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Waste Management & Research

Kwaku Oduro-Appiah, Anne Scheinberg, Anthony Mensah, Abraham Afful, Henry Kofi Boadu, Nanne de Vries
This article assesses the performance of the city of Accra, Ghana, in municipal solid waste management as defined by the integrated sustainable waste management framework. The article reports on a participatory process to socialise the Wasteaware benchmark indicators and apply them to an upgraded set of data and information. The process has engaged 24 key stakeholders for 9 months, to diagram the flow of materials and benchmark three physical components and three governance aspects of the city's municipal solid waste management system...
September 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Ignasi Puig-Ventosa, Sergio Sastre Sanz
Municipal waste charges have been widely acknowledged as a crucial tool for waste management at the local level. This is because they contribute to financing the costly provision of waste collection and treatment services and they can be designed to provide an economic stimulus to encourage citizens and local businesses to improve separate collection and recycling. This work presents a methodology to evaluate a sample of 125 municipal waste charges in Spain for the year 2015, covering 33.91% of the Spanish population...
September 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Ana Carolina Medina Jimenez, Guilherme Henrique Nordi, Milagros Cecilia Palacios Bereche, Reynaldo Palacios Bereche, Antonio Garrido Gallego, Silvia Azucena Nebra
Brazil has a large population with a high waste generation. The municipal solid waste (MSW) generated is deposited mainly in landfills. However, a considerable fraction of the waste is still improperly disposed of in dumpsters. In order to overcome this inadequate deposition, it is necessary to seek alternative routes. Between these alternatives, it is possible to quote gasification and incineration. The objective of this study is to compare, from an energetic and economic point of view, these technologies, aiming at their possible implementation in Brazilian cities...
September 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Ajay S Verma, Narendra M Suri, Suman Kant
Bauxite residue is the waste generated during alumina production by Bayer's process. The amount of bauxite residue (40-50 wt%) generated depends on the quality of bauxite ore used for the processing. High alkalinity and high caustic content in bauxite residue causes environmental risk for fertile soil and ground water contamination. The caustic (NaOH) content in bauxite residue leads to human health risks, like dermal problems and irritation to eyes. Moreover, disposal of bauxite residue requires a large area; such problems can only be minimised by utilising bauxite residue effectively...
September 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Weihua Gu, Jianfeng Bai, Haiyan Yao, Jing Zhao, Xuning Zhuang, Qing Huang, Chenglong Zhang, JingWei Wang
For the objective of evaluating the contamination degree of heavy metals and analysing its variation trend in soil at a waste electrical and electronic equipment processing area in Shanghai, China, evaluation methods, which include single factor index method, geo-accumulation index method, comprehensive pollution index method, and potential ecological risk index method, were adopted in this study. The results revealed that the soil at a waste electrical and electronic equipment processing area was polluted by arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, and chromium...
August 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Faisal Zia Siddiqui, Sadaf Zaidi, Sourabh Manuja, Suneel Pandey, M Emran Khan
This research was undertaken to estimate the energy potential of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposed over the past 15 years in an unsecured landfill located in Okhla, Delhi, India. The research collected a total of 98 samples from various depths and locations, which were analyzed for physico-chemical characterization. Multiple regression models for estimating the energy content of the disposed MSW were developed to predict average gross calorific value (GCV) and net calorific value (NCV). Forward entry regression was applied to identify the variables that contributed significantly to the regression...
August 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Raymond RedCorn, Abigail S Engelberth
Extensive research has demonstrated the potential for bioconversion of food waste to lactate, with major emphasis on adjusting temperature, pH, and loading rate of the fermentation. Each of these factors has a significant effect on lactate production; however, additional secondary factors have received little attention. Here we investigate three additional factors where opportunities exist for process improvement: freezing of samples during storage, discontinuous pH control, and holdover of fermentation broth between fermentations...
August 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Guobin Jiang, Dan Liu, Weiming Chen, Zhicheng Ye, Hong Liu, Qibin Li
The evolution mechanism of a vent pipe diameter on a waste-stabilization process in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills was analyzed from the organic-matter concentration, biodegradability, spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter, correlations and principal-component analysis. Waste samples were collected at different distances from the vent pipe and from different landfill layers in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills with different vent pipe diameters. An increase in vent pipe diameter favored waste degradation...
August 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Shi-Jin Feng, Ben-Yi Cao, Hai-Jian Xie
Leachate recirculation in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills operated as bioreactors offers significant economic and environmental benefits. Combined drainage blanket (DB)-horizontal trench (HT) systems can be an alternative to single conventional recirculation approaches and can have competitive advantages. The key objectives of this study are to investigate combined drainage blanket -horizontal trench systems, to analyze the effects of applying two recirculation systems on the leachate migration in landfills, and to estimate some key design parameters (e...
August 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Kamran Rousta, Isabel Ordoñez, Kim Bolton, Lisa Dahlén
This article presents a mini review of research aimed at understanding material recovery from municipal solid waste. It focuses on two areas, waste sorting behaviour and collection systems, so that research on the link between these areas could be identified and evaluated. The main results presented and the methods used in the articles are categorised and appraised. The mini review reveals that most of the work that offered design guidelines for waste management systems was based on optimising technical aspects only...
August 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
R Taurino, E Karamanova, L Barbieri, S Atanasova-Vladimirova, F Andreola, A Karamanov
The main objective of this work was to study the sintering process and technological properties of new fired bricks based on high amount of post-treated municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and refractory clay. In addition, the effect of the minor addition of flux (Na2CO3) or reinforce (corundum) was also highlighted. Several methods were used to study the effect of compositions variations on the sintering process, structure and the mechanical characteristics of the test briquettes. Differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and dilatometry techniques were applied to study the thermal behaviour while scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and high-temperature X-ray diffraction were used to elucidate the structure and the phase composition...
August 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Marcos Pg Mol, Amanda F Pereira, Dirceu B Greco, Sandy Cairncross, Leo Heller
As more urban solid waste is generated, managing it becomes ever more challenging and the potential impacts on the environment and human health also become greater. Handling waste - including collection, treatment and final disposal - entails risks of work accidents. This article assesses the perception of waste management workers regarding work-related accidents in domestic and health service contexts in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. These perceptions are compared with national data from the Ministry of Social Security on accidents involving workers in solid waste management...
August 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Ales Hanc, Tereza Castkova, Stanislav Kuzel, Tomas Cajthaml
Large-scale vermicomposting under outdoor conditions may differ from small-scale procedures in the laboratory. The present study evaluated changes in selected properties of a large-scale vertical-flow windrow vermicomposting system with continuous feeding with household biowaste. The windrow profile was divided into five layers of differing thickness and age after more than 12 months of vermicomposting. The top layer (0-30 cm, age <3 months) was characterised by partially decomposed organic matter with a high pH value and an elevated carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio...
August 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Yeshui Zhang, Yongwen Tao, Jun Huang, Paul Williams
The influence of catalyst support alumina-silica in terms of different Al2O3 to SiO2 mole ratios containing 20 wt.% Ni on the production of hydrogen and catalyst coke formation from the pyrolysis-catalysis of waste tyres is reported. A two-stage reactor system was used with pyrolysis of the tyres followed by catalytic reaction. There was only a small difference in the total gas yield and hydrogen yield by changing the Al2O3 to SiO2 mole ratios in the Ni-Al2O3/SiO2 catalyst. The 1:1 ratio of Al2O3:SiO2 ratio produced the highest gas yield of 27...
August 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Khondokar M Rahman, Lynsey Melville, David Fulford, Sm Imamul Huq
Calculations towards determining the greenhouse gas mitigation capacity of a small-scale biogas plant (3.2 m(3) plant) using cow dung in Bangladesh are presented. A general life cycle assessment was used, evaluating key parameters (biogas, methane, construction materials and feedstock demands) to determine the net environmental impact. The global warming potential saving through the use of biogas as a cooking fuel is reduced from 0.40 kg CO2 equivalent to 0.064 kg CO2 equivalent per kilogram of dung. Biomethane used for cooking can contribute towards mitigation of global warming...
August 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Federico Lucernoni, Matteo Rizzotto, Laura Capelli, Valentina Busini, Renato Del Rosso, Selena Sironi
The first aim of this work is the definition and the study of a suitable sampling method for the measurement of landfill gas (LFG) emissions from landfill surfaces, since, up to now, there are no codified nor universally accepted sampling methods for this specific task. The studied sampling method is based on the use of a static hood. The research work involves a preliminary theoretical study for the hood design, experimental tests for the definition of the optimal sampling procedures, and simulations of the hood fluid-dynamics for the system validation...
August 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Noriaki Murase, Takehiko Murayama, Shigeo Nishikizawa, Yuriko Sato
Many cities in Indonesia are under pressure to reduce solid waste and dispose of it properly. In response to this pressure, the Japan International Cooperation Agency and the Indonesian Government have implemented a solid waste separation and collection project to reduce solid waste in the target area (810 households) of Balikpapan City. We used a cluster randomised controlled trial method to measure the impact of awareness-raising activities that were introduced by the project on residents' organic solid waste separation behaviour...
August 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Michael A Nwachukwu, Mersky Ronald, Huan Feng
In this study, United States, China, India, United Kingdom, Nigeria, Egypt, Brazil, Italy, Germany, Taiwan, Australia, Canada and Mexico were selected to represent the global community. This enabled an overview of solid waste management worldwide and between developed and developing countries. These are countries that feature most in the International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management (ICSW) over the past 20 years. A total of 1452 articles directly on solid waste management and technology were reviewed and credited to their original country of research...
July 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Muzammil Anjum, Azeem Khalid, Samia Qadeer, Rashid Miandad
Catering waste and orange peel were co-digested using an anaerobic digestion process. Orange peel is difficult to degrade anaerobically due to the presence of antimicrobial agents such as limonene. The present study aimed to examine the feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of catering waste with orange peel to provide the optimum nutrient balance with reduced inhibitory effects of orange peel. Batch experiments were conducted using catering waste as a potential substrate mixed in varying ratios (20-50%) with orange peel...
July 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Sabrina Sorlini, Maria Cristina Collivignarelli, Alessandro Abbà
The aim of this work was to assess the leaching behaviour of the bottom ash derived from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) used in concrete production. In particular, the release of pollutants was evaluated by the application of different leaching tests, both on granular materials and monolithic samples (concrete mixtures cast with bottom ash). The results confirmed that, according to Italian regulations, unwashed bottom ashes present critical issues for the use as alternative aggregates in the construction sector due to the excessive release of pollutants; instead, the leachate from washed bottom ashes was similar to natural aggregates...
July 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
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