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Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107884/in-silico-characterization-and-expression-profiling-of-the-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-gene-family-dgat1-dgat2-dgat3-and-ws-dgat-from-oil-palm-elaeis-guineensis
#1
Rozana Rosli, Pek-Lan Chan, Kuang-Lim Chan, Nadzirah Amiruddin, Eng-Ti Leslie Low, Rajinder Singh, John L Harwood, Denis J Murphy
The diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) (diacylglycerol:acyl-CoA acyltransferase, EC 2.3.1.20) are a key group of enzymes that catalyse the final and usually the most important rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in plants and other organisms. Genes encoding four distinct functional families of DGAT enzymes have been characterised in the genome of the African oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. The contrasting features of the various isoforms within the four families of DGAT genes, namely DGAT1, DGAT2, DGAT3 and WS/DGAT are presented both in the oil palm itself and, for comparative purposes, in 12 other oil crop or model/related plants, namely Arabidopsis thaliana, Brachypodium distachyon, Brassica napus, Elaeis oleifera, Glycine max, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus, Musa acuminata, Oryza sativa, Phoenix dactylifera, Sorghum bicolor, and Zea mays...
October 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107883/the-fluorescent-blue-glow-of-banana-fruits-is-not-due-to-symplasmic-plastidial-catabolism-but-arises-from-insoluble-phenols-estherified-to-the-cell-wall
#2
Axel Tiessen
Banana fruits are firstly green due to chlorophyll, then yellow due to carotenoids and finally turn black due to polyphenols. However, bananas glow blue when observed under UV light. It has been reported that chlorophylls fade to give rise to fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (FCCs) in senescent banana leaves and in ripening banana peels. FCCs are short lived catabolic intermediates that ultimately lead to non-fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs). FCCs are abundant in bananas due to hypermodification; therefore, it was concluded that FCC caused yellow bananas to glow blue...
October 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107882/ectopic-expression-of-fvwrky42-a-wrky-transcription-factor-from-the-diploid-woodland-strawberry-fragaria-vesca-enhances-resistance-to-powdery-mildew-improves-osmotic-stress-resistance-and-increases-abscisic-acid-sensitivity-in-arabidopsis
#3
Wei Wei, Meng-Yuan Cui, Yang Hu, Kuan Gao, Yin-Ge Xie, Ying Jiang, Jia-Yue Feng
WRKY transcription factors play a critical role in biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants, but very few WRKYs have been reported in strawberry plants. Here, a multiple stress-inducible gene, FvWRKY42, was isolated from the wild diploid woodland strawberry (accession Heilongjiang-3). FvWRKY42 expression was induced by treatment with powdery mildew, salt, drought, salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), abscisic acid (ABA), and ethylene. The protein interaction network analysis showed that the FvWRKY42 protein interacts with various stress-related proteins...
October 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107881/isolation-and-identification-of-wheat-gene-tadis1-encoding-a-ring-finger-domain-protein-which-negatively-regulates-drought-stress-tolerance-in-transgenic-arabidopsis
#4
Yan Liu, Liqun Li, Li Zhang, Qian Lv, Yi Zhao, Xuejun Li
Drought stress is a major factor that limits the yield and quality in wheat. In this study, we identified an orthologue of the rice gene OsDIS1 (Oryza sativa drought-induced SINA protein 1) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) called TaDIS1. TaDIS1 encodes a putative 301 amino acid protein with a C3HC4 RING finger conserved domain at the N-terminal and a SINA domain at the C-terminal. TaDIS1 contains three exons and two introns. qRT-PCR analysis showed that TaDIS1 expression was induced by PEG6000, NaCl, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment...
October 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107880/structural-network-of-arabinogalactan-proteins-agps-and-pectins-in-apple-fruit-during-ripening-and-senescence-processes
#5
Agata Leszczuk, Monika Chylińska, Emil Zięba, Tomasz Skrzypek, Ewa Szczuka, Artur Zdunek
The cell wall is an essential framework determining the overall form of the plant cell. Our study was focused on the distribution of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), arabinan, and homogalacturonan in fruit cells during ripening and storage with emphasis on quantitative analysis of their presence in particular regions of the cell wall - plasma membrane. The localization of the examined compounds was determined with immunohistochemistry techniques and immunogold labelling. Spatio-temporal colocalization between AGPs epitopes - [βGlcA(1→3)-αGalA(1→2)Rha] recognized by JIM13 and MAC207 antibodies, and arabinan labelled by the LM16 antibody was detected in the inner cell wall layer, in association with the plasma membrane...
October 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107879/brassica-glucosinolate-rhythmicity-in-response-to-light-dark-entrainment-cycles-is-cultivar-dependent
#6
Pilar Soengas, M Elena Cartea, Pablo Velasco, Marta Francisco
Coordination of plant circadian rhythms with the external environment provides growth and reproductive advantages to plants as well as enhanced resistance to insects and pathogens. Since glucosinolates (GLSs) play a major role as plant defensive compounds and could affect the palatability and health value of edible crops, the aim of this study was to investigate the species-specific patterns in circadian rhythmicity of these plant phytochemicals. Five different GLS-containing cultivars, from three Brassica crop species were studied...
October 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107878/the-no-go-decay-system-degrades-plant-mrnas-that-contain-a-long-a-stretch-in-the-coding-region
#7
István Szádeczky-Kardoss, Luca Gál, Andor Auber, János Taller, Dániel Silhavy
RNA quality control systems identify and degrade aberrant mRNAs, thereby preventing the accumulation of faulty proteins. Non-stop decay (NSD) and No-go decay (NGD) are closely related RNA quality control systems that act during translation. NSD degrades mRNAs lacking a stop codon, while NGD recognizes and decays mRNAs that contain translation elongation inhibitory structures. NGD has been intensively studied in yeast and animals but it has not been described in plants yet. In yeast, NGD is induced if the elongating ribosome is stalled by a strong inhibitory structure...
October 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107877/the-metabolic-roles-of-free-amino-acids-during-seed-development
#8
REVIEW
Rachel Amir, Gad Galili, Hagai Cohen
Amino acids play vital roles in the central metabolism of seeds. They are primarily utilized for the synthesis of seed-storage proteins, but also serve as precursors for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and as a source of energy. Here, we aimed at describing the knowledge accumulated in recent years describing the changes occurring in the contents of free amino acids (FAAs) during seed development. Since several essential amino acids are found in low levels in seeds (e.g., Lys, Met, Thr, Val, Leu, Ile and His), or play unique functional roles in seed development (e...
October 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107876/rna-on-the-move-the-plasmodesmata-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Brandon C Reagan, Elena E Ganusova, Jessica C Fernandez, Tyra N McCray, Tessa M Burch-Smith
It is now widely accepted that plant RNAs can have effects at sites far away from their sites of synthesis. Cellular mRNA transcripts, endogenous small RNAs and defense-related small RNAs all move from cell to cell via plasmodesmata (PD), and may even move long distances in the phloem. Despite their small size, PD have complicated substructures, and the area of the pore available for RNA trafficking can be remarkably small. The intent of this review is to bring into focus the role of PD in cell-to-cell and long distance communication in plants...
October 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080645/primary-metabolism-changes-triggered-in-soybean-leaves-by-fusarium-tucumaniae-infection
#10
Romina G Rosati, Luciana D Lario, Mónica E Hourcade, Gerardo D L Cervigni, Alicia G Luque, María M Scandiani, Claudia P Spampinato
Sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean can be caused by at least four distinct Fusarium species, with F. tucumaniae being the main causal agent in Argentina. The fungus is a soil-borne pathogen that is largely confined to the roots, but damage also reaches aerial part of the plant and interveinal chlorosis and necrosis, followed by premature defoliation can be observed. In this study, two genetically diverse soybean cultivars, one susceptible (NA 4613) and one partially resistant (DM 4670) to SDS infection, were inoculated with F...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080644/mapping-of-domains-of-heat-stress-transcription-factor-oshsfa6a-responsible-for-its-transactivation-activity
#11
Garima Singh, Neelam K Sarkar, Anil Grover
Elevated temperatures affect the growth and reproduction of crop plants and thus have become concern worldwide. Hsp101/ClpB protein is a major molecular chaperone, performing dis-aggregation of protein aggregates formed during heat stress. In rice, OsHsfA6a binds to the promoter of OsHsp101/ClpB-C and regulates its expression. In this study, analysis of C-terminal domains of ClassA OsHsfs revealed the presence of aromatic, hydrophobic, acidic (AHA) and nuclear export signal (NES) motifs in all the members. Using deletion constructs, we show that the activation potential of OsHsfA6a is confined in the C-terminal activation domain comprising of AHA and NES sequences...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080643/low-doses-of-triazine-xenobiotics-mobilize-aba-and-cytokinin-regulations-in-a-stress-and-low-energy-dependent-manner
#12
Diana Alberto, Ivan Couée, Stéphanie Pateyron, Cécile Sulmon, Gwenola Gouesbet
The extent of residual contaminations of pesticides through drift, run-off and leaching is a potential threat to non-target plant communities. Arabidopsis thaliana responds to low doses of the herbicide atrazine, and of its degradation products, desethylatrazine and hydroxyatrazine, not only in the long term, but also under conditions of short-term exposure. In order to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of low-dose responses and to decipher commonalities and specificities between different chemical treatments, parallel transcriptomic studies of the early effects of the atrazine-desethylatrazine-hydroxyatrazine chemical series were undertaken using whole-genome microarrays...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080642/function-of-n-glycosylation-in-plants
#13
REVIEW
Yukihiro Nagashima, Antje von Schaewen, Hisashi Koiwa
Protein N-glycosylation is one of the major post-translational modifications in eukaryotic cells. In lower unicellular eukaryotes, the known functions of N-glycans are predominantly in protein folding and quality control within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In multicellular organisms, complex N-glycans are important for developmental programs and immune responses. However, little is known about the functions of complex N-glycans in plants. Formed in the Golgi apparatus, plant complex N-glycans have structures distinct from their animal counterparts due to a set of glycosyltransferases unique to plants...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080641/osmtp11-a-trans-golgi-network-localized-transporter-is-involved-in-manganese-tolerance-in-rice
#14
Gang Ma, Jiyu Li, Jingjun Li, Yun Li, Dongfang Gu, Chen Chen, Jin Cui, Xi Chen, Wei Zhang
Metal tolerance proteins (MTPs) belong to the cation diffusion facilitator family (CDF) and have been implicated in metal transport and homeostasis in different plant species. Here we report on the rice gene OsMTP11 that encodes a putative CDF transporter that is homologous to members of the Mn-CDF cluster. The expression of OsMTP11 was found to enhance Mn tolerance in the Mn-sensitive yeast mutant pmr1. Knockdown of OsMTP11 resulted in growth inhibition in the presence of high concentrations of Mn, and also led to increased accumulation of Mn in the shoots and roots...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080640/oxygen-isotope-enrichment-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l-grain-organic-matter-captures-signature-of-relative-humidity
#15
Ritika Kaushal, Prosenjit Ghosh
The oxygen isotopic composition (δ18 O) of plant organic matter (OM) is primarily governed by the δ18 O of source water (δ18 OSW ) and climatic factor of relative humidity (RH). Among the cereals, the growth of rice plants is critically dependent on the water availability in the growth-environment. In the present study, we investigated the sensitivity of δ18 O in the bulk organic matter of rice grains to RH of their growth-environment. Our experimental setup consisted of both glasshouse and field experiments, where eight genotypes were grown at RH levels ranging from 67% to 87%...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080639/constitutive-expression-of-cmskor-an-outward-k-channel-gene-from-melon-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-involved-in-saline-tolerance
#16
Huang Long-Tang, Zhao Li-Na, Gao Li-Wei, Véry Anne-Aliénor, Sentenac Hervé, Zhang Yi-Dong
Shaker-like K+ outward rectifying channel (SKOR) is involved in mediating long-distance K+ transport from roots to shoots. In this study, a Shaker-like outward K+ channel gene CmSKOR (GenBank accession number MF447462) was isolated from melon (Cucumis melo L.). Phylogenetic analysis showed that CmSKOR belongs to the SKOR-subfamily in the Shaker-like K+ channel family. Electrophysiological experiments indicated that CmSKOR was a K+ -permeable channel with low affinity. Expressed in Xenopus oocytes, CmSKOR displayed classical Shaker-like outwardly rectifying K+ currents...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080638/review-selective-degradation-of-peroxisome-by-autophagy-in-plants-mechanisms-functions-and-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Mengqian Luo, Xiaohong Zhuang
Peroxisome, a single-membrane organelle conserved in eukaryotic, is responsible for a series of oxidative reactions with its specific enzymatic components. A counterbalance between peroxisome biogenesis and degradation is crucial for the homeostasis of peroxisomes. One such degradation mechanism, termed pexophagy, is a type of selective autophagic process to deliver the excess/damaged peroxisomes into the vacuole. In plants, pexophagy is involved in the remodeling of seedlings and quality control of peroxisomes...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080637/histochemical-observations-and-gene-expression-changes-related-to-internal-browning-in-tuberous-roots-of-sweet-potato-ipomea-batatas
#18
Nobuyuki Fukuoka, Masahiro Miyata, Tatsuro Hamada, Eishin Takeshita
The mechanism underlying internal browning (IB), or brown discoloration, of the central region of tuberous roots of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was examined. IB disorder begins in roots from approx. 90 days after transplanting, and the severity increases significantly with time. IB damage initially occurs in cells around the secondary vascular tissue, and the area per cell occupied by starch grains in this region was larger than in the unaffected region. High levels of reducing sugars, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities, chlorogenic acid, and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) were detected in cells from the IB damaged regions...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080636/buckwheat-r2r3-myb-transcription-factor-femybf1-regulates-flavonol-biosynthesis
#19
Katsuhiro Matsui, Yoshimi Oshima, Nobutaka Mitsuda, Shingo Sakamoto, Yoichi Nishiba, Amanda R Walker, Masaru Ohme-Takagi, Simon P Robinson, Yasuo Yasui, Masashi Mori, Hiromi Takami
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) contains high amounts of flavonoids, especially flavonols (e.g., rutin), which are thought to be highly beneficial for human health. Little is known, however, about the regulation of flavonol synthesis in buckwheat. We identified a buckwheat gene encoding an R2R3 MYB transcription factor, and named this gene FeMYBF1. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence and phylogenetic analysis suggested that FeMYBF1 encodes an ortholog of the Arabidopsis flavonol regulators AtMYB11, AtMYB12 and AtMYB111...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080635/genome-wide-analysis-of-aluminum-activated-malate-transporter-family-genes-in-six-rosaceae-species-and-expression-analysis-and-functional-characterization-on-malate-accumulation-in-chinese-white-pear
#20
Xu Linlin, Qiao Xin, Zhang Mingyue, Zhang Shaoling
Aluminum-activated malate transporters (ALMTs) exhibit a variety of physiological roles in plants to regulate fruit quality, but the evolutionary history of the ALMT family in the Rosaceae species remains unknown. In this study, a total of 113 ALMT homologous genes were identified from six Rosaceae species (Pyrus bretschneideri, Malus × domestica, Prunus persica, Fragaria vesca, Prunus mume, and Pyrus communis), and 27 of these sequences came from Chinese white pear, designated PbrALMT. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, we divided these ALMT genes into three main clusters (A-C)...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
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