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Journal of Plant Physiology

Tino Kreszies, Lukas Schreiber, Kosala Ranathunge
Water is the most important prerequisite for life and plays a major role during uptake and transport of nutrients. Roots are the plant organs that take up the major part of water, from the surrounding soil. Water uptake is related to the root system architecture, root growth, age and species dependent complex developmental changes in the anatomical structures. The latter is mainly attributed to the deposition of suberized barriers in certain layers of cell walls, such as endo- and exodermis. With respect to water permeability, changes in the suberization of roots are most relevant...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Fernanda C C Marcos, Neidiquele M Silveira, João B Mokochinski, Alexandra C H F Sawaya, Paulo E R Marchiori, Eduardo C Machado, Gustavo M Souza, Marcos G A Landell, Rafael V Ribeiro
Under field conditions, plants are exposed to cycles of dehydration and rehydration during their lifespan. In this study, we hypothesized that sugarcane plants previously exposed to cycles of water deficits will perform better than plants that have never faced water deficits when both are subjected to low water availability. Sugarcane plants were grown in a nutrient solution and exposed to one (1WD), two (2WD) or three (3WD) water deficit cycles. As the reference, plants were grown in a nutrient solution without adding polyethylene glycol...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Tomoaki Sato, Yousuke Shimoda, Kaori Matsuda, Ayumi Tanaka, Hisashi Ito
The first step in chlorophyll a degradation is the extraction of the central Mg. This reaction is catalyzed by Mg-dechelatase encoded by Stay-Green (SGR) in land plants. SGR extracts Mg from chlorophyll a but not from chlorophyll b, and chlorophyll b must be converted to chlorophyll a before degradation. The first reaction of the chlorophyll b to chlorophyll a conversion is catalyzed by chlorophyll b reductase. Non-Yellow Coloring 1 (NYC1) and NYC1 like (NOL) are isozymes of chlorophyll b reductase. When SGR was transiently overexpressed in Arabidopsis, both chlorophyll a and b were degraded, suggesting that the chlorophyll b to chlorophyll a conversion is activated by SGR overexpression...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Shiju Wang, Kunyang Zhuang, Song Zhang, Minmin Yang, Fanying Kong, Qingwei Meng
Drought stress is a considerable environmental factor that restrains photosynthesis. Lutein, the most prolific carotenoid in plant photosynthetic tissues, plays vital roles in the light-harvesting complexes. However, its biological functions under abiotic stresses remain unclear. In our research, transgenic tobacco plants were utilized to investigate the function of the tomato chloroplast-targeted carotenoid epsilon-ring hydroxylase (SlLUT1) in drought stress tolerance. The analysis of SlLUT1-pro-LUC and qRT-PCR showed that drought stress induced SlLUT1 expression...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Kare P Mahmud, Bruno P Holzapfel, Yann Guisard, Jason P Smith, Sharon Nielsen, Suzy Y Rogiers
Some plant species demonstrate a pronounced 24 h rhythm in fine root growth but the endogenous and exogenous factors that regulate these diel cycles are unclear. Photoperiod and temperature are known to interact with diel patterns in shoot growth but it is uncertain how these environmental factors are interrelated with below-ground growth. In this particular study, the fine root system of two grapevine species was monitored over a period of ten days with a high resolution scanner, under constant soil moisture and three different photoperiod regimes...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Veronika Jablonická, Jörg Ziegler, Zuzana Vatehová, Desana Lišková, Ingo Heilmann, Marek Obložinský, Mareike Heilmann
Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are important secondary plant metabolites and include medicinally relevant drugs, such as morphine or codeine. As the de novo synthesis of BIA backbones is (still) unfeasible, to date the opium poppy plant Papaver somniferum L. represents the main source of BIAs. The formation of BIAs is induced in poppy plants by stress conditions, such as wounding or salt treatment; however, the details about regulatory processes controlling BIA formation in opium poppy are not well studied...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Angeliki Galeou, Andreas Roussis, Anastasia Prombona
The circadian clock is crucial for the synchronization of an organism's physiology and metabolism with the geophysical time. In plants, previous work on the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has identified various differing aspects of clock function compared to the widely studied Arabidopsis thaliana clock. However, transformation of legumes for the study of the circadian clock regulatory mechanisms is extremely laborious. In the present work, we describe an easy-to-follow and rapid method of preparing bean leaf protoplasts with high transformation potential and a functional circadian clock...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Jian Chen, Xuehui Chen, Qingfeng Zhang, Yidan Zhang, Xiangli Ou, Lizhe An, Huyuan Feng, Zhiguang Zhao
Plant pectin methyl-esterase (PME) and PME inhibitor (PMEI) belong to large gene families whose members are proposed to be widely involved in growth, development, and stress responses; however, the biological functions of most PMEs and PMEIs have not been characterized. In this study, we studied the roles of CbPMEI1, a cold-induced pectin methyl-esterase inhibitor (PMEI) gene from Chorispora bungeana, under freezing and salt stress. The putative CbPMEI1 peptide shares highest similarity (83%) with AT5G62360 (PMEI13) of Arabidopsis...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Maria Celeste Dias, Diana C G A Pinto, Carlos Correia, José Moutinho-Pereira, Helena Oliveira, Helena Freitas, Artur M S Silva, Conceição Santos
Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation plays an important role in plant photomorphogenesis. Whilst the morpho-functional disorders induced by excessive UV irradiation are well-known, it remains unclear how this irradiation modulates the metabolome, and which metabolic shifts improve plants' tolerance to UV-B. In this study, we use an important Mediterranean crop, Olea europaea, to decipher the impacts of enhanced UV-B radiation on the physiological performance and lipophilic metabolite profile. Young olive plants (cv...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Karin Kollárová, Viktória Kamenická, Zuzana Vatehová, Desana Lišková
Biologically active oligosaccharides, including galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides (GGMOs), affect plant growth and development. The impact of GGMOs is dependent on their concentration, and the plant species and plant parts affected. The aim of this article is to ascertain the effects of GGMOs, GGMOs + Cd2+, on growth parameters, morphology, and the structure of maize (Zea mays L.) roots. We undertook this research because, in monocots, the effect of these oligosaccharides is so far unknown. In our study, GGMOs stimulated primary root elongation, induction and elongation of lateral roots, and biomass production...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Félicien Meunier, Mohsen Zarebanadkouki, Mutez A Ahmed, Andrea Carminati, Valentin Couvreur, Mathieu Javaux
Improving or maintaining crop productivity under conditions of long term change of soil water availability and atmosphere demand for water is one the big challenges of this century. It requires a deep understanding of crop water acquisition properties, i.e. root system architecture and root hydraulic properties among other characteristics of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. A root pressure probe technique was used to measure the root hydraulic conductances of seven-week old maize and lupine plants grown in sandy soil...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Aiko Nishiura, Satoshi Kitagawa, Mina Matsumura, Yusuke Kazama, Tomoko Abe, Nobuyuki Mizuno, Shuhei Nasuda, Koji Murai
Using heavy-ion beam mutagenesis of Triticum monococcum strain KU104-1, we identified a mutant that shows extra early-flowering; it was named extra early-flowering 3 (exe3). Here, we carried out expression analyses of clock-related genes, clock downstream genes and photoperiod pathway genes, and found that the clock component gene PHYTOCLOCK 1/LUX ARRHYTHMO (PCL1/LUX) was not expressed in exe3 mutant plants. A PCR analysis of DNA markers indicated that the exe3 mutant had a deletion of wheat PCL1/LUX (WPCL1), and that the WPCL1 deletion was correlated with the mutant phenotype in the segregation line...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Facundo Ramos-Artuso, Andrea Galatro, Agustina Buet, Guillermo E Santa-María, Marcela Simontacchi
Improving phosphorus (P) acquisition and utilization in crops is of great importance in order to achieve a good plant nutritional state and maximize biomass production while minimizing the addition of fertilizers, and the concomitant risk of eutrophication. This study explores to which extent key processes involved in P-acquisition, and other acclimation mechanisms to low P supply in maize (Zea mays L.) plants, are affected by the addition of a nitric oxide (NO) donor (S-nitrosoglutathione, GSNO). Plants grown in a complete culture solution were exposed to four treatments performed by the combination of two P levels (0 and 0...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Shaista Parveen, Aarti Pandey, Neha Jameel, Subhra Chakraborty, Niranjan Chakraborty
Ferritin, ubiquitous among all living organisms except yeast, exhibits iron-regulated expression. In plants, this regulation is applied through transcriptional control. Previous studies established the presence of two types of cis-acting elements in the promoter region: the iron regulatory element (FRE) in soybean and the iron-dependent regulatory sequence (IDRS) in maize and Arabidopsis. Adverse environmental conditions (e.g. water-deficit and oxidative stress) are known to modulate the expression of phytoferritin genes...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Marie-Anne Le Moigne, Vincent Guérin, Pierre-Maxime Furet, Vincent Billard, Anita Lebrec, Lukáš Spíchal, Hanaé Roman, Sylvie Citerne, Annette Morvan-Bertrand, Anis Limami, Alain Vian, Jérémy Lothier
Nitrogen is required for optimal plant growth, especially in young organs such as secondary axes (axes II) after axillary bud outgrowth. Several studies have shown an increase of nitrogen concentration in xylem sap concomitantly with bud outgrowth, but the relation between nitrogen, sugars and plant hormones in axis II still remains unclear. We investigated in Rosa hybrida the involvement of nitrogen nutrition in axis II elongation in relation with sugars and cytokinins using 15N-labeled nitrate and sugars, amino acids and cytokinin quantifications...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Gui Li, Jing Xi, Xiaoming Ji, Ming-Zhuo Li, De-Yu Xie
Designing effective synthetic genes of interest is a fundamental step in plant synthetic biology for biomass. Geranyl pyrophosphate (diphosphate) synthase (GPPS) catalyzes a bottleneck step toward terpenoid metabolism. We previously designed and synthesized a plant (Arabidopsis thaliana)-insect (Myzus persicae, Mp) GPPS- human influenza hemagglutinin (HA) cDNA, namely PTP-MpGPPS-HA (or PTP-sMpGPPS-HA, s: synthetic), to localize the protein in plastids and improve plant biomass. To better understand the effects of different subcellular localizations on plant performance, herein we report PTP-sMpGPPS-HA re-design to synthesize a new MpGPPS-HA cDNA, namely sMpGPPS-HA, to express a non-plastidial sMpGPPS-HA protein...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Vincent Truffault, Gisèle Riqueau, Cécile Garchery, Hélène Gautier, Rebecca G Stevens
Ascorbate redox metabolism and growth have been shown to be linked and related to the activity of enzymes that produce or remove the radical monodehydroascorbate, the semi-oxidized form of ascorbate (ascorbate oxidase or peroxidase and monodehydroascorbate reductase respectively). Previous work in cherry tomato has revealed correlations between monodehydroascorbate reductase and ascorbate oxidase activity and fruit yield: decreased whole plant MDHAR activity decreases yield while decreased whole plant ascorbate oxidase activity increases yield under unfavourable environmental conditions...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Anushka Moothoo-Padayachie, Angus Macdonald, Boby Varghese, Norman W Pammenter, Patrick Govender, Sershen
Recalcitrant seeds, unlike orthodox types, are desiccation sensitive and hence, cannot be stored using conventional seed storage methods In this study, relative changes of protein expression in T. dregeana seeds during desiccation and hydrated storage (a short- to medium-term storage method) were analysed to understand the basis of their desiccation- and storage-induced viability loss. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) were used to compare (selected) protein expression levels across fresh, partially dehydrated and stored seeds...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Arnold Rácz, Éva Hideg, Gyula Czégény
Efficient hydrogen peroxide detoxification is an essential aspect of plant defence against a large variety of stressors. Among others, class III peroxidase (POD, EC enzymes provide this function. Previous studies have shown that PODs are present in several isoforms and have in general low substrate specificities. The aim of our work was to study how various assays based on using various substrates reflect differences in peroxidase activities of tobacco leaves due to either developmental or environmental factors...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Shanshan Wang, Takanori Saito, Katsuya Ohkawa, Hitoshi Ohara, Sirinan Suktawee, Hiromi Ikeura, Satoru Kondo
The production of aromatic volatiles such as esters during the ripening process in climacteric fruits is known to be controlled by ethylene. However, we here show that abscisic acid (ABA) application accelerated the onset of short-chain ester production (hexyl propionate, ethyl-2-methyl butyrate) and the expression of biosynthesis genes (MdAAT2 and MdBCAT1) during ripening of 'Orin' apple. ABA application also promoted the production of ethylene, and caused ethylene peak shifts correlated with the expression of ethylene synthesis genes (MdACS1/3 and MdACO1), suggesting that ABA may act jointly with ethylene as a positive regulator at the ripening stage of 'Orin' apple...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
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