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Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30167977/the-role-of-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-in-sports-cardiology-current-utility-and-future-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
Emmanuel Androulakis, Peter P Swoboda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is frequently used in the investigation of suspected cardiac disease in athletes. In this review, we discuss how CMR can be used in athletes with suspected cardiomyopathy with particular reference to volumetric analysis and tissue characterization. We also discuss the finding of non-ischaemic fibrosis in athletes describing its prevalence, distribution and clinical importance. RECENT FINDINGS: The strengths of CMR include high spatial resolution, unrestricted imaging planes and lack of ionizing radiation...
August 31, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30155804/the-extreme-exercise-hypothesis-recent-findings-and-cardiovascular-health-implications
#2
REVIEW
Thijs M H Eijsvogels, Paul D Thompson, Barry A Franklin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The "Extreme Exercise Hypothesis" is characterized by a U-shaped or reverse J-shaped, dose-response curve between physical activity volumes and cardiovascular health outcomes. In this review, we summarize recent findings that may support or refute the "Extreme Exercise Hypothesis." Furthermore, we discuss potential cardiovascular health implications of the cardiac anatomical, structural, contractility, and biomarker abnormalities that have been reported in some veteran endurance athletes...
August 28, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30155696/cardiac-screening-of-young-athletes-a-practical-approach-to-sudden-cardiac-death-prevention
#3
REVIEW
Harshil Dhutia, Hamish MacLachlan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to report on the current status of cardiovascular screening of athletes worldwide and review the up-to-date evidence for its efficacy in reducing sudden cardiac death in young athletes. RECENT FINDINGS: A large proportion of sudden cardiac death in young individuals and athletes occurs during rest with sudden arrhythmic death syndrome being recognised as the leading cause. The international recommendations for ECG interpretation have reduced the false-positive ECG rate to 3% and reduced the cost of screening by 25% without compromising the sensitivity to identify serious disease...
August 28, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30146677/sex-differences-in-atrial-fibrillation-update-on-risk-assessment-treatment-and-long-term-risk
#4
REVIEW
Charlotte J Bai, Nidhi Madan, Shaza Alshahrani, Neelum T Aggarwal, Annabelle Santos Volgman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a growing health problem worldwide. While the disease plagues both men and women, this arrhythmia does not affect both sexes equally. Women are more likely to have major adverse outcomes such as stroke and its sequela; however, recent data on stroke prevention show improving outcomes. The purpose of this review of the recent literature is to summarize important updates on risk scores and management of patients with AF. RECENT FINDINGS: It has been well known that women have a higher risk of strokes than men when untreated or when treated with warfarin...
August 27, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30146672/assessment-of-the-qt-interval-in-athletes-red-flags-and-pitfalls
#5
REVIEW
Nikhil Ahluwalia, Hariharan Raju
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pre-participation athlete screening has led to the referral of asymptomatic athletes with a prolonged QT interval warranting their evaluation for long QT syndrome (LQTS). Establishing a diagnosis of LQTS can be difficult, particularly in asymptomatic athletes presenting with a prolonged QTc < 500 ms. This review examines the evaluatory pathway to ascertain the common pitfalls leading to mis- or overdiagnosis. We discuss the advanced ECG-based tools and consider their application in the diagnostic process...
August 27, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30146670/the-global-burden-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-women
#6
REVIEW
Shilpa Sharma, Malissa J Wood
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, accounting for one third of all deaths in 2015. Alarmingly, there has been slowing of the decline in age-standardized CVD mortality over the last 5 years compared to the previous 25 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Given the increasing global CVD burden, in 2011, the United Nations declared the goal to reduce premature mortality from the four main non-communicable diseases by 25% from 2010 to 2025, abbreviated as the 25 × 25 goal...
August 27, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30146663/speckle-tracking-echocardiography-for-the-assessment-of-the-athlete-s-heart-is-it-ready-for-daily-practice
#7
REVIEW
Lynsey Forsythe, Keith George, David Oxborough
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the use of speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in the biventricular assessment of athletes' heart (AH). Can STE aid differential diagnosis during pre-participation cardiac screening (PCS) of athletes? RECENT FINDINGS: Data from recent patient, population and athlete studies suggest potential discriminatory value of STE, alongside standard echocardiographic measurements, in the early detection of clinically relevant systolic dysfunction...
August 27, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30146656/imaging-of-the-postsurgical-aorta-in-marfan-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Lauren K Groner, Christopher Lau, Richard B Devereux, Daniel B Green
Marfan syndrome is a heritable multisystem connective tissue disease and is the most common genetic cause of aortic disease. Guidelines for surgical repair and recommendations for surveillance imaging aim to prevent aneurysm rupture, aortic dissection, and death. Options for proximal aorta repair include the modified Bentall procedure and valve-sparing aortic root repairs. Hemiarch and total arch replacement are options for aortic arch repair, and the elephant trunk procedure is a special two-staged total arch repair facilitating future descending aorta repair...
August 27, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121850/cardiac-rehabilitation-and-exercise-prescription-in-symptomatic-patients-with-non-obstructive-coronary-artery-disease-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Christine K Kissel, Dimitra Nikoletou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-obstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD) on coronary angiography is a common finding in patients with stable angina. Angina in NOCAD patients is thought to be caused by endothelial dysfunction of the epicardial coronary arteries and/or the microvasculature. Treatment is empiric, and 30% of patients remain symptomatic in spite of therapy. It is well known that physical exercise can improve endothelial function. The goal of this review was to assess the current literature on effects of physical exercise in NOCAD patients with angina...
August 18, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094651/multi-modality-imaging-in-the-evaluation-and-treatment-of-tricuspid-regurgitation
#10
REVIEW
Samuel M Kim, Harsimran S Singh, Jillian Nati, Jonathan N Ginns
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to cover the epidemiology of tricuspid regurgitation (TR), anatomy of the tricuspid valve (TV), and the mechanisms and modern treatment of TR. The focus will be on the role of echocardiography, cardiac CT, and MRI to determine the mechanism, severity, and management strategies of TR. RECENT FINDINGS: The evaluation and management of TR is a rapidly growing field with significant advances in both imaging and interventions...
August 9, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091012/specialized-care-for-women-the-impact-of-women-s-heart-centers
#11
REVIEW
Gina P Lundberg, Laxmi S Mehta, Annabelle S Volgman
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been and remains the leading cause of mortality in women in the United States. For decades, more women died every year of CVD compared to men. Heart centers for women (HCW) are developed in response to the need for greater patient and physician awareness of CVD in women and to conduct sex-specific research in women. Today, many HCW provide multispecialty and focused areas of cardiovascular care for women. HCW provide their female patients with expertise over the many stages of a woman's life...
August 8, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084045/updates-on-the-role-of-imaging-in-cardiac-sarcoidosis
#12
REVIEW
Yan Yatsynovich, Damian Valencia, Mikhail Petrov, Juan David Linares, Mufti M Rahman, Nathaniel Dittoe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The non-specific symptom profile and subclinical nature of disease along with variable region of cardiac involvement in systemic sarcoidosis make the diagnosis particularly challenging. The yield of endomyocardial biopsy, a gold standard for diagnosis, is not high unless coupled with additional imaging modalities to detect regional involvement. This review is focused on highlighting the major recent advances in imaging modalities and diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis...
August 7, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084035/state-of-the-art-imaging-for-the-evaluation-of-pulmonary-embolism
#13
REVIEW
Leonid Roshkovan, Harold Litt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: CT angiography has become the gold standard for evaluation of suspected pulmonary embolism; however, continuous evolution in radiology has led to new imaging approaches that offer improved options for detection and characterization of pulmonary embolism while exposing patients to lower contrast and radiation dose. The purpose of this review is to summarize state of the art imaging approaches for the evaluation of pulmonary embolism, focusing on technical innovations in this field...
August 7, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084006/stable-ischemic-heart-disease-in-women
#14
REVIEW
Kelly M T Schmidt, John Nan, Dawn C Scantlebury, Niti R Aggarwal
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Paradoxically, although women have a lower burden of coronary atherosclerosis, they experience more symptoms, more frequent hospitalizations, and a worse prognosis compared to men. This is in part due to biological variations in pathophysiology between the two sexes, and in part related to inadequate understanding of these differences, subconscious referral bias, and suboptimal application of existing women-specific guidelines. We sought to review the contemporary literature and provide an update on risk assessment, diagnosis, and management of IHD in women...
August 7, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083865/advances-in-mitral-valve-surgery
#15
REVIEW
Sabine Meier, Joerg Seeburger, Michael A Borger
Mitral valve (MV) insufficiency, classified as primary and secondary mitral regurgitation (MR), is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. In industrialized countries, degenerative forms are the predominant cause of MR; however, an increasing number of patients present with secondary MR (Iung et al. EHJ 24:1231-1243, 2003). During the last decades, MV surgery experienced substantial advancements. Alain Carpentier pioneered the field of reconstructive valve surgery in the beginning of the 1970s and, since then, a plethora of innovations have led to today's landscape of MV surgery...
August 7, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083823/workup-and-management-of-native-and-prosthetic-valve-endocarditis
#16
REVIEW
Aref A Bin Abdulhak, Abdul H Qazi, Imad M Tleyjeh
Infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with significant serious adverse outcomes including death. IE usually presents with diverse clinical picture and syndromic diagnoses including heart failure, stroke, and peripheral embolization. Given variable, vague, and syndromic presentations, the diagnosis of IE may be delayed for days to weeks. Maintaining a high index of suspicion among clinicians is the key to early recognition of the disease and prompt initiation of antimicrobial therapy to prevent IE-associated mortality and morbidity...
August 7, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084056/dvt-intervention-in-the-post-attract-era
#17
REVIEW
Ronald S Winokur, Akhilesh K Sista
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients suffering from acute lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are at risk for developing chronic limb pain, heaviness, and fatigue, known as the post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). RECENT FINDINGS: Although several studies have shown that catheter-directed therapy reduces clot burden and may improve clinical outcomes, the multicenter randomized controlled ATTRACT trial showed no difference in PTS or quality of life at 2 years between patients treated with pharmacomechanical catheter-directed thrombolysis (PCDT) and those treated with anticoagulation alone, and a higher major bleeding rate in the PCDT group...
August 6, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30039233/management-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-pregnancy
#18
REVIEW
Annemarie E Fogerty
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This manuscript addresses the risks for venous thromboembolism (VTE) during pregnancy and the associated challenges of both diagnosis and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: The obstacles to diagnosis given lack of specificity of typical biomarkers to predict VTE in pregnancy, as well as the unique fetal and bleeding risks introduced by managing massive pulmonary embolism (PE) with thrombolytics or thrombectomy are highlighted. VTE during pregnancy and the postpartum window occurs at a 6-10-fold higher rate compared with age-matched peers and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality...
July 23, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019289/cardiac-adaption-to-exercise-training-the-female-athlete
#19
REVIEW
Bradley J Petek, Meagan M Wasfy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The number of female athletes participating in sports has increased exponentially over the past century. While cardiac adaptations to exercise have been well described, female athletes have been underrepresented in many prior studies. More recently, important research has embraced gender as an important biologic variable. We will review this work in order to examine how gender influences the impact of exercise on the heart. RECENT FINDINGS: Exercise-induced cardiac remodeling (EICR) manifests slightly differently in male and female athletes...
July 18, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019284/arteriovenous-malformations-syndrome-identification-and-vascular-management
#20
REVIEW
Allan M Conway, Robert J Rosen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vascular malformations represent a poorly understood set of conditions that create considerable diagnostic and therapeutic confusion. Historically, extensive surgical resections yielded poor results. More recently, the treatment paradigm has shifted to endovascular therapy such that embolization and sclerotherapy are now considered the first line of treatment. Although there is still a role for traditional surgical techniques, it is now most commonly integrated with endovascular therapies in a hybrid fashion...
July 18, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
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