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Waste Management & Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617191/operator-models-for-delivering-municipal-solid-waste-management-services-in-developing-countries-part-b-decision-support
#1
Reka Soós, Andrew D Whiteman, David C Wilson, Cosmin Briciu, Sofia Nürnberger, Barbara Oelz, Ellen Gunsilius, Ekkehard Schwehn
This is the second of two papers reporting the results of a major study considering 'operator models' for municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in emerging and developing countries. Part A documents the evidence base, while Part B presents a four-step decision support system for selecting an appropriate operator model in a particular local situation. Step 1 focuses on understanding local problems and framework conditions; Step 2 on formulating and prioritising local objectives; and Step 3 on assessing capacities and conditions, and thus identifying strengths and weaknesses, which underpin selection of the operator model...
June 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617175/operator-models-for-delivering-municipal-solid-waste-management-services-in-developing-countries-part-a-the-evidence-base
#2
David C Wilson, Jennifer Bangirana Kanjogera, Reka Soós, Cosmin Briciu, Stephen R Smith, Andrew D Whiteman, Sandra Spies, Barbara Oelz
This article presents the evidence base for 'operator models' - that is, how to deliver a sustainable service through the interaction of the 'client', 'revenue collector' and 'operator' functions - for municipal solid waste management in emerging and developing countries. The companion article addresses a selection of locally appropriate operator models. The evidence shows that no 'standard' operator model is effective in all developing countries and circumstances. Each city uses a mix of different operator models; 134 cases showed on average 2...
June 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606005/group-assessment-of-key-indicators-of-sustainable-waste-management-in-developing-countries
#3
Bojana Tot, Goran Vujić, Zorica Srđević, Dejan Ubavin, Mário Augusto Tavares Russo
Decision makers in developing countries are struggling to solve the present problems of solid waste management. Prioritisation and ranking of the most important indicators that influence the waste management system is very useful for any decision maker for the future planning and implementation of a sustainable waste management system. The aim of this study is to evaluate key indicators and their related sub-indicators in a group decision-making environment. In order to gain insight into the subject it was necessary to obtain the qualified opinions of decision makers from different countries who understand the situation in the sector of waste management in developing countries...
June 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605988/effect-of-curing-time-on-selected-properties-of-soil-stabilized-with-fly-ash-marble-dust-and-waste-sand-for-road-sub-base-materials
#4
Seyhan Firat, Jamal M Khatib, Gulgun Yilmaz, A T Comert
The properties of sub-base filling materials in highway construction are essential, as they can determine the performance of the road in service. Normally, the existing materials are removed and replaced with new materials that have adequate load-bearing capacity. Rising environmental concern and new environmental legislations have made construction professionals consider other methods. These methods include stabilizing the existing materials with other additives to improve their performance. Additives can be waste materials generated by different industries...
June 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605951/a-novel-approach-to-find-and-optimize-bin-locations-and-collection-routes-using-a-geographic-information-system
#5
Seyed Mohammad Hassan Erfani, Shahnaz Danesh, Seyed Mohsen Karrabi, Rouzbeh Shad
One of the major challenges in big cities is planning and implementation of an optimized, integrated solid waste management system. This optimization is crucial if environmental problems are to be prevented and the expenses to be reduced. A solid waste management system consists of many stages including collection, transfer and disposal. In this research, an integrated model was proposed and used to optimize two functional elements of municipal solid waste management (storage and collection systems) in the Ahmadabad neighbourhood located in the City of Mashhad - Iran...
June 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587517/effects-of-low-temperature-pretreatment-on-enhancing-properties-of-refuse-derived-fuel-via-microwave-irradiation
#6
Zhen Liu, Han-Qing Wang, Yue-Yun Zhou, Xiao-Dong Zhang, Jian-Wen Liu
The present study focuses on pretreatment of enhancing the properties of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) via low-temperature microwave irradiation. These improved properties include lower chlorine content, a more porous surface structure and better combustion characteristics. In this study, low-temperature microwave irradiation was carried out in a modified microwave apparatus and the range of temperature was set to be 220-300℃. We found that the microwave absorbability of RDF was enhanced after being partly carbonized...
June 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580848/adsorption-photobioreactor-as-a-co-treatment-system-for-ammonium-and-phosphate-removal-by-the-response-surface-method
#7
Etesam Ganjian, Majid Peyravi, Ali Asqar Qoreyshi, Mohsen Jahanshahi, Ali Shokuhi Rad
The co-treatment system of photosynthetic microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and adsorption was investigated as a possible combination of symbiotic mixed culture for the simultaneous removal of nutrients (ammonium and phosphate) and organic contaminants. In this study, response surface methodology for experimental design and optimization was used. For experiment operation, two factorial designs containing five chemical oxygen demand influent (CODin) concentrations (100, 200, 400, 600 and 700 mg l(-1)) and hydraulic retention times (0...
June 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578616/integration-of-informal-recycling-sector-in-brazil-and-the-case-of-sorocaba-city
#8
Nathalia Silva de Souza Lima, Sandro Donnini Mancini
Catadores are people who collect and sell materials that can be recycled. This activity has been done informally in many countries for years. Recently, a recognition process has begun for the informal recycling sector, with public and private initiatives. In Brazil, catadores started out associating with each other in co-operatives in the 1980s. In 2010, the Solid Waste National Policy was approved, promoting the inclusion of theses co-operatives in the formal waste management system. However, only in 25 out of 5670 Brazilian municipalities have hired co-operatives as Private Service Providers...
June 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566005/solid-state-fermentation-and-composting-as-alternatives-to-treat-hair-waste-a-life-cycle-assessment-comparative-approach
#9
Eva Catalán, Dimitrios Komilis, Antoni Sánchez
One of the wastes associated with leather production in tannery industries is the hair residue generated during the dehairing process. Hair wastes are mainly dumped or managed through composting but recent studies propose the treatment of hair wastes through solid-state fermentation (SSF) to obtain proteases and compost. These enzymes are suitable for its use in an enzymatic dehairing process, as an alternative to the current chemical dehairing process. In the present work, two different scenarios for the valorization of the hair waste are proposed and assessed by means of life-cycle assessment: composting and SSF for protease production...
May 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553775/electricity-production-from-municipal-solid-waste-in-brazil
#10
Guilherme Henrique Nordi, Reynaldo Palacios-Bereche, Antonio Garrido Gallego, Silvia Azucena Nebra
Brazil has an increasing production of municipal solid waste that, allied to the current waste management system, makes the search for alternatives of energy recovery essential. Thus, this work aims to study the incineration of municipal solid waste and the electricity production through steam cycles evaluating the influence of municipal solid waste composition. Several scenarios were studied, in which it was assumed that some fractions of municipal solid waste were removed previously. The municipal solid waste generated in Santo André city, São Paulo State, Brazil, was adopted for this study...
May 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553773/evaluation-of-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-waste-management-approaches-in-the-islands
#11
Ying-Chu Chen
Concerns about waste generation and climate change have attracted worldwide attention. Small islands, which account for more than one-sixth of the global land area, are facing problems caused by global climate change. This study evaluated the greenhouse gas emissions from five small islands surrounding Taiwan. These islands - Penghu County, Liuqui Island, Kinmen County, Matsu Island and Green Island - have their own waste management approaches that can serve as a guideline for waste management with greenhouse gas mitigation...
May 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553756/experimental-and-modelling-studies-on-a-laboratory-scale-anaerobic-bioreactor-treating-mechanically-biologically-treated-municipal-solid-waste
#12
P Lakshmikanthan, P Sughosh, James White, G L Sivakumar Babu
The performance of an anaerobic bioreactor in treating mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste was investigated using experimental and modelling techniques. The key parameters measured during the experimental test period included the gas yield, leachate generation and settlement under applied load. Modelling of the anaerobic bioreactor was carried out using the University of Southampton landfill degradation and transport model. The model was used to simulate the actual gas production and settlement...
May 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539107/a-feasibility-study-of-municipal-solid-waste-incineration-fly-ash-utilisation-in-estonia
#13
Hakan Berber, Ruedi Frey, Viktoria Voronova, Arina Koroljova
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the alternative environmental management options for the utilisation of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration fly ash (FA), which is generated at Iru Power Plant where MSW is incinerated in Estonia. To determine sustainable and economically feasible environmental management options for MSW incineration FA in Estonia, CO2 sequestration with a further carbonation process was examined. A partial Cost & Benefit Analysis has been conducted to compare the carbonation process to the current situation...
May 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539100/production-of-thermal-insulation-blocks-from-bottom-ash-of-fluidized-bed-combustion-system
#14
A K Mandal, O P Sinha
The issues of disposal and environmental problems are increased by the generation of bottom ash from the thermal power plants day by day; hence, its recycling is required. The present study aimed to make thermal insulation blocks using as raw material bottom ash and iron ore slime as a binder and to characterize their engineering properties. Two different fineness values of bottom ash were considered with varying amounts of iron ore slime (0-10%) to make the blocks. Blocks were dried followed by firing at 1000, 1100 and 1200°C, respectively...
May 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539097/removal-of-organic-matter-from-stabilized-landfill-leachate-using-coagulation-flocculation-fenton-coupled-with-activated-charcoal-adsorption
#15
Ahmad Razali Ishak, Fauziah Shahul Hamid, Sharifah Mohamad, Kheng Soo Tay
The treatment of stabilized landfill leachate (SLL) by conventional biological treatment is often inefficient due to the presence of bio-recalcitrant substances. In this study, the feasibility of coagulation-flocculation coupled with the Fenton reaction in the treatment of SLL was evaluated. The efficiency of the selected treatment methods was evaluated through total organic carbon (TOC) removal from SLL. With ferric chloride as the coagulant, coagulation-flocculation was found to achieve the highest TOC removal of 71% at pH 6...
May 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521644/slope-stability-and-bearing-capacity-of-landfills-and-simple-on-site-test-methods
#16
Atsushi Yamawaki, Yoichi Doi, Kiyoshi Omine
This study discusses strength characteristics (slope stability, bearing capacity, etc.) of waste landfills through on-site tests that were carried out at 29 locations in 19 sites in Japan and three other countries, and proposes simple methods to test and assess the mechanical strength of landfills on site. Also, the possibility of using a landfill site was investigated by a full-scale eccentric loading test. As a result of this, landfills containing more than about 10 cm long plastics or other fibrous materials were found to be resilient and hard to yield...
May 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488463/in-situ-biogas-upgrading-during-anaerobic-digestion-of-food-waste-amended-with-walnut-shell-biochar-at-bench-scale
#17
Jessica L Linville, Yanwen Shen, Patricia A Ignacio-de Leon, Robin P Schoene, Meltem Urgun-Demirtas
A modified version of an in-situ CO2 removal process was applied during anaerobic digestion of food waste with two types of walnut shell biochar at bench scale under batch operating mode. Compared with the coarse walnut shell biochar, the fine walnut shell biochar has a higher ash content (43 vs. 36 wt%) and higher concentrations of calcium (31 vs. 19 wt% of ash), magnesium (8.4 vs. 5.6 wt% of ash) and sodium (23.4 vs. 0.3 wt% of ash), but a lower potassium concentration (0.2 vs. 40% wt% of ash). The 0.96-3...
May 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486846/optimisation-of-chemical-oxygen-demand-removal-from-landfill-leachate-by-sonocatalytic-degradation-in-the-presence-of-cupric-oxide-nanoparticles
#18
Paria Amirian, Edris Bazrafshan, Abolfazl Payandeh
Leachate is the liquid formed when waste breaks down in the landfill and water filters through that waste. This liquid is very toxic and can pollute the land, ground water, and water resources. In most countries, it is mandatory for landfills to be protected against leachate. In addition to all other harms to the environment, disposal of raw landfill leachate can be a major source of hazard to closed water bodies. Hence, treatment of landfill leachate is considered an essential step prior to its discharge from source...
May 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464731/knowledge-behaviour-and-microbial-load-of-workers-handling-dental-solid-waste-in-a-public-health-service-in-brazil
#19
Cristina Dutra Vieira, Thaysa Leite Tagliaferri, Maria Auxiliadora Roque de Carvalho, Camilla Aparecida Silva de Oliveira, Paula Prazeres Magalhães, Simone Gonçalves Dos Santos, Luiz de Macêdo Farias
Healthcare wastes are those generated inside healthcare services, including dental clinics. Workers coming into close proximity to hazardous healthcare waste are potentially at risk. In an attempt to assess the knowledge and attitudes of workers dealing with infectious waste, a questionnaire was administered. The biological risk was investigated by evaluating the microbial load and screening some clinically relevant micro-organisms in the nasal mucosa, hands and coats of these workers. The results showed that 66...
April 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462684/integrated-gasification-combined-cycle-using-egyptian-maghara-coal-rice-straw-feedstock
#20
A Hegazy, A O Ghallab, F H Ashour
Rice straw is an agricultural waste that causes an annoying problem in Egypt if it is not well exploited. This study focuses on using this waste in power generation by co-gasification of Egyptian Maghara coal and rice straw blends using entrained flow gasifier technology. Aspen Plus was used to conduct a parametric study for investigation of the effect of changing the inputs to the gasifier on the produced gas composition. Three different input parameters, influencing the performance of the gasifier, including the percentage of coal to rice straw in the blend, the fraction of added water to the blend, and the mass percentage of oxygen with respect to the mass of the blend fed to the gasifier were analysed...
April 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
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