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Journal of Plant Physiology

Beatrycze Nowicka, Joanna Ciura, Renata Szymańska, Jerzy Kruk
With unfavourable climate changes and an increasing global population, there is a great need for more productive and stress-tolerant crops. As traditional methods of crop improvement have probably reached their limits, a further increase in the productivity of crops is expected to be possible using genetic engineering. The number of potential genes and metabolic pathways, which when genetically modified could result in improved photosynthesis and biomass production, is multiple. Photosynthesis, as the only source of carbon required for the growth and development of plants, attracts much attention is this respect, especially the question concerning how to improve CO2 fixation and limit photorespiration...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Genhong Wang, Pei Wang, Yulong Gao, Yueyue Li, Lei Wu, Junping Gao, Min Zhao, Qingyou Xia
The phosphatidyl ethanolamine-binding proteins (PEBPs) function primarily in regulating flowering in plants. Here, we report a genome-wide identification of PEBPs and functional characterization of a novel FLOWERING LOCUS T homolog (NtFT5) in tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum. Seven new PEBPs were identified by a genome-wide analysis from N. tabacum. Expression profile showed that NtFT5 was mainly expressed in flowers. Overexpression of NtFT5 conferred an early flowering phenotype. By optimizing rooting medium, heritable short life-cycle tobacco lines were obtained by overexpression of NtFT5...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Lorenzo Mariotti, Marco Fambrini, Andrea Scartazza, Piero Picciarelli, Claudio Pugliesi
Dwarf mutants are useful to elucidate regulatory mechanisms of plant growth and development. A brachytic mutant, named lingering hope (linho), was recently isolated from sunflower (Helianthus annuus). The aim of this report is the characterization of the mutant through genetic, morphometric, physiological and gene expression analyses. The brachytic trait is controlled by a recessive gene. The reduction of plant height depends on shorter apical internodes. The mutant shows an altered ratio length/width of the leaf blade, chlorosis and defects in inflorescence development...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Jorge Corbacho, Carla Inês, Miguel A Paredes, Juana Labrador, Antonio M Cordeiro, Mercedes Gallardo, Maria C Gomez-Jimenez
Sphingolipids are abundant membrane components and signalling molecules in various aspects of plant development. However, the role of sphingolipids in early fleshy-fruit growth has rarely been investigated. In this study, we first investigated the temporal changes in sphingolipid long-chain base (LCB) content, composition, and gene expression that occurred during flower opening and early fruit development in olive (Olea europaea L. cv Picual). Moreover, the interaction between sphingolipid and the plant hormone, brassinosteroid (BR), during the early fruit development was also explored...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Yi Ting Hsu, Tse-Min Lee
The methionine residues of proteins are the preferred targets of oxidation by reactive oxygen species resulting in the formation of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO), which impairs protein function. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A and B (MSR) catalyze the reduction of the MetSO S and R epimers back to Met residues, respectively. The roles of abscisic acid (ABA) and nitric oxide (NO) on the transcript levels of methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR; EC in the roots of 2-d-old etiolated rice (Oryza sativa L...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Nikolai P Bityutskii, Kirill L Yakkonen, Anastasiya I Petrova, Kseniia A Lukina, Alexey L Shavarda
Strategy I plants may respond to iron (Fe) deficiency by rhizosphere acidification. Here, the role of medium pH-values in silicon (Si)-induced mitigation Fe deficiency in Strategy I plants (Cucumis sativus) was investigated, particularly the metabolites regulated by a lack of Fe, using a target metabolomics approach. Plants were grown hydroponically, either with (+Fe) or in Fe-free (-Fe) nutrient solution, with (+Si) or without (-Si) a Si supply. The nutrient solution was adjusted to pH 5.0 or 6.0 and checked daily...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Victoria Florencio-Ortiz, Ondřej Novák, José L Casas
This study examined the temporal changes in the leaf content of defence-involved phytohormones in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants responding to the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) infestation, at both local and systemic level. Aphid infestation did not alter the content of cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, the jasmonic acid (JA) precursor, even though endogenous levels of JA and its bioactive isoleucine-conjugated form (JA-Ile) significantly increased from 8 to 96 h in local infested leaves. Systemic effects in jasmonates were only showed at 48 h for JA, and 8 and 48 h in the case of JA-Ile...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Ioannis E Papadakis, Petros I Tsiantas, Georgios Tsaniklidis, Marco Landi, Maria Psychoyou, Constantinos Fasseas
Boron (B) toxicity frequently affects plant performances and productivity, especially in arid and semi-arid environments. In this experiment, loquat seedlings were subjected to 25 μM (control) or 400 μM B (B excess) to test the hypothesis that (i) B alters sugar/polyol metabolism in polyol-producing tree species as loquat and (ii) changes of leaf and stem anatomy assist young tissues against toxic effect of B. Gas exchange was monitored from the beginning of the experiment (FBE) till one week after the first visible symptoms of B toxicity appeared in the upper part of the stems (147 d FBE)...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Yin Jing, Sirui Lang, Dongmei Wang, Hua Xue, Xiao-Feng Wang
Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) accumulate during seed development, and have been thought to be associated with the acquisition of desiccation tolerance (DT) by seeds. Here, comprehensive approaches were adopted to evaluate the changes of DT in developing Arabidopsis seeds of wild type, overexpression (OX-AtGS1/GS2/RS5), and mutant lines by manipulating the expression levels of the GALACTINOL SYNTHASE (GS) and RAFFINOSE SYNTHASE (RS) genes. Our results indicate that seeds of the double mutant (gs1, gs2) and rs5 delayed the timing of DT acquisition as compared to wild type...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Babak Rabiei, Somaye Bahador, Mojtaba Kordrostami
Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae), a well-known aromatic medicinal herb, has many important essential constituents in its oil, including γ-terpinene, carvacrol, thymol, and p-cymene. Gibberellins comprise hundreds of components, which regulate several various growths and underlying developmental processes, such as cell division and elongation, shoot elongation, seed germination, and gene expression. In this study, we investigated the influence of sprayed gibberellic acid (GA3 ) treatments on the internode length, leaf morphology, length of new shoot, expression of monoterpene synthase genes and monoterpenes content during two plant growth stages...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
A De la Torre-González, D Montesinos-Pereira, B Blasco, J M Ruiz
Tomato is the crop with the greatest economic importance in the world and salinity stress causes a reduction in the quantity and quality of crop production. The objective of this work is to verify if the accumulation of proline and glycine betaine (GB) and their metabolisms improve tolerance to salt stress. Two commercial genotypes of Solanum Lycopersicum L., Grand Brix and Marmande RAF were used for this work. The analyzed parameters were growth parameters, proline concentration and its metabolism, GB and its above betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) synthesis and some related amino acids...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Rakesh K Upadhyay, Autar K Mattoo
Lipoxygenases (LOXs) (EC catalyze the oxygenation of fatty acids and produce oxylipins including the plant hormone jasmonate (jasmonic acid/methyl jasmonate; MeJA). Little is known about the tomato LOX gene family members that impact tomato growth and development, and less so about their feed-back regulation in response to MeJA. We present genome wide identification of 14 LOX gene family members in tomato which map unevenly on 12 chromosomes. The characteristic structural features of 9-LOX and 13-LOX tomato gene family, their protein domains/features, and divergence are presented...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Anumita Sarkar, Krishnendu Pramanik, Soumik Mitra, Tithi Soren, Tushar Kanti Maiti
Increasing soil salinity is often associated with accelerated ethylene production in plants, leading to overall growth reduction. The salt-tolerant 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase-producing PGPR may alleviate salt stress by reducing the production of stress ethylene. In this study, a salt-tolerant ACC deaminase-producing strain named P50 was isolated from a coastal rice field in Odisha, India, which enhanced the growth of rice seedlings under salt stress. The P50 strain was identified as Burkholderia sp...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Jennifer S Clark, Alistair G B Poore, Martina A Doblin
Organisms from all domains of life can have highly variable morphologies, with this plasticity suggested to increase fitness and survivability under stressful conditions. Predicting how organisms will adapt to environmental change requires an understanding of how variable morphologies perform under environmental stress. Morphological plasticity has been documented within marine macroalgae inhabiting environmental gradients, however the functional consequences of this variation has been rarely tested. In this study, form-function was assessed in the habitat-forming, intertidal macroalga Hormosira banksii...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Olga A Borovik, Olga I Grabelnych
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of different heat treatments on the alternative cyanide-resistant oxidase (AOX) capacity and establish a relation between the heat stress tolerance of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), content of water-soluble carbohydrates in leaves and the alternative respiratory pathway (AP) capacity. We identified a positive relation between these studied parameters. Heat exposure at 39 °C for 24 h increased the heat stress tolerance of seedlings, content of water-soluble carbohydrates and AOX capacity, and the AOX capacity was also high after the subsequent influence of heat shock (50 °C for 3 h)...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
F Araniti, M Landi, A Lupini, F Sunseri, L Guidi, M R Abenavoli
Essential oils (EOs) have been extensively studied as valuable eco-friendly compounds with herbicidal activity for weed management. Phytotoxic potential of EOs, extracted from a wild population of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum (Link) Ietswaart, has been here evaluated on plant model Arabidopsis, through a physiological and metabolomic approach. The EOs composition was mainly characterized by monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, with a strong abundance of two monoterpenic phenols, namely carvacrol and thymol, and the monoterpene o-cymene...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Y N Elkin, N I Kulesh, A Y Stepanova, A I Solovieva, V M Kargin, A Y Manyakhin
Perennial plants in northern Dauria (Zabaikalsky region) grow in low temperatures in winter and in a dry hot summer. The prairies of northern Dauria are rich in a variety of medicinal herbs, including S. baicalensis, which has roots that are in demand for traditional Chinese medicine. In addition to two monomethylated flavones (wogonin and oroxylin A), determining the pharmacological significance of the root, there is also a minority of their polymethylated congeners. Little is known about their role in the plant or their connection with the conditions of growth and cultivation of their hairy root culture (HRC)...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Lingyu Li, Haomeng Yang, Peng Liu, Weibo Ren, Xinhong Wu, Fang Huang
Global climate warming has a crucial impact on many terrestrial ecosystems, including temperate steppe. In addition, phosphate deficiency is known to be the common deficiency in soils worldwide due to the low availability of the phosphate nutrient in the form of inorganic phosphate anions (Pi). Consequently, in the future, land plants are likely to simultaneously encounter heat stress and phosphate deficiency more frequently. Sheepgrass 〔Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel〕is a dominant perennial forage plant highly significant to grass productivity of Eurasian temperate grasslands...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Katsuhiro Matsui, Takuya Tomatsu, Saeka Kinouchi, Tatsuro Suzuki, Takeshi Sato
Anthocyanins are a group of flavonoids found in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and many other plant species; however; little is known about their mechanisms of synthesis and regulation in buckwheat. We previously reported a spontaneous mutant buckwheat line that shows the green stem phenotype; this line does not accumulate anthocyanins but synthesizes flavonol and proanthocyanidin in the stem. Here, we used this line and lines developed by this line to search for genes related to anthocyanin accumulation in buckwheat...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Giacomo Cocetta, Shubhi Mishra, Andrea Raffaelli, Antonio Ferrante
Wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia L.) is a leafy vegetable appreciated for its characteristic sensory properties which are mainly due to the presence of glucosinolates (GSLs). Short-term exposure to abiotic stresses can induce physiological responses and transcriptional changes which involve GSLs. For this reason, the aim of this work was to study the mechanisms of regulation of GSLs metabolism in rocket subjected to heat stress (40 °C) and high salinity (200 mM NaCl) imposed for up to 48 h. GSLs levels and the expression of methylthioalkylmalate synthase1 (DtMAM1), cytochromeP79F1 (DtCYP79F1), cytochromeP45083A1 (DtCYP83A1), cytosolic-sulfotransferase5b (DtST5b), cytosolic-sulfotransferase5c (DtST5c), flavinmono-oxygenase (DtFMO), myrosinase (DtMyro) and thio-methyl transferase (DtTMT) were analyzed under stress conditions...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
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