung Hwan Yang
Family-1 UDP-glycosyltransferases (EC 2.4.1.x; UGTs) are enzymes that glycosylate aglycones into glycoside-associated compounds with improved transport and water solubility. This glycosylation mechanism is vital to plant functions, such as regulation of hormonal homeostasis, growth and development, xenobiotic detoxification, stress response, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of soybean that identified 149 putative UGTs based on 44 conserved plant secondary product glycosyl-transferase (PSPG) motif amino acid sequences...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Heng-Heng Xu, Shu-Jun Liu, Shun-Hua Song, Wei-Qing Wang, Ian Max Møller, Song-Quan Song
Seed dormancy provides optimum timing for seed germination and subsequent seedling growth, but the mechanism of seed dormancy is still poorly understood. Here, we used Dongxiang wild rice (DXWR) seeds to investigate the dormancy behavior and the differentially changed proteome in embryo and endosperm during dormancy release. DXWR seed dormancy was caused by interaction of embryo and its surrounding structure, and was an intermediate physiological dormancy. During seed dormancy release, a total of 109 and 97 protein spots showed significant change in abundance and were successfully identified in embryo and endosperm, respectively...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
María Paula Campestre, Cristian Antonelli, Pablo Ignacio Calzadilla, Santiago Javier Maiale, Andrés Alberto Rodríguez, Oscar Adolfo Ruiz
The response of fifty-four Lotus japonicus ecotypes, and of six selected ecotypes was investigated under alkaline conditions. Sensitive, but not tolerant ecotypes, showed interveinal chlorosis under all alkalinity conditions and high mortality under extreme alkalinity. Interveinal chlorosis was associated with Fe deficiency, as a reduced Fe(2+) shoot content was observed in all sensitive ecotypes. In addition, some showed a decline in photosynthesis rate and PSII performance compared to the control. In contrast, some tolerant ecotypes did not change these parameters between treatments...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Emilia Wilmowicz, Kamil Frankowski, Agata Kućko, Michał Świdziński, Juan de Dios Alché, Anna Nowakowska, Jan Kopcewicz
Flower abscission is a highly regulated developmental process activated in response to exogenous (e.g. changing environmental conditions) and endogenous stimuli (e.g. phytohormones). Ethylene (ET) and abscisic acid (ABA) are very effective stimulators of flower abortion in Lupinus luteus, which is a widely cultivated species in Poland, Australia and Mediterranean countries. In this paper, we show that artificial activation of abscission by flower removal caused an accumulation of ABA in the abscission zone (AZ)...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Woro Sri Suharti, Akihiro Nose, Shao-Hui Zheng
Rhizoctonia solani is a fungal pathogen that causes sheath blight disease in rice plants. In this study, metabolomic analysis using CE/TOF-MS in negative ion mode was used to investigate the resistance response of resistant and susceptible rice lines (32R and 29S, respectively) due to R. solani infection. Two rice lines showed different responses to the infection of R. solani. In 32R, R. solani infection induced significant increases in adenosine diphosphate (ADP), glyceric acid, mucic acid and jasmonic acid...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Anna D Dimitrova, Oleg Georgiev, Kiril Mishev, Stefan Tzvetkov, Evgueni D Ananiev, Luchezar Karagyozov
Extensive cytosine methylation is characteristic of plant rDNA. Evidence exists, however, that the active rRNA genes are less methylated. In this work we report on the mapping of unmethylated CCGG sites in Hordeum vulgare rDNA repeats by digestion with methylation sensitive restriction enzyme HpaII and indirect end-labeling of the generated fragments. For mapping we used genomic DNA from barley deletion line with a single NOR on chromosome 5H. This NOR is more active in order to compensate for the missing NOR 6H...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Yuuma Ishikawa, Atsuko Miyagi, Yuto Haishima, Toshiki Ishikawa, Minoru Nagano, Masatoshi Yamaguchi, Yukako Hihara, Maki Kawai-Yamada
NAD kinase (NADK) phosphorylates NAD(H) to NADP(H). The enzyme has a crucial role in the regulation of the NADP(H)/NAD(H) ratio in various organisms. The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 possesses two NADK-encoding genes, sll1415 and slr0400. To elucidate the metabolic change in NADK-deficient mutants growing under photoautotrophic conditions, we conducted metabolomic analysis using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CE-MS). The growth curves of the wild-type parent (WT) and NADK-deficient mutants (Δ1415 and Δ0400) did not show any differences under photoautotrophic conditions...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Anna Ciarkowska, Maciej Ostrowski, Anna Jakubowska
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) conjugation is a part of mechanism regulating free auxin concentration. 1-O-(indole-3-acetyl)-β-d-glucose: myo-inositol indoleacetyl transferase (IAInos synthase) is an enzyme involved in IAA-ester conjugates biosynthesis. Biotic and abiotic stress conditions can modulate auxin conjugates formation in plants. In this study, we investigated effect of plant hormones (IAA, ABA, SA and 2,4-D) and abiotic stress (drought and salt stress: 150mM NaCl and 300mM NaCl) on expression level and catalytic activity of rice IAInos synthase...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Bulat Kuluev, Azamat Avalbaev, Elena Mikhaylova, Yuriy Nikonorov, Zoya Berezhneva, Alexey Chemeris
Changes in the expression levels of tobacco expansin genes NtEXPA1, NtEXPA4, NtEXPA5, and NtEXPA6 were studied in different organs of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) as well as in response to phytohormone and stress treatments. It was shown that NtEXPA1, NtEXPA4 and NtEXPA5 transcripts were predominantly expressed in the shoot apices and young leaves, but almost absent in mature leaves and roots. The NtEXPA6 mRNA was found at high levels in calluses containing a large number of undifferentiated cells, but hardly detectable in the leaves of different ages and roots...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Mohamed Lazali, Adnane Bargaz, Samira Brahimi, Laurie Amenc, Josiane Abadie, Jean Jacques Drevon
While increased P-hydrolysing acid phosphatases (APase) activity in bean nodules is well documented under phosphorus (P) limitation, gene expression and subcellular localization patterns within the N2-fixing nodule tissues are poorly understood. The aim of this research was to track the enzyme activity along with the intra-nodular localization of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), and its contribution to P use efficiency (PUE) under symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in Phaseolus vulgaris. The FBPase transcript were localized in situ using RT-PCR and the protein activity was measured in nodules of two contrasting recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of P...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Mukul Joshi, Edna Fogelman, Eduard Belausov, Idit Ginzberg
The potato root system is often characterized as shallow and inefficient, with poor ability to extract water and minerals from the soil. Potato root system architecture (RSA) refers to its 3-dimensional structure as determined by adventitious root (AR) growth and branching through lateral roots (LR). Understanding how the root system develops holds potential to increase plant yield and optimize agricultural land use. Root system development was monitored in greenhouse-grown potato while a root-on-a-plate assay was developed to explore factors that affect AR and LR development...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Peter F Schweiger
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi affect plant nitrogen (N) dynamics. Plant N isotope patterns have been used to characterise the contribution of ECM fungi to plant N uptake. By quantifying and comparing the effects of an AM and an ECM fungus on growth, N uptake and isotopic composition of one host plant grown at different relative N supply levels, the aim of this study was to improve the mechanistic understanding of natural (15)N abundance patterns in mycorrhizal plants and their underlying causes...
September 4, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Norbert Kunert
Daily xylem sap flux values (daily Js) and maximum xylem sap flux values (max Js) from 125 tropical trees from different study sites in the Neotropics were compared. A cross species and study site relationship was found between daily and maximum values. The relationship can be expressed as daily Js=6.5x max Js. The geometrical relationship between the maximum xylem sap flux of a given day is thus defining the daily xylem sap flux rates. Assuming a bell-shaped diurnal sap flux course and a relatively constant day length the maximum xylem sap flux is the only possible changing variable to define daily fluxes...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Marija Vidović, Filis Morina, Ljiljana Prokić, Sonja Milić-Komić, Bojana Živanović, Sonja Veljović Jovanović
In this study we exposed variegated leaves of Pelargonium zonale to strong sunlight (>1100μmolm(-2)s(-1) of photosynthetically active radiation) with and without paraquat (Pq), with the aim to elucidate the mechanisms of H2O2 regulation in green and white tissues with respect to the photosynthetically-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sunlight induced marked accumulation of H2O2 in the apoplast of vascular and (peri)vascular tissues only in green sectors. This effect was enhanced by the addition of Pq...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
André G Duarte, Genki Katata, Yasutomo Hoshika, Mohitul Hossain, Jürgen Kreuzwieser, Almut Arneth, Nadine K Ruehr
The frequency and intensity of climatic extremes, such as heat waves, are predicted to increase globally, with severe implications for terrestrial carbon and water cycling. Temperatures may rise above critical thresholds that allow trees to function optimally, with unknown long-term consequences for forest ecosystems. In this context, we investigated how photosynthetic traits and the water balance in Douglas-fir are affected by exposure to three heat waves with temperatures about 12°C above ambient. Photosynthetic carboxylation efficiency (Vcmax) was mostly unaffected, but electron transport (Jmax) and photosynthetic rates under saturating light (Asat) were strongly influenced by the heat waves, with lagging limitations on photosynthesis still being observed six weeks after the last heat wave...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Katsuhiro Matsui, Tomomi Hisano, Yasuo Yasui, Masashi Mori, Amanda R Walker, Toshikazu Morishita, Kenjiro Katsu
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are a major group of flavonoids synthesized via the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway, however the pathway has not been fully characterized in buckwheat. Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) are involved in the last steps of PA biosynthesis. To isolate the genes for these enzymes from buckwheat we performed PCR using degenerate primers and obtained cDNAs of ANR and LAR, which we designated FeANR and FeLAR1. A search for homologs in a buckwheat genome database with both sequences returned two more LAR sequences, designated FeLAR2 and FeLAR3...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
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