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Current Treatment Options in Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785465/causes-and-treatment-of-acute-ischemic-stroke-during-pregnancy
#1
REVIEW
Ina Terón, Melissa S Eng, Jeffrey M Katz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatment recommendations for pregnancy associated ischemic stroke are scarce. This may be due to the fact that, in general, obstetricians tend not to make recommendations for stroke patients and neurologists are not commonly involved in the care of pregnant women. Herein, we review the multiple etiologies of ischemic stroke during pregnancy, considerations for diagnostic testing, and acute treatment and prevention options, including associated risks specific to the pregnant and puerperal state...
May 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770889/autoregulation-in-the-neuro-icu
#2
REVIEW
Anson Wang, Santiago Ortega-Gutierrez, Nils H Petersen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to briefly describe the concept of cerebral autoregulation, to detail several bedside techniques for measuring and assessing autoregulation, and to outline the impact of impaired autoregulation on clinical and functional outcomes in acute brain injury. Furthermore, we will review several autoregulation studies in select forms of acute brain injuries, discuss the potential for its use in patient management in the ICU, and suggest further avenues for research...
May 17, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721683/pediatric-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Grace Y Gombolay, Tanuja Chitnis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) are a group of inflammatory and demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system that can occur in children and adults. The classic presentation of NMOSD is characterized by optic neuritis and transverse myelitis, but other presentations are also recognized, expanding the disease as NMO spectrum disorders. The purpose of this review is to discuss the clinical features, along with management and treatment options, including potential future therapeutic options, in pediatric NMOSD...
May 2, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687310/genotype-and-phenotype-in-multiple-sclerosis-potential-for-disease-course-prediction
#4
REVIEW
Vilija G Jokubaitis, Yuan Zhou, Helmut Butzkueven, Bruce V Taylor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will examine the current evidence that genetic and/or epigenetic variation may influence the multiple sclerosis (MS) clinical course, phenotype, and measures of MS severity including disability progression and relapse rate. RECENT FINDINGS: There is little evidence that MS clinical phenotype is under significant genetic control. There is increasing evidence that there may be genetic determinants of the rate of disability progression...
April 24, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679174/sleep-abnormalities-in-multiplesystem-atrophy
#5
REVIEW
Valérie Cochen De Cock
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to explore the different sleep disorders associated with MSA, their mechanisms, and their treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Stridor is a red flag for the diagnosis of MSA. Recent findings show that its presence in early stage of the disease is associated with a reduction in life expectancy. Its management should be fast and adapted. Its treatment with continuous positive airway pressure or tracheostomy is efficacious...
April 20, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679165/future-brain-and-spinal-cord-volumetric-imaging-in-the-clinic-for-monitoring-treatment-response-in-ms
#6
REVIEW
Tim Sinnecker, Cristina Granziera, Jens Wuerfel, Regina Schlaeger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Volumetric analysis of brain imaging has emerged as a standard approach used in clinical research, e.g., in the field of multiple sclerosis (MS), but its application in individual disease course monitoring is still hampered by biological and technical limitations. This review summarizes novel developments in volumetric imaging on the road towards clinical application to eventually monitor treatment response in patients with MS. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to the assessment of whole-brain volume changes, recent work was focused on the volumetry of specific compartments and substructures of the central nervous system (CNS) in MS...
April 20, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666958/ictal-interictal-continuum-patterns
#7
REVIEW
Gamaleldin M Osman, Davi F Araújo, Carolina B Maciel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present data available on the epidemiology and significance of rhythmic and periodic patterns that lie on the ictal interictal continuum and propose an algorithm for the clinical approach to patients exhibiting these patterns. RECENT FINDINGS: There is accumulating evidence on the prognostic implications of various rhythmic and periodic patterns in the critically ill population. These patterns are not only associated with increased seizure risk but have also been associated with worse outcome and increased long-term risk of epilepsy in recent studies...
April 18, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666934/quo-vadis-do-immunotherapies-have-a-role-in-glioblastoma
#8
REVIEW
Sylvia C Kurz, Patrick Y Wen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: More effective therapies for glioblastoma are urgently needed. Immunotherapeutic strategies appear particularly promising and are therefore intensively studied. This article reviews the current understanding of the immunosuppressive glioblastoma microenvironment, discusses the rationale behind various immunotherapies, and outlines the findings of several recently published clinical studies. RECENT FINDINGS: The results of CheckMate-143 indicated that nivolumab is not superior to bevacizumab in patients with recurrent glioblastoma...
April 18, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637453/exploring-wellness-interventions-in-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-an-evidence-based-review
#9
REVIEW
Myriam Venasse, Thomas Edwards, Lara A Pilutti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has been recent interest in the role of lifestyle and wellness-based approaches in the treatment and management of multiple sclerosis (MS). These approaches may be particularly relevant for patients with progressive MS, considering limited therapeutic options currently available. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of wellness-based interventions including exercise training, emotional well-being therapies, and dietary modification in patients with progressive MS...
April 10, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627873/disease-modifying-treatment-in-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#10
REVIEW
John Robert Ciotti, Anne Haney Cross
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disorder that affects the central nervous system (CNS), often first affecting people in early adulthood. Although most MS patients have a relapsing-remitting course (RRMS) at disease onset, a substantial proportion later develop chronic progression, termed secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Approximately 10% of MS patients experience chronic progression from disease onset, termed primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS)...
April 7, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594595/vaccine-strategies-in-gliomas
#11
REVIEW
Michael Platten, Lukas Bunse, Dennis Riehl, Theresa Bunse, Katharina Ochs, Wolfgang Wick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the current state of glioma vaccine development and highlight the challenges associated with clinical implementation of these approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: Vaccination strategies against gliomas have matured considerably during the past years, although proof-of efficacy from controlled clinical trials is still lacking. Advances in antigen discovery, including the definition of neoepitopes including epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1R132H and Histone (H)3...
March 28, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574601/headache-and-its-management-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#12
REVIEW
Farhat Husain, Gabriel Pardo, Meheroz Rabadi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to discuss the prevalence, impact, pathophysiology, and treatment of headaches (H/As) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). RECENT FINDINGS: Headaches and multiple sclerosis are more common in women than in men with the ratio of female to male being 3:1. It is not entirely clear if there is a correlation or an incidental comorbidity of two neurological conditions. A review of the literature shows a variable prevalence of H/As in MS patients...
March 24, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564662/can-optical-coherence-tomography-be-used-to-guide-treatment-decisions-in-adult-or-pediatric-multiple-sclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Jeffrey Lambe, Olwen C Murphy, Shiv Saidha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the recognition that neurodegeneration represents the principal substrate of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS), there has been increased strives towards identifying biomarkers for accurately quantifying and tracking neurodegeneration during the disease course. The retina provides an opportune "window" into the central nervous system (CNS) in MS, with retinal changes in MS reflecting not only local, but also global aspects of neurodegeneration and inflammation operative in the disease...
March 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549521/the-evidence-for-dietary-interventions-and-nutritional-supplements-as-treatment-options-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Leah J Mische, Ellen M Mowry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to critically evaluate published studies examining diets and nutritional supplements (excepting vitamin D) for the impact on prevention and prognosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). RECENT FINDINGS: There is a negative relationship between the Mediterranean diet and vascular disease, and vascular co-morbidities are associated with a worse MS prognosis. Low-fat, fish-based diets, sodium-restricted diets, calorie restriction, the paleo diet, and gluten-free diets have been examined, mostly in observational studies; results are inconclusive...
March 17, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508091/current-treatment-options-headache-related-to-menopause-diagnosis-and-management
#15
REVIEW
Clinton G Lauritsen, Abigail L Chua, Stephanie J Nahas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Menopause is a life-changing event in numerous ways. Many women with migraine hold hope that the transition to the climacteric state will coincide with a cessation or improvement of migraine. This assumption is based mainly on common lay perceptions as well as assertions from many in the healthcare community. Unfortunately, evidence suggests this is far from the rule. Many women turn to a general practitioner or a headache specialist for prognosis and management. A natural instinct is to manipulate the offending agent, but in some cases, this approach backfires, or the concern for adverse events outweighs the desire for a therapeutic trial, and other strategies must be pursued...
March 6, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492737/treatment-of-tuberculous-meningitis-and-its-complications-in-adults
#16
REVIEW
Angharad Davis, Graeme Meintjes, Robert J Wilkinson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a global health problem. In this review, we systematically evaluate the evidence for current and emerging antimicrobials, host-directed therapies and supportive managements. RECENT FINDINGS: Current antimicrobial regimes do not factor the differing ability of drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier. Rifampicin may be more effective at higher doses yet the most recent clinical trial failed to demonstrate survival benefit at 15 mg/kg/day...
February 28, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492681/clinical-management-of-episodic-memory-changes-in-dementia
#17
REVIEW
Po-Heng Tsai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to discuss therapeutic options available for the treatment of memory difficulties in dementia. RECENT FINDINGS: Because of the lack of progress in the availability of new medications, there has been an increased interest in focusing on non-pharmacological means to management cognitive symptoms related to dementia. The clinical management of memory loss should focus both on pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches...
February 28, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478149/botulinum-toxin-treatment-of-movement-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Yasaman Safarpour, Bahman Jabbari
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are now among the most widely used therapeutic agents in clinical medicine with indications applied to the fields of movement disorders, pain disorders, and autonomic dysfunction. In this literature review, the efficacy and utility of BoNTs in the field of movement disorders are assessed using the criteria of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. The literature supports a level A efficacy (established) for BoNT therapy in cervical dystonia and a level B efficacy (probably effective) for blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, laryngeal dystonia (spasmodic dysphonia), task-specific dystonias, essential tremor, and Parkinson rest tremor...
February 24, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476361/combining-clinical-and-molecular-data-to-predict-the-benefits-of-carmustine-wafers-in-newly-diagnosed-high-grade-gliomas
#19
REVIEW
Tamara Ius, Daniela Cesselli, Miriam Isola, Giovanni Toniato, Giada Pauletto, Giovanni Sciacca, Sara Fabbro, Enrico Pegolo, Simona Rizzato, Antonio Paolo Beltrami, Carla di Loreto, Miran Skrap
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the use of carmustine wafers (CWs) in the management of high-grade gliomas (HGGs). The data from our monoinstitutional series was compared with studies reported in the literature. Special emphasis was placed on the evaluation of side effects and the analysis of extent of resection and molecular profile as risk factors. RECENT FINDINGS: The implantation of CWs into the resection cavity during HGG treatment to deliver localized chemotherapy, followed by the Stupp protocol, remains debated in a clinical setting, largely due to the lack of appropriate phase III studies...
February 23, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464435/palliative-care-for-movement-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Christina L Vaughan, Benzi M Kluger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While care for patients with movement disorders has traditionally focused on motor symptoms, there is increasing evidence that optimal care for these disorders is more complex both in terms of the spectrum of symptoms experienced by patients (e.g., pain, depression) and the multidimensional needs of patients and their families. Palliative care is an approach to the care of patients and families affected by serious illnesses that seeks to relieve suffering by addressing complex medical symptoms, psychosocial issues, spiritual well-being, and goals of care...
February 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
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