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Journal of Plant Physiology

Peter E L van der Putten, Xinyou Yin, Paul C Struik
Estimates of mesophyll conductance (gm), when calculated from chlorophyll fluorescence, are uncertain, especially when the photosystem II (PSII) operating efficiency is measured from the traditional single saturation pulse methodology. The multiphase flash method has recently been recommended to replace the single saturation pulse method, allowing a more reliable estimation of gm. Also, many researchers still directly use the PSII operating efficiency to derive linear electron transport rate J (that is required to estimate gm), without appropriate calibration using measurements under non-photorespiratory conditions...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Christoph-Martin Geilfus, Jutta Ludwig-Müller, Gyöngyi Bárdos, Christian Zörb
Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates leaf growth and transpiration rate of plants exposed to salt stress. Despite the known fact that cell dehydration is instrumental for the modulation of ABA concentrations when NaCl is high in the external environment, it was never tested as to whether sodium (Na) or chlorine (Cl) also modulate ABA concentrations. To answer this question, a hydroponic study on maize (Zea mays) was established, by exposing plants to 50mM of sodium glucosamide or glucosamine chloride. The effect of both ions on ABA was investigated in an early stage before (i) the salt ions accumulated to toxic tissue concentrations and before (ii) cells dehydrated...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Jon Miranda-Apodaca, Usue Pérez-López, Maite Lacuesta, Amaia Mena-Petite, Alberto Muñoz-Rueda
Climate change can have major consequences for grassland communities since the different species of the community utilize different mechanisms for adaptation to drought and elevated CO2 levels. In addition, contradictory data exist when the combined effects of elevated CO2 and drought are analyzed because the soil water content is not usually similar between CO2 concentrations. Thus, the objectives of this work have been to examine the effect of water stress on plant water relations in two grassland species (Trifolium pratense and Agrostis capillaris), analyzing the possible differences between the two species when soil water content is equal in all treatments, and to elucidate if development under elevated CO2 increases drought tolerance and if so, which are the underlying mechanisms...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
L-T Dinis, S Bernardo, A Luzio, G Pinto, M Meijón, M Pintó-Marijuan, A Cotado, C Correia, J Moutinho-Pereira
The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven to be an effective short-term climate change mitigation strategy for Mediterranean vineyards. In this work, we address the hypothesis that kaolin could improve both the hormonal dynamics and physiological responses of grapevines growing in Douro Region, northern Portugal. For this purpose, the leaf water potential, gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters were monitored, as well as the abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) quantification and immunolocalization were assessed...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Jesús Alberto Pérez-Romero, Yanina Lorena Idaszkin, Bernardo Duarte, Alexandra Baeta, João Carlos Marques, Susana Redondo-Gómez, Isabel Caçador, Enrique Mateos-Naranjo
A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the effect of the co-occurrence of 400 and 700ppm CO2 at 0, 15 and 45mM Cu on the Cu-tolerance of C4 cordgrass species Spartina densiflora, by measuring growth, gas exchange, efficiency of PSII, pigments profiles, antioxidative enzyme activities and nutritional balance. Our results revealed that the rising atmospheric CO2 mitigated growth reduction imposed by Cu in plants grown at 45mM Cu, leading to leaf Cu concentration bellow than 270mgKg-1 Cu, caused by an evident dilution effect...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Marzena Sujkowska-Rybkowska, Weronika Czarnocka, Izabela Sańko-Sawczenko, Damian Witoń
Aluminum (Al) toxicity can induce oxidative and nitrosative stress, which limits growth and yield of crop plants. Nevertheless, plant tolerance to stress may be improved by symbiotic associations including arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM). Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule involved in physiological processes and plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. However, almost no information about the NO metabolism has been gathered about AM. In the present work, Medicago truncatula seedlings were inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis, and 7-week-old plants were treated with 50μM AlCl3 for 3h...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Muhammad Azher Nawaz, Yanyan Jiao, Chen Chen, Fareeha Shireen, Zuhua Zheng, Muhammad Imtiaz, Zhilong Bie, Yuan Huang
Vanadium (V) is an important heavy metal with ubiquitous presence in the Earth's crust, but limited information is available as to its effect on plants and management strategies. Melatonin is a widely studied biomolecule; it acts as an antioxidant and a signaling molecule that enhances the abiotic stress tolerance of plants. Melatonin improves copper, zinc, and cadmium tolerance in plants. In this study, we investigated the response of watermelon seedlings to V stress and the potential role of melatonin in enhancing V stress tolerance of watermelon seedlings...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Erin E Burns, Barbara K Keith, Mohammed Y Refai, Brian Bothner, William E Dyer
Plants are routinely confronted with numerous biotic and abiotic stressors, and in response have evolved highly effective strategies of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and systemic acquired acclimation (SAA), respectively. A much more evolutionarily recent abiotic stress is the application of herbicides to control weedy plants, and their intensive use has selected for resistant weed populations that cause substantial crop yield losses and increase production costs. Non-target site resistance (NTSR) to herbicides is rapidly increasing worldwide and is associated with alterations in generalized stress defense networks...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Yi Man, Yuanyuan Zhao, Rong Ye, Jinxing Lin, Yanping Jing
The Casparian strip, a barrier to the apoplastic movement of solutes from the cortex to the stele, is essential for the exclusion of salts, selective nutrient uptake, and many other processes. To date, extensive studies have focused on the physiological functions of endodermal Casparian strips. However, the chemical deposition nature of Casparian strips, as well as its relevance with respect to diffusion barrier functions, remains to be further elucidated. Here, we revealed three developmental stages of Casparian strips in maize primary roots using a traditional fluorescent staining method...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Shuang Li, Yu Chen, Xiaofeng Zhu, Yuanyuan Wang, Ki-Hong Jung, Lijie Chen, Yuanhu Xuan, Yuxi Duan
Glycine max (soybean) is an extremely important crop, representing a major source of oil and protein for human beings. Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode, SCN) infection severely reduces soybean production; therefore, protecting soybean from SCN has become an issue for breeders. Black soybean has exhibited a different grade of resistance to SCN. However, the underlying mechanism of Huipizhi Heidou resistance against SCN remains elusive. The Huipizhi Heidou (ZDD2315) and race 3 of Heterodera glycines were chosen to study the mechanism of resistance via examination of transcriptomic changes...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Lidiya B Vysotskaya, Tatyana N Arkhipova, Guzel R Kudoyarova, Stanislav Yu Veselov
Inhibition of lettuce plant growth under increased planting density was accompanied by accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) in the shoots of competing plants. To check causal relationship between these responses we studied the effect of decreased synthesis of ABA on growth indexes and hormonal balance of lettuce plants under elevated density of their planting (one (single) or three (competing) plants per pot). Herbicide fluridone was used to inhibit ABA synthesis. Preliminary experiments with single plants showed that presence of fluridone in the soil solution at rather low concentration (0...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Kinga Drzewiecka, Monika Gąsecka, Paweł Rutkowski, Zuzanna Magdziak, Piotr Goliński, Mirosław Mleczek
Total phenolics and the profile of phenolic acids and flavonoids were investigated in the roots and leaves of Ulmus laevis cultured on the medium with inorganic and organic arsenic - As(III), As(V) and DMA(V) at 0.06mM and their equimolar combinations. Further, the accumulation of salicylic acid (free and glucoside-bound) and lipid oxidation were assayed following a three-month long experiment. As treatment caused elevated production of phenolics, which was higher in photosynthetic tissue than in roots for all As forms and their combinations, and their overall content was correlated with the accumulation of organic As in roots and As(III) in leaves...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Alvydas Šimkūnas, Sandra Valašinaitė, Vitalij Denisov
The comparative cytological analysis of the leaf/root growth of Lolium multiflorum has been performed. It revealed differences of the mentioned above/under-ground organs that express the whole plant's polarity. To perform accurate and simultaneous growth comparison a climatic-hydroponics system has been implemented. A sharp increase in the epidermis cell length of the leaf meristem has been detected for the first time. It allows the proposal of a new way to demarcate the boundary of the meristem and suggests a lengthed leaf meristem, that is 4 times longer than the root meristem...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Mariem Ben Abdallah, Dalila Trupiano, Antonella Polzella, Elena De Zio, Mauro Sassi, Andrea Scaloni, Mokhtar Zarrouk, Nabil Ben Youssef, Gabriella Stefania Scippa
Olive (Olea europaea L.) is an economically important crop for the Mediterranean basin, where prolonged drought and soil salinization may occur. This plant has developed a series of mechanisms to tolerate and grow under these adverse conditions. By using an integrated approach, we described in Chétoui olive cultivar the changes in plant growth, oxidative damage and osmolyte accumulation in leaves, in combination with corresponding changes in physiological parameters and proteome. Our results showed, under both stress conditions, a greater growth reduction of the aboveground plant organs than of the underground counterparts...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Xiao-Ping Yi, Ya-Li Zhang, He-Sheng Yao, Ji-Mei Han, Wah Soon Chow, Da-Yong Fan, Wang-Feng Zhang
To clarify the influence of water deficit on the functionality of the photosynthetic apparatus of cotton plants, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and P700 redox state were examined in field-grown cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Xinluzao 45. In addition, we measured changes in the P515 signal and analyzed the activity of ATP synthase and the trans-thylakoid proton gradient (ΔpH). With increasing water deficit, the net CO2 assimilation rate (AN) and stomatal conductance (gs) significantly decreased, but the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm) did not change...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Erika Sabella, Andrea Luvisi, Alessio Aprile, Carmine Negro, Marzia Vergine, Francesca Nicolì, Antonio Miceli, Luigi De Bellis
Recently, Xylella fastidiosa was reported in Italy, associated with the "Olive Quick Decline Syndrome". The cv. Leccino exhibits an evident tolerance with a slow disease progression compared with the other cultivars. Between the mechanisms proposed to explain the putative tolerance of some hosts to X. fastidiosa diseases, lignin deposition plays an important role. Analysis of phenolic compounds in healthy and infected Leccino and Cellina di Nardò leaves showed, in the two cultivars, a reduction of hydroxytyrosol glucoside (usually associated with drought and cold stress) and, only in Leccino, an increase of quinic acid, precursor of lignin...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Pablo Ibort, Hiroyuki Imai, Matsuo Uemura, Ricardo Aroca
Feeding an increasing global population as well as reducing environmental impact of crops is the challenge for the sustainable intensification of agriculture. Plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) management could represent a suitable method but elucidation of their action mechanisms is essential for a proper and effective utilization. Furthermore, ethylene is involved in growth and response to environmental stimuli but little is known about the implication of ethylene perception in PGPB activity. The ethylene-insensitive tomato never ripe and its isogenic wild-type cv...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Qin Huang, Meiping Wang, Zongliang Xia
Sulfur is an essential macronutrient required for plant growth, development and stress responses. The family of sulfate transporters (SULTRs) mediates the uptake and translocation of sulfate in higher plants. However, basic knowledge of the SULTR gene family in maize (Zea mays L.) is scarce. In this study, a genome-wide bioinformatic analysis of SULTR genes in maize was conducted, and the developmental expression patterns of the genes and their responses to sulfate starvation and abiotic stress were further investigated...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Baris Uzilday, Rengin Ozgur, Tolga Yalcinkaya, Ismail Turkan, A Hediye Sekmen
Bienertia sinuspersici performs single cell C4 photosynthesis without Kranz anatomy. Peripheral and central cytoplasmic compartments in a single chlorenchyma cell act as mesophyll cells and bundle sheath cells. Development of this specialized mechanism is gradual during plant development. Young leaves perform C3 photosynthesis, while mature leaves have complete C4 cycle. The aim of this work was to investigate changes in redox regulation and antioxidant defence during transition from C3 to single cell C4 photosynthesis in B...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Zhanneta Zalutskaya, Mariya Ostroukhova, Valentina Filina, Elena Ermilova
The mitochondrial respiratory chain in plants, many fungi and some protists consists of the ATP-coupling cyanide-sensitive cytochrome pathway and the cyanide-resistant alternative respiratory pathway. The alternative pathway is mediated by alternative oxidase (AOX). In unicellular algae, AOXs are monomeric fungi-type proteins. Studies performed in the model plant Chlamydomonas reinhardtii showed that a range of stress factors lead to induction of its AOX1. However, signaling molecules that trigger upregulation of AOX1 have not yet been identified...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
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