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Waste Management & Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014791/a-stochastic-multi-agent-system-for-internet-of-things-enabled-waste-management-in-smart-cities
#1
Theodoros Anagnostopoulos, Arkady Zaslavsky, Inna Sosunova, Petr Fedchenkov, Alexey Medvedev, Klimis Ntalianis, Christos Skourlas, Andrei Rybin, Sergei Khoruznikov
The population of the Earth is moving towards urban areas forming smart cities (SCs). Waste management is a component of SCs. We consider a SC which contains a distribution of waste bins and a distribution of waste trucks located in the SC sectors. Bins and trucks are enabled with Internet of Things (IoT) sensors and actuators. Prior approaches focus mainly on the dynamic scheduling and routing issues emerging from IoT-enabled waste management. However, less research has been done in the area of the stochastic reassignment process during the four seasons of the year over a period of two years...
July 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014777/altered-chemical-evolution-in-landfill-leachate-post-implementation-of-biodegradable-waste-diversion
#2
S J Warwick, P Durany-Fernandez, D J Sapsford, P J Cleall, M J Harbottle
Within the UK implementation of the European Union Landfill Directive (1999) has led to the diversion of biodegradable waste (BW) from municipal solid wastes away from landfills. It has been widely anticipated, but thus far not verified, that the diversion of BW and consequent reduction in BW reaching landfill would lead to a change in the degradation processes occurring within landfills and that this would be reflected in an altered evolution in leachate chemistry compared to pre-Directive landfills. This paper provides evidence based on leachate chemistry from two operational landfills together with calculations of the reduced BW content, that demonstrate the acetogenic phase that characterised pre-Directive landfill leachates is missing and is now more typical of methanogenic phase leachate...
July 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014768/stocks-and-environmental-release-of-mercury-in-backlight-cold-cathode-fluorescence-lamps
#3
Xuning Zhuang, Yu Wang, Wenyi Yuan, Jianfeng Bai, Jingwei Wang
Cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs), with mercury as their essential component, were widely used as backlight in liquid crystal display (LCD) appliances before 2008. Since 2008, the mercury-free light emitting diode started to be used as a substitute for CCFLs and the replacement finished in about 2014. Nowadays, CCFLs are obsolete products from the viewpoint of manufacture but they are important as waste. In recent years, large amounts of CCFLs are flowing to waste phase for treatment and this has become a major issue in most countries...
July 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009692/municipal-solid-waste-management-constraints-and-opportunities-to-improve-capacity-of-local-government-authorities-of-phnom-penh-capital
#4
Vin Spoann, Takeshi Fujiwara, Bandith Seng, Chanthy Lay
Solid waste management is a challenge for Phnom Penh city owing to the increasing volume of waste produced and insufficient collection capacity. Sustainable management is required in response to continuing population growth and urbanisation. This article aims to examine the status and constraints of solid waste management in Phnom Penh and discuss the performance of local government authorities to propose possible mechanisms and strategies to improve the system. Data were collected through literature reviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions with the local government authorities...
July 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29993349/structured-evaluation-of-food-loss-and-waste-prevention-and-avoidable-impacts-a-simplified-method
#5
A Cánovas Creus, A Bernstad Saraiva, E F Arruda
Interest in life-cycle assessment (LCA) for foodstuffs has increased over recent years. In the same period, there could also be noticed an increased focus on food losses and waste (FLW); hence the need for guidance or a method that assesses the environmental impacts of FLW when analyzing agrifood systems with the use of LCA. This study introduces a method of assessing FLW in the context of supply chain LCA through: i) calculating the impacts of the food supply chain with the associated FLW, in order to account for the overall environmental impacts; and ii) assessing the benefits of FLW prevention strategies...
July 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29966511/proposal-of-indicators-for-healthcare-waste-management-case-of-a-brazilian-public-institution
#6
Fabiana Cristina Lima Barbosa, Marcos Paulo Gomes Mol
Healthcare waste (HCW) management represents a big challenge for managers around the world. Segregation is a fundamental action to allow the risk management inherent to each type of wastes. HCW indicators may favour the understanding of the waste management system status. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the HCW indicators applied in a Brazilian public institution, seeking to improve the management system and suggesting methods of applying this tool as an alternative of continuous improvement to the management process...
July 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952258/introduction-of-the-trapezoidal-thermodynamic-technique-method-for-measuring-and-mapping-the-efficiency-of-waste-to-energy-plants-a-potential-replacement-to-the-r1-formula
#7
Stergios Vakalis, Konstantinos Moustakas, Maria Loizidou
Waste-to-energy plants have the peculiarity of being considered both as energy production and as waste destruction facilities and this distinction is important for legislative reasons. The efficiency of waste-to-energy plants must be objective and consistent, independently if the focus is the production of energy, the destruction of waste or the recovery/upgrade of materials. With the introduction of polygeneration technologies, like gasification, the production of energy and the recovery/upgrade of materials, are interconnected...
June 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939112/potential-industrial-utilization-of-pre-treated-municipal-solid-waste-incineration-fly-ash
#8
Yahaya Yakubu, Jun Zhou, Zhu Shu, Yigen Tan, Zhengliang Zhao, Yassin Mbululo
This study sought to establish the effectiveness of water washing pre-treatment on the quality of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash (FA) for reuse and solidification or stabilization (S/S). Initial analysis of the FA sample shows that it did not meet the USEPA-1311 toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) regulatory limits of 2011. As a result, a two-stage water washing process was carried out an attempt to improve the quality of the MSWI FA. After the washing pre-treatment, the heavy metals in the FA sample met the regulatory limits, thereby making it non-toxic for reuse or safe disposal...
June 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939108/investigations-on-fine-fraction-of-aged-municipal-solid-waste-recovered-through-landfill-mining-case-study-of-three-dumpsites-from-india
#9
Mohit Somani, Manoj Datta, G V Ramana, T R Sreekrishnan
Reclamation of the dumps/landfills having huge quantities of decades-old garbage (aged waste or legacy waste) in an environmentally sound manner is one of the major challenges faced by the developing nations in general and in particular by urban local bodies in India. The article presents the feasibility of landfill mining operation specifically to recover soil-like material at old dumpsites of India for re-use in geotechnical applications. Aged municipal solid waste was collected from three dumpsites of India and initial tests were conducted on the soil-like material of the municipal solid waste...
June 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925298/a-novel-method-for-the-removal-of-epoxy-coating-from-waste-printed-circuit-board
#10
J Senophiyah-Mary, R Loganath, T Meenambal
The printed circuit board, which is the heart of all electronic devices, is a rich source of metal, which could act as a future resource. Bioleaching, a biological treatment, would be an appropriate method for the environmentally sound management of e-waste. Various strippers are used to remove the epoxy coating and it is harmful to remove the epoxy coating with those solvents and salts in the open because of the presence of brominated flame retardants on the surface of the printed circuit board, which leads to serious health issues...
June 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921175/fast-prediction-of-organic-wastes-methane-potential-by-near-infrared-reflectance-spectroscopy-a-successful-tool-for-farm-scale-biogas-plant-monitoring
#11
Paul Mortreuil, Sylvie Baggio, Camille Lagnet, Blandine Schraauwers, Florian Monlau
Currently, there is a growing worldwide interest for the treatment of wastes, and especially farm wastes, by anaerobic digestion. Biochemical methane potential is a key parameter for the design, optimisation and monitoring of the anaerobic digestion process, but it is also time consuming (4-7 weeks). Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy seems a promising method to predict the biochemical methane potential of a wide range of organic substrates. This study compares a 'global' predictive model mainly built with biogas plant feedstocks, and a more 'agricultural' specific one built with farm wastes only (e...
June 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921171/multi-criteria-decision-analysis-of-waste-to-energy-technologies-for-municipal-solid-waste-management-in-sultanate-of-oman
#12
Wajeeha A Qazi, Mohammed Fm Abushammala, Mohammed-Hasham Azam
The Sultanate of Oman faces challenges, like rapid growth of waste generation, which calls for an optimum waste management strategy. Oman has witnessed the production of 1.5m t of municipal solid waste in 2012, which is expected to elevate to 1.89m t in 2030. This rapid increase needs to be tackled to reduce the generation rates along with the environmental impacts. Currently, there are no treatment facilities in Oman other than limited recycling, and therefore dumping waste into the landfill is the only ultimate way to dispose solid waste...
June 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921168/landfill-siting-based-on-optimisation-multiple-decision-analysis-and-geographic-information-system-analyses
#13
Luciana Mg Spigolon, Mariana Giannotti, Ana P Larocca, Mario At Russo, Natália da C Souza
Sanitary landfill remains the most common methodology for final treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste worldwide, the cost per tonne depends on its scale. The bigger the landfill, the cheaper the cost of treatment, so the consortium of municipalities is the solution to achieve an economic scale. However, the growth of waste production introduces pressure for adequate solutions and therefore has been increasing sanitary landfill site selection studies. This study proposes a methodology for siting sanitary landfills and optimising the transport of municipal solid waste for a locality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil...
June 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893191/leaching-mechanisms-of-heavy-metals-from-fly-ash-stabilised-soils
#14
Kittitat Leelarungroj, Suched Likitlersuang, Thanakorn Chompoorat, Dao Janjaroen
Fly ash is an industrial waste material that is repurposed as a soil stabiliser worldwide. In Thailand, many ground improvement projects utilise mixtures of cement and fly ash to stabilise weak soils. In this study, leaching mechanisms of arsenic, chromium, lead, and zinc from cement and fly ash stabilised soils were investigated in the laboratory. Leaching tests were performed, with different leachants and pH conditions, on cement and fly ash stabilised soils used for soil improvement in road embankment construction projects in Northern Thailand...
June 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871552/influence-of-compatibilizer-on-the-properties-of-low-density-polyethylene-polyamide-6-blends-obtained-by-mechanical-recycling-of-multilayer-film-waste
#15
Diego David Pinzón Moreno, Clodoaldo Saron
Polymeric wastes have caused increasing environmental problems, mainly in oceans that accumulate large amounts of non-degradable plastic waste. Particularly, waste of polymeric multilayer films for packaging presents low interest for mechanical recycling due to the poor properties and low commercial value of the recycled material generated as polymeric blends. Multilayer films of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyamide 6 (PA6) is a typical material used for packaging applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of the concentration of maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (PE- g-MA) on the compatibilization of LDPE/PA6 blends generated from mechanical recycling of multilayer films containing both polymers...
June 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852818/stabilization-of-cr-rich-tannery-waste-in-fly-ash-matrices
#16
Andreana Daniil, George P Dimitrakopulos, Savvas Varitis, George Vourlias, George Kaimakamis, Erasmia Pantazopoulou, Eleni Pavlidou, Anastasios I Zouboulis, Theodoros Karakostas, Philomela Komninou
In the present work, the stabilization/solidification of a Cr-rich ash obtained from the anoxic incineration of tannery hazardous wastes was studied. Chromium in the starting waste was exclusively in amorphous form and in trivalent state. The waste was embedded in fly ash-based cementitious material matrices. Calcium and sodium hydroxides, as well as sodium silicate, were used as activators. The proposed process combines mechanical activation with hydrothermal curing. Successful immobilization of chromium was achieved, as attested by standard leaching tests...
May 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781403/life-cycle-cost-as-basis-to-optimize-waste-collection-in-space-and-time-a-methodology-for-obtaining-a-detailed-cost-breakdown-structure
#17
Vitor Sousa, Celia Dias-Ferreira, João M Vaz, Inês Meireles
Extensive research has been carried out on waste collection costs mainly to differentiate costs of distinct waste streams and spatial optimization of waste collection services (e.g. routes, number, and location of waste facilities). However, waste collection managers also face the challenge of optimizing assets in time, for instance deciding when to replace and how to maintain, or which technological solution to adopt. These issues require a more detailed knowledge about the waste collection services' cost breakdown structure...
May 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975183/understanding-the-systems-that-characterise-the-circular-economy-and-the-bioeconomy
#18
Alberto Bezama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29865991/current-status-of-waste-management-in-botswana-a-mini-review
#19
Daniel Mmereki
Effective waste management practices are not all about legislative solutions, but a combination of the environmental, social, technical, technically skilled human resources, financial and technological resources, resource recycling, environmental pollution awareness programmes and public participation. As a result of insufficient resources, municipal solid waste (MSW) in transition and developing countries like Botswana remains a challenge, and it is often not yet given highest priority. In Botswana, the environment, public health and other socio-economic aspects are threatened by waste management practices due to inadequate implementation and enforcement mechanisms of waste management policy...
July 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29865967/multi-stakeholder-policy-modeling-for-collection-and-recycling-of-spent-portable-battery-waste
#20
Vimal Kumar Gupta, Rajendra Kumar Kaushal, Sheo Prasad Shukla
Policies have been structured for collection and recycling of spent portable battery waste within a framework of stakeholders (recycling council body, producer, recycler and consumer) especially for those battery units that are discarded worldwide because of their expensive cost of recycling. Applicability of stakeholders' policies in their coalition framework have been reviewed and critically analyzed using the Shapley value of cooperative game theory models. Coalition models for 'manufacturer and recycler' indicated the dominating role of manufacturers over the recyclers, and waste management is highly influenced by producer responsibility...
July 2018: Waste Management & Research
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