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Waste Management & Research

Emilia Mmbando Raila, David O Anderson
Climate change remains one of the biggest threats to life on earth to date with black carbon (BC) emissions or smoke being the strongest cause after carbon dioxide (CO2). Surprisingly, scientific evidence about black carbon emissions reduction in healthcare settings is sparse. This paper presents new research findings on the reduction of black carbon emissions from an observational study conducted at the UN Peacekeeping Operations (MINUSTAH) in Haiti in 2014. Researchers observed 20 incineration cycles, 30 minutes for each cycle of plastic and cardboard sharps healthcare waste (HCW) containers ranged from 3 to 14...
November 30, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Leticia Sarmento Dos Muchangos, Akihiro Tokai, Atsuko Hanashima
Understanding waste flows within an urban area is important for identifying the main problems and improvement opportunities for efficient waste management. Assessment tools such as material flow analysis (MFA), an extensively applied method in waste management studies, provide a structured and objective evaluating process to characterize the waste management system best, to identify its shortcomings and to propose suitable strategies. This paper presents the application of MFA to municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Maputo City, the capital of Mozambique...
November 30, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Xingbao Gao, Bingjing Ji, Dahai Yan, Qifei Huang, Xuemei Zhu
Degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash is beneficial to its risk control. Fly ash was treated in a full-scale thermal degradation system (capacity 1 t d(-1)) to remove polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Apart from the confirmation of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran decomposition efficiency, we focused on two major issues that are the major obstacles for commercialising this decomposition technology in China, desorption and regeneration of dioxins and control of secondary air pollution...
November 30, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Joke Anthonissen, Wim Van den Bergh, Johan Braet
Bituminous pavement can be recycled - even multiple times - by reusing it in new bituminous mixtures. If the mechanical properties of the binder get worse, this reclaimed asphalt is often used in the sub-structure of the road. Apparently, up till now, no end-of-life phase exists for the material. Actually, defining the end-of-life and the end-of-waste stage of a material is important for life cycle assessment modelling. Various standards and scientific studies on modelling life cycle assessment are known, but the crucial stages are not yet defined for reclaimed asphalt pavement...
November 30, 2016: Waste Management & Research
V Sudharsan Varma, Ajay S Kalamdhad, Bimlesh Kumar
In-vessel composting of agricultural waste is a well-described approach for stabilization of compost within a short time period. Although composting studies have shown the different combinations of waste materials for producing good quality compost, studies of the particular ratio of the waste materials in the mix are still limited. In the present study, composting was conducted with a combination of vegetable waste, cow dung, sawdust and dry leaves using a 550 L rotary drum composter. Application of a radial basis functional neural network was used to simulate the composting process...
November 28, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Irina Turku, Timo Kärki, Kimmo Rinne, Ari Puurtinen
This paper studies the recyclability of construction and household plastic waste collected from local landfills. Samples were processed from mixed plastic waste by injection moulding. In addition, blends of pure plastics, polypropylene and polyethylene were processed as a reference set. Reference samples with known plastic ratio were used as the calibration set for quantitative analysis of plastic fractions in recycled blends. The samples were tested for the tensile properties; scanning electron microscope-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used for elemental analysis of the blend surfaces and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis was used for the quantification of plastics contents...
November 26, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Yousheng Lin, Xiaoqian Ma, Xiaowei Peng, Zhaosheng Yu
The influences of temperature and residence times on the conversion and product distribution during hydrothermal carbonisation of municipal solid wastes were investigated. Analysis of variance and reaction severity were used to comprehensively analyse the experimental results. Analysis results showed both reaction temperature and residence time had varying degrees of impact on production distribution and hydrochars characteristic, while the effect of combine temperature and time was negligible. It is novel to find that the products yield was a linear function of the logarithm of the reaction ordinate...
November 24, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Olya S Keen
Organics in leachate from municipal solid waste landfills are notoriously difficult to treat by biological processes. These organics have high ultraviolet absorbance and can interfere with the ultraviolet disinfection process at the wastewater treatment plant that receives leachate if the leachate flow contribution is large enough. With more wastewater treatment plants switching to ultraviolet disinfection, landfills face increased pressure to treat leachate further. This study used size exclusion chromatography, fluorescence spectroscopy and ultraviolet/Vis spectrophotometry to characterise the bulk organic matter in raw landfill leachate and the biorecalcitrant organic matter in biologically treated leachate from the same site...
November 24, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Philip Holthaus, Moritz Kappes, Wolfgang Krumm
Stricter regulatory requirements concerning end-of-life vehicles and rising disposal costs necessitate new ways for automobile shredder residue utilisation. The shredder granulate and fibres, produced by the VW-SICON-Process, have a high energy content of more than 20 MJ kg(-1), which makes energy recovery an interesting possibility. Shredder fibres have a low bulk density of 60 kg m(-3), which prevents efficient storing and utilisation as a refuse-derived fuel. By mixing fibres with plastic-rich shredder granulate and heating the mixture, defined granules can be produced...
November 23, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Bhupendra K Sharma, Munish K Chandel
Dumping of municipal solid waste into uncontrolled dumpsites is the most common method of waste disposal in most cities of India. These dumpsites are posing a serious challenge to environmental quality and sustainable development. Mumbai, which generates over 9000 t of municipal solid waste daily, also disposes of most of its waste in open dumps. It is important to analyse the impact of municipal solid waste disposal today and what would be the impact under integrated waste management schemes. In this study, life cycle assessment methodology was used to determine the impact of municipal solid waste management under different scenarios...
November 20, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Ronaldo A Medeiros-Junior, Carlos Et Balestra, Maryangela G Lima
The expressive generation of construction and demolition waste is stimulating several studies for reusing this material. The improvement of soft soils by concrete compaction piles has been widely applied for 40 years in some Brazilian cities. This technique is used to improve the bearing capacity of soft soils, allowing executing shallow foundations instead of deep foundations. The compaction piles use a high volume of material. This article explored the possibility of using recycled aggregates from construction waste to replace the natural aggregates in order to improve the bearing capacity of the soft soil, regarding its compressive strength...
November 17, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Rafael Laurenti, Åsa Moberg, Åsa Stenmarck
Knowledge about the total waste generated by the production of consumer goods can help raise awareness among policy-makers, producers and consumers of the benefits of closing loops in a future circular economy, avoiding unnecessary production and production steps and associated generation of large amounts of waste. In strict life cycle assessment practice, information on waste outputs from intermediate industrial processes of material and energy transformation is translated into and declared as potential environmental impacts, which are often not reported in the final results...
November 10, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Leticia Sarmento Dos Muchangos, Akihiro Tokai, Atsuko Hanashima
Material flow analysis can effectively trace and quantify the flows and stocks of materials such as solid wastes in urban environments. However, the integrity of material flow analysis results is compromised by data uncertainties, an occurrence that is particularly acute in low-and-middle-income study contexts. This article investigates the uncertainties in the input data and their effects in a material flow analysis study of municipal solid waste management in Maputo City, the capital of Mozambique. The analysis is based on data collected in 2007 and 2014...
November 7, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Shi-Jin Feng, Zheng-Wei Chen, Ben-Yi Cao
Bioreactor landfills use leachate recirculation to enhance the biodegradation of municipal solid waste and accelerate landfill stabilisation, which can provide significant environmental and economic benefits. Vertical wells are operated as a major method for leachate recirculation systems. The objectives of this article are to analyse the leachate migration in bioreactor landfills using vertical wells and to offer theoretical basis for the design of leachate recirculation systems. A three-dimensional numerical model was built using FLAC-3D, and this model can consider the saturated and unsaturated flow of leachate within anisotropic waste to reflect the actual conditions...
November 7, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Ademola Adekunle, Vijaya Raghavan
In a number of energy-poor nations, peel from cassava processing represents one of the most abundant sources of lignocellulosic biomass. This peel is mostly discarded indiscriminately and eventually constitutes a problem to the environment. However, energy can be extracted from this peel in a microbial fuel cell. In this study, the viability of cassava peel extract as a substrate in a single-chamber air cathode microbial fuel cell is demonstrated, and optimum performance conditions are explored. The effects of different pretreatments on the extract are also discussed in the context of observed changes in the internal resistances, conductivity and Coulombic efficiencies...
October 24, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Yahya Jani, Fabio Kaczala, Charlotte Marchand, Marika Hogland, Mait Kriipsalu, William Hogland, Anders Kihl
The present research studies the characterisation and the physico-chemical properties of an excavated fine fraction (<10 mm) from a Swedish landfill, the Högbytorp. The results showed that the fine fraction represents 38% by mass of the total excavated wastes and it contains mainly soil-type materials and minerals. Higher concentrations of zinc, copper, barium and chromium were found with concentrations higher than the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for contaminated soil. The found moisture and organic contents of the fine fraction were 23...
October 14, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Abhijit Deka, Sreedeep Sekharan
It is important to determine the contaminant retention characteristics of materials when assessing their suitability for use as liners in landfill sites. Sand-bentonite mixtures are commonly used as liners in the construction of landfill sites for industrial and hazardous wastes. Sand is considered to be a passive material with a negligible chemical retention capacity; fly ash, however, offers the additional advantage of adsorbing the heavy metals present in landfill leachates. There have been few studies of the contaminant retention characteristics of fly ash-bentonite mixes...
October 14, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Chido H Chihobo, Arindrajit Chowdhury, Pardon K Kuipa, David J Simbi
Pyrolysis is an attractive thermochemical conversion technology that may be utilised as a safe disposal option for acid tar waste. The kinetics of acid tar pyrolysis were investigated using thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry under a nitrogen atmosphere at different heating rates of 10, 15 and 20 K min(-1) The thermogravimetric analysis shows three major reaction peaks centred around 178 °C, 258 °C, and 336 °C corresponding to the successive degradation of water soluble lower molecular mass sulphonic acids, sulphonated high molecular mass hydrocarbons, and high molecular mass hydrocarbons...
October 10, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Anna Karin Bernstad, Alba Cánovas, Rogerio Valle
In recent years, increased light has been shed on the large amounts of food wasted along the food supply chain (FSC). As lifecycle assessments (LCAs) are commonly used for estimations of environmental impacts from food production, it is relevant to investigate and discuss how such wastage is reflected in foodstuff LCAs. The objective of the present paper is to review a larger set of LCAs of foodstuff in order to (1) investigate if and how wastage along the FSC is addressed and (2) explore the importance of including wastage accumulated along the FSC in terms of environmental impacts...
October 7, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Akunnaya P Opoko, Adedapo A Oluwatayo
Lagos is one of the fastest growing cities in Africa, which is grappling with the challenges of poorly managed urbanisation. With an estimated population of about 17.5 million, solid waste management is one of the most pressing environmental challenges currently faced in the city. It is estimated that more than 9071847.4kg of urban waste is generated every day in the city. The city lacks the capacity to deal with such magnitude of waste. Consequently, the city has involved the private sector (private sector participation) in its waste management drive...
September 23, 2016: Waste Management & Research
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