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Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907313/redesigning-thiamin-synthesis-prospects-and-potential-payoffs
#1
Andrew D Hanson, Jeffrey S Amthor, Jiayi Sun, Thomas D Niehaus, Jesse F Gregory, Steven D Bruner, Yousong Ding
Thiamin is essential for plant growth but is short-lived in vivo and energetically very costly to produce - a combination that makes thiamin biosynthesis a prime target for improvement by redesign. Thiamin consists of thiazole and pyrimidine moieties. Its high biosynthetic cost stems from use of the suicide enzyme THI4 to form the thiazole and the near-suicide enzyme THIC to form the pyrimidine. These energetic costs lower biomass yield potential and are likely compounded by environmental stresses that destroy thiamin and hence increase the rate at which it must be made...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907312/towards-a-sustainable-bio-based-economy-redirecting-primary-metabolism-to-new-products-with-plant-synthetic-biology
#2
Patrick M Shih
Humans have domesticated many plant species as indispensable sources of food, materials, and medicines. The dawning era of synthetic biology represents a means to further refine, redesign, and engineer crops to meet various societal and industrial needs. Current and future endeavors will utilize plants as the foundation of a bio-based economy through the photosynthetic production of carbohydrate feedstocks for the microbial fermentation of biofuels and bioproducts, with the end goal of decreasing our dependence on petrochemicals...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907311/daring-metabolic-designs-for-enhanced-plant-carbon-fixation
#3
Arren Bar-Even
Increasing agricultural productivity is one of the major challenges our society faces. While multiple strategies to enhance plant carbon fixation have been suggested, and partially implemented, most of them are restricted to relatively simple modifications of endogenous metabolism, i.e., "low hanging fruit". Here, I portray the next generation of metabolic solutions to increase carbon fixation rate and yield. These strategies involve major rewiring of central metabolism, including dividing Rubisco's catalysis between several enzymes, replacing Rubisco with a different carboxylation reaction, substituting the Calvin Cycle with alternative carbon fixation pathways, and engineering photorespiration bypass routes that do not release carbon...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907310/a-pathway-for-every-product-tools-to-discover-and-design-plant-metabolism
#4
James G Jeffryes, Samuel M D Seaver, José P Faria, Christopher S Henry
The vast diversity of plant natural products is a powerful indication of the biosynthetic capacity of plant metabolism. Synthetic biology seeks to capitalize on this ability by understanding and reconfiguring the biosynthetic pathways that generate this diversity to produce novel products with improved efficiency. Here we review the algorithms and databases that presently support the design and manipulation of metabolic pathways in plants, starting from metabolic models of native biosynthetic pathways, progressing to novel combinations of known reactions, and finally proposing new reactions that may be carried out by existing enzymes...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907309/from-reconstruction-to-c-4-metabolic-engineering-a-case-study-for-overproduction-of-polyhydroxybutyrate-in-bioenergy-grasses
#5
Cristiana Gomes de Oliveira Dal'Molin, Lake-Ee Quek, Pedro A Saa, Robin Palfreyman, Lars Keld Nielsen
The compartmentalization of C4 plants increases photosynthetic efficiency, while constraining how material and energy must flow in leaf tissues. To capture this metabolic phenomenon, a generic plant metabolic reconstruction was replicated into four connected spatiotemporal compartments, namely bundle sheath (B) and mesophyll (M) across the day and night cycle. The C4 leaf model was used to explore how amenable polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production is with these four compartments working cooperatively. A strategic pattern of metabolite conversion and exchange emerged from a systems-level network that has very few constraints imposed; mainly the sequential two-step carbon capture in mesophyll, then bundle sheath and photosynthesis during the day only...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907308/advanced-editing-of-the-nuclear-and-plastid-genomes-in-plants
#6
Agnieszka A Piatek, Scott C Lenaghan, C Neal Stewart
Genome editing is a powerful suite of technologies utilized in basic and applied plant research. Both nuclear and plastid genomes have been genetically engineered to alter traits in plants. While the most frequent molecular outcome of gene editing has been knockouts resulting in a simple deletion of an endogenous protein of interest from the host's proteome, new genes have been added to plant genomes and, in several instances, the sequence of endogenous genes have been targeted for a few coding changes. Targeted plant characteristics for genome editing range from single gene targets for agronomic input traits to metabolic pathways to endow novel plant function...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907307/dna-assembly-standards-setting-the-low-level-programming-code-for-plant-biotechnology
#7
Marta Vazquez-Vilar, Diego Orzaez, Nicola Patron
Synthetic Biology is defined as the application of engineering principles to biology. It aims to increase the speed, ease and predictability with which desirable changes and novel traits can be conferred to living cells. The initial steps in this process aim to simplify the encoding of new instructions in DNA by establishing low-level programming languages for biology. Together with advances in the laboratory that allow multiple DNA molecules to be efficiently assembled together into a desired order in a single step, this approach has simplified the design and assembly of multigene constructs and has even facilitated the automated construction of synthetic chromosomes...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907306/from-plant-metabolic-engineering-to-plant-synthetic-biology-the-evolution-of-the-design-build-test-learn-cycle
#8
REVIEW
Benjamin Pouvreau, Thomas Vanhercke, Surinder Singh
Genetic improvement of crops started since the dawn of agriculture and has continuously evolved in parallel with emerging technological innovations. The use of genome engineering in crop improvement has already revolutionised modern agriculture in less than thirty years. Plant metabolic engineering is still at a development stage and faces several challenges, in particular with the time necessary to develop plant based solutions to bio-industrial demands. However the recent success of several metabolic engineering approaches applied to major crops are encouraging and the emerging field of plant synthetic biology offers new opportunities...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907305/metabolic-engineering-to-increase-crop-yield-from-concept-to-execution
#9
Frank A Skraly, Madana M R Ambavaram, Oliver Peoples, Kristi D Snell
Although the return on investment over the last 20 years for mass screening of individual plant genes to improve crop performance has been low, the investment in these activities was essential to establish the infrastructure and tools of modern plant genomics. Complex traits such as crop yield are likely multigenic, and the exhaustive screening of random gene combinations to achieve yield gains is not realistic. Clearly, smart approaches must be developed. In silico analyses of plant metabolism and gene networks can move a trait discovery program beyond trial-and-error approaches and towards rational design strategies...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907304/engineering-synthetic-regulatory-circuits-in-plants
#10
Tessema K Kassaw, Alberto J Donayre-Torres, Mauricio S Antunes, Kevin J Morey, June I Medford
Plant synthetic biology is a rapidly emerging field that aims to engineer genetic circuits to function in plants with the same reliability and precision as electronic circuits. These circuits can be used to program predictable plant behavior, producing novel traits to improve crop plant productivity, enable biosensors, and serve as platforms to synthesize chemicals and complex biomolecules. Herein we introduce the importance of developing orthogonal plant parts and the need for quantitative part characterization for mathematical modeling of complex circuits...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907303/where-are-the-drought-tolerant-crops-an-assessment-of-more-than-two-decades-of-plant-biotechnology-effort-in-crop-improvement
#11
Michael L Nuccio, Matthew Paul, Nicholas J Bate, Jonathan Cohn, Sean R Cutler
Since the dawn of modern biotechnology public and private enterprise have pursued the development of a new breed of drought tolerant crop products. After more than 20 years of research and investment only a few such products have reached the market. This is due to several technical and market constraints. The technical challenges include the difficulty in defining tractable single-gene trait development strategies, the logistics of moving traits from initial to commercial genetic backgrounds, and the disconnect between conditions in farmer's fields and controlled environments...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907302/novel-transcription-factors-pvbmy1-and-pvbmy3-increase-biomass-yield-in-greenhouse-grown-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-l
#12
Madana M R Ambavaram, Aminat Ali, Kieran P Ryan, Oliver Peoples, Kristi D Snell, Maria N Somleva
Increasing crop yield requires the coordination of multiple metabolic pathways spanning photosynthetic carbon fixation, central carbon metabolism, and finally targeted carbon deposition to end product. In this study, we used a transcriptome-based gene regulatory association network to search for transcription factor genes that could play a role in increasing carbon flow through pathways associated with these processes to increase biomass yield in switchgrass. Two novel switchgrass transcription factors, PvBMY1 (BioMass Yield 1, belonging to the APETALA2/Ethylene Response Factor family of transcription factors) and PvBMY3 (BioMass Yield 3, a member of the Nuclear-Factor Y family of transcription factors), with predicted roles in the regulation of photosynthesis and related metabolism were identified...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907301/synthetic-biology-meets-plant-metabolism
#13
EDITORIAL
Andrew D Hanson, Joseph M Jez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807610/differential-methylation-and-expression-of-hua1-ortholog-in-three-sex-types-of-papaya
#14
Juan Liu, Laura Chatham, Rishi Aryal, Qingyi Yu, Ray Ming
Papaya is trioecious and an excellent system for studying sex determination and differentiation in plants. An ortholog of HUA1, CpHUA1, a gene controlling stamen and carpel development in Arabidopsis, was cloned and characterized in papaya. CpHUA1 consists of 12 exons with full genomic length of 19,313 bp in male AU9 and 19,312 bp in hermaphrodite SunUp, whereas the Arabidopsis HUA1 consists of 12 exons with full genomic length of 4300 bp. All the 324 SNPs between male and hermaphrodite varieties are in the 11th intron, which spans 8...
July 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807609/carbon-monoxide-signal-regulates-light-initiated-seed-germination-by-suppressing-som-expression
#15
Yujie Jia, Ruijing Li, Wenjuan Yang, Zhen Chen, Xiangyang Hu
Light is a critical external signal for seed germination. The photoreceptor phytochrome B (PHYB) perceives light stimulation and promotes seed germination during the early phase after imbibition. SOM is a CCH-type zinc finger protein and negatively regulates PHYB-mediated seed germination by controlling downstream gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism. As a small molecular signal, carbon monoxide (CO) has been reported to regulate seed germination under environmental stress, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear...
July 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807608/suppression-of-a-tomato-sepallata-mads-box-gene-slcmb1-generates-altered-inflorescence-architecture-and-enlarged-sepals
#16
Jianling Zhang, Zongli Hu, Yunshu Wang, Xiaohui Yu, Changguang Liao, Mingku Zhu, Guoping Chen
The SEPALLATA (SEP) MADS-box transcription factors play essential roles in reproductive growth, especially in floral organ differentiation. Here, SlCMB1, a tomato SEP MADS-box gene, was isolated. SlCMB1 is noticeably expressed in inflorescences and flowers. Its transcript levels were higher in sepals than in other floral organs and decreased during sepal development. Tomato plants with reduced SlCMB1 mRNA levels displayed longer, branched and indeterminate inflorescences that exhibited a transition from reproductive to vegetative growth and enlarged and abnormally fused sepals...
July 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807607/pathogen-induced-addjski-of-the-wild-peanut-arachis-diogoi-potentiates-tolerance-of-multiple-stresses-in-e-coli-and-tobacco
#17
Sakshi Rampuria, Pushan Bag, Conner J Rogan, Akanksha Sharma, Walter Gassmann, P B Kirti
A gene encoding a serine-rich DnaJIII protein called AdDjSKI that has a 4Fe-4S cluster domain was found to be differentially upregulated in the wild peanut, Arachis diogoi in its resistance responses against the late leaf spot causing fungal pathogen Phaeoisariopsis personata when compared with the cultivated peanut, Arachis hypogaea. AdDjSKI is induced in multiple stress conditions in A. diogoi. Recombinant E. coli cells expressing AdDjSKI showed better growth kinetics when compared with vector control cells under salinity, osmotic, acidic and alkaline stress conditions...
July 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807606/knowns-and-unknowns-of-plasma-membrane-protein-degradation-in-plants
#18
REVIEW
Chuanliang Liu, Wenjin Shen, Chao Yang, Lizhang Zeng, Caiji Gao
Plasma membrane (PM) not only creates a physical barrier to enclose the intracellular compartments but also mediates the direct communication between plants and the ever-changing environment. A tight control of PM protein homeostasis by selective degradation is thus crucial for proper plant development and plant-environment interactions. Accumulated evidences have shown that a number of plant PM proteins undergo clathrin-dependent or membrane microdomain-associated endocytic routes to vacuole for degradation in a cargo-ubiquitination dependent or independent manner...
July 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807605/modulations-in-primary-and-secondary-metabolic-pathways-and-adjustment-in-physiological-behaviour-of-withania-somnifera-under-drought-stress
#19
Ruchi Singh, Pankhuri Gupta, Furqan Khan, Susheel Kumar Singh, Sanchita, Tripti Mishra, Anil Kumar, Sunita Singh Dhawan, Pramod Arvind Shirke
In general medicinal plants grown under water limiting conditions show much higher concentrations of secondary metabolites in comparison to control plants. In the present study, Withania somnifera plants were subjected to water stress and data related to drought tolerance phenomenon was collected and a putative mechanistic concept considering growth responses, physiological behaviour, and metabolite content and gene expression aspects is presented. Drought induced metabolic and physiological responses as well as drastic decrease in CO2 uptake due to stomatal limitations...
July 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807604/enhancing-freezing-tolerance-of-brassica-napus-l-by-overexpression-of-a-stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein-desaturase-gene-sad-from-sapium-sebiferum-l-roxb
#20
Dan Peng, Bo Zhou, Yueqiao Jiang, XiaoFeng Tan, DeYi Yuan, Lin Zhang
Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. is an important woody oil tree and traditional herbal medicine in China. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD) is a dehydrogenase enzyme that plays a key role in the transformation of saturated fatty acids into unsaturated fatty acids in oil; these fatty acids greatly influence the freezing tolerance of plants. However, it remains unclear whether freezing tolerance can be regulated by the expression level of SsSAD in S. sebiferum L. Our research indicated that SsSAD expression in S...
July 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
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