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Journal of Plant Physiology

Sandra C Sharples, Tu C Nguyen-Phan, Stephen C Fry
Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity, which cuts and re-joins hemicellulose chains in the plant cell wall, contributing to wall assembly and growth regulation, is the major activity of XTH proteins. During purification, XTHs often lose XET activity which, however, is restored by treatment with certain cold-water-extractable, heat-stable polymers (CHPs), e.g. from cauliflower florets. It was not known whether the XTH-activating factor (XAF) present in CHPs works by promoting (e.g. allosterically) XET activity or by re-solubilising sequestered XTH proteins...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Behrouz Barzegargolchini, Ali Movafeghi, Ali Dehestani, Pooyan Mehrabanjoubani
Enhanced cell wall lignification is one of the major salinity tolerance strategies in the roots of halophytes. A deep insight into the exact root developmental system in halophytes may be of great importance for understanding plant salt tolerance mechanisms. In this work the developmental and anatomical changes in the roots of halophyte Aeluropus littoralis along with expression patterns of two genes encoding for cell wall laccase (LAC4) and peroxidase (PER64) were investigated. The plants were treated with 0, 300 and 600mM NaCl and root samples were collected 3, 6 and 9days after treatment (DAT)...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Noor Nahar, Aminur Rahman, Neelu N Nawani, Sibdas Ghosh, Abul Mandal
We have cloned, characterized and transformed the AtACR2 gene (arsenic reductase 2) of Arabidopsis thaliana into the genome of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, var Sumsun). Our results revealed that the transgenic tobacco plants are more tolerant to arsenic than the wild type ones. These plants can grow on culture medium containing 200μM arsenate, whereas the wild type can barely survive under this condition. Furthermore, when exposed to 100μM arsenate for 35days the amount of arsenic accumulated in the shoots of transgenic plants was significantly lower (28μg/g d wt...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Nikolai P Bityutskii, Kirill L Yakkonen, Anastasiya I Petrova, Alexey L Shavarda
Aluminium (Al) is one of the major stressors for plants in acidic soils, negatively affecting plant growth and nutrient balances. Significant efforts have been undertaken to understand mechanisms of Al tolerance in plants. However, little is known of the relevance of iron (Fe) and silicon (Si) nutrition under Al stress conditions. The objectives of this study were to determine whether effects induced by Fe and Si are of importance for limitation of Al moving via xylem in plants (Cucumis sativus L.). Cucumber plants (cv...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Dayse Drielly Sousa Santana Vieira, Giovanni Emiliani, Paola Bartolini, Alessandra Podda, Mauro Centritto, François Luro, Renata Del Carratore, Raphaël Morillon, Abelmon Gesteira, Biancaelena Maserti
Combination of biotic and abiotic stress is a major challenge for crop and fruit production. Thus, identification of genes involved in cross-response to abiotic and biotic stress is of great importance for breeding superior genotypes. Lectins are glycan-binding proteins with a functions in the developmental processes as well as in the response to biotic and abiotic stress. In this work, a lectin like gene, namely ClLectin1, was characterized in Volkamer lemon and its expression was studied in plants exposed to either water stress, hormonal elicitors (JA, SA, ABA) or wounding to understand whether this gene may have a function in the response to multiple stress combination...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Junpeng Jiang, Changhong Yao, Xupeng Cao, Yinghui Liu, Song Xue
In a marine green starch-producing microalga Tetraselmis subcordiformis, the role of starch phosphorylase (SP) in the starch biosynthesis was disclosed by characterizing the enzyme properties and activity variations during the starch accumulation process. TsSP4, a SP isoform accounting for the major SP activity in T. subcordiformis, was unique to be active in a monomer form with a molecular weight of approximately 110kDa. It resembled one of the chloroplast-located SPs (PhoA) in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with a similarity of 63...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Ningning Li, Xue Wang, Binjie Ma, Chao Du, Linlin Zheng, Yingchun Wang
Reaumuria trigyna is an endangered recretohalophyte and a small xeric shrub that is endemic to the eastern Alxa and western Ordos areas of Inner Mongolia, China. Using transcriptome data, we identified a 1662-bp open reading frame encoding a 553-amino-acid protein corresponding to a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter (RtNHX1) from R. trigyna. RtNHX1 was rapidly up-regulated by NaCl and exogenous abscisic acid treatment and had different tissue-specific expression patterns before and after salt-stress treatment. Overexpression of RtNHX1 enhanced seed germination, biomass accumulation, chlorophyll content, and root elongation in transgenic Arabidopsis plants under salt stress and rescued the salt-sensitive deficiencies of the nhx1 mutant...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
C Díaz-Tielas, E Graña, M E Maffei, M J Reigosa, A M Sánchez-Moreiras
The plant phenolic compound (E)-chalcone has been previously found to induce noticeable seedling size reduction and progressive de-greening (bleaching) in shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. In this work, we demonstrate that this progressive de-greening occurring on Arabidopsis shoots after (E)-chalcone treatment, is directly linked to early plasma membrane depolarization and dramatic effects on chloroplasts structure and function. Later effects in chalcone-treated seedlings included ROS accumulation, pigment degradation, reduced photosynthetic activity, bleaching, and eventually cell death...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Alexandra Filipe, João C R Cardoso, Graça Miguel, Liliana Anjos, Helena Trindade, Ana Cristina Figueiredo, José Barroso, Deborah M Power, Natália T Marques
The essential oil of Thymus albicans Hoffmanns. & Link, a native shrub from the Iberian Peninsula, is mainly composed of monoterpenes. In this study, a 1,8-cineole synthase was isolated from the 1,8-cineole chemotype. A partial sequence that lacked the complete plastid transit peptide but contained an extended C-terminal when compared to other related terpene synthases was generated by PCR and Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). The predicted mature polypeptide was 593 amino acids in length and shared 78% and 77% sequence similarity with the homologue 1,8-cineole synthase from Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis, respectively...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Fatemeh Khakdan, Jaber Nasiri, Mojtaba Ranjbar, Houshang Alizadeh
Here, for the first time, the accumulation ratio of methylchavicol and methyleugenoland compounds together with the expression profiles of five critical genes (i.e., 4Cl, C3H, COMT, CVOMT and EOMT) in three Iranian cultivars of basil were assessed under water deficit stress at flowering stage. The highest value of methylchavicol was detected for Cul. 3 under severe stress (S3; 7.695μg/mg) alongside Cul. 2 under similar circumstances (S3; 4.133μg/mg), while regarding Cul. 1, no detectable amounts were acquired...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Xiang Huang, Jan Maisch, Peter Nick
Polar auxin transport depends on the polar localization of auxin-efflux carriers. The cycling of these carriers between cell interior and plasma membrane depends on actin. The dynamic of actin not only affects auxin transport, but also changes the auxin-responsiveness. To study the potential link between auxin responsiveness and actin dynamics, we investigated developmental responses of the non-transformed BY-2 (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bright Yellow 2) cell line and the transgenic BY-2 strain GF11 (stably transformed BY-2 cells with a GFP-fimbrin actin-binding domain 2 construct)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Heiko Kaufmann, Michael Blanke
Perennial trees require chilling, i.e. a period of cold temperature in the winter, for flowering next spring; sweet cherry is particularly prone to lack of chilling. The objective of this study is to identify possible transition points to clearly distinguish dormancy phases by relating carbohydrate and relative water content (RWC) in reproductive buds to concomitant chilling fulfilment. This contribution proposes the use of four transition points between the dormancy phases and their characterization in terms of carbohydrates, water contents in combination with chilling values and may allow upscaling to other dormancy studies in trees; two groups of cherry varieties were defined based on their different initial sorbitol and starch level in the autumn...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Maria Mittag, Christian Wilhelm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Zahia Zegaoui, Séverine Planchais, Cécile Cabassa, Reda Djebbar, Ouzna Abrous Belbachir, Pierre Carol
Many landraces of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] are adapted to particular geographical and climatic conditions. Here we describe two landraces grown respectively in arid and temperate areas of Algeria and assess their physiological and molecular responses to drought stress. As expected, when deprived of water cowpea plants lose water over time with a gradual reduction in transpiration rate. The landraces differed in their relative water content (RWC) and whole plant transpiration rate. The landrace from Menia, an arid area, retained more water in adult leaves...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Meike Luck, Peter Hegemann
Histidine kinase rhodopsins (HKRs) belong to a class of unexplored sensory photoreceptors that share a similar modular architecture. The light sensing rhodopsin domain is covalently linked to signal-transducing modules and in some cases to a C-terminal guanylyl-cyclase effector. In spite of their wide distribution in unicellular organisms, very little is known about their physiological role and mechanistic functioning. We investigated the photochemical properties of the recombinant rhodopsin-fragment of Cr-HKR1 originating from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Elisa Graña, Aitana Costas-Gil, Sabela Longueira, María Celeiro, Marta Teijeira, Manuel J Reigosa, Adela M Sánchez-Moreiras
The mode of action and phytotoxic potential of scopoletin, a natural compound belonging to the group of coumarins, has been evaluated in detail. Analysis conducted by light and electron transmission microscopy showed strong cell and tissue abnormalities on treated roots, such as cell wall malformations, multi-nucleated cells, abnormal nuclei and tissue disorganization. Scopoletin compromised root development by inducing wrong microtubule assembling, mitochondrial membrane depolarization and ultimate cell death, in a way similar to auxin herbicides...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Lars-Oliver Essen, Sophie Franz, Ankan Banerjee
Blue-light reception plays a pivotal role for algae to adapt to changing environmental conditions. In this review we summarize the current structural and mechanistic knowledge about flavin-dependent algal photoreceptors. We especially focus on the cryptochrome and aureochrome type photoreceptors in the context of their evolutionary divergence. Despite similar photochemical characteristics to orthologous photoreceptors from higher plants and animals the algal blue-light photoreceptors have developed a set of unique structural and mechanistic features that are summarized below...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Hisashi Kato-Noguchi, Fukiko Kimura, Osamu Ohno, Kiyotake Suenaga
Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) forests are characterized by sparse understory vegetation although sunlight intensity on the forest floor is sufficient for undergrowth. The possible involvement of pine allelopathy in the establishment of the sparse understory vegetation was investigated. The soil of the red pine forest floor had growth inhibitory activity on six test plant species including Lolium multiflorum, which was observed at the edge of the forest but not in the forest. Two growth inhibitory substances were isolated from the soil and characterized to be 15-hydroxy-7-oxodehydroabietate and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Peter G Kroth, Christian Wilhelm, Tilman Kottke
Light is important for algae, as it warrants metabolic independence via photosynthesis. In addition to the absorption of light by the photosystems, algae possess a variety of specific photoreceptors that allow the quantification of the light fluxes as well as the assessment of light qualities. About a decade ago, aureochromes have been described in the xanthophyte alga Vaucheria frigida. These proteins represent a new type of blue light photoreceptor as they possess both a light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain for light reception as well as a basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) domain for DNA binding, indicating that they represent light-driven transcription factors...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Liping Guo, Pei Wang, Zhenxin Gu, Xiaolin Jin, Runqiang Yang
Jasmonic acid (JA) is well known as a linolenic acid-derived signal molecule related to the plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. JA can regulate various plant metabolisms, such as glucosinolate metabolism. In this study, the proteome profiles of broccoli sprouts under JA treatment were analyzed using the iTRAQ-based quantitative proteome approach. A total of 122 differentially expressed proteins participating in a wide range of physiological processes were confidently identified in broccoli sprouts treated with JA...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
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