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Journal of Plant Physiology

Y N Elkin, N I Kulesh, A Y Stepanova, A I Solovieva, V M Kargin, A Y Manyakhin
Perennial plants in northern Dauria (Zabaikalsky region) grow in low temperatures in winter and in a dry hot summer. The prairies of northern Dauria are rich in a variety of medicinal herbs, including S. baicalensis, which has roots that are in demand for traditional Chinese medicine. In addition to two monomethylated flavones (wogonin and oroxylin A), determining the pharmacological significance of the root, there is also a minority of their polymethylated congeners. Little is known about their role in the plant or their connection with the conditions of growth and cultivation of their hairy root culture (HRC)...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Lingyu Li, Haomeng Yang, Peng Liu, Weibo Ren, Xinhong Wu, Fang Huang
Global climate warming has a crucial impact on many terrestrial ecosystems, including temperate steppe. In addition, phosphate deficiency is known to be the common deficiency in soils worldwide due to the low availability of the phosphate nutrient in the form of inorganic phosphate anions (Pi). Consequently, in the future, land plants are likely to simultaneously encounter heat stress and phosphate deficiency more frequently. Sheepgrass 〔Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel〕is a dominant perennial forage plant highly significant to grass productivity of Eurasian temperate grasslands...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Katsuhiro Matsui, Takuya Tomatsu, Saeka Kinouchi, Tatsuro Suzuki, Takeshi Sato
Anthocyanins are a group of flavonoids found in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and many other plant species; however; little is known about their mechanisms of synthesis and regulation in buckwheat. We previously reported a spontaneous mutant buckwheat line that shows the green stem phenotype; this line does not accumulate anthocyanins but synthesizes flavonol and proanthocyanidin in the stem. Here, we used this line and lines developed by this line to search for genes related to anthocyanin accumulation in buckwheat...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Giacomo Cocetta, Shubhi Mishra, Andrea Raffaelli, Antonio Ferrante
Wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia L.) is a leafy vegetable appreciated for its characteristic sensory properties which are mainly due to the presence of glucosinolates (GSLs). Short-term exposure to abiotic stresses can induce physiological responses and transcriptional changes which involve GSLs. For this reason, the aim of this work was to study the mechanisms of regulation of GSLs metabolism in rocket subjected to heat stress (40 °C) and high salinity (200 mM NaCl) imposed for up to 48 h. GSLs levels and the expression of methylthioalkylmalate synthase1 (DtMAM1), cytochromeP79F1 (DtCYP79F1), cytochromeP45083A1 (DtCYP83A1), cytosolic-sulfotransferase5b (DtST5b), cytosolic-sulfotransferase5c (DtST5c), flavinmono-oxygenase (DtFMO), myrosinase (DtMyro) and thio-methyl transferase (DtTMT) were analyzed under stress conditions...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Tania García, Javier Veloso, José Díaz
The treatment of the cotyledons of pepper plants with vanillyl nonanoate (VNT), a synthetic capsinoid similar to capsiate, protected systemically the plant against a root pathogen (the hemibiotrophic oomycete Phytophthora capsici) and an aerial pathogen (the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea). VNT treatment reduced both the symptoms and the colonization by these pathogens. VNT induced systemically two PR (Pathogenesis-related) genes and a gene involved in phytoalexin biosynthesis. VNT also induced systemically the reinforcement of cell walls with lignin both in the roots and the leaves...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Rania Ben Saad, Anis Ben Hsouna, Walid Saibi, Karim Ben Hamed, Faical Brini, Thaura Ghneim-Herrera
Agricultural soil pollution by heavy metals is a severe global ecological problem. We recently showed that overexpression of LmSAP, a member of the stress-associated protein (SAP) gene family isolated from Lobularia maritima, in transgenic tobacco led to enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress. In this study, we characterised the response of LmSAP transgenic tobacco plants to metal stresses (cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn)). In L. maritima, LmSAP expression increased after 12 h of treatment with these metals, suggesting its involvement in the plant response to heavy metal stress...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Gwo Rong Wong, Purabi Mazumdar, Su-Ee Lau, Jennifer Ann Harikrishna
Genetic improvement is an important approach for crop improvement towards yield stability in stress-prone areas. Functional analysis of candidate stress response genes can provide key information to allow the selection and modification of improved crop varieties. In this study, the constitutive expression of a banana cDNA, MaRHD3 in Arabidopsis improved the ability of transgenic lines to adapt to drought conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing MaRHD3 had roots with enhanced branching and more root hairs when challenged with drought stress...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Juan Manuel Vilas, Fernando Matías Romero, Franco Rubén Rossi, María Marina, Santiago Javier Maiale, Pablo Ignacio Calzadilla, Fernando Luis Pieckenstain, Oscar Adolfo Ruiz, Andrés Gárriz
The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine participate in a variety of cellular processes in all organisms. Many studies have shown that these polycations are important for plant immunity, as well as for the virulence of diverse fungal phytopathogens. However, the polyamines' roles in the pathogenesis of phytopathogenic bacteria have not been thoroughly elucidated to date. To obtain more information on this topic, we assessed the changes in polyamine homeostasis during the infection of tomato plants by Pseudomonas syringae...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Bulat Kuluev, Azamat Avalbaev, Yuri Nikonorov, Alexander Ermoshin, Ruslan Yuldashev, Guzel Akhiarova, Farida Shakirova, Aleksey Chemeris
We generated transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) with overexpression of the Arabidopsis thaliana CLAVATA3 (CLV3) gene which is known to be a negative regulator of cell division. Surprisingly, most of the 35S::CLV3 transgenic plants showed no phenotypic differences with the wild type plants. However, there were considerable changes in the morphological parameters between 35S::CLV3 overexpressors and wild type plants. As expected, the number of meristematic cells in the shoot apical meristem was reduced in 35S::CLV3 plants as compared to the wild type plants...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Loukia Roka, Konstantinos Koudounas, Gerasimos Daras, Jerome Zoidakis, Antonia Vlahou, Panagiotis Kalaitzis, Polydefkis Hatzopoulos
Olive is one of the most important fruit crop trees in the history of Mediterranean because of the high quality oil. Olive oil has a well-balanced fatty acid composition along with biophenols, which make it exceptional in human diet and provide an exceptional value to the olive oil. Leaf non-glandular peltate trichomes are specialized cell types representing a protective barrier against acute environmental conditions. To characterize the proteome of this highly differentiated cell type, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis among isolated trichomes and trichome-less leaves...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Yan Ma, Pei Wang, Zhijie Chen, Zhenxin Gu, Runqiang Yang
The effects of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the endogenous GABA metabolism and antioxidant capacity of germinated hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under NaCl stress were investigated. The results showed that all of the GABA treatments could alleviate the growth inhibition and oxidative damage by NaCl stress, with 0.5 mM being the most effective concentration. The GABA-treated barley seedlings exhibited a significantly higher content of endogenous GABA and other free amino acids, especially proline, which resulted from the changes in corresponding enzyme activity...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Junfeng Hou, Xin Huang, Wan Sun, Chenyang Du, Chenyang Wang, Yingxin Xie, Ying Ma, Dongyun Ma
In order to understand the effects of sugar metabolism on drought resistance in wheat, two wheat cultivars with different levels of drought resistance were used in this study. We investigated the accumulation pattern of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and expression profiles of twelve fructan metabolism-related genes in peduncle (PED), penultimate (PEN), and lower internode (LOW) stem tissues under drought stress. LH7, a higher drought-resistance cultivar, contained a higher stem dry weight and higher content of WSC in PED, PEN, and LOW tissues, while XN979, a lower drought-resistance cultivar, contained lower values...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Chandana Pandey, Meetu Gupta
The toxic metalloid arsenic (As) is consumed mostly through contaminated rice. Therefore, reducing its accumulation and maintaining nutrient homeostasis in crop plants are imperative to ensure food safety. However, there is a dearth of information on the interrelationship between nutrient homeostasis and the regulatory mechanisms of arsenic-selenium (As-Se) interactive pathways responsible for stress tolerance. In the present study, experiments were conducted in hydroponically grown 12-day-old seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Erola Fenollosa, Anna Gámez, Sergi Munné-Bosch
Cold stress response is mediated by multiple signaling pathways with complex interactions, among which phytohormones may play a role. We explored changes in the contents of phytohormones, including abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, auxin, cytokinins, gibberellins and melatonin, along with stress tolerance markers in an invasive halophyte, Carpobrotus edulis in response to chilling. In a first experiment, plants were exposed to mean daily temperatures from 10 °C to 5 °C during a cold wave in an experimental garden...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Małgorzata Adamiec, Lucyna Misztal, Ewa Kosicka, Ewelina Paluch-Lubawa, Robert Luciński
EGY2 is a zinc-containing, intramembrane protease located in the thylakoid membrane. It is considered to be involved in the regulated intramembrane proteolysis - a mechanism leading to activation of membrane-anchored transcription factors through proteolytic cleavage, which causes them to be released from the membrane. The physiological functions of EGY2 in chloroplasts remains poorly understood. To answer the question of what the significance is of EGY2 in chloroplast functioning, two T-DNA insertion lines devoid of EGY2 protein were obtained and the mutant phenotype and photosystem II parameters were analyzed...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Zhen Huang, Na Zhao, Mengfan Qin, Aixia Xu
Cold stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that seriously limit rapeseed production worldwide. However, few studies on the mechanism of cold resistance in Brassica napus have been reported. In this study, an F2:3 population including 147 lines was developed to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to cold resistance in B. napus. As a result, a genetic linkage map based on 333 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers covering 1317.70 cM was constructed. Up to 11 QTLs for four indicators were identified in the two locations...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Lucía Izquierdo, Ignacio Martín, Lucía Albornos, Josefina Hernández-Nistal, Pablo Hueso, Berta Dopico, Emilia Labrador
In Cicer arietinum, as in several plant species, the β-galactosidases are encoded by multigene families, although the role of the different proteins is not completely elucidated. Here, we focus in 2 members of this family, βIII-Gal and βIV-Gal, with high degree of amino acid sequence identity (81%), but involved in different developmental processes according to previous studies. Our objective is to deepen in the function of these proteins by establishing their substrate specificity and the possible alterations caused in the cell wall polysaccharides when they are overproduced in Arabidopsis thaliana by constructing the 35S::βIII-Gal and 35S::βIV-Gal transgenic plants...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Cristiane Pilon, John L Snider, Victor Sobolev, Daryl R Chastain, Ronald B Sorensen, Calvin D Meeks, Alicia N Massa, Travis Walk, Bhupinder Singh, Hugh J Earl
Drought is known to limit carbon assimilation in plants. However, it has been debated whether photosynthesis is primarily inhibited by stomatal or non-stomatal factors. This research assessed the underlying limitations to photosynthesis in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) grown under progressive drought. Specifically, field-grown peanut plants were exposed to either well-watered or drought-stressed conditions during flowering. Measurements included survey measurements of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, PSII thermotolerance, pigment content, and rapid A-Ci response (RACiR) assessments...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Alexis Salazar-Iribe, José Erik Cruz-Valderrama, Karina Jímenez-Durán, Ximena Gómez-Maqueo, Alicia Gamboa-deBuen
Auxin is involved in hypocotyl elongation in response to different environmental factors. BIIDXI is a cell wall DUF642 protein that participates in the regulation of the degree of pectin-methylesterification of the cell wall in different tissues, including hypocotyls. Under continuous light, bdx-1 seedlings presented longer hypocotyls than those of WT, while BIIDXI-overexpressed hypocotyls were auxin resistant. Auxin accumulation was observed in epidermal cells from bdx-1 hypocotyls, and the distribution pattern of PIN1 proteins differed...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Md Alamin, Dong-Dong Zeng, Most Humaira Sultana, Ran Qin, Xiao-Li Jin, Chun-Hai Shi
Semi-dwarfism is one of the most important agronomic traits for many cereal crops. In the present study, a mutant with semi-dwarf and short flag leaf 1, sdsfl1, was identified and characterized. The sdsfl1 mutant demonstrated some distinguished structural alterations, including shorter plant height and flag leaf length, increased tiller numbers and flag leaf width, and decreased panicle length compared with those of wild type (WT). Genetic analysis suggested that the mutant traits were completely controlled by a single recessive gene...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
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