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Journal of Plant Physiology

Jemaa Essemine, Yi Xiao, Mingnan Qu, Hualing Mi, Xin-Guang Zhu
Previously we have shown that a quick down-regulation in PSI activity compares to that of PSII following short-term heat stress for two rice groups including C4023 and Q4149, studied herein. These accessions were identified to have different natural capacities in driving cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI; i.e., low CEF (lcef) and high CEF (hcef) for C4023 and Q4149, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these two lines have different mechanisms of protecting photosystem II from photodamage under heat stress...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Hui Chen, Wei Zhou, Weixian Chen, Wei Xie, Liping Jiang, Qinlang Liang, Mingjun Huang, Zongwen Wu, Qiang Wang
Primary productivity in water environment relies on the photosynthetic production of microalgae. Chlorophyll fluorescence is widely used to detect the growth status and photosynthetic efficiency of microalgae. In this study, a method was established to determine the Chl a content, cell density of microalgae, and water primary productivity by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fo. A significant linear relationship between chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fo and Chl a content of microalgae, as well as between Fo and cell density, was observed under pure-culture conditions...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Senthilkumar K Muthusamy, Monika Dalal, Viswanathan Chinnusamy, Kailash C Bansal
Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs)/HSP20 are molecular chaperones that protect plants by preventing protein aggregation during abiotic stress conditions, especially heat stress. Due to global climate change, high temperature is emerging as a major threat to wheat productivity. Thus, the identification of HSP20 and analysis of HSP transcriptional regulation under different abiotic stresses in wheat would help in understanding the role of these proteins in abiotic stress tolerance. We used sequences of known rice and Arabidopsis HSP20 HMM profiles as queries against publicly available wheat genome and wheat full length cDNA databases (TriFLDB) to identify the respective orthologues from wheat...
January 22, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Angelika Król, Stanisław Weidner
The essence of exploring and understanding mechanisms of plant adaptation to environmental stresses lies in the determination of patterns of the expression of proteins, identification of stress proteins and their association with the specific functions in metabolic pathways. To date, little information has been provided about the proteomic response of grapevine to the persistent influence of adverse environmental conditions. This article describes changes in the profile of protein accumulation in leaves of common grapevine (Vitis vinifera L...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Zhujiang Liu, Panpan Liu, Dongmei Qi, Xianjun Peng, Gongshe Liu
Leymus chinensis is an important perennial forage grass natively distributed in the Eurasian Steppe. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of its adaptation to extreme environmental conditions. Based on L. chinensis cold-treated sequence database, a highly expressed S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene (LcSAMDC1) was isolated from L. chinensis. Gene structure analysis showed that LcSAMDC1 has two introns and three exons as well as three non-overlapping ORFs in its mRNA sequence. One hour of cold exposure caused a significant up-regulation of LcSAMDC1, while abscisic acid (ABA), salt, and osmotic stresses slightly induced its expression...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Xiawan Zhai, Yushu Zhang, Wenbin Kai, Bin Liang, Li Jiang, Yangwei Du, Juan Wang, Yufei Sun, Ping Leng
The VlMYBA subfamily of transcription factors has been known to be the functional regulators in anthocyanin biosynthesis in red grapes. In this study, the expressions of the VlMYBA1-2 and VlMYBA 2 genes, and the responses of the VlMYBA1-2/2 promoters to ABA and ACC treatments in Kyoho grape berries are examined through quantitative real-time PCR analysis and the transient expression assay. The results show that the expressions of VlMYBA1-2/2 increase dramatically after véraison and reach their highest levels when the berries are nearly fully ripe...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Irma N Roberts, Cintia G Veliz, María Victoria Criado, Ana Signorini, Ester Simonetti, Carla Caputo
Subtilases are one of the largest groups of the serine protease family and are involved in many aspects of plant development including senescence. In wheat, previous reports demonstrate an active participation of two senescence-induced subtilases, denominated P1 and P2, in nitrogen remobilization during whole plant senescence. The aim of the present study was to examine the participation of subtilases in senescence-associated proteolysis of barley leaves while comparing different senescence types. With this purpose, subtilase enzymatic activity, immunodetection with a heterologous antiserum and gene expression of 11 subtilase sequences identified in barley databases by homology to P1 were analyzed in barley leaves undergoing dark-induced or natural senescence at the vegetative or reproductive growth phase...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Le Yu, Yonghai Liu, Lina Lu, Qilei Zhang, Yezheng Chen, Liping Zhou, Hua Chen, Changlian Peng
The grain chalkiness of rice (Oryza sativa L.), which determines the rice quality and price, is a major concern in rice breeding. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a critical role in regulating rice endosperm chalkiness. Ascorbic acid (Asc) is a major plant antioxidant, which strictly regulates the levels of ROS. l-galactono-1, 4-lactone dehydrogenase (L-GalLDH, EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the last step of Asc biosynthesis in higher plants. Here we show that the L-GalLDH-suppressed transgenic rice, GI-1 and GI-2, which have constitutively low (between 30% and 50%) leaf and grain Asc content compared with the wild-type (WT), exhibit significantly increased grain chalkiness...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Louise E Arve, Ole Mathis Opstad Kruse, Karen K Tanino, Jorunn E Olsen, Cecilia Futsæther, Sissel Torre
Previous studies have shown that plants developed under high relative air humidity (RH>85%) develop malfunctioning stomata and therefor have increased transpiration and reduced desiccation tolerance when transferred to lower RH conditions and darkness. In this study, plants developed at high RH were exposed to daily VPD fluctuations created by changes in temperature and/or RH to evaluate the potential improvements in stomatal functioning. Daily periods with an 11°C temperature increase and consequently a VPD increase (vpd: 0...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Harry Harmens, Felicity Hayes, Katrina Sharps, Gina Mills, Vicent Calatayud
Ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition rates have increased strongly since the 1950s. Rising ground-level O3 concentrations and atmospheric N deposition both affect plant physiology and growth, however, impacts have often been studied in isolation rather than in combination. In addition, studies are often limited to a control treatment and one or two elevated levels of ozone and/or nitrogen supply. In the current study, three-year old Betula pendula saplings were exposed to seven different O3 profiles (24h mean O3 concentration of 36-68ppb in 2013, with peaks up to an average of 105ppb) in precision-controlled hemispherical glasshouses (solardomes) and four different N loads (10, 30, 50 or 70kgNha(-1)y(-1)) in 2012 and 2013...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Daniel Ballesteros, Lisa M Hill, Christina Walters
This work contributes to the understanding of plant cell responses to extreme water stress when it is applied at different intensity and duration. Fern spores are used to explore survival at relative humidity (RH)<85% because their unicellular nature eliminates complexities that may arise in multicellular organisms from slower drying and variable responses of different cell types. Fern spore cytoplasm solidifies between 30 and 60% RH and spores survive this transition, but subsequently lose viability. We characterized the kinetics of viability loss in terms of the fluid to solid transition using concepts of water activity (i...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Miriam Paredes, María José Quiles
Plants of Chrysanthemum morifolium (sun species) and Spathiphyllum lanceifolium (shade species) were used to study the effects of chilling stems under high illumination. The stress conditions resulted in a greater accumulation of H2O2 in C. morifolium than in S. lanceifolium, and in the down-regulation of photosynthetic linear electron transport in both species. However, only a slight decrease in the maximal quantum yield of PSII was observed under unfavorable conditions in both species, suggesting that mechanisms exist in the chloroplasts that dissipate excess excitation energy and prevent damage to the photosynthetic apparatus...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Carmelo Ruíz-Torres, Rafael Feriche-Linares, Marta Rodríguez-Ruíz, José M Palma, Francisco J Corpas
Arsenic (As) contamination is a major environmental problem which affects most living organisms from plants to animals. This metalloid poses a health risk for humans through its accumulation in crops and water. Using garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants as model crop exposed to 200μM arsenate, a comparative study among their main organs (roots and shoots) was made. The analysis of arsenic, glutathione (GSH), phytochelatins (PCs) and lipid peroxidation contents with the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate-glutathione cycle), and the main components of the NADPH-generating system, including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) was carried out...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Katalin Gémes, Ιfigeneia Mellidou, Katerina Karamanoli, Despoina Beris, Ky Young Park, Theodora Matsi, Kosmas Haralampidis, Helen-Isis Constantinidou, Kalliopi A Roubelakis-Angelakis
Polyamine (PA) homeostasis is associated with plant development, growth and responses to biotic/abiotic stresses. Apoplastic PA oxidase (PAO) catalyzes the oxidation of PAs contributing to cellular homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and PAs. In tobacco, PAs decrease with plant age, while apoplastic PAO activity increases. Our previous results with young transgenic tobacco plants with enhanced/reduced apoplastic PAO activity (S-ZmPAO/AS-ZmPAO, respectively) established the importance of apoplastic PAO in controlling tolerance to short-term salt stress...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Takumi Yamamoto, Sachiko Shomura, Masanobu Mino
The cultured cell line, GTH4, of an interspecific F1 hybrid between Nicotiana gossei Domin and N. tabacum L. died after a shift in temperature from 37°C to 26°C. Fluctuations in the cellular amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) were detected in GTH4 after the temperature shift, but not in the mutant, GTH4S, which did not die at 26°C presumably due to the lack of genetic factors involved in cell death. The removal of ROS or NO suppressed cell death in GTH4, suggesting that ROS and NO both acted as mediators of cell death...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
José Hélio Costa, Clesivan Pereira Dos Santos, Beatriz de Sousa E Lima, Anthônio Nunes Moreira Netto, Kátia Daniella da Cruz Saraiva, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
We identified AOX2 genes in monocot species from Lemnoideae (Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna gibba and Landoltia punctata), Pothoideae (Anthurium andraeanum and Anthurium amnicola) and Monsteroideae (Epipremnum aureum) subfamilies within the Araceae, an early-diverging monocot family. These findings highlight the presence of AOX2 in the most ancient monocot ancestor and also that at least partial loss of this gene occurred during speciation events within several monocot orders. The presence of AOX2 in monocot species challenges (1) new understanding of the evolutionary history of the AOX gene family in angiosperms and (2) drives experimental and bioinformatics efforts to explore functional relevance of the two AOX gene family members for plant growth and development...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
E Alos, A Martinez-Fuentes, C Reig, C Mesejo, M J Rodrigo, M Agustí, L Zacarías
In order to gain insights into the controversial ripening behavior of loquat fruits, in the present study we have analyzed the expression of three genes related to ethylene biosynthesis (ACS1, ACO1 and ACO2), two ethylene receptors (ERS1a and ERS1b), one signal transduction component (CTR1) and one transcription factor (EIL1) in peel and pulp of loquat fruit during natural ripening and also in fruits treated with ethylene (10μLL(-1)) and 1-MCP (10μLL(-1)), an ethylene action inhibitor. In fruits attached to or detached from the tree, a slight increase in ethylene production was detected at the yellow stage, but the respiration rate declined progressively during ripening...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Hasna Ellouzi, Souhir Sghayar, Chedly Abdelly
The effect of H2O2 and mannitol seed priming was investigated on plant growth, oxidative stress biomarkers and activities of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of Cakile maritima and Eutrema salsugineum, when exposed to drought and salt stress, either separately applied or combined. Under unprimed conditions, drought severely restricted growth (40% as compared to the control) and redox balance of C. maritima seedlings, whereas E. salsugineum showed these drastic effects under individual salinity (33% as compared to the control)...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Ewa Janik, Joanna Bednarska, Monika Zubik, Rafal Luchowski, Radoslaw Mazur, Karol Sowinski, Wojciech Grudzinski, Maciej Garstka, Wieslaw I Gruszecki
The efficient and fluent operation of photosynthesis in plants relies on activity of pigment-protein complexes called antenna, absorbing light and transferring excitations toward the reaction centers. Here we show, based on the results of the fluorescence lifetime imaging analyses of single chloroplasts, that pigment-protein complexes, in dark-adapted plants, are not able to act effectively as photosynthetic antennas, due to pronounced, adverse excitation quenching. It appeared that the antenna function could be activated by a short (on a minute timescale) illumination with light of relatively low intensity, substantially below the photosynthesis saturation threshold...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Shuyang Zhen, Marc W van Iersel
The efficiency of monochromatic light to drive photosynthesis drops rapidly at wavelengths longer than 685nm. The photosynthetic efficiency of these longer wavelengths can be improved by adding shorter wavelength light, a phenomenon known as the Emerson enhancement effect. The reverse effect, the enhancement of photosynthesis under shorter wavelength light by longer wavelengths, however, has not been well studied and is often thought to be insignificant. We quantified the effect of adding far-red light (peak at 735nm) to red/blue or warm-white light on the photosynthetic efficiency of lettuce (Lactuca sativa)...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
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