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Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716425/characterization-and-quantification-of-flavonoids-and-organic-acids-over-fruit-development-in-american-cranberry-vaccinium-macrocarpon-cultivars-using-hplc-and-apci-ms-ms
#1
Yifei Wang, Jennifer Johnson-Cicalese, Ajay P Singh, Nicholi Vorsa
Cranberry flavonoids, including anthocyanins, flavonol glycosides and proanthocyanidins, and organic acids were characterized and quantified by HPLC and LC-MS/MS during fruit development and ripening in eight cranberry cultivars. Anthocyanin biosynthesis initiated at early fruit development and reached highest level in mature fruit, with significant differences between cultivars. Major flavonol glycosides, including the most abundant quercetin-3-galactoside and myricetin-3-galactoside, showed consistent concentrations during the season with moderate fluctuation, and were at similar levels in mature fruits of the eight cultivars...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716424/molecular-cloning-of-an-ester-forming-triterpenoid-udp-glucose-28-o-glucosyltransferase-involved-in-saponin-biosynthesis-from-the-medicinal-plant-centella-asiatica
#2
Fernanda de Costa, Carla J S Barber, Yeon-Bok Kim, Darwin W Reed, Haixia Zhang, Arthur G Fett-Neto, Patrick S Covello
Triterpene saponins include bioactive compounds with structures consisting of triterpene aglycones (sapogenins) and one or more sugar moieties linked through acetal or ester glycosidic linkages at one or more sites. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban is a medicinal plant that contains bioactive ursane-type saponins, such as madecassoside and asiaticoside. In this work, glucosylation of triterpenoids in C. asiatica was investigated starting with plant extracts. An enzyme capable of glucosylating asiatic and madecassic acids was partially purified...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716423/nadk2-positively-modulates-abscisic-acid-induced-stomatal-closure-by-affecting-accumulation-of-h2o2-ca-2-and-nitric-oxide-in-arabidopsis-guard-cells
#3
Lirong Sun, Yaping Li, Wenwen Miao, Tingting Piao, Yang Hao, Fu-Shun Hao
NAD kinase2 (NADK2) plays key roles in chloroplastic NADP biosynthesis, stress adaptation and modulation of cellular metabolisms in Arabidopsis. However, it is unknown whether and how NADK2 affects abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated stomatal movement. Here, we detected that null mutant nadk2 was more sensitive to drought stress than WT, and NADK2 gene was active in guard cells. Furthermore, NADK2 mutation impaired ABA-induced stomatal closure and ABA inhibition of light-promoted stomatal opening. NADK2 disruption also impaired ABA-stimulated accumulation of H2O2, Ca(2+) and nitric oxide (NO) in guard cells, but did not affect the stomatal closure evoked by exogenous H2O2, Ca(2+) or NO...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716422/development-of-imidazolinone-herbicide-tolerant-borage-borago-officinalis-l
#4
Dongyan Song, Guohai Wu, Patricia Vrinten, Xiao Qiu
Borage (Borago officinalis) is an annual herb that produces a high level of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) in its seed oil. Due to the recognized health benefits of GLA, borage is now commercially cultivated worldwide. However, an herbicide-tolerant variety for effective weed management has not yet been developed. Here we report the generation and characterization of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) induced borage mutant lines tolerant to the herbicide imidazolinone. An EMS-mutagenized borage population was generated by using a series of concentrations of EMS to treat mature borage seeds...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716421/dual-functioning-of-plant-arginases-provides-a-third-route-for-putrescine-synthesis
#5
Jigar Patel, Menaka Ariyaratne, Sheaza Ahmed, Lingxiao Ge, Vipaporn Phuntumart, Andrea Kalinoski, Paul F Morris
Two biosynthetic routes are known for putrescine, an essential plant metabolite. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) converts ornithine directly to putrescine, while a second route for putrescine biosynthesis utilizes arginine decarboxylase (ADC) to convert arginine to agmatine, and two additional enzymes, agmatine iminohydrolase (AIH) and N-carbamoyl putrescine aminohydrolase (NLP1) to complete this pathway. Here we show that plants can use ADC and arginase/agmatinase (ARGAH) as a third route for putrescine synthesis...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716420/characterization-of-bdcbf-genes-and-genome-wide-transcriptome-profiling-of-bdcbf3-dependent-and-independent-cold-stress-responses-in-brachypodium-distachyon
#6
Jingjie Hao, Jinliang Yang, Jiangli Dong, Shui-Zhang Fei
Freezing stress substantially reduces crop yields and limits plant distribution. The identification of genes critical for cold acclimation is thus of great importance. C-repeat binding factors (CBFs) are transcription factors that play key regulatory roles in the cold acclimation process, which dramatically increases freezing tolerance in plants. We report here that B. distachyon can successfully cold acclimate and we identified a CBF gene family consisting of eight genes in a tandem array and are designated as BdCBF1-8...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716419/a-%C3%AE-carotene-desaturase-gene-ibzds-increases-%C3%AE-carotene-and-lutein-contents-and-enhances-salt-tolerance-in-transgenic-sweetpotato
#7
Ruijie Li, Chen Kang, Xuejin Song, Ling Yu, Degao Liu, Shaozhen He, Hong Zhai, Qingchang Liu
ζ-Carotene desaturase (ZDS) is one of the key enzymes in carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. However, the ZDS gene has not been applied to carotenoid improvement of plants. Its roles in tolerance to abiotic stresses have not been reported. In this study, the IbZDS gene was isolated from storage roots of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) cv. Nongdafu 14. Its overexpression significantly increased β-carotene and lutein contents and enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic sweetpotato (cv. Kokei No. 14) plants...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716418/wheat-rop-proteins-modulate-defense-response-through-lignin-metabolism
#8
Qing-Hu Ma, Hai-Hao Zhu, Jia-Qi Han
ROP is a subfamily of small GTP-binding proteins that uniquely exist in plants. It acts as versatile molecular switches that regulate various developmental processes. Some ROP proteins are also reported to affect defense responses, although their exact mechanism is not fully understood. Herein, ROP members in wheat were mined; the functions of three wheat ROP proteins were studied. RT-PCR results showed that the expression of TaRac1 was rapidly and strongly induced after leaf rust infection. TaRac1 interacted with TaCCR in yeast-hybridization assay...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716417/alcohol-dehydrogenase-1-adh1-confers-both-abiotic-and-biotic-stress-resistance-in-arabidopsis
#9
Haitao Shi, Wen Liu, Yue Yao, Yunxie Wei, Zhulong Chan
Although the transcriptional regulation and upstream transcription factors of AtADH1 in response to abiotic stress are widely revealed, the in vivo roles of AtADH1 remain unknown. In this study, we found that the expression of AtADH1 was largely induced after salt, drought, cold and pathogen infection. Further studies found that AtADH1 overexpressing plants were more sensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) in comparison to wide type (WT), while AtADH1 knockout mutants showed no significant difference compared with WT in ABA sensitivity...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716416/role-and-interrelationship-of-mek1-mpk6-cascade-hydrogen-peroxide-and-nitric-oxide-in-darkness-induced-stomatal-closure
#10
Teng-Yue Zhang, Feng-Chen Li, Cai-Ming Fan, Xuan Li, Fang-Fang Zhang, Jun-Min He
Pharmacological data have suggested the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) cascades in dark-induced stomatal closure, but which specific MPK cascade participates in the darkness guard cell signaling and its relationship with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) remain unclear. In this paper, we observed that darkness induced activation of MPK6 in leaves of wild-type Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and mutants for nitrate reductase 1 (NIA1), but this effect was inhibited in mutants for MPK Kinase 1 (MEK1) and ATRBOHD/F...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716415/primary-root-growth-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-is-inhibited-by-the-mir159-mediated-repression-of-myb33-myb65-and-myb101
#11
Tao Xue, Zhenhua Liu, Xuehuan Dai, Fengning Xiang
Organ growth is a fundamental developmental process basing on cell proliferation and differentiation. The growth of the plant root is sustained by the activity of the root meristem, a process controlled in part by various transcription factors. Here, the miR159 has been identified as a post transcriptional repressor of root growth, on the basis that the mir159ab double mutant developed a larger meristem than did the wild type, and that it formed longer roots. In the mutant, the abundance of MYB33, MYB65 and MYB101 transcript was substantially increased...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716414/functional-characterization-of-the-sbnrat1-gene-in-sorghum
#12
Muxue Lu, Zhigang Wang, Shan Fu, Guangzhe Yang, Mingxing Shi, Youshe Lu, Xiaohu Wang, Jixing Xia
The Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein (Nramp) members play diverse roles in metal transport in plants. Recent studies have showed that OsNrat1 (OsNramp4) encodes an Al transporter, which is required for rice Al tolerance. In this study, we functionally characterized a Nramp member in sorghum, SbNrat1, which is homologous to OsNrat1 with 88% identity. SbNrat1 was expressed in both roots and shoots, and its expression was not induced by Al treatment. When expressed in yeast, SbNrat1 transports trivalent Al ion, but not Mn and Cd...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716413/belowground-microbes-mitigate-plant-plant-competition
#13
Márcia Bacelar Fonseca, Teresa Dias, Maria Manuela Carolino, Marcel Giovanni Costa França, Cristina Cruz
Dimorphandra wilsonii, a Cerrado endemic Fabaceae tree, is threatened by land-use changes. The few remaining individuals occur in areas dominated by alien grasses like Urochloa decumbens. We tested the impact of nitrogen (N) availability and symbionts' presence on mitigating the effects of competition from U. decumbens. Dimorphandra wilsonii seedlings were 50-week pot-cultivated under limiting (3mM) or non-limiting (10mM) N, with or without U. decumbens, and inoculated or not with a N-fixer (Bradyrhizobium sp...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716412/degradation-of-cytosolic-ribosomes-by-autophagy-related-pathways
#14
REVIEW
Diane C Bassham, Gustavo C MacIntosh
Ribosomes are essential molecular machines that require a large cellular investment, yet the mechanisms of their turnover are not well understood in any eukaryotic organism. Recent advances in Arabidopsis suggest that plants utilize selective mechanisms to transport rRNA or ribosomes to the vacuole, where rRNA is degraded and the breakdown products recycled to maintain cellular homeostasis. This review focuses on known mechanisms of rRNA turnover and explores unanswered questions on the specificity and pathways of ribosome turnover and the role of this process in maintenance of cellular homeostasis...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716411/genetic-mitigation-strategies-to-tackle-agricultural-ghg-emissions-the-case-for-biological-nitrification-inhibition-technology
#15
REVIEW
G V Subbarao, J Arango, K Masahiro, A M Hooper, T Yoshihashi, Y Ando, K Nakahara, S Deshpande, I Ortiz-Monasterio, M Ishitani, M Peters, N Chirinda, L Wollenberg, J C Lata, B Gerard, S Tobita, I M Rao, H J Braun, V Kommerell, J Tohme, M Iwanaga
Accelerated soil-nitrifier activity and rapid nitrification are the cause of declining nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) and enhanced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from farming. Biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) is the ability of certain plant roots to suppress soil-nitrifier activity, through production and release of nitrification inhibitors. The power of phytochemicals with BNI-function needs to be harnessed to control soil-nitrifier activity and improve nitrogen-cycling in agricultural systems. Transformative biological technologies designed for genetic mitigation are needed, so that BNI-enabled crop-livestock and cropping systems can rein in soil-nitrifier activity, to help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and globally make farming nitrogen efficient and less harmful to environment...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716410/review-nectar-biology-from-molecules-to-ecosystems
#16
REVIEW
Rahul Roy, Anthony J Schmitt, Jason B Thomas, Clay J Carter
Plants attract mutualistic animals by offering a reward of nectar. Specifically, floral nectar (FN) is produced to attract pollinators, whereas extrafloral nectar (EFN) mediates indirect defenses through the attraction of mutualist predatory insects to limit herbivory. Nearly 90% of all plant species, including 75% of domesticated crops, benefit from animal-mediated pollination, which is largely facilitated by FN. Moreover, EFN represents one of the few defense mechanisms for which stable effects on plant health and fitness have been demonstrated in multiple systems, and thus plays a crucial role in the resistance phenotype of plants producing it...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716409/from-experiment-driven-database-analyses-to-database-driven-experiments-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-transcription-factor-research
#17
REVIEW
Reinhard Hehl
Experiment-driven database analysis is employed in forward genetics to predict the function of genes assocíated with a mutant phenotype. These analyses subsequently lead to database-driven experiments involving reverse genetics to verify functional predictions based on bioinformatic analyses. Genomic transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators of gene expression by binding to short regulatory sequences and by interacting with other TFs. Currently more than 2400 TFs are predicted for A. thaliana. As DNA-binding proteins they are particularly amenable to database-driven experiments, especially when their binding site specificities are known...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716408/molecular-and-biochemical-characterization-of-a-vigna-mungo-map-kinase-associated-with-mungbean-yellow-mosaic-india-virus-infection-and-deciphering-its-role-in-restricting-the-virus-multiplication
#18
Anju Patel, Nrisingha Dey, Shubho Chaudhuri, Amita Pal
Yellow Mosaic Disease caused by the begomovirus Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus (MYMIV) severely affects many economically important legumes. Recent investigations in Vigna mungo - MYMIV incompatible interaction identified a MAPK homolog in the defense signaling pathway. An important branch of immunity involves phosphorylation by evolutionary conserved Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) that transduce signals of pathogen invasion to downstream molecules leading to diverse immune responses. However, most of the knowledge of MAPKs is derived from model crops, and functions of these versatile kinases are little explored in legumes...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716407/overexpression-of-lsi1-in-cold-sensitive-rice-mediates-transcriptional-regulatory-networks-and-enhances-resistance-to-chilling-stress
#19
Changxun Fang, Pengli Zhang, Xin Jian, Weisi Chen, Hongmei Lin, Yingzhe Li, Wenxiong Lin
Frequent cold spells in late spring can damage early rice seedlings. However, overexpression of the silicon-uptake gene Lsi1 (Lsi1-OX) in cold-sensitive rice (Oryza sativa L., accession: Dular) notably enhances its chilling resistance. In this study, we found that continual chilling led to chlorophyll and RNA degradation in wild-type Dular leaves, whereas leaves from a Lsi1-OX line exhibited no obvious changes. A comparison of the global mRNA expression between the two rice lines showed that genes encoding photosynthesis-antenna proteins were downregulated and those encoding the proteasome were upregulated in the wild-type organism...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716406/the-tomato-b-type-cyclin-gene-slcycb2-plays-key-roles-in-reproductive-organ-development-trichome-initiation-terpenoids-biosynthesis-and-prodenia-litura-defense
#20
Shenghua Gao, Yanna Gao, Cheng Xiong, Gang Yu, Jiang Chang, Qihong Yang, Changxian Yang, Zhibiao Ye
Cyclins exist extensively in various plant species. Among them, B-type cyclins play important roles in the transition of G2-to-M. However, few B-type cyclins have been reported to participate in reproductive organ development and trichome formation. In this study, transgene analysis showed that SlCycB2 overexpression caused abnormal flower with the unclosed stamen, shortened style and aberrant pollen. In addition, nearly all non-glandular trichomes, as well as the glandular ones were disappeared. On the contrary, suppression of SlCycB2 could promote type III and type V trichomes formation...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
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