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Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818559/operation-of-the-preclinical-head-scanner-for-proton-ct
#1
H F-W Sadrozinski, T Geoghegan, E Harvey, R P Johnson, T E Plautz, A Zatserklyaniy, V Bashkirov, R F Hurley, P Piersimoni, R W Schulte, P Karbasi, K E Schubert, B Schultze, V Giacometti
We report on the operation and performance tests of a preclinical head scanner developed for proton computed tomography (pCT). After extensive preclinical testing, pCT is intended to be employed in support of proton therapy treatment planning and pre-treatment verification in patients undergoing particle-beam therapy. In order to assess the performance of the scanner, we have performed CT scans with 200 MeV protons from both the synchrotron of the Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) and the cyclotron of the Northwestern Medicine Chicago Proton Center (NMCPC)...
September 21, 2016: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667884/a-new-silicon-tracker-for-proton-imaging-and-dosimetry
#2
J T Taylor, C Waltham, T Price, N M Allinson, P P Allport, G L Casse, A Kacperek, S Manger, N A Smith, I Tsurin
For many years, silicon micro-strip detectors have been successfully used as tracking detectors for particle and nuclear physics experiments. A new application of this technology is to the field of particle therapy where radiotherapy is carried out by use of charged particles such as protons or carbon ions. Such a treatment has been shown to have advantages over standard x-ray radiotherapy and as a result of this, many new centres offering particle therapy are currently under construction around the world today...
September 21, 2016: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746514/a-silicon-photo-multiplier-signal-readout-using-strip-line-and-waveform-sampling-for-positron-emission-tomography
#3
H Kim, C-T Chen, N Eclov, A Ronzhin, P Murat, E Ramberg, S Los, C-M Kao
A strip-line and waveform sampling based readout is a signal multiplexing method that can efficiently reduce the readout channels while fully exploiting the fast time characteristics of photo-detectors such as the SiPM. We have applied this readout method for SiPM-based time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) detectors. We have prototyped strip-line boards in which 8 SiPMs (pitch 5.2 mm) are connected by using a single strip-line, and the signals appearing at the ends of the strip-line are acquired by using the DRS4 waveform sampler at a nominal sampling frequency of 1-5 GS/s...
September 11, 2016: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274604/photon-counting-imaging-and-centroiding-with-an-electron-bombarded-ccd-using-single-molecule-localisation-software
#4
Liisa M Hirvonen, Matthew J Barber, Klaus Suhling
Photon event centroiding in photon counting imaging and single-molecule localisation in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy share many traits. Although photon event centroiding has traditionally been performed with simple single-iteration algorithms, we recently reported that iterative fitting algorithms originally developed for single-molecule localisation fluorescence microscopy work very well when applied to centroiding photon events imaged with an MCP-intensified CMOS camera. Here, we have applied these algorithms for centroiding of photon events from an electron-bombarded CCD (EBCCD)...
June 1, 2016: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26957679/development-of-proton-computed-tomography-detectors-for-applications-in-hadron-therapy
#5
Vladimir A Bashkirov, Robert P Johnson, Hartmut F-W Sadrozinski, Reinhard W Schulte
Radiation therapy with protons and heavier ions is an attractive form of cancer treatment that could enhance local control and survival of cancers that are currently difficult to cure and lead to less side effects due to sparing of normal tissues. However, particle therapy faces a significant technical challenge because one cannot accurately predict the particle range in the patient using data provided by existing imaging technologies. Proton computed tomography (pCT) is an emerging imaging modality capable of improving the accuracy of range prediction...
February 11, 2016: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26640309/investigation-of-spatial-resolution-characteristics-of-an-in-vivo-micro-computed-tomography-system
#6
Muhammad U Ghani, Zhongxing Zhou, Liqiang Ren, Yuhua Li, Bin Zheng, Kai Yang, Hong Liu
The spatial resolution characteristics of an in vivo micro computed tomography (CT) system was investigated in the in-plane (x-y), cross plane (z) and projection imaging modes. The micro CT system utilized in this study employs a flat panel detector with a 127 μm pixel pitch, a micro focus x-ray tube with a focal spot size ranging from 5-30 μm, and accommodates three geometric magnifications (M) of 1.72, 2.54 and 5.10. The in-plane modulation transfer function (MTF) curves were measured as a function of the number of projections, geometric magnification (M), detector binning and reconstruction magnification (MRecon)...
January 21, 2016: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26640308/an-energy-optimized-collimator-design-for-a-czt-based-spect-camera
#7
Fenghua Weng, Srijeeta Bagchi, Yunlong Zan, Qiu Huang, Youngho Seo
In single photon emission computed tomography, it is a challenging task to maintain reasonable performance using only one specific collimator for radio-tracers over a broad spectrum of diagnostic photon energies, since photon scatter and penetration in a collimator differ with the photon energy. Frequent collimator exchanges are inevitable in daily clinical SPECT imaging, which hinders throughput while subjecting the camera to operational errors and damage. Our objective is to design a collimator, which independent of the photon energy performs reasonably well for commonly used radiotracers with low- to medium-energy levels of gamma emissions...
January 11, 2016: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26855462/bright-and-ultra-fast-scintillation-from-a-semiconductor
#8
Stephen E Derenzo, Edith Bourret-Courshesne, Gregory Bizarri, Andrew Canning
Semiconductor scintillators are worth studying because they include both the highest luminosities and shortest decay times of all known scintillators. Moreover, many semiconductors have the heaviest stable elements (Tl, Hg, Pb, Bi) as a major constituent and a high ion pair yield that is proportional to the energy deposited. We review the scintillation properties of semiconductors activated by native defects, isoelectronic impurities, donors and acceptors with special emphasis on those that have exceptionally high luminosities (e...
January 1, 2016: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26644631/estimation-of-fano-factor-in-inorganic-scintillators
#9
Vaibhav Bora, Harrison H Barrett, David Fastje, Eric Clarkson, Lars Furenlid, Abdelkader Bousselham, Kanai S Shah, Jarek Glodo
The Fano factor of an integer-valued random variable is defined as the ratio of its variance to its mean. Correlation between the outputs of two photomultiplier tubes on opposite faces of a scintillation crystal was used to estimate the Fano factor of photoelectrons and scintillation photons. Correlations between the integrals of the detector outputs were used to estimate the photoelectron and photon Fano factor for YAP:Ce, SrI2:Eu and CsI:Na scintillator crystals. At 662 keV, SrI2:Eu was found to be sub-Poisson, while CsI:Na and YAP:Ce were found to be super-Poisson...
January 1, 2016: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660376/a-fast-method-for-optical-simulation-of-flood-maps-of-light-sharing-detector-modules
#10
Han Shi, Dong Du, JianFeng Xu, William W Moses, Qiyu Peng
Optical simulation of the detector module level is highly desired for Position Emission Tomography (PET) system design. Commonly used simulation toolkits such as GATE are not efficient in the optical simulation of detector modules with complicated light-sharing configurations, where a vast amount of photons need to be tracked. We present a fast approach based on a simplified specular reflectance model and a structured light-tracking algorithm to speed up the photon tracking in detector modules constructed with polished finish and specular reflector materials...
December 1, 2015: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26273118/broad-energy-range-neutron-spectroscopy-using-a-liquid-scintillator-and-a-proportional-counter-application-to-a-neutron-spectrum-similar-to-that-from-an-improvised-nuclear-device
#11
Yanping Xu, Gerhard Randers-Pehrson, Stephen A Marino, Guy Garty, Andrew Harken, David J Brenner
A novel neutron irradiation facility at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been developed to mimic the neutron radiation from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) at relevant distances (e.g. 1.5 km) from the epicenter. The neutron spectrum of this IND-like neutron irradiator was designed according to estimations of the Hiroshima neutron spectrum at 1.5 km. It is significantly different from a standard reactor fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and it is dominated by neutron energies from 100 keV up to 9 MeV...
September 11, 2015: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26085702/a-compact-high-resolution-flat-panel-pet-detector-based-on-the-new-4-side-buttable-mppc-for-biomedical-applications
#12
Qiang Wang, Jie Wen, Bosky Ravindranath, Andrew W O'Sullivan, David Catherall, Ke Li, Shouyi Wei, Sergey Komarov, Yuan-Chuan Tai
Compact high-resolution panel detectors using virtual pinhole (VP) PET geometry can be inserted into existing clinical or pre-clinical PET systems to improve regional spatial resolution and sensitivity. Here we describe a compact panel PET detector built using the new Though Silicon Via (TSV) multi-pixel photon counters (MPPC) detector. This insert provides high spatial resolution and good timing performance for multiple bio-medical applications. Because the TSV MPPC design eliminates wire bonding and has a package dimension which is very close to the MPPC's active area, it is 4-side buttable...
September 11, 2015: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25937685/a-feasibility-study-of-a-pet-mri-insert-detector-using-strip-line-and-waveform-sampling-data-acquisition
#13
H Kim, C-T Chen, N Eclov, A Ronzhin, P Murat, E Ramberg, S Los, Alice M Wyrwicz, Limin Li, C-M Kao
We are developing a time-of-flight Positron Emission Tomography (PET) detector by using silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) on a strip-line and high speed waveform sampling data acquisition. In this design, multiple SiPMs are connected on a single strip-line and signal waveforms on the strip-line are sampled at two ends of the strip to reduce readout channels while fully exploiting the fast time response of SiPMs. In addition to the deposited energy and time information, the position of the hit SiPM along the strip-line is determined by the arrival time difference of the waveform...
June 1, 2015: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25937684/energy-dispersive-cdte-and-cdznte-detectors-for-spectral-clinical-ct-and-ndt-applications
#14
W C Barber, J C Wessel, E Nygard, J S Iwanczyk
We are developing room temperature compound semiconductor detectors for applications in energy-resolved high-flux single x-ray photon-counting spectral computed tomography (CT), including functional imaging with nanoparticle contrast agents for medical applications and non destructive testing (NDT) for security applications. Energy-resolved photon-counting can provide reduced patient dose through optimal energy weighting for a particular imaging task in CT, functional contrast enhancement through spectroscopic imaging of metal nanoparticles in CT, and compositional analysis through multiple basis function material decomposition in CT and NDT...
June 1, 2015: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25705066/calculations-and-measurements-of-the-scintillator-to-water-stopping-power-ratio-of-liquid-scintillators-for-use-in-proton-radiotherapy
#15
W Scott Ingram, Daniel Robertson, Sam Beddar
Liquid scintillators are a promising detector for high-resolution three-dimensional proton therapy dosimetry. Because the scintillator comprises both the active volume of the detector and the phantom material, an ideal scintillator will exhibit water equivalence in its radiological properties. One of the most fundamental of these is the scintillator's stopping power. The objective of this study was to compare calculations and measurements of scintillator-to-water stopping power ratios to evaluate the suitability of the liquid scintillators BC-531 and OptiPhase HiSafe 3 for proton dosimetry...
March 11, 2015: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26166921/the-iqid-camera-an-ionizing-radiation-quantum-imaging-detector
#16
Brian W Miller, Stephanie J Gregory, Erin S Fuller, Harrison H Barrett, H Bradford Barber, Lars R Furenlid
We have developed and tested a novel, ionizing-radiation Quantum Imaging Detector (iQID). This scintillation-based detector was originally developed as a high-resolution gamma-ray imager, called BazookaSPECT, for use in single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Recently, we have investigated the detector's response and imaging potential with other forms of ionizing radiation including alpha, neutron, beta, and fission fragment particles. The confirmed response to this broad range of ionizing radiation has prompted its new title...
December 11, 2014: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25506113/a-new-time-calibration-method-for-switched-capacitor-array-based-waveform-samplers
#17
H Kim, C-T Chen, N Eclov, A Ronzhin, P Murat, E Ramberg, S Los, W Moses, W-S Choong, C-M Kao
We have developed a new time calibration method for the DRS4 waveform sampler that enables us to precisely measure the non-uniform sampling interval inherent in the switched-capacitor cells of the DRS4. The method uses the proportionality between the differential amplitude and sampling interval of adjacent switched-capacitor cells responding to a sawtooth-shape pulse. In the experiment, a sawtooth-shape pulse with a 40 ns period generated by a Tektronix AWG7102 is fed to a DRS4 evaluation board for calibrating the sampling intervals of all 1024 cells individually...
December 11, 2014: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26089579/improvement-of-the-polarized-neutron-interferometer-setup-demonstrating-violation-of-a-bell-like-inequality
#18
H Geppert, T Denkmayr, S Sponar, H Lemmel, Y Hasegawa
For precise measurements with polarised neutrons high efficient spin-manipulation is required. We developed several neutron optical elements suitable for a new sophisticated setup, i.e., DC spin-turners and Larmor-accelerators which diminish thermal disturbances and depolarisation considerably. The gain in performance is exploited demonstrating violation of a Bell-like inequality for a spin-path entangled single-neutron state. The obtained value of [Formula: see text], which is much higher than previous measurements by neutron interferometry, is [Formula: see text] above the limit of S=2 predicted by contextual hidden variable theories...
November 1, 2014: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25844000/prospects-for-measuring-the-229-th-isomer-energy-using-a-metallic-magnetic-microcalorimeter
#19
G A Kazakov, V Schauer, J Schwestka, S P Stellmer, J H Sterba, A Fleischmann, L Gastaldo, A Pabinger, C Enss, T Schumm
The Thorium-229 isotope features a nuclear isomer state with an extremely low energy. The currently most accepted energy value, 7.8±0.5 eV, was obtained from an indirect measurement using a NASA x-ray microcalorimeter with an instrumental resolution 26 eV. We study, how state-of-the-art magnetic metallic microcalorimeters with an energy resolution down to a few eV can be used to measure the isomer energy. In particular, resolving the 29.18 keV doublet in the γ-spectrum following the α-decay of Uranium-233, corresponding to the decay into the ground and isomer state, allows to measure the isomer transition energy without additional theoretical input parameters, and increase the energy accuracy...
January 21, 2014: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24357889/high-spectral-and-spatial-resolution-x-ray-transmission-radiography-and-tomography-using-a-color-x-ray-camera
#20
Matthieu N Boone, Jan Garrevoet, Pieter Tack, Oliver Scharf, David P Cormode, Denis Van Loo, Elin Pauwels, Manuel Dierick, Laszlo Vincze, Luc Van Hoorebeke
High resolution X-ray radiography and computed tomography are excellent techniques for non-destructive characterization of an object under investigation at a spatial resolution in the micrometer range. However, as the image contrast depends on both chemical composition and material density, no chemical information is obtained from this data. Furthermore, lab-based measurements are affected by the polychromatic X-ray beam, which results in beam hardening effects. New types of X-ray detectors which provide spectral information on the measured X-ray beam can help to overcome these limitations...
January 21, 2014: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
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