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Waste Management & Research

Yahya Jani, Fabio Kaczala, Charlotte Marchand, Marika Hogland, Mait Kriipsalu, William Hogland, Anders Kihl
The present research studies the characterisation and the physico-chemical properties of an excavated fine fraction (<10 mm) from a Swedish landfill, the Högbytorp. The results showed that the fine fraction represents 38% by mass of the total excavated wastes and it contains mainly soil-type materials and minerals. Higher concentrations of zinc, copper, barium and chromium were found with concentrations higher than the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for contaminated soil. The found moisture and organic contents of the fine fraction were 23...
October 14, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Abhijit Deka, Sreedeep Sekharan
It is important to determine the contaminant retention characteristics of materials when assessing their suitability for use as liners in landfill sites. Sand-bentonite mixtures are commonly used as liners in the construction of landfill sites for industrial and hazardous wastes. Sand is considered to be a passive material with a negligible chemical retention capacity; fly ash, however, offers the additional advantage of adsorbing the heavy metals present in landfill leachates. There have been few studies of the contaminant retention characteristics of fly ash-bentonite mixes...
October 14, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Chido H Chihobo, Arindrajit Chowdhury, Pardon K Kuipa, David J Simbi
Pyrolysis is an attractive thermochemical conversion technology that may be utilised as a safe disposal option for acid tar waste. The kinetics of acid tar pyrolysis were investigated using thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry under a nitrogen atmosphere at different heating rates of 10, 15 and 20 K min(-1) The thermogravimetric analysis shows three major reaction peaks centred around 178 °C, 258 °C, and 336 °C corresponding to the successive degradation of water soluble lower molecular mass sulphonic acids, sulphonated high molecular mass hydrocarbons, and high molecular mass hydrocarbons...
October 10, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Akunnaya P Opoko, Adedapo A Oluwatayo
Lagos is one of the fastest growing cities in Africa, which is grappling with the challenges of poorly managed urbanisation. With an estimated population of about 17.5 million, solid waste management is one of the most pressing environmental challenges currently faced in the city. It is estimated that more than 9071847.4kg of urban waste is generated every day in the city. The city lacks the capacity to deal with such magnitude of waste. Consequently, the city has involved the private sector (private sector participation) in its waste management drive...
September 23, 2016: Waste Management & Research
W I Sou, Andrea Chu, P T Chiueh
In Macao, about 7200 t yr(-1) of bottom ash (BA) is generated and conventionally landfilled with construction waste. Because the properties of BA are similar to those of natural aggregates, it is suitable to be recycled as construction material. However, pre-treatment processes for BA reuse may require more resource input and may generate additional environmental impacts. Life cycle assessment, multi-media transport model analysis, cost-benefit analysis and the analytical hierarchy process were conducted to evaluate the impacts of current and potential BA management scenarios regarding environmental, economic, social and regulatory aspects...
September 16, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Chooi Mei Mah, Takeshi Fujiwara, Chin Siong Ho
Construction and demolition waste continues to sharply increase in step with the economic growth of less developed countries. Though the construction industry is large, it is composed of small firms with individual waste management practices, often leading to the deleterious environmental outcomes. Quantifying construction and demolition waste generation allows policy makers and stakeholders to understand the true internal and external costs of construction, providing a necessary foundation for waste management planning that may overcome deleterious environmental outcomes and may be both economically and environmentally optimal...
September 16, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Lineker M Goulart Coelho, Liséte C Lange, Hosmanny Mg Coelho
Solid waste management is a complex domain involving the interaction of several dimensions; thus, its analysis and control impose continuous challenges for decision makers. In this context, multi-criteria decision-making models have become important and convenient supporting tools for solid waste management because they can handle problems involving multiple dimensions and conflicting criteria. However, the selection of the multi-criteria decision-making method is a hard task since there are several multi-criteria decision-making approaches, each one with a large number of variants whose applicability depends on information availability and the aim of the study...
September 14, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Yibiao Xie, Shuiyu Sun, Jingyong Liu, Weixiong Lin, Nanwei Chen, Maoyou Ye
The effect of six additives (CaCO3, HZSM-5, CaO, Al2O3, FeOOH and Ca(OH)2) on the generation, migration, transformation and escaping behaviours of typical gaseous pollutants in the pyrolysis process were studied by vacuum pyrolysis experiments on epoxy resin powder from waste printed circuit boards with tube furnace. The results show that the additives Al2O3, CaO, Ca(OH) 2 and FeOOH could reduce the yield of the gas phase. The removal rates of pollutants, such as benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, phenol, p-xylene, HBr, NO2 and SO2 in the gaseous products, has changed variously with the increasing percentage of the above additives...
August 17, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Zhanlong Song, Yaqing Yang, Long Zhou, Xiqiang Zhao, Wenlong Wang, Yanpeng Mao, Chunyuan Ma
The pyrolytic characteristics of tyre powder treated under different microwave powers (300, 500, and 700 W) were studied via microwave thermogravimetric analysis. The product yields at different power levels were studied, along with comparative analysis of microwave pyrolysis and conventional pyrolysis. The feedstock underwent preheating, intense pyrolysis, and final pyrolysis in sequence. The main and secondary weight loss peaks observed during the intense pyrolysis stage were attributed to the decomposition of natural rubbers and synthetic rubbers, respectively...
August 11, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Renny Andrew, D T Gokak, Pankaj Sharma, Shalini Gupta
Today, the impending stringent environmental norms and concerns about the depletion of fossil fuel reserves have added impetus on development of cutting edge technologies for production of alternative fuels from renewable sources, like biomass. The concept of biomass pyro-gasification offers a platform for production of (a) hydrogen, (b) hydrocarbons and (c) value added chemicals, etc. In this context, there exists potential for hydrogen production from biomass by superheated steam gasification. Apart from H2, gaseous products of biomass steam gasification contain CO, CH4 and other hydrocarbons that can be converted to hydrogen through cracking, steam reforming and water gas shift reactions...
August 4, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Ravi Kadambala, Jon Powell, Karamjit Singh, Timothy G Townsend
Vertical liquids addition systems have been used at municipal landfills as a leachate management method and to enhance biostabilization of waste. Drawbacks of these systems include a limitation on pressurized injection and the occurrence of seepage. A novel vertical well system that employed buried wells constructed below a lift of compacted waste was operated for 153 days at a landfill in Florida, USA. The system included 54 wells installed in six clusters of nine wells connected with a horizontally-oriented manifold system...
August 1, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Begoña Ruiz, Amparo de Benito, José Daniel Rivera, Xavier Flotats
The objective of this study was to assess the limonene removal efficiency of three pre-treatment methods when applied to citrus waste and to evaluate their effects on the biochemical methane potential and the methane production rate using batch anaerobic tests. The methods tested were based on removal (biological pretreatment by fungi) or recovery (steam distillation and ethanol extraction) of limonene. All the treatments decreased the concentration of limonene in orange peel, with average efficiencies of 22%, 44% and 100% for the biological treatment, steam distillation and ethanol extraction, respectively...
August 1, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Therese Schwarzböck, Emile Van Eygen, Helmut Rechberger, Johann Fellner
Although thermal recovery of waste plastics is widely practiced in many European countries, reliable information on the amount of waste plastics in the feed of waste-to-energy plants is rare. In most cases the amount of plastics present in commingled waste, such as municipal solid waste, commercial, or industrial waste, is estimated based on a few waste sorting campaigns, which are of limited significance with regard to the characterisation of plastic flows. In the present study, an alternative approach, the so-called Balance Method, is used to determine the total amount of plastics thermally recovered in Austria's waste incineration facilities in 2014...
July 29, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Filiz Dadaser-Celik, Sukru Taner Azgin, Yalcin Sevki Yildiz
Biogas production from food waste has been used as an efficient waste treatment option for years. The methane yields from decomposition of waste are, however, highly variable under different operating conditions. In this study, a statistical experimental design method (Taguchi OA9) was implemented to investigate the effects of simultaneous variations of three parameters on methane production. The parameters investigated were solid content (SC), carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) and food/inoculum ratio (F/I). Two sets of experiments were conducted with nine anaerobic reactors operating under different conditions...
July 29, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Joe Haworth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Waste Management & Research
Piotr Nowakowski
Government agencies have implemented regulations to reduce the volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment to protect the environment and encourage recycling. The effectiveness of systems through which waste electrical and electronic equipment is collected and recycled depends on (a) the development and operation of new programmes to process this material and (b) on information dissemination programmes aimed at manufacturers, retail sellers, and the consuming public. This study analyses these two elements...
November 2016: Waste Management & Research
Predrag Korica, Andreja Cirman, Andreja Žgajnar Gotvajn
An often suggested method for waste prevention is substitution of currently-used materials with materials which are less bulky, contain less hazardous components or are easier to recycle. For policy makers it is important to have tools available that provide information on the impact of this substitution on the changes in total amounts of waste generated and managed. The purpose of this paper is to see how much changes in the mix of 15 waste streams generated in eight economic sectors from 30 European countries have influenced the amounts of waste generated and managed in the period 2004-2012...
November 2016: Waste Management & Research
Ying Yuan, Xiao-Song He, Bei-Dou Xi, Zi-Min Wei, Wen-Bing Tan, Ru-Tai Gao
Vulnerability assessment of simple landfills was conducted using the multimedia, multipathway and multireceptor risk assessment (3MRA) model for the first time in China. The minimum safe threshold of six contaminants (benzene, arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], divalent mercury [Hg(II)] and divalent nickel [Ni(II)]) in landfill and waste pile models were calculated by the 3MRA model. Furthermore, the vulnerability indexes of the six contaminants were predicted based on the model calculation...
November 2016: Waste Management & Research
Didar Ergene Şentürk, Emre Alp
Landfilling is the most preferred solid waste disposal method in Turkey owing to both economic and technical reasons. However, beside the sanitary landfills there are also hundreds of uncontrolled waste sites located throughout Turkey, which are often left either abandoned or burning. Because there is a lack of legislative guidelines governing the closure and rehabilitation of these dumpsites, the municipalities that are responsible for waste management do not initiate the proactive strategies required for the closure of these sites...
November 2016: Waste Management & Research
Khaiwal Ravindra, Kamalpreet Kaur, Suman Mor
Manual handling of municipal solid waste is of serious concern owing to emerging occupational risks. Considering this, health risks of municipal solid waste workers involved in street sweeping, waste collection, waste processing and rag picking were assessed in Chandigarh, India, using an interview schedule as a study tool. Result shows that the waste worker profession is mainly dominated by males, except in rag pickers, and with a lower literacy rate. Age distribution shows that 16% of waste collectors and 11% of rag pickers were below 18 years of age...
November 2016: Waste Management & Research
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