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Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969807/developmental-reprogramming-by-uv-b-radiation-in-plants
#1
REVIEW
Marcela Dotto, Paula Casati
Plants are extremely plastic organisms with the ability to adapt and respond to the changing environmental conditions surrounding them. Sunlight is one of the main resources for plants, both as a primary energy source for photosynthesis and as a stimulus that regulates different aspects of their growth and development. UV-B comprises wavelengths that correspond to a high energy region of the solar spectrum capable of reaching the biosphere, influencing plant growth. It is currently believed that plants are able to acclimate when growing under the influence of this radiation and perceive it as a signal, without stress signs...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969806/root-phonotropism-early-signalling-events-following-sound-perception-in-arabidopsis-roots
#2
Ana Rodrigo-Moreno, Nadia Bazihizina, Elisa Azzarello, Elisa Masi, Daniel Tran, François Bouteau, Frantisek Baluska, Stefano Mancuso
Sound is a fundamental form of energy and it has been suggested that plants can make use of acoustic cues to obtain information regarding their environments and alter and fine-tune their growth and development. Despite an increasing body of evidence indicating that it can influence plant growth and physiology, many questions concerning the effect of sound waves on plant growth and the underlying signalling mechanisms remains unknown. Here we show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, exposure to sound waves (200Hz) for 2 weeks induced positive phonotropism in roots, which grew towards to sound source...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969805/characterization-of-the-functional-interactions-of-plastidial-starch-phosphorylase-and-starch-branching-enzymes-from-rice-endosperm-during-reserve-starch-biosynthesis
#3
Yasunori Nakamura, Masami Ono, Takayuki Sawada, Naoko Crofts, Naoko Fujita, Martin Steup
Functional interactions of plastidial phosphorylase (Pho1) and starch branching enzymes (BEs) from the developing rice endosperm are the focus of this study. In the presence of both Pho1 and BE, the same branched primer molecule is elongated and further branched almost simultaneously even at very low glucan concentrations present in the purified enzyme preparations. By contrast, in the absence of any BE, glucans are not, to any significant extent, elongated by Pho1. Based on our in vitro data, in the developing rice endosperm, Pho1 appears to be weakly associated with any of the BE isozymes...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969804/expression-of-the-sin3-homologue-from-banana-masin3-suppresses-aba-responses-globally-during-plant-growth-in-arabidopsis
#4
Raj Luxmi, Rashmi Garg, Sudhakar Srivastava, Aniruddha P Sane
The SIN3 family of co-repressors is a family of highly conserved eukaryotic repressor proteins that regulates diverse functions in yeasts and animals but remains largely uncharacterized functionally even in plants like Arabidopsis. The sole SIN3 homologue in banana, MaSIN3, was identified as a 1408 amino acids, nuclear localized protein conserved to other SIN3s in the PAH, HID and HCR domains. Interestingly, MaSIN3 over-expression in Arabidopsis mimics a state of reduced ABA responses throughout plant development affecting growth processes such as germination, root growth, stomatal closure and water loss, flowering and senescence...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969803/comparative-analysis-of-allergen-genes-and-pro-inflammatory-factors-in-pollen-and-fruit-of-apple-varieties
#5
Roberta Paris, Giulia Pagliarani, Federica Savazzini, Iris Aloisi, Rosa Anna Iorio, Stefano Tartarini, Giampaolo Ricci, Stefano Del Duca
Allergy to freshly consumed apple fruits is often associated to pollinosis and manifested as oral allergy syndrome (OAS). The allergenic properties of apple varieties differ greatly, spanning from low allergenic to high allergenic varieties. The knowledge of the genetic determinants for allergenicity has been of great interest in scientific community for several years, but the molecular mechanisms involved are still little understood. Here, factors putatively involved in allergenicity were investigated at biochemical and molecular level in pollen and in fruits of apple varieties differing in their allergenic potential...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969802/agricultural-practices-to-improve-nitrogen-use-efficiency-through-the-use-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizae-basic-and-agronomic-aspects
#6
REVIEW
Julien Verzeaux, Bertrand Hirel, Frédéric Dubois, Peter J Lea, Thierry Tétu
Nitrogen cycling in agroecosystems is heavily dependent upon arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) present in the soil microbiome. These fungi develop obligate symbioses with various host plant species, thus increasing their ability to acquire nutrients. However, AMF are particularly sensitive to physical, chemical and biological disturbances caused by human actions that limit their establishment. For a more sustainable agriculture, it will be necessary to further investigate which agricultural practices could be favorable to maximize the benefits of AMF to improve crop nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), thus reducing nitrogen (N) fertilizer usage...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969801/the-role-of-brassinosteroids-in-the-regulation-of-the-plasma-membrane-h-atpase-and-nadph-oxidase-under-cadmium-stress
#7
Dagmara Jakubowska, Małgorzata Janicka
The present research aim was to define the role of brassinosteroids (BRs) in plant adaptation to cadmium stress. We observed a stimulating effect of exogenous BR on the activity of two plasma membrane enzymes which play a key role in plants adaptation to cadmium stress, H(+)-ATPase (EC 3.6.3.14) and NADPH oxidase (EC 1.6.3.1). Using anti-phosphothreonine antibody we showed that modification of PM H(+)-ATPase activity under BR action could result from phosphorylation of the enzyme protein. Also the relative expression of genes encoding both PM H(+)-ATPase and NADPH oxidase was affected by BR...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969800/%C3%AE-farnesene-and-ocimene-induce-metabolite-changes-by-volatile-signaling-in-neighboring-tea-camellia-sinensis-plants
#8
Lanting Zeng, Yinyin Liao, Jianlong Li, Ying Zhou, Jinchi Tang, Fang Dong, Ziyin Yang
Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) act as direct defenses against herbivores and as indirect defenses by attracting herbivore enemies. However, the involvement of HIPVs in within-plant or plant-to-plant signaling is not fully clarified. Furthermore, in contrast to model plants, HIPV signaling roles in crops have hardly been reported. Here, we investigated HIPVs emitted from tea (Camellia sinensis) plants, an important crop used for beverages, and their involvement in tea plant-to-plant signaling. To ensure uniform and sufficient exposure to HIPVs, jasmonic acid combined with mechanical damage (JAMD) was used to simulate herbivore attacks...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969799/hormonal-dynamics-during-salt-stress-responses-of-salt-sensitive-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-salt-tolerant-thellungiella-salsuginea
#9
Sylva Prerostova, Petre I Dobrev, Alena Gaudinova, Petr Hosek, Petr Soudek, Vojtech Knirsch, Radomira Vankova
Salt stress responses in salt-sensitive Arabidopsis thaliana (2-150mM NaCl) and the closely related salt-tolerant Thellungiella salsuginea (Eutrema halophila, 150-350mM NaCl) were compared to identify hormonal and transcriptomic changes associated with enhanced stress tolerance. Phytohormone levels, expression of selected genes, membrane stability, and Na(+) and K(+) concentrations were measured in shoot apices, leaves, and roots. Thellungiella exhibited higher salt stress tolerance associated with elevated basal levels of abscisic acid and jasmonic acid, and lower levels of active cytokinins (excluding cis-zeatin) in shoot apices...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969798/toward-understanding-of-the-high-number-of-plant-aquaporin-isoforms-and-multiple-regulation-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
Ana Romina Fox, Laurie C Maistriaux, François Chaumont
Since the discovery of the first plant aquaporin (AQP) in 1993, our conception of the way plants control cell water homeostasis as well as their global water balance has been revisited. Plant AQPs constitute a large family of evolutionarily related channels that, in addition to water, can also facilitate the membrane diffusion of a number of small solutes, such as urea, CO2, H2O2, ammonia, metalloids, and even ions, indicating a wide range of cellular functions. At the cellular level, AQPs are subject to various regulation mechanisms leading to active/inactive channels in their target membranes...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969797/folic-acid-orchestrates-root-development-linking-cell-elongation-with-auxin-response-and-acts-independently-of-the-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#11
Juan Ángel Ayala-Rodríguez, Salvador Barrera-Ortiz, León Francisco Ruiz-Herrera, José López-Bucio
Folic acid is a precursor of tetrahydrofolate (vitamin B9), which is an essential cofactor in most organisms, acting as a carrier for one-carbon units in enzymatic reactions. In this work, we employed pharmacological, genetic and confocal imaging strategies to unravel the signaling mechanism by which folic acid modulates root growth and development. Folic acid supplementation inhibits primary root elongation and induces lateral root formation in a concentration-dependent manner. An analysis of the expression of cell cycle genes pCycD6;1:GFP and CycB1:uidA, and cell expansion Exp7:uidA showed that folic acid promotes cell division but prevented cell elongation, and this correlated with altered expression of auxin-responsive DR5:GFP gene, and PIN1:PIN1:GFP, PIN3:PIN3:GFP, and PIN7:PIN7:GFP auxin transporters at the columella and vasculature of primary roots, whereas mutants defective in auxin signaling (tir1/afb1/afb2 [receptors], slr1 [repressor] and arf7/arf19 [transcription factors]) were less sensitive to folic acid induced primary root shortening and lateral root proliferation...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969796/induction-of-the-pdh-bypass-and-upregulation-of-the-aldh7b4-in-plants-treated-with-herbicides-inhibiting-amino-acid-biosynthesis
#12
Miriam Gil-Monreal, Ana Zabalza, Tagnon D Missihoun, Peter Dörmann, Dorothea Bartels, Mercedes Royuela
Imazamox and glyphosate represent two classes of herbicides that inhibit the activity of acetohydroxyacid synthase in the branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway and the activity of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase in the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathway, respectively. However, it is still unclear how imazamox and glyphosate lead to plant death. Both herbicides inhibit amino-acid biosynthesis and were found to induce ethanol fermentation in plants, but an Arabidopsis mutant deficient in alcohol dehydrogenase 1 was neither more susceptible nor more resistant than the wild-type to the herbicides...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969795/legume-isoflavone-synthase-genes-have-evolved-by-whole-genome-and-local-duplications-yielding-transcriptionally-active-paralogs
#13
Dorota Narożna, Michał Książkiewicz, Łucja Przysiecka, Joanna Króliczak, Bogdan Wolko, Barbara Naganowska, Cezary J Mądrzak
Isoflavone synthase (IFS) is the key enzyme of isoflavonoid biosynthesis. IFS genes were identified in numerous species, although their evolutionary patterns have not yet been reconstructed. To address this issue, we performed structural and functional genomic analysis. Narrow leafed lupin, Lupinus angustifolius L., was used as a reference species for the genus, because it has the most developed molecular tools available. Nuclear genome BAC library clones carrying IFS homologs were localized by linkage mapping and fluorescence in situ hybridization in three chromosome pairs...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969794/a-part-of-the-upstream-promoter-region-of-shn2-gene-directs-trichome-specific-expression-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-heterologous-plants
#14
Vajinder Kumar, Dipnarayan Saha, Dhiraj Ramesh Thakare, Anjana Jajoo, Pradeep Kumar Jain, Shripad Ramachandra Bhat, Ramamurthy Srinivasan
A promoter trap mutant line of Arabidopsis carrying a promoterless β-glucuronidase (uidA) gene exhibited GUS expression predominantly in all the trichomes. In this mutant, the T-DNA insertion was localized at 147bp upstream of the putative start codon, ATG, of the At5g11190 (SHN2) gene. Transcript profiling of the SHN2 suggested a constitutive expression of the gene in all the tissues. Deletion analysis of the upstream sequences established that a 565bp (-594/-30) region confers trichome-specific gene expression...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969793/activation-of-zmmkk10-a-maize-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-kinase-induces-ethylene-dependent-cell-death
#15
Ying Chang, Hailian Yang, Dongtao Ren, Yuan Li
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play important roles in regulating plant growth, development and stress responses. Here, we report that ZmMKK10, a maize MAP kinase kinase, positively regulates cell death. Sequence comparison to Arabidopsis MKKs has led to ZmMKK10 being classified as a group D MKK. Kinase activity analysis of recombinant ZmMKK10 showed that the Mg(2+) ion was required for its kinase activity. Transient expression of ZmMKK10(WT) or ZmMKK10(DD) (the active form of ZmMKK10) in maize mesophyll protoplast significantly increased the cell death rate...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969792/effect-of-photoperiod-prior-to-cold-acclimation-on-freezing-tolerance-and-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-alfalfa-medicago-sativa-l
#16
Annick Bertrand, Marie Bipfubusa, Annie Claessens, Solen Rocher, Yves Castonguay
Cold acclimation proceeds sequentially in response to decreases in photoperiod and temperature. This study aimed at assessing the impact of photoperiod prior to cold acclimation on freezing tolerance and related biochemical and molecular responses in two alfalfa cultivars. The fall dormant cultivar Evolution and semi-dormant cultivar 6010 were grown in growth chambers under different photoperiods (8, 10, 12, 14 or 16h) prior to cold acclimation. Freezing tolerance was evaluated as well as carbohydrate concentrations, levels of transcripts encoding enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism as well as a K-3dehydrin, before and after cold acclimation...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969791/map65-1-is-required-for-the-depolymerization-and-reorganization-of-cortical-microtubules-in-the-response-to-salt-stress-in-arabidopsis
#17
Sa Zhou, Qiuhong Chen, Xinyue Li, Yingzhang Li
Microtubules (MTs) are highly dynamical structures that play crucial roles in plant development and in response to environmental signals and stress conditions. MT-associated proteins (MAPs) play important roles in regulating the organization of MT arrays. MAP65 is a family of plant MT-bundling proteins. Here, we determined the role of MAP65-1 in the response to salt stress. MAP65-1 is involved not only in regulating the depolymerization, but also in the following reorganization of cortical MTs in salt stress responses...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969790/molecular-identification-of-tobacco-ntamt1-3-that-mediated-ammonium-root-influx-with-high-affinity-and-improved-plant-growth-on-ammonium-when-overexpressed-in-arabidopsis-and-tobacco
#18
Teng-Fei Fan, Xiao-Yuan Cheng, Dong-Xue Shi, Ming-Jie He, Chao Yang, Lu Liu, Chang-Jun Li, Yi-Chen Sun, Yi-Yin Chen, Chen Xu, Lei Zhang, Lai-Hua Liu
Although biological functions of ammonium (NH4(+)) transporters (AMTs) have been intensively studied in many plant species, little is known about molecular bases responsible for NH4(+) movement in tobacco. Here, we reported the identification and functional characterization of a putative NH4(+) transporter NtAMT1.3 from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Analysis in silico showed that NtAMT1.3 encoded an integral membrane protein containing 464 amino acid residues and exhibiting 10 predicted transmembrane α-helices...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969789/osmyb45-plays-an-important-role-in-rice-resistance-to-cadmium-stress
#19
Shubao Hu, Yao Yu, Qiuhong Chen, Guangmao Mu, Zhenguo Shen, Luqing Zheng
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metal elements in nature, and it causes serious damage to plant cells. Here, we report that a transcription factor OsMYB45 is involved in Cd stress response in rice. OsMYB45 is highly expressed in rice leaves, husks, stamens, pistils, and lateral roots, and its expression is induced by Cd stress. OsMYB45 fused to green fluorescent protein localized to the cell nucleus in onion epidermal cells. Mutation of OsMYB45 resulted in hypersensitivity to Cd treatment, and the concentration of H2O2 in the leaves of mutant nearly doubled, while catalase (CAT) activity was halved compared with the wild-type...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818388/genetic-analysis-of-rootstock-mediated-nitrogen-n-uptake-and-root-to-shoot-signalling-at-contrasting-n-availabilities-in-tomato
#20
M J Asins, A Albacete, C Martinez-Andujar, F Pérez-Alfocea, I C Dodd, E A Carbonell, J A Dieleman
Selecting rootstocks for high nitrogen acquisition ability may allow decreased N fertilizer application without reducing tomato yields, minimizing environmental nitrate pollution. A commercial hybrid tomato variety was grafted on a genotyped population of 130 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from Solanum pimpinellifolium, and compared with self- and non-grafted controls under contrasting nitrate availabilities (13.8 vs 1.0mM) in the nutrient solution. Grafting itself altered xylem sap composition under N-sufficient conditions, particularly Na(+) (8...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
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