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International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529330/overview-of-laboratory-methods-to-diagnose-leptospirosis-and-to-identify-and-to-type-leptospires
#1
REVIEW
Aurélie Marquez, Zoheira Djelouadji, Virginie Lattard, Angéli Kodjo
Leptospirosis is a virulent zoonosis with a global distribution. Pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira are responsible for this disease, and the primary animal reservoirs are rodentvvvs. Direct and indirect contact with infected urine constitutes the main route of transmission. Renal failure and advanced abortions are frequently observed in animals affected by leptospirosis, causing serious problems for farms. In humans, there is a high rate of mortality (10 percent), and farmers and persons in contact with water are frequently exposed...
December 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529329/developmental-stages-identified-in-the-trophozoite-of-the-free-living-alveolate-flagellate-colpodella-sp-apicomplexa
#2
Raghavendra Yadavalli, Tobili Y Sam-Yellowe
In this study we performed light, immunofluorescent and transmission electron microscopy of Colpodella trophozoites to characterize trophozoite morphology and protein distribution. The use of Giemsa staining and antibodies to distinguish Colpodella life cycle stages has not been performed previously. Rhoptry and β-tubulin antibodies were used in immunofluorescent assays (IFA) to identify protein localization and distribution in the trophozoite stage of Colpodella (ATCC 50594). We report novel data identifying "doughnut-shaped" vesicles in the cytoplasm and apical end of Colpodella trophozoites reactive with antibodies specific to Plasmodium merozoite rhoptry proteins...
December 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529328/fate-of-bacillus-cereus-within-phagocytic-cells
#3
Ivanna S Rolny, Silvia M Racedo, Pablo F Pérez
In this study we assessed the interaction of different strains of Bacillus cereus with murine peritoneal macrophages and cultured phagocytic cells (Raw 264.7 cells). Association, internalization, intracellular survival, routing of bacteria to different compartments and expression of MHCII were assessed in cells infected with different strains of B. cereus in vegetative form. Association values (adhering + internalized bacteria) and phagocytosis were higher for strain B10502 than those for strains 2 and M2. However, after 90 min interaction, intracellular survival was higher for strain 2 than for strains M2 and B10502...
December 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529327/transmission-and-survival-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-outside-hospital-setting
#4
Ana Kovacic, Martina Seruga Music, Svjetlana Dekic, Marija Tonkic, Anita Novak, Zana Rubic, Jasna Hrenovic, Ivana Goic-Barisic
Acinetobacter baumannii origin and its epidemiology is under a great concern worldwide since this microorganism has become a leading nosocomial pathogen of the 21th century among the "ESKAPE" group of microorganisms. The aim of the study was to monitor and explore the epidemiology of this important hospital pathogen in the second largest clinical university hospital in Croatia. The presence of A. baumannii in hospital wastewater, as a route for possible transmission outside of the hospital setting, as well as its survival in environmental conditions including seawater, was investigated...
December 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529326/genetic-diversity-reflects-geographical-origin-of-ralstonia-solanacearum-strains-isolated-from-plant-and-water-sources-in-spain
#5
Paola Caruso, Elena G Biosca, Edson Bertolini, Ester Marco-Noales, María Teresa Gorris, Concetta Licciardello, María M López
The characterization and intraspecific diversity of a collection of 45 Ralstonia solanacearum strains isolated in Spain from different sources and geographical origins is reported. To test the influence of the site and the host on strain diversity, phenotypic and genotypic analysis were performed by a polyphasic approach. Biochemical and metabolic profiles were compared. Serological relationship was evaluated by Indirect-ELISA using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. For genotypic analysis, hrpB and egl DNA sequence analysis, repetitive sequences (rep-PCR), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) profiles and macrorestriction with XbaI followed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed...
December 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529325/julio-r-villanueva-microbiologist-researcher-and-mentor-of-generations-of-scientists
#6
Cesar Nombela
On November 21, 2017, Professor Julio R. Villanueva died in Salamanca. Born on April 27, 1928 in Villamayor, council of Piloña (Asturias), he lived almost to the age of 90. His was an accomplished life, full of endeavors and exciting works in the world of research and teaching, which earned him very broad recognition both in Spain and the international arena. Villanueva was undoubtedly the driving force of Fundamental Microbiology in Spain. His early steps came at a time when experimental biology was arriving at an important new age, using microbial systems for experimentation that lead to general conclusions about all living beings...
December 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446806/divergent-functional-roles-of-d-amino-acids-secreted-by-vibrio-cholerae
#7
REVIEW
Felipe Cava
The L-forms of amino acids are used in all kingdoms of life to synthesize proteins. However, the bacterium Vibriocholerae, the causative agent of cholera, produces D-amino acids which are released to the environment at millimolar concentrations. We baptized these D-amino acids as non-canonical D-amino acids (NCDAAs) since they are different from those (i.e. D-alanine and D-glutamate) normally present in the bacterial cell wall. In V. cholerae, production of NCDAAs relies on the BsrV enzyme, a periplasmic broad spectrum racemase...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446805/genomic-plasticity-of-vibrio-cholerae
#8
REVIEW
Jose Antonio Escudero, Didier Mazel
Vibrio cholerae is one of the deadliest pathogens in the history of humankind. It is the causative agent of cholera, a disease characterized by a profuse and watery diarrhoea that still today causes 95.000 deaths worldwide every year. V. cholerae is a free living marine organism that interacts with and infects a variety of organisms, from amoeba to humans, including insects and crustaceans. The complexity of the lifestyle and ecology of V. cholerae suggests a high genetic and phenotypic plasticity. In this review, we will focus on two peculiar genomic features that enhance genetic plasticity in this bacterium: the division of its genome in two different chromosomes and the presence of the superintegron, a gene capture device that acts as a large, low-cost memory of adaptive functions, allowing V...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446804/t6ss-intraspecific-competition-orchestrates-vibrio-cholerae-genotypic-diversity
#9
REVIEW
Benjamin Kostiuk, Daniel Unterweger, Daniele Provenzano, Stefan Pukatzki
Vibrio cholerae is a diverse species that inhabits a wide range of environments from copepods in brackish water to the intestines of humans. In order to remain competitive, V. cholerae uses the versatile type-VI secretion system (T6SS) to secrete anti-prokaryotic and anti-eukaryotic effectors. In addition to competing with other bacterial species, V. cholerae strains also compete with one another. Some strains are able to coexist, and are referred to as belonging to the same compatibility group. Challenged by diverse competitors in various environments, different V...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446803/coordination-between-replication-segregation-and-cell-division-in-multi-chromosomal-bacteria-lessons-from-vibrio-cholerae
#10
REVIEW
Elena Espinosa, François-Xavier Barre, Elisa Galli
Bacteria display a highly flexible cell cycle in which cell division can be temporally disconnected from the replication/segregation cycle of their genome. The accuracy of genetic transmission is enforced by restricting the assembly of the cell division apparatus to the low DNA-density zones that develop between the regularly spaced nucleoids originating from the concurrent replication and segregation of genomic DNA. In most bacteria, the process is simplified because the genome is encoded on a single chromosome...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446802/mechanisms-of-the-evolutionary-arms-race-between-vibrio-cholerae-and-vibriophage-clinical-isolates
#11
REVIEW
Minmin Yen, Andrew Camilli
This review highlights recent findings on the evolutionary arms race between the causative agent of cholera Vibrio cholerae and virulent bacteriophages (phages) ICP1, ICP2, and ICP3 isolated from cholera patient stool samples. We discuss mechanisms of phage resistance such as a unique phage-inhibitory chromosomal island and mutations that affect phage receptor expression. We also discuss the molecular characterization of ICP1 and its unique CRISPR-Cas system, which it uses to combat the phage-inhibitory chromosomal island...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446801/emergence-ecology-and-dispersal-of-the-pandemic-generating-vibrio-cholerae-lineage
#12
REVIEW
Mohammad T Islam, Munirul Alam, Yan Boucher
Although cholera is an ancient disease that first arose at least half a millennium ago, it remains a major health threat globally. Its pandemic form is caused by strains from a single lineage of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The ancestor of this lineage harbored several distinctive characteristics, the most notable being the O1 antigen polysaccharide. This lineage generated two biotypes, first Classical, responsible for six pandemics, and later El Tor, responsible for the seventh and ongoing pandemic. Just as El Tor replaced Classical as the main cause of outbreaks in the last fifty years, several variants of El Tor have evolved and displaced their predecessors worldwide...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446800/biology-of-vibrio-cholera-editorial-overview
#13
EDITORIAL
Felipe Cava
In this monographic issue, we have the pleasure to present contributions from six of the leading laboratories at the forefront of Vibrio cholerae genetics, ecology and evolution, together with a brief tribute by Diego Romero to Doctor Jaime Ferrán y Clua, a pioneering Spanish bacteriologist who developed the first vaccine against this pathogen. V. cholerae is a free-living aquatic bacterium that interacts with and infects a variety of organisms. In humans it causes cholera, the deadly diarrhoea that was responsible for millions of deaths during seven pandemics since 1817, and still thousands every year...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617527/impact-of-motility-and-chemotaxis-features-of-the-rhizobacterium-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-pcl1606-on-its-biocontrol-of-avocado-white-root-rot
#14
Álvaro Polonio, Carmen Vida, Antonio de Vicente, Francisco M Cazorla
The biocontrol rhizobacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 has the ability to protect avocado plants against white root rot produced by the phytopathogenic fungus Rosellinia necatrix. Moreover, PCL1606 displayed direct interactions with avocado roots and the pathogenic fungus. Thus, nonmotile (flgK mutant) and non-chemotactic (cheA mutant) derivatives of PCL1606 were constructed to emphasize the importance of motility and chemotaxis in the biological behaviour of PCL1606 during the biocontrol interaction...
June 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617526/antimicrobial-resistance-gene-expression-associated-with-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-spp-isolated-from-retail-meat-in-hanoi-vietnam
#15
Minh Ngoc Nghiem, Viet Thanh Nguyen, Thu Thi Hoai Nguyen, Ton Dang Nguyen, Thuy Thi Bich Vo
The purpose of this study was to further characterize the multi-antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic resistance gene expression associated with multi-drug resistance (MDR) in Salmonella spp. isolates from retail meats in Hanoi, Vietnam. A total of 14 Salmonella spp. belonging to 9 serotypes (e.g., Warragul, London, Derby, Indiana, Meleagridis, Give, Rissen, Assine, and Typhimurium) were tested for sensitivity to 8 antibiotics. Resistance to at least one antibiotic was shown in 13 strains (92.85%). The multiple antimicrobial resistances accounted for 64...
June 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617525/characterization-of-high-exopolysaccharide-producing-lactobacillus-strains-isolated-from-mustard-pickles-for-potential-probiotic-applications
#16
Jing-Yao Huang, Cheng-Yen Kao, We-Sin Liu, Tony J Fang
The aim of this study was to characterize high exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from mustard pickles in Taiwan for potential probiotic applications. Among 39 collected LAB strains, four most productive EPS-producing strains were selected for further analysis. Comparative analyses of 16S rDNA genes rpoA and pheS sequences demonstrated that these strains were members of Lactobacillus plantarum-group (LPG). NCD 2, NLD 4, SLC 13, and NLD 16 showed survival rates of 95.83% ± 0...
June 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617524/high-prevalence-of-methicillin-resistant-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-isolated-from-a-university-environment-in-thailand
#17
Rathanin Seng, Udomluk Leungtongkam, Rapee Thummeepak, Wassana Chatdumrong, Sutthirat Sitthisak
The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize the molecular epidemiology of the methicillin-resistant staphylococci in the general university environment, where all five locations; the library, restrooms, canteens, computer rooms and outdoor surfaces, are in common use by a large population of students. We used Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) supplemented with 4 μg/ml of oxacillin to screen the methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The species level was identified by PCR of rdr (Staphylococcus epidermidis), groESL (Staphylococcus haemolyticus) and nuc (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus warneri) genes and DNA sequencing of tuf and dnaJ genes...
June 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617523/electrochemical-characterization-of-geobacter-lovleyi-identifies-limitations-of-microbial-fuel-cell-performance-in-constructed-wetlands
#18
Clara Corbella, Rebecca P Steidl, Jaume Puigagut, Gemma Reguera
Power generation in microbial fuel cells implemented in constructed wetlands (CW-MFCs) is low despite the enrichment of anode electricigens most closely related to Geobacter lovleyi. Using the model representative G. lovleyi strain SZ, we show that acetate, but not formate or lactate, can be oxidized efficiently but growth is limited by the high sensitivity of the bacterium to oxygen. Acetate and highly reducing conditions also supported the growth of anode biofilms but only at optimal anode potentials (450 mV vs...
June 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581021/antimicrobial-peptide-from-bacillus-subtilis-csb138-characterization-killing-kinetics-and-synergistic-potency
#19
Sudip Regmi, Yoon Seok Choi, Yun Hee Choi, Young Kyun Kim, Seung Sik Cho, Jin Cheol Yoo, Joo-Won Suh
We studied the prospect of synergy between the antimicrobial peptide p138c and non-peptide antibiotics for increasing the potency and bacterial killing kinetics of these agents. The production of p138c was maximized in the late exponential growth phase of Bacillus subtilis CSB138. Purification of p138c resulted in a total of 4800 arbitrary units (AU) with 19.15-fold and 3.2% recovery. Peptide p138c was thermo-tolerant up to 50 °C and stable at pH 5.8 to 11. The biochemical nature of p138c was determined by a bioassay, similar to tricine-SDS-PAGE, indicating inhibition at 3 kDa...
March 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581020/insights-into-the-fecal-microbiota-of-captive-iberian-lynx-lynx-pardinus
#20
José Alberto Núñez-Díaz, M Carmen Balebona, Eva M Alcaide, Irene Zorrilla, Miguel Ángel Moriñigo
The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is an endangered species restricted to several areas of Spain and Portugal. Its low genetic diversity likely provokes immune depression and high susceptibility to infectious diseases. The intestinal microbiota is closely related to host health and nutrition. In order to contribute to the knowledge of the Iberian lynx intestinal microbiota, fecal microbiota of captive specimens from two breeding centers ("La Olivilla" and "El Acebuche"), located in Southern Spain, were studied by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE)...
March 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
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