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Journal of Plant Physiology

Ling Zheng, Jay Shockey, Feng Guo, Lingmin Shi, Xinguo Li, Lei Shan, Shubo Wan, Zhenying Peng
Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the most important energy storage form in oilseed crops. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of the Kennedy pathway of TAG biosynthesis. To date, little is known about the regulation of DGAT activity in peanut (Arachis hypogaea), an agronomically important oilseed crop that is cultivated in many parts of the world. In this study, seven distinct forms of type 1 DGAT (AhDGAT1.1-AhDGAT1.7) were identified, cloned, and characterized. Comparisons of the nucleotide sequences and gene structures revealed many different splicing variants of AhDGAT1, some of which displayed different organ-specific expression patterns...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Galina A Semenova, Irina R Fomina, Anatoly A Kosobryukhov, Valery Yu Lyubimov, Ekaterina S Nadezhkina, Tamara I Balakhnina
The ultrastructure of mesophyll cells was studied in leaves of the Triticum aestivum L. cv. "Trizo" seedlings after two weeks of growth on soil contaminated by Pb and/or Se. The soil treatments: control; (Pb1) 50mgkg(-1); (Pb2) 100mgkg(-1); (Se1) 0.4mgkg(-1); (Se2) 0.8mgkg(-1); (Pb1+Se1); (Pb1+Se2); (P2+Se1); and (Pb2+Se2) were used. Light and other conditions were optimal for plant growth. The (Se1)-plants showed enhanced growth and biomass production; (Pb1+Se1)-plants did not lag behind the controls, though O2 evolution decreased; chlorophyll content did not differ statistically in these treatments...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Arne Sellin, Meeli Alber, Priit Kupper
Climate models predict greater increases in the frequency than in the amount of precipitation and a consequent rise in atmospheric humidity at high latitudes by the end of the century. We investigated the responses of hydraulic and relevant anatomical traits of xylem to elevated relative humidity of air on a 1-yr-old coppice of hybrid aspen (Populus×wettsteinii) growing in the experimental stand at the Free Air Humidity Manipulation site in Eastern Estonia. The hydraulic conductivity of stems was measured with a high pressure flow meter; artificial cavitation in the stem segments was induced by the air injection method...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Shinichi Enoki, Tomoki Hattori, Shiho Ishiai, Sayumi Tanaka, Masachika Mikami, Kayo Arita, Shu Nagasaka, Shunji Suzuki
We investigated the effect of vanillylacetone (VA) on anthocyanin accumulation with aim of improving grape berry coloration. Spraying Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat Bailey A berries with VA at veraison increased sugar/acid ratio, an indicator of maturation and total anthocyanin accumulation. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of VA on anthocyanin accumulation, in vitro VA treatment of a grapevine cell culture was carried out. Endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) content was higher in the VA-treated cell cultures than in control at 3h after treatment...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Priyanka Verma, Shamshad Ahmad Khan, Nusrat Masood, N Manika, Abhishek Sharma, Neha Verma, Suaib Luqman, Ajay K Mathur
Transgenic plants obtained from a hairy root line (PVG) of Vinca minor were characterized in relation to terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) pathway gene expression and vincamine production. The hairy roots formed callus with green nodular protuberances when transferred onto agar-gelled MS medium containing 3.0mg/l zeatin. These meristematic zones developed into shoot buds on medium with 1.0mg/l 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 40mg/l ascorbic acid. These shoot buds subsequently formed rooted plants when shifted onto a hormone-free MS medium with 6% sucrose...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Ting Pan, Yafen Liu, Xiaomeng Su, Lizhe An, Quan-Sheng Qiu
Populus euphratica, the well-known tree halophyte, tolerates the stress of high levels of salt. We previously showed that the transmembrane domain 11 (TM11) of PeNHX3, a Na(+),K(+)/H(+) antiporter from P. euphratica, was crucial for Na(+) and Li(+) transport in a yeast growth assay. Here, we examined the role of TM11 in catalyzing Na(+) and Li(+) transport in transgenic Arabidopsis. We found that PeNHX3 localized to the tonoplasts in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of PeNHX3 in Arabidopsis improved seedling growth and enhanced salt tolerance and Li(+) detoxification...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Yanqun Xu, Zisheng Luo, Marie Thérèse Charles, Daniel Rolland, Dominique Roussel
Recent studies have highlighted the biological and physiological effects of pre-harvest ultraviolet (UV)-C treatment on growing plants. However, little is known about the involvement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their response to this treatment. In this study, strawberry plants were exposed to three different doses of UV-C radiation for seven weeks (a low dose: 9.6kJm(-2); a medium dose: 15kJm(-2); and a high-dose: 29.4kJm(-2)). Changes in VOC profiles were investigated and an attempt was made to identify factors that may be involved in the regulation of these alterations...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Jian-Ping An, Ji-Fang Yao, Xiao-Na Wang, Chun-Xiang You, Xiao-Fei Wang, Yu-Jin Hao
Cold stress is a major external stimulator that affects crop quality and productivity. The CBF cold regulatory pathway has been regarded as a master regulator in the response to cold stress. In this study, we found that the apple bZIP transcription factor, MdHY5, was responsive to cold treatment both at the transcriptional and at the post-translational levels. Moreover, overexpression of MdHY5 enhanced cold tolerance in apple calli and Arabidopsis. Subsequently, EMSA assay and transient expression assay demonstrated that MdHY5 positively regulated the transcript of MdCBF1 by binding to G-Box motif of its promoter...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Hermann Bothe, Aneta Słomka
Among heavy metal plants (the metallophytes), facultative species can live both in soils contaminated by an excess of heavy metals and in non-affected sites. In contrast, obligate metallophytes are restricted to polluted areas. Metallophytes offer a fascinating biology, due to the fact that species have developed different strategies to cope with the adverse conditions of heavy metal soils. The literature distinguishes between hyperaccumulating, accumulating, tolerant and excluding metallophytes, but the borderline between these categories is blurred...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Néstor Fernández Del-Saz, Antonia Romero-Munar, David Alonso, Ricardo Aroca, Elena Baraza, Jaume Flexas, Miquel Ribas-Carbo
Growth and maintenance partly depend on both respiration and ATP production during oxidative phosphorylation in leaves. Under stress, ATP is needed to maintain the accumulated biomass. ATP production mostly proceeds from the cytochrome oxidase pathway (COP), while respiration via the alternative oxidase pathway (AOP) may decrease the production of ATP per oxygen consumed, especially under phosphorus (P) limitation and salinity conditions. Symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is reputed by their positive effect on plant growth under stress at mature stages of colonization; however, fungal colonization may decrease plant growth at early stages...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Rocío Lambert, Francisco Antonio Quiles, Gregorio Gálvez-Valdivieso, Pedro Piedras
During leaf senescence resources are managed, with nutrients mobilized from older leaves to new sink tissues. The latter implies a dilemma in terms of resource utilization, the leaf senescence should increase seed quality whereas delay in senescence should improve the seed yield. Increased knowledge about nutrient recycling during leaf senescence could lead to advances in agriculture and improved seed quality. Macromolecules mobilized during leaf senescence include proteins and nucleic acids. Although nucleic acids have been less well studied than protein degradation, they are possible reservoirs of nitrogen and phosphorous...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Xiang You, Lin-Tong Yang, Yi-Ping Qi, Peng Guo, Ning-Wei Lai, Xin Ye, Qiang Li, Li-Song Chen
Manganese (Mn)-intolerant 'Sour pummelo' (Citrus grandis) and Mn-tolerant 'Xuegan' (Citrus sinensis) seedlings were irrigated for 17 weeks with 2 (control) or 600μM (Mn-toxicity or -excess) MnSO4. C. sinensis had higher Mn-tolerance than C. grandis, as indicated by the higher photosynthesis rates in Mn-excess C. sinensis leaves. Under Mn-toxicity, Mn levels were similar between C. sinensis and C. grandis roots, but lower in C. sinensis leaves than in C. grandis leaves. This might be responsible for C. sinensis Mn-tolerance...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Anatoly Gitelson, Olga Chivkunova, Tatiana Zhigalova, Alexei Solovchenko
Flavonoids are a ubiquitous multifunctional group of phenolics of paramount importance for the terrestrial plants involved in protection from biotic and abiotic stresses, color and chemical signaling and other functions. Deciphering of in situ absorption of foliar Flv is important but was thought to be impossible due to a strong overlap with other pigments, complex in situ chemistry of Flv and sophisticated leaf optics. We deduced in situ absorbance of foliar Flv and introduced a concept of specific absorbance spectrum indicative of each pigment group contribution to light absorption and provided a rationale for the choice of spectral bands for non-destructive assessment of Flv in leaves with variable content of other pigments including anthocyanins...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Jang Ho Ha, Hyun A Jang, Ki-Beom Moon, Kwang Hyun Baek, Gyung Ja Choi, Doil Choi, Hye Sun Cho, Suk Yun Kwon, Jae-Heung Jeon, Sang-Keun Oh, Hyun-Soon Kim
We previously isolated Nicotiana benthamiana matrix metalloprotease 1 (NMMP1) from tobacco leaves. The NMMP1 gene encodes a highly conserved, Zn-containing catalytic protease domain that functions as a factor in the plant's defense against bacterial pathogens. Expression of NMMP1 was strongly induced during interactions between tobacco and one of its pathogens, Phytophthora infestans. To elucidate the role of the NMMP1 in defense of N. benthamiana against fungal pathogens, we performed gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Xiaolong Liu, Xia Li, Chuanchao Dai, Jiayu Zhou, Ting Yan, Jinfei Zhang
To understand the link between long-term drought tolerance and short-term drought responses in plants, transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants over-expressing the maize C4-pepc gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PC) and wild-type (WT) rice plants were subjected to PEG 6000 treatments to simulate drought stress. Compared with WT, PC had the higher survival rate and net photosynthetic rate after 16days of drought treatment, and had higher relative water content in leaves after 2h of drought treatment as well, conferring drought tolerance...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Larisse de Freitas-Silva, Marta Rodríguez-Ruiz, Hayet Houmani, Luzimar Campos da Silva, José M Palma, Francisco J Corpas
Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide used worldwide. In susceptible plants, glyphosate affects the shikimate pathway and reduces aromatic amino acid synthesis. Using Arabidopsis seedlings grown in the presence of 20μM glyphosate, we analyzed H2O2, ascorbate, glutathione (GSH) and protein oxidation content as well as antioxidant catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzyme activity. We also examined the principal NADPH-generating system components, including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH)...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Perttu Haimi, Jurgita Vinskienė, Inga Stepulaitienė, Danas Baniulis, Gražina Stanienė, Jūratė Bronė Šikšnianienė, Rytis Rugienius
Important crop plants of Rosaceae family are often damaged during winter due to the lack of acclimation and cold hardiness. One of the cellular responses of plants to cold stress is the accumulation of dehydrin proteins. We studied the expression of dehydrins in several Rosaceae species during low temperature treatment in vitro. Microshoots of Pyrus communis, Malus×domestica, Fragaria vesca, Fragaria×ananassa, Prunus cerasus and Prunus avium cultivars were grown in low temperature conditions. Genotype -specific accumulation of dehydrins was detected by immunoblot analysis of the extracted proteins...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Ifigeneia Mellidou, Katerina Karamanoli, Despoina Beris, Kosmas Haralampidis, Helen-Isis A Constantinidou, Kalliopi A Roubelakis-Angelakis
Polyamines (PAs) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the product of PA oxidation by polyamine oxidase (PAO), are potential players affecting plant growth, development and responses to abiotic/biotic stresses. Genetically modified Nicotiana tabacum plants with altered PA/H2O2 homeostasis due to over/underexpression of the ZmPAO gene (S-ZmPAO/AS-ZmPAO, respectively) were assessed under heat stress (HS). Underexpression of ZmPAO correlates with increased thermotolerance of the photosynthetic machinery and improved biomass accumulation, accompanied by enhanced levels of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, whereas ZmPAO overexpressors exhibit significant impairment of thermotolerance...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Wu Wang, Muhammad Khalil-Ur-Rehman, Jiao Feng, Jianmin Tao
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered to be one of the most popular and widespread fruit crops in the world. Numerous value added products are prepared from grape fruit and investments are being made to establish new viticulture region (Hoff et al., 2017; Imran et al., 2017). CPPU [forchlorfenuron N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea] is a synthetic cytokine-like plant regulator which promotes grape berry set and development. The influence of CPPU [forchlorfenuron N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea] on berry development of 'Shine Muscat' (Vitis labruscana Bailey×V vinifera L...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
María Benlloch-González, Rosa Sánchez-Lucas, Manuel Benlloch
Young olive (Olea europaea L.) plants generated from seed were grown in liquid hydroponic medium exposing the roots system for 33days or 24h to high temperature (37°C) while the aerial part to 25°C aiming to determine the prolonged and immediate effects of root warming on K(+)(Rb(+)) transport in the root and consequently on plant growth. The exposition of the root system to 37°C for 24h inhibited K(+) (Rb(+)) transport from root to shoot having no effect on its uptake. However, when the root system was exposed permanently to 37°C both the K(+) (Rb(+)) uptake and translocation to the aerial part were inhibited as well as the growth in all plants organs...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
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