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Waste Management & Research

Z Bourechech, F Abdelmalek, M R Ghezzar, A Addou
The aim of this work is to propose a plan for the choice of a suitable process for the treatment of a young leachate from municipal solid waste. Classical processes were applied: Fenton process, the coupling coagulation-Fenton process and the adsorption on powdered activated carbon (PAC). The study involves synthesised leachates from three types of wastes collected from sanitary landfill (SL): leachate of putrescible fraction (Lp), paper-cardboard (Lpc), sawdust (Ls) and the one of landfill (Lsl). The optimal operating conditions have been determined for the three processes: Fenton: [H2O2] = 6...
November 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Harinaivo A Andrianisa, Fanilo M Randriatsiferana, Serge L Rakotoson, Fanja Rakotoaritera
The social status improvement and the degree of integration of the informal recycling sector, by using InteRa, made by the AKAMASOA association interventions at the Andralanitra dumpsite (Antananarivo, Madagascar) was assessed. 20% of the workers from the three activities at the site were interviewed: 325 scavengers, 12 compost producers and three soap manufacturers. It was found that the incomes of Andralanitra workers are relatively low compared to that of people working in the same field in other countries (30-60 USD/month)...
November 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Mentore Vaccari, Terry Tudor, Andrea Perteghella
Given rising spend on the provision of healthcare services, the sustainable management of waste from healthcare facilities is increasingly becoming a focus as a means of reducing public health risks and financial costs. Using data on per capita healthcare spend at the national level, as well as a case study of a hospital in Italy, this study examined the relationship between trends in waste generation and the associated costs of managing the waste. At the national level, healthcare spend as a percentage of gross domestic product positively correlated with waste arisings...
November 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
P S Calabrò, E Catalán, A Folino, A Sánchez, D Komilis
Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) is an emerging biomass that has the potential to be used as substrate in anaerobic digestion. The goal of this work was to investigate the effect of three pretreatment techniques (thermal, alkaline, acidic) on the chemical composition and the methane yield of OFI biomass. A composite experimental design with three factors and two to three levels was implemented, and regression modelling was employed using a total of 10 biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The measured methane yields ranged from 289 to 604 NmL/gVSadded; according to the results, only the acidic pretreatment (HCl) was found to significantly increase methane generation...
November 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Simeng Li, Gang Chen
Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a novel technology for landfill leachate treatment with simultaneous electric power generation. In recent years, more and more modern landfills are operating as bioreactors to shorten the time required for landfill stabilization and improve the leachate quality. For landfills to operate as biofilters, leachate is recirculated back to the landfill, during which time the organics of the leachate can be decomposed. Continuous recirculation typically results in evolving leachate quality, which chronologically corresponds to evolution stages such as hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis, methanogenesis, and maturation...
November 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Reza Ebrahimzadeh, Ahmad Ghazanfari Moghaddam, Mehdi Sarcheshmehpour, Hamid Mortezapour
Biomass degradation kinetics of the composting process for kitchen waste, pruned elm tree branches and sheep manure were studied to model changes in volatile solids (VS) over time. Three experimental reactors containing raw mixtures with a carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 27:1 and a moisture content of 65% were prepared. During the composting process two of the reactors used forced air and the third used natural aeration. The composting stabilization phases in all reactors were completed in 30 days. During this period, composting indexes such as temperature, moisture content and VS changes were recorded...
November 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Binxian Gu, Takeshi Fujiwara, Renfu Jia, Ruiyang Duan, Aijun Gu
This paper presents a quantitative methodology and two empirical case studies in Japan on modeling household solid waste (HSW) generation based on individual consumption expenditure (ICE) and local waste policy effects by using the coupled estimation model systems. Results indicate that ICE on food, miscellaneous commodities and services, as well as education, cultural, and recreation services are mainly associated with the changes of HSW generation and its components in Okayama and Otsu from 1980 to 2014. The effects of waste policy measures were also identified...
November 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
P Kannan, G Lakshmanan, A Al Shoaibi, C Srinivasakannan
Utilization of carbon dioxide (CO2) in thermochemical treatment of waste plastics may significantly help to improve CO2 recycling, thus simultaneously curtailing dioxins/furans and CO2 emissions. Although CO2 is not such an effective gasifying agent as steam, a few investigations have explored the utilization of CO2 in conjunction with steam to achieve somewhat higher carbon conversion. This work presents a comparative evaluation study of CO2 and steam gasification of a typical post-consumer waste plastics mixture using an Aspen Plus equilibrium model...
November 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Heinz-Georg Baum, Dieter Schuch
Benchmarking is a proven and widely used business tool for identifying best practice. To produce robust results, the objects of comparison used in benchmarking analysis need to be structurally comparable and distorting factors need to be eliminated. We focus on a specific example - a benchmark study commissioned by the European Commission's Directorate-General for Environment on the implementation of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) for packaging at the national level - to discuss potential distorting factors and take them into account in the calculation...
November 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Raquel Greice de Souza Marotta Alfaia, Alyne Moraes Costa, Juacyara Carbonelli Campos
The production of municipal solid waste (MSW) represents one of the greatest challenges currently faced by waste managers all around the world. In Brazil, the situation with regard to solid waste management is still deficient in many aspects. In 2015, only 58.7% of the MSW collected in Brazilian cities received appropriate final disposal. It was only as late as 2010 that Brazil established the National Policy on Solid Waste (NPSW) based on the legislation and programmes established in the 1970s in more developed countries...
October 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Tao Zhang, Fang Liang, Wanhe Hu, Xiaomeng Yang, Hongzhong Xiang, Ge Wang, Benhua Fei, Zhijia Liu
Significant quantities of bamboo waste are generated in Zhejiang province, China. Many small businesses in this area convert this waste to biochar for use as a cooking fuel (in residential barbecues). This case study was conducted to evaluate the potential economic benefits of building and operating an industrial-sized plant in this province, yielding 500 tonnes per year. The researchers developed a conceptual design for a hypothetical biochar plant and then calculated net present value (NPV), investment payback period (PBP), internal rate of return (IRR), and sensitivity analysis...
October 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Young-Chan Kim, Won-Hwa Hong, Jae-Woo Park, Gi-Wook Cha
Most existing studies on demolition waste (DW) quantification do not have an official standard to estimate the amount and type of DW. Therefore, there are limitations in the existing literature for estimating DW with a consistent classification system. Building information modeling (BIM) is a technology that can generate and manage all the information required during the life cycle of a building, from design to demolition. Nevertheless, there has been a lack of research regarding its application to the demolition stage of a building...
October 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
A Gallardo, M Carlos, F J Colomer, N Edo-Alcón
There are several factors which have an influence in the selective collection of the municipal waste. To define a selective collection system, the waste generation pattern should be firstly determined and these factors should be analyzed in depth. This paper tries to analyze the economic income level and the seasonal variation on the collection and the purity of light-packaging waste to determine actions to improve the waste management plan of a town. In the first stage of the work, waste samples of the light-packaging containers were collected in two zones of the town with different economic characteristics in different seasons during one year...
October 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Maria Claudia Lima Couto, Liséte Celina Lange, Rodrigo de Alvarenga Rosa, Paula Rogeria Lima Couto
The implementation of reverse logistics systems (RLS) for post-consumer products provides environmental and economic benefits, since it increases recycling potential. However, RLS implantation and consolidation still face problems. The main shortcomings are the high costs and the low expectation of broad implementation worldwide. This paper presents two mathematical models to decide the number and the location of screening centers (SCs) and valorization centers (VCs) to implement reverse logistics of post-consumer packages, defining the optimum territorial arrangements (OTAs), allowing the inclusion of small and medium size municipalities...
October 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Tan Wenyi, Fan Wenhui, Li Hongyi, Zhang Zixin, Zhu Yunkun
CO2 sequestration by flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) has become a promising FGDG disposal technology due to simultaneous CO2 emission reduction and FGDG conversion into calcium carbonate. In this paper, another merit of the novel technology, i.e., the removal of toxic elements (e.g., Hg and As) in FGDG, will be addressed for the first time. In three different aqueous ammonia (or amines) media, removal efficiencies of Hg and As in FGDG samples were evaluated during CO2 sequestration. Higher than 90% and 20% removal efficiencies, respectively, for Hg and As are achieved at 40°C in aqueous ammonia media, but they decrease at elevated temperatures...
October 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Sivalee Trakulvichean, Pawinee Chaiprasert, Julia Otmakhova, Warinthorn Songkasiri
Cassava is one of the main processed crops in Thailand, but this generates large amounts (7.3 million tons in 2015) of waste cassava pulp (WCP). The solid WCP is sold directly to farmers or pulp-drying companies at a low cost to reduce the burden of on-site waste storage. Using an integrated direct and environmental cost model, fermented animal feed and mushroom growth media were compared as added-value waste management alternatives for WCP to mitigate environmental problems. Primary and secondary data were collected from the literature, field data, and case studies...
October 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Zhaozhi Zhou, Yuanjun Tang, Yong Chi, Mingjiang Ni, Alfons Buekens
This article proposes a comprehensive review of evaluation tools based on life cycle thinking, as applied to waste-to-energy. Habitually, life cycle assessment is adopted to assess environmental burdens associated with waste-to-energy initiatives. Based on this framework, several extension methods have been developed to focus on specific aspects: Exergetic life cycle assessment for reducing resource depletion, life cycle costing for evaluating its economic burden, and social life cycle assessment for recording its social impacts...
October 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Fabio Kaczala, Kaja Orupõld, Anna Augustsson, Juris Burlakovs, Marika Hogland, Amit Bhatnagar, William Hogland
The fractionation of metals in the fine fraction (<10 mm) of excavated waste from an Estonian landfill was carried out to evaluate the metal (Pb and Cu) contents and their potential towards not only mobility but also possibilities of recovery/extraction. The fractionation followed the BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction, and the exchangeable (F1), reducible (F2), oxidizable (F3) and residual fractions were determined. The results showed that Pb was highly associated with the reducible (F2) and oxidizable (F3) fractions, suggesting the potential mobility of this metal mainly when in contact with oxygen, despite the low association with the exchangeable fraction (F1)...
September 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Yan He, Dan Li, Youcai Zhao, Minsheng Huang, Gongming Zhou
This is the first attempt to explore the sustainability of aged refuse as ammonium-removal media. Batch experiments combined with the aged-refuse-based reactor were performed to examine how the adsorption and desorption processes are involved in the ammonia removal via aged refuse media in this research. The results showed that the adsorption of ammonium by aged refuse occurred instantly and the adsorbed ammonium was stable and less exchangeable. The adsorption data fit the Freundlich isotherms well and the n value of 0...
September 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Kwaku Oduro-Appiah, Anne Scheinberg, Anthony Mensah, Abraham Afful, Henry Kofi Boadu, Nanne de Vries
This article assesses the performance of the city of Accra, Ghana, in municipal solid waste management as defined by the integrated sustainable waste management framework. The article reports on a participatory process to socialise the Wasteaware benchmark indicators and apply them to an upgraded set of data and information. The process has engaged 24 key stakeholders for 9 months, to diagram the flow of materials and benchmark three physical components and three governance aspects of the city's municipal solid waste management system...
September 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
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