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Waste Management & Research

Afshin Khoshand, Ali Fathi, Milad Zoghi, Hamidreza Kamalan
One of the most common and economical methods for waste disposal is landfilling. The landfill cover system is one of the main components of landfills which prevents waste exposure to the environment by creating a barrier between the waste and the surrounding environment. The stability and integrity of the landfill cover system is a fundamental part of the design, construction, and maintenance of landfills. A reinforced tapered landfill cover system can be considered as a practical method for improving its stability; however, the simultaneous effects of seismic and seepage forces in the reinforced tapered landfill cover system have not been studied...
March 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Mohammad Abdullatif Bukhari, Ruth Carrasco-Gallego, Eva Ponce-Cueto
Textiles waste is relatively small in terms of weight as compared to other waste streams, but it has a large impact on human health and environment, and its rate is increasing due to the 'fast fashion' model. In this paper, we examine the French national programme for managing post-consumer textiles and clothing through a case study research. To date, France is the only country in the world implementing an extended producer responsibility (EPR) policy for end-of-use clothing, linen and shoes. The case highlights the benefits of using an EPR policy and provides interesting insights about the challenges faced by the textiles waste sector...
March 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Winfried Bulach, Doris Schüler, Guido Sellin, Tobias Elwert, Dieter Schmid, Daniel Goldmann, Matthias Buchert, Ulrich Kammer
Electromobility will play a key role in order to reach the specified ambitious greenhouse gas reduction targets in the German transport sector of 42% between 1990 and 2030. Subsequently, a significant rise in the sale of electric vehicles (EVs) is to be anticipated in future. The amount of EVs to be recycled will rise correspondingly after a delay. This includes the recyclable power electronics modules which are incorporated in every EV as an important component for energy management. Current recycling methods using car shredders and subsequent post shredder technologies show high recycling rates for the bulk metals but are still associated with high losses of precious and strategic metals such as gold, silver, platinum, palladium and tantalum...
March 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Vlada Starostina, Anders Damgaard, Marie K Eriksen, Thomas H Christensen
The current waste management system, handling around 500,000 t of household, commercial, and institutional waste annually in the Irkutsk region, Siberia, is based on landfilling in an old landfill with no controls of leachate and gas. Life-cycle assessment modelling of the current system shows that it is a major load on the environment, while the simulation of seven alternative systems results in large savings in many impact categories. With respect to climate change, it is estimated that a saving of about 1200 kg CO2 equivalents is possible per year, per inhabitant, which is a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions...
February 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Nora Szarka, Jürgen Wolfbauer, Alberto Bezama
This article presents the definition, building, calibration and application of a system dynamics simulation model to quantify the present and future comparative advantages and disadvantages of using forest and agricultural residual biomass for energetic purpose through different processes and technologies, on a regional basis. A dynamic structure of the agricultural and forestry biomass process activities (i.e. production, transport, conversion and consumption) based on regional time-series data was built, implemented into and calibrated within a dynamic simulation tool (Vensim software) within a Hungarian county...
February 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Palvisha Ishtiaq, Sharfuddin Ahmed Khan, Moiz-Ul Haq
To address environmental issues and cost effectiveness, waste management is necessary for healthcare facilities. Most importantly, segregation of hazardous and non-hazardous waste must be done as in many developing countries; disposal of both types of healthcare waste is done together, which is an unsafe practice. Waste generated in hospitals needs proper management to minimise hazards for patient and healthcare workers. At the same time, it is quite difficult for hospitals to find a systematic way to select appropriate suppliers for hospital waste management...
February 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Margit Löschau
This article describes a pilot test at a sewage sludge incineration plant and shows its results considering the impacts of reducing the minimum combustion temperature from 850°C to 800°C. The lowering leads to an actual reduction of the average combustion temperature by 25 K and a significant reduction in the fuel oil consumption for support firing. The test shall be used for providing evidence that the changed combustion conditions do not result in higher air pollutant emissions. The analysis focusses on the effects of the combustion temperature on nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and total organic carbon emissions...
February 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Navarro Ferronato, Marcelo Antonio Gorritty Portillo, Edith Gabriela Guisbert Lizarazu, Vincenzo Torretta, Marco Bezzi, Marco Ragazzi
Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is considered an important public health, economic and environmental concern, especially in developing countries. This paper introduces the situation of MSWM in La Paz (Bolivia) in 2016, and is based on the Wasteaware indicators and waste flow analysis, useful tools for classifying and comparing waste treatment and management plans among other countries. Taking into account the lack of technology in waste treatment and the presence of a developed informal sector, the paper analyses the main strengths and weak points for implementing a sustainable MSWM...
February 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Jin-Kyu Park, Yong-Gil Chong, Kazuo Tameda, Nam-Hoon Lee
In the first order decay (FOD) model of landfill methane generation, the methane generation potential ( L0) and methane generation rate constant ( k) for both bulk municipal solid waste (MSW) and individual waste components have been determined by a variety of approaches throughout various literature. Differences in the determination methods for L0 and k are related to differences in our understanding of the waste decomposition dynamics. A thorough understanding of the various available methods for determining L0 and k values is critical for comparative study and the drawing of valid conclusions...
February 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Jun Ma, Lei Liu, Sai Ge, Qiang Xue, Jiangshan Li, Yong Wan, Xinminnan Hui
A quantitative description of aerobic waste degradation is important in evaluating landfill waste stability and economic management. This research aimed to develop a coupling model to predict the degree of aerobic waste degradation. On the basis of the first-order kinetic equation and the law of conservation of mass, we first developed the coupling model of aerobic waste degradation that considered temperature, initial moisture content and air injection volume to simulate and predict the chemical oxygen demand in the leachate...
February 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Eruin M Ribeiro, Regina Mambeli Barros, Geraldo Lúcio Tiago Filho, Ivan Felipe S Dos Santos, Luma C Sampaio, Ticiane V Dos Santos, Fernando dGB da Silva, Ana Paula M Silva, João Victor R de Freitas
The aim of the present study is to experimentally measure the volume and composition of biogas produced from the anaerobic biodigestion of laying-hen manure from poultry farms in Itanhandu-MG, Brazil, so that the biogas can be used to generate energy. Two experiments (E1 and E2) were used to characterise the biogas quantities and compositions at room temperature and at a controlled temperature of 36 °C, respectively. The biogas production and calculated net power from the exploitation of biogas energy were compared with the results obtained from methods proposed by the Environmental Company of the State of São Paulo (CETESB, an acronym in Portuguese) using the 'Biogas: Generation and energy use - effluent and rural waste' software 1...
January 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Einstine M Opiso, John Paul J Aseneiro, Marybeth Hope T Banda, Carlito B Tabelin
The solid-phase partitioning of mercury could provide necessary data in the identification of remediation techniques in contaminated artisanal gold mine tailings. This study was conducted to determine the total mercury content of mine wastes and identify its solid-phase partitioning through selective sequential extraction coupled with cold vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy. Samples from mine tailings and the carbon-in-pulp (CIP) process were obtained from selected key areas in Mindanao, Philippines. The results showed that mercury use is still prevalent among small-scale gold miners in the Philippines...
January 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Xu-Tong Ding, Ji-Hua Wang
Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, is located on the Tibetan Plateau. Accelerated economic development and flourishing tourism resulting from the opening of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) have increased solid waste generation and contamination in recent years. Using data from Lhasa Statistical Yearbooks and previous studies, this study estimates the future population of permanent residents and tourists using the least squares method to extrapolate the population from 2015-2025, and evaluates the effects of the QTR on municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in Lhasa and estimates future MSW generation...
January 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Kelechi E Anyaoha, Ruben Sakrabani, Kumar Patchigolla, Abdul M Mouazen
Three routes of oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB) processing in Nigeria namely, industrial, small-scale and traditional were compared by means of determining fruit losses associated with each route. The fruits that are not recovered after each process were hand-picked and quantified in terms of crude palm oil (CPO), palm kernel (PK), mesocarp fibre (MF) and palm kernel shell (PKS). The energy value of empty fruit bunch (EFB), MF and PKS were used to determine the value of energy lost for each route. Additionally, the environmental implications of disposal of EFB were estimated, and socio-economics of the industrial and small-scale routes were related...
January 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Elzimar Tadeu de F Ferreira, José Antonio P Balestieri
The Brazilian National Solid Waste Policy has been implemented with some difficulty, especially in convincing the different actors of society about the importance of conscious awareness among every citizen and businesses concerning adequate solid waste disposal and recycling. Technologies for recovering energy from municipal solid waste were considered in National Solid Waste Policy (NSWP), given that their technical and environmental viability is ensured, being the landfill biogas burning in internal combustion engines and solid waste incineration suggested options...
January 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Megan Webster, Hae Yang Lee, Kristi Pepa, Nathan Winkler, Ilona Kretzschmar, Marco J Castaldi
With the world population expected to reach 8.5 billion by 2030, demand for access to electricity and clean water will grow at unprecedented rates. Municipal solid waste combusted at waste to energy (WtE) facilities decreases waste volume and recovers energy, but yields ash as a byproduct, the beneficial uses of which are actively being investigated. Ash is intrinsically hydrophobic, highly oxidized, and exhibits high melting points and low conductivities. The research presented here explores the potential of ash to be used as an electrode material for a microbial fuel cell (MFC)...
January 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Xianjie Du, Guorui Feng, Yuxia Guo, Tingye Qi, Yujiang Zhang, Jun Guo
Cemented coal waste backfill material (CCWBM) is made of coal gangue, fly ash and cementitious materials. It has been widely used in the field of backfill mining to control surface subsidence and protect the environment. A large number of unconfined backfill bodies without lateral support are formed in partial backfill mining. To study the failure characteristics of unconfined CCWBM body in partial backfill, the stress-strain curves of the CCWBM were obtained by uniaxial compression tests at different ages (1-28 d)...
January 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Korai M Safar, Mahar R Bux, Uqaili M Aslam, Bhattacharjee A Shankar, Ramesh K Goel
This study analyzes the feasibility of putrescible components of municipal solid waste (PCMSW) such as food waste (FW) and yard waste (YW) for methane production in Pakistan. The batch experiments have been conducted at two different inoculums to substrate ratios (ISRs) by using various inoculums under mesophilic condition. The highest methane yield of FW and YW is achieved to be 428 Nml g-1 volatile solids (VS) added and 304 Nml g-1 VS added respectively by using buffalo dung inoculum at ISR-5. While, lowest methane yield of FW and YW is obtained as 236 Nml g-1 VS added and 151Nml g-1 VS added respectively by using effluent from a continuous stirrer tank reactor as inoculum at ISR-3...
January 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Chengqian Lin, Yong Chi, Yuqi Jin, Xuguang Jiang, Alfons Buekens, Qi Zhang, Jian Chen
Organic hazardous waste often contains some salt, owing to the widespread use of alkali salts during industrial manufacturing processes. These salts cause complications during the treatment of this type of waste. Molten salt oxidation is a flameless, robust thermal process, with inherent capability of destroying the organic constituents of wastes, while retaining the inorganic ingredients in the molten salt. In the present study, molten salt oxidation is employed for treating a typical organic hazardous waste with a high content of alkali salts...
January 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Dalong Zheng, Liping Ma, Rongmou Wang, Jie Yang, Quxiu Dai
Phosphogypsum is a solid industry by-product generated when sulphuric acid is used to process phosphate ore into fertiliser. Phosphogypsum stacks without pretreatment are often piled on the land surface or dumped in the sea, causing significant environmental damage. This study examined the reaction characteristics of phosphogypsum, when decomposed in a multi-atmosphere fluidised bed. Phosphogypsum was first dried, sieved and mixed proportionally with lignite at the mass ratio of 10:1, it was then immersed in 0...
January 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
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