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Waste Management & Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30222065/valorization-of-agro-industrial-wastes-to-produce-hydrolytic-enzymes-by-fungal-solid-state-fermentation
#1
C Marzo, A B Díaz, I Caro, A Blandino
Nowadays, significant amounts of agro-industrial wastes are discarded by industries; however, they represent interesting raw materials for the production of high-added value products. In this regard, orange peels (ORA) and exhausted sugar beet cossettes (ESBC) have turned out to be promising raw materials for hydrolytic enzymes production by solid state fermentation (SSF) and also a source of sugars which could be fermented to different high-added value products. The maximum activities of xylanase and exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG) measured in the enzymatic extracts obtained after the SSF of ORA were 31,000 U·kg-1 and 17,600 U·kg-1 , respectively; while for ESBC the maximum values reached were 35,000 U·kg-1 and 28,000 U·kg-1 , respectively...
September 17, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30204060/valorization-of-poly-lactic-acid-wastes-via-mechanical-recycling-improvement-of-the-properties-of-the-recycled-polymer
#2
F R Beltrán, I Barrio, V Lorenzo, B Del Río, J Martínez Urreaga, M U de la Orden
Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a biobased polymer that represents one of the most interesting alternatives to fossil-fuel based polymers in food packaging applications. Most of the PLA used in food packaging is used only once and then discarded, even though the PLA types used in packaging have good properties and stability. Therefore, it seems reasonable to consider the possibility of recycling the used polymer through a mechanical recycling process. The main aims of this work are to study the effect of the mechanical recycling on the properties of PLA and the usefulness of different upgrading methods to obtain recycled PLA with improved properties...
September 11, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198425/mineralogical-characterisation-and-magnetic-separation-of-vanadium-bearing-converter-slag
#3
Junyi Xiang, Qingyun Huang, Wei Lv, Guishang Pei, Xuewei Lv, Songli Liu
The recycling of metallic iron is commonly the first step to fully use the converter slag, which is the biggest waste discharge in the steelmaking process. This study presents a proposed improved process of separating metallic iron from vanadium-bearing converter slag more efficiently. The mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the converter slag were first investigated, and the results showed that most of the iron was incorporated in the spinel and olivine. Grinding, sieving and magnetic separation were combined to recover metallic iron from the converter slag, and yielded approximately 41...
September 10, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198404/bioconversion-of-scotch-broom-into-a-high-quality-organic-fertiliser-vermicomposting-as-a-sustainable-option
#4
Jorge Domínguez, María Gómez-Brandón, Hugo Martínez-Cordeiro, Marta Lores
Wild Scotch broom ( Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link) shrubs are widely distributed throughout the world and, in some countries, are considered to be a threat to other plant species. The use of plant biomass from Scotch broom as a fertiliser seems to be the optimum solution for its disposal because it contains considerable amounts of macronutrients. However, its direct application to soils may cause phytotoxicity due to the release of polyphenols, which could negatively affect crop growth. This study evaluated the efficiency of vermicomposting in processing this leguminous plant on an industrial scale...
September 10, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198400/bioelectricity-production-from-fermentable-household-waste-in-a-dual-chamber-microbial-fuel-cell
#5
D Chatzikonstantinou, A Tremouli, K Papadopoulou, G Kanellos, I Lampropoulos, G Lyberatos
In this study, the use of a dual-chamber microbial fuel cell for the production of bioelectricity from a food residue biomass (FORBI) product was investigated. Food residue biomass was produced by drying and shredding the pre-sorted fermentable fraction of household food waste collected door-to-door in the Municipality of Halandri, Athens, Greece. Different organic loads of food residue biomass expressed as chemical oxygen demand (COD) were examined (0.7, 0.9, 1.4, 2.8, 6 and 14 g COD L-1 , respectively)...
September 10, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198399/waste-reduction-through-kaizen-approach-a-case-study-of-a-company-in-india
#6
Ankur Goyal, Rajat Agrawal, Rakesh Kumar Chokhani, Chiraranjan Saha
The growth in manufacturing activities for economic development is putting a lot of pressure on the environment. One such impact is due to generation of waste from hazardous material. The best way for hazardous waste management is either elimination or substitution with non-hazardous material. The case study in the present paper is focused on the problem of hazardous waste reduction in absence of non-hazardous substitution. In absence of any non-hazardous substitute of hazardous material, waste generation can be reduced using improvement techniques such as Kaizen to improve the manufacturing process...
September 10, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132746/a-critical-review-on-the-sources-and-instruments-of-marine-microplastics-and-prospects-on-the-relevant-management-in-china
#7
Jiajia Wang, Lixia Zheng, Jinhui Li
The world's oceans are suffering a constant and unprecedented accumulation of emerging plastic contaminants known as microplastics with a particle diameter smaller than 5mm. Microplastics exhibit a widespread distribution in various habitats from land to the oceans, and even reach the most remote regions - the deep sea and the polar, receiving attention exponentially in the past few years. Owing to their small size, marine species risk getting ingested and entangled in microplastics, causing suffocation, starvation, physical trauma or damage from chemicals, which poses vast and growing threats to biodiversity and the food web...
August 22, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132405/operating-room-greening-initiatives-the-old-the-new-and-the-way-forward-a-narrative-review
#8
Kerstin H Wyssusek, Maggie T Keys, André A J van Zundert
Healthcare waste is a rampant issue in Australian hospitals. The operating room (OR) contributes disproportionately to total hospital waste. There has been considerable research in the literature concentrating on strategies to improve OR and hospital waste accumulation, in an attempt to provide guidance and direction on how to reduce the healthcare ecological footprint. We reviewed the literature for leading greening initiatives currently utilised in the OR in Australia and internationally. This narrative literature review focuses on the trend of OR greening initiatives over the last 25 years, comparing different innovative approaches, the successes and setbacks, and the financial implications of initiatives...
August 22, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30114979/investigation-of-construction-wastes-generated-in-the-malaysian-residential-sector
#9
Usman A Umar, Nasir Shafiq, Mohamed Hasnain Isa
The construction sector is among the fastest growing sectors in Malaysia; it consumes a vast amount of natural resources and produces a massive volume of construction and demolition waste. The waste is collected in a decentralised manner by sub-contracted companies. It is challenging to obtain reliable information on the amount of construction waste generated, because it is hard to determine its exact quantity and composition. Therefore, this study proposes a quantitative construction waste estimation model for residential buildings according to available data collected from the Construction Industry Development Board, Malaysia...
August 16, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30114978/households-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-toward-solid-waste-management-in-suburbs-of-phnom-penh-cambodia
#10
Bandith Seng, Takeshi Fujiwara, Vin Spoann
This study developed logistic regression models to analyse the relationship between 12 observed variables on knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward solid waste management in the suburbs of Phnom Penh city. We interviewed 800 households, including 200 collection service users and 600 non-service users. The determinants of how individuals are aware of, think of, and behave were assessed in the models based on the values of estimated coefficient and probability of t-statistics. As a result, education level and knowledge of health effects have positive influences on knowledge of waste problems...
August 16, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30112977/source-analysis-of-municipal-solid-waste-in-a-mega-city-guangzhou-challenges-or-opportunities
#11
Jinfeng Tang, Lezhang Wei, Minhua Su, Hongguo Zhang, Xiangyang Chang, Yu Liu, Nana Wang, Enzong Xiao, Christian Ekberg, Britt-Marie Steenari, Tangfu Xiao
Rapid economic development accelerates the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW), and thereby calls for an effective and reliable waste management strategy. In the present work, we systematically investigated the status of MSW management in a mega-city of China (Guangzhou). The data were collected from literatures, government statistics and field sampling work. It can be found that a combination of waste sorting by individual residents and a necessary quantity of sanitation workers is one of the most feasible strategies to achieve a sustainable waste management...
August 16, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30112976/economic-analysis-and-life-cycle-impact-assessment-of-municipal-solid-waste-msw-disposal-a-case-study-of-mumbai-india
#12
Yash D Mehta, Yogendra Shastri, Babu Joseph
Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a major concern in Indian cities. This work rigorously assesses the relative costs and the environmental and health benefits of alternative MSW management methods. Management of MSW over the next 20 years for the city of Greater Mumbai was considered. A generic model was developed to determine the costs for (i) dumping on open ground, (ii) sanitary landfill without leachate treatment, (iii) landfilling with leachate treatment and (iv) regional composting and landfilling...
August 16, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103653/environmental-profile-of-an-innovative-household-biowaste-dryer-system-based-on-life-cycle-assessment
#13
Giorgos E Konstantzos, Dimitrios Malamis, Aggelos Sotiropoulos, Maria Loizidou
An alternative approach to biowaste management involves the application of an innovative household dryer for the dehydration of biowaste at source, in order to significantly reduce its mass and volume, and subsequently the collection frequency. The main objective of this work is to assess the potential impacts of the system under examination, which involves the household dryer use and kerbside collection of the dehydrated residues (biomass), by conducting a Life Cycle Assessment study. The stages considered in the present study include the following: (a) the construction of the household biowaste dryer; (b) the use of the dryer and the collection of dehydrated residues; (c) the end-of-life treatment of the dryer...
August 14, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103652/environmental-policies-for-drinks-packaging-in-georgia-a-mini-review-of-epr-policies-with-a-focus-on-incentive-compatibility
#14
Hans Wiesmeth, Nino Shavgulidze, Nino Tevzadze
The paper investigates various approaches to an environmental policy regarding drinks containers in Georgia. Currently, most of the waste containers are landfilled or pollute the environment through littering, and separate collection and recycling of drinks containers are almost nonexistent. The Association Agreement with the EU, which entered into force in July 2016, stipulates the development of up-to-date waste management activities in this transition country. In accordance with the legal framework, this mini-review proposes an EPR policy for Georgia, based on the waste hierarchy...
August 14, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103651/worldwide-distribution-and-abundance-of-microplastic-how-dire-is-the-situation
#15
Fauziah Shahul Hamid, Mehran Sanam Bhatti, Norkhairiyah Anuar, Norkhairah Anuar, Priya Mohan, Agamuthu Periathamby
The widespread occurrence of microplastic has invaded the environment to an extent that it appears to be present throughout the globe. This review investigated the global abundance and distribution of microplastics in marine and freshwater ecosystems. Furthermore, the issues and challenges have been addressed for better findings in microplastics studies. Findings revealed that the accumulation of microplastics varies geographically, with locations, hydrodynamic conditions, environmental pressure, and time. From this review, it is crucial that proper regulations are proposed and implemented in order to reduce the occurrence of microplastics in the aquatic environment...
August 14, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091678/the-kinetics-of-typical-medical-waste-pyrolysis-based-on-gaseous-evolution-behaviour-in-a-micro-fluidised-bed-reactor
#16
Linbo Qin, Jun Han, Bo Zhao, Wangsheng Chen, Futang Xing
In order to obtain the kinetic parameters during typical medical waste pyrolysis, the typical medical waste is pyrolysed in a micro-fluidised bed reactor. The gases evolved from the typical medical waste pyrolysis are analysed by a mass spectrometer, and only H2 , CH4 , C2 H2 , C2 H4 , C2 H6 , C3 H6 , C3 H8 and C4 H4 are observed. According to the gaseous product concentration profiles, the activation energies of gaseous formation are calculated based on the Friedman approach, and the average activation energies of H2 , CH4 , C2 H2 , C2 H4 , C2 H6 , C3 H6 , C3 H8 and C4 H4 formation during typical medical waste pyrolysis are in sequence as 65...
August 9, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30070173/volume-changes-of-biochar-amended-landfill-cover-soil-under-a-thermal-cycle
#17
Cheng Qing, Guo Haowen, Feng Tugen, Lu Yang
Biochar has been identified as a favourable amendment for landfill cover soils. So far, the effects of biochar on soil response to temperature variations are still unclear. Waste heat generates when municipal solid waste decomposes, and the temperature of landfill can increase up to 90°C. The present study aims to investigate the thermally induced volumetric behaviour of biochar-amended sand with different biochar application ratios of 0%, 5% and 10%. Experimental results show that, during heating from 23-83°C, pure sand expands...
August 2, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30067151/development-of-a-performance-evaluation-tool-for-end-of-life-vehicle-management-system-implementation-using-the-analytic-hierarchy-process
#18
Tengku Nur Azila Raja Mamat, Muhamad Zameri Mat Saman, Safian Sharif, Vladimir Simic, Dzuraidah Abd Wahab
The management of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) conserves natural resources, provides economic benefits, and reduces water, air, and soil pollution. In an effort to adequately manage flow of ELVs, modern infrastructure is considered a prerequisite. Thus, development of an effective performance evaluation tool for monitoring and continuous improvement of ELV management systems is strongly desired. In this paper, a performance evaluation tool is proposed for ELV management system implementation, based on the analytic hierarchy process...
August 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30067149/improvement-of-the-chemical-recycling-process-of-waste-carbon-fibre-reinforced-plastics-using-a-mechanochemical-process-influence-of-process-parameters
#19
Antony Mutua Nzioka, Cao Zheng Yan, Myung-Gyun Kim, Ye-Jin Sim, Chang-Soo Lee, Young-Ju Kim
We present the experimental results of an optimal recycling method for waste carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRPs) that is based on the application of a set of unit mechanochemical processes. The objectives of this study were to highlight the influence of process factors that are inherent in the chemical recycling process of waste CFRP. We investigated the influence of the soaking period, the application of a catalyst and impurities on the recycling process and recovery efficiency of the waste CFRP. Different combinations of the unit mechanochemical processes were investigated, and the effectiveness of the combination was analysed...
August 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30067147/effective-removal-of-p-tert-butylphenol-and-pyridine-3-1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl-s-from-landfill-leachate-using-locust-bean-gum
#20
A Aziz, P Agamuthu, S H Fauziah
The widespread distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in landfill leachate is problematic due to their acute toxicity, carcinogenicity and genotoxicity effects, which could be detrimental to public health and ecological systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effective removal of POPs - namely, p-tert-Butylphenol and Pyridine, 3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-, (S)- - from landfill leachate using locust bean gum (LBG), and in comparison with commonly used alum. The response surface methodology coupled with a Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize the operating factors for optimal POPs removal...
August 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
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