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Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy

Eva Šlesingerová
Tendencies and efforts have shifted from genome description, DNA mapping, and DNA sequencing to active and profound re-programming, repairing life on genetic and molecular levels in some parts of contemporary life science research. Mirroring and materializing this atmosphere, various life engineering technologies have been used and established in many areas of life sciences in the last decades. A contemporary progressive example of one such technology is DNA editing. Novel developments related to reproductive technologies, particularly embryo editing, prenatal human life engineering, and germline engineering need to be analyzed against the broader social and structural background...
September 18, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Seyedeh Zahra Nahardani, Fazlollah Ahmadi, Shoaleh Bigdeli, Kamran Soltani Arabshahi
Spirituality in medical education is an abstract multifaceted concept, related to the healthcare system. As a significant dimension of health, the importance and promotion of this concept has received considerable attention all over the world. However, it is still an abstract concept and its use in different contexts leads to different perceptions, thereby causing challenges. In this regard, the study aimed to clarify the existing ambiguities of the concept of spirituality in medical education. Walker and Avant (Strategies for theory construction in nursing, Prentice Hall, Boston, 2011) concept analysis eight-step approach was used...
September 11, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Michal Stanak
Neonatal professionals encounter many ethical challenges especially when it comes to interventions at the limit of viability (weeks 22-25 of gestation). At times, these challenges make the moral dilemmas in neonatology tragic and they require a particular set of intellectual and moral virtues. Intellectual virtues of episteme and phronesis, together with moral virtues of courage, compassion, keeping fidelity to trust, and integrity were highlighted as key virtues of the neonatal professional. Recognition of the role of ethics requires a recognition that answering the obvious question (what shall we do?) does not always suffice...
September 7, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Marjolein de Boer, Kristin Zeiler, Jenny Slatman
By drawing on Jean-Luc Nancy's philosophy of ontological relationality, this article explores what it means to be a 'we' in breast cancer. What are the characteristics-the extent and diversity-of couples' relationally lived experiences of bodily changes in breast cancer? Through analyzing duo interviews with diagnosed women and their partners, four ways of sharing an embodied life are identified. (1) While 'being different together', partners have different, albeit connected kinds of experiences of breast cancer...
September 6, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
William Bülow, Gert Helgesson
This paper discusses the criminalization of scientific misconduct, as discussed and defended in the bioethics literature. In doing so it argues against the claim that fabrication, falsification and plagiarism (FFP) together identify the most serious forms of misconduct, which hence ought to be criminalized, whereas other forms of misconduct should not. Drawing the line strictly at FFP is problematic both in terms of what is included and what is excluded. It is also argued that the criminalization of scientific misconduct, despite its anticipated benefits, is at risk of giving the false impression that dubious practices falling outside the legal regulation "do not count"...
August 28, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Jordan Potter
In the debate surrounding the morality and legality of the practices of physician-assisted death and euthanasia, a common logical argument regularly employed against these practices is the "slippery slope argument." One formulation of this argument claims that acceptance of physician-assisted death will eventually lead down a "slippery slope" into acceptance of active euthanasia, including its voluntary, non-voluntary, and/or involuntary forms, through psychological and social processes that warp a society's values and moral perspective of a practice over an extended period of time...
August 25, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Marilena Pateraki
This contribution intends to explore patients' lived experience, with a focus on the temporal dimension. On the basis of a qualitative study that led me to interview persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), caregivers, and medical professionals, I develop an empirical and philosophical investigation of the temporalities surrounding the implementation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Greece. I raise the issue of access to DBS medical care, and show how distinct temporalities are implied when the patients face such a matter: that of linear time, linked with the medical discourse, the bureaucratic time linked to administrative and financial hurdles in the implementation and maintenance of DBS, and the technological time of the body/technology fusion...
August 14, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Paweł Łuków
The paper argues that the idea of gift-giving and its associated imagery, which has been founding the ethics of organ transplants since the time of the first successful transplants, should be abandoned because it cannot effectively block arguments for (regulated) markets in human body parts. The imagery suggests that human bodies or their parts are transferable objects which belong to individuals. Such imagery is, however, neither a self-evident nor anthropologically unproblematic construal of the relation between a human being and their body...
August 13, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Alysia C Wright, Jessica C Shaw
Medical assistance in dying (MAiD) was legalized by the Supreme Court of Canada in June 2016 and became a legal, viable end of life care (EOLC) option for Canadians with irremediable illness and suffering. Much attention has been paid to the balance between physicians' willingness to provide MAiD and patients' legal right to request medically assisted death in certain circumstances. In contrast, very little attention has been paid to the challenge of making MAiD accessible to vulnerable populations. The purpose of this paper was to examine the extant literature and resources that are available on the provision of MAiD in Canada...
August 11, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Sonia Desmoulin-Canselier
In the past 50 years, an ethical-legal boundary has been drawn between treatment and research. It is based on the reasoning that the two activities pursue different purposes. Treatment is aimed at achieving optimal therapeutic benefits for the individual patient, whereas the goal of scientific research is to increase knowledge, in the public interest. From this viewpoint, the patient's experience should be clearly distinguished from that of a participant in a clinical trial. On this premise, two parallel and mutually exclusive regimes have been established...
August 3, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
John Gardner, Narelle Warren
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for the debilitating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders. However, clinicians and commentators have noted that DBS recipients have not necessarily experienced the improvements in quality of life that would be expected, due in large part to what have been described as the 'psychosocial' impacts of DBS. The premise of this paper is that, in order to realise the full potential of DBS and similar interventions, clinical services need to be arranged in such a way that these psychosocial dimensions are recognised and managed...
August 1, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Lillian Wilde
With my research, I wish to contribute to the discussion of post-traumatic psychopathologies from a phenomenological perspective. The main question I pursue is to what extent PTSD can be understood as an intersubjective psychopathology and which implications this view might have. In this paper, I argue that the mode of perception allowing for intersubjective experience is vulnerable to disruptions through traumatic events. I begin with a short elaboration on what intersubjectivity entails before proceeding to illustrate how it can be impaired...
August 1, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Elsbeth Littooij, Guy A M Widdershoven, Carlo J W Leget, Joost Dekker
Based on our empirical research on global meaning in people with spinal cord injury and people with stroke, we formulated 'inner posture' as a concept in rehabilitation. Inner posture, as we concluded from our empirical data, refers to the way in which people bear what cannot be changed. It helps them to live with their injury. Considering that much has already been written about meaning from a variety of disciplines, the question arises whether the concept of inner posture adds something new to the existing literature, or is just another name for a phenomenon that has already been described before in different terms...
July 27, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Wendy A Rogers
Breast cancer screening aims to help women by early identification and treatment of cancers that might otherwise be life-threatening. However, breast cancer screening also leads to the detection of some cancers that, if left undetected and untreated, would not have damaged the health of the women concerned. At the time of diagnosis, harmless cancers cannot be identified as non-threatening, therefore women are offered invasive breast cancer treatment. This phenomenon of identifying (and treating) non-harmful cancers is called overdiagnosis...
July 20, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Eva van Baarle, Ineke van de Braak, Desiree Verweij, Guy Widdershoven, Bert Molewijk
There is considerable support for the idea that an atmosphere of safety can foster learning in groups, especially during ethics training courses. However, the question how safety dynamics works during ethics courses is still understudied. This article aims to investigate safety dynamics by examining a critical incident during a military ethics train-the trainer course during which safety was threatened. We examine this incident by means of a four-factor analysis model from the field of Theme-Centered Interaction (TCI)...
July 10, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Emilia Kaczmarek
Is medicalization always harmful? When does medicine overstep its proper boundaries? The aim of this article is to outline the pragmatic criteria for distinguishing between medicalization and over-medicalization. The consequences of considering a phenomenon to be a medical problem may take radically different forms depending on whether the problem in question is correctly or incorrectly perceived as a medical issue. Neither indiscriminate acceptance of medicalization of subsequent areas of human existence, nor criticizing new medicalization cases just because they are medicalization can be justified...
June 27, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Bjørn Hofmann
New emerging biotechnologies, such as gene editing, vastly extend our ability to alter the human being. This comes together with strong aspirations to improve humans not only physically, but also mentally, morally, and socially. These conjoined ambitions aggregate to what can be labelled "the gene editing of super-ego." This article investigates a general way used to argue for new biotechnologies, such as gene-editing: if it is safe and efficacious to implement technology X for the purpose of a common good Y, why should we not do so? This is a rhetorical question with a conditional, and may be dismissed as such...
September 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Marie Gaille
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Johann A R Roduit, Tobias Eichinger, Walter Glannon
The ethics of human enhancement has been a hotly debated topic in the last 15 years. In this debate, some advocate examining science fiction stories to elucidate the ethical issues regarding the current phenomenon of human enhancement. Stories from science fiction seem well suited to analyze biomedical advances, providing some possible case studies. Of particular interest is the work of screenwriter Andrew Niccol (Gattaca, S1m0ne, In Time, and Good Kill), which often focuses on ethical questions raised by the use of new technologies...
September 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Nicholas Agar
Transformation is a memorable feature of some of the most iconic works of science fiction. These works feature characters who begin as humans and change into radically different kinds of being. This paper examines transformative change in the context of the Invasion of the Body Snatchers movies. I discuss how humans should approach the prospect of being body snatched. I argue that we shouldn't welcome the transformation even if we are convinced that we will have very positive experiences as pod aliens. When considering a transformative change, it is appropriate to give priority to your pre-transformation attitudes to potential future experiences and achievements over your predicted post-transformation attitudes...
September 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
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