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Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy

Kaja Tulatz
Since overweight and obesity have been framed as one of the main contemporary health challenges in industrialized countries, it has become a matter of public health efforts. While the belief that obese individuals are personally responsible for their body weight prevails in public opinion, evidence-based health science widely acknowledges that obesity is significantly influenced by socio-economic factors and thus that prevention requires structural changes. This constellation bears the chance of politicizing an issue formerly conceived of as private which really is dependent on societal contingencies, such as the particular availability of food...
November 13, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Paul Healy
Although typically implicit, clinicians face an inherent conflict between their roles as medical healers and as providers of technical biomedicine (Scott et al. in Philos Ethics Humanit Med 4:11, 2009). This conflict arises from the tension between the physicalist model which still predominates in medical training and practice and the extra-physicalist dimensions of medical practice as epitomised in the concept of patient-centred care. More specifically, the problem is that, as grounded in a "borrowed" physicalist philosophy, the dominant "applied scientist" model exhibits a number of limitations which severely restrict its ability to underwrite the effective practice of care...
November 9, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Aurélien Troisoeufs
This contribution aims at describing the experiences of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) as discussed on Internet forums. Since the 2000s, increasing attention has been paid to health practices associated with the use of the Internet, whether by medical professionals, public authorities or researchers in the social sciences. We know that Internet is used by patients with Parkinson's disease, in order to discuss about their lived experiences. This contribution will present how these Internet users address the specific theme of DBS...
October 30, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Inge van Nistelrooij, Merel Visse
Care ethics emphasizes responsibility as a key element for caring practices. Responsibilities to care are taken by certain groups of people, making caring practices into moral and political practices in which responsibilities are assigned, assumed, or implicitly expected, as well as deflected. Despite this attention for social practices of distribution and its unequal result, making certain groups of people the recipient of more caring responsibilities than others, the passive aspect of a caring responsibility has been underexposed by care ethics...
October 16, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Kristóf János Bodnár, Péter Kakuk
In this paper our aim is to examine whether research conducted on human participants with LSD-25 (lysergic acid diethylamide) raises unique research ethical questions or demands particular concerns with regard to the design, conduct and follow-up of these studies, and should this be the case, explore and describe those issues. Our analysis is based on reviewing publications up to date which examine the clinical, research and other uses of LSD and those addressing ethical and methodological concerns of these applications, just as some historical examinations of this subject...
October 16, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Henk Ten Have, Bert Gordijn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Gabriel Andrade
In this article, we consider three metaphysical theories of personal identity: the soul theory, the body theory, and the psychological theory. Clinical cases are discussed as they present conceptual problems for each of these theories. For the soul theory, the case of Phineas Gage, and cases of pedophilic behavior due to a brain tumor are discussed. For the body theory, hypothetical cases of cephalosomatic anastomosis and actual cases of dicephalic parapagus and craniopagus parasiticus are discussed. For the psychological theory, cases of delusions and memory impairments are discussed...
October 3, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Hazem Zohny
One approach to defining enhancement is in the form of bodily or mental changes that tend to improve a person's well-being. Such a "welfarist account", however, seems to conflict with moral enhancement: consider an intervention that improves someone's moral motives but which ultimately diminishes their well-being. According to the welfarist account, this would not be an instance of enhancement-in fact, as I argue, it would count as a disability. This seems to pose a serious limitation for the account...
September 24, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Eva Šlesingerová
Tendencies and efforts have shifted from genome description, DNA mapping, and DNA sequencing to active and profound re-programming, repairing life on genetic and molecular levels in some parts of contemporary life science research. Mirroring and materializing this atmosphere, various life engineering technologies have been used and established in many areas of life sciences in the last decades. A contemporary progressive example of one such technology is DNA editing. Novel developments related to reproductive technologies, particularly embryo editing, prenatal human life engineering, and germline engineering need to be analyzed against the broader social and structural background...
September 18, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Seyedeh Zahra Nahardani, Fazlollah Ahmadi, Shoaleh Bigdeli, Kamran Soltani Arabshahi
Spirituality in medical education is an abstract multifaceted concept, related to the healthcare system. As a significant dimension of health, the importance and promotion of this concept has received considerable attention all over the world. However, it is still an abstract concept and its use in different contexts leads to different perceptions, thereby causing challenges. In this regard, the study aimed to clarify the existing ambiguities of the concept of spirituality in medical education. Walker and Avant (Strategies for theory construction in nursing, Prentice Hall, Boston, 2011) concept analysis eight-step approach was used...
September 11, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Michal Stanak
Neonatal professionals encounter many ethical challenges especially when it comes to interventions at the limit of viability (weeks 22-25 of gestation). At times, these challenges make the moral dilemmas in neonatology tragic and they require a particular set of intellectual and moral virtues. Intellectual virtues of episteme and phronesis, together with moral virtues of courage, compassion, keeping fidelity to trust, and integrity were highlighted as key virtues of the neonatal professional. Recognition of the role of ethics requires a recognition that answering the obvious question (what shall we do?) does not always suffice...
September 7, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Marjolein de Boer, Kristin Zeiler, Jenny Slatman
By drawing on Jean-Luc Nancy's philosophy of ontological relationality, this article explores what it means to be a 'we' in breast cancer. What are the characteristics-the extent and diversity-of couples' relationally lived experiences of bodily changes in breast cancer? Through analyzing duo interviews with diagnosed women and their partners, four ways of sharing an embodied life are identified. (1) While 'being different together', partners have different, albeit connected kinds of experiences of breast cancer...
September 6, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
William Bülow, Gert Helgesson
This paper discusses the criminalization of scientific misconduct, as discussed and defended in the bioethics literature. In doing so it argues against the claim that fabrication, falsification and plagiarism (FFP) together identify the most serious forms of misconduct, which hence ought to be criminalized, whereas other forms of misconduct should not. Drawing the line strictly at FFP is problematic both in terms of what is included and what is excluded. It is also argued that the criminalization of scientific misconduct, despite its anticipated benefits, is at risk of giving the false impression that dubious practices falling outside the legal regulation "do not count"...
August 28, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Jordan Potter
In the debate surrounding the morality and legality of the practices of physician-assisted death and euthanasia, a common logical argument regularly employed against these practices is the "slippery slope argument." One formulation of this argument claims that acceptance of physician-assisted death will eventually lead down a "slippery slope" into acceptance of active euthanasia, including its voluntary, non-voluntary, and/or involuntary forms, through psychological and social processes that warp a society's values and moral perspective of a practice over an extended period of time...
August 25, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Bjørn Hofmann
New emerging biotechnologies, such as gene editing, vastly extend our ability to alter the human being. This comes together with strong aspirations to improve humans not only physically, but also mentally, morally, and socially. These conjoined ambitions aggregate to what can be labelled "the gene editing of super-ego." This article investigates a general way used to argue for new biotechnologies, such as gene-editing: if it is safe and efficacious to implement technology X for the purpose of a common good Y, why should we not do so? This is a rhetorical question with a conditional, and may be dismissed as such...
September 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Marie Gaille
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Johann A R Roduit, Tobias Eichinger, Walter Glannon
The ethics of human enhancement has been a hotly debated topic in the last 15 years. In this debate, some advocate examining science fiction stories to elucidate the ethical issues regarding the current phenomenon of human enhancement. Stories from science fiction seem well suited to analyze biomedical advances, providing some possible case studies. Of particular interest is the work of screenwriter Andrew Niccol (Gattaca, S1m0ne, In Time, and Good Kill), which often focuses on ethical questions raised by the use of new technologies...
September 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Nicholas Agar
Transformation is a memorable feature of some of the most iconic works of science fiction. These works feature characters who begin as humans and change into radically different kinds of being. This paper examines transformative change in the context of the Invasion of the Body Snatchers movies. I discuss how humans should approach the prospect of being body snatched. I argue that we shouldn't welcome the transformation even if we are convinced that we will have very positive experiences as pod aliens. When considering a transformative change, it is appropriate to give priority to your pre-transformation attitudes to potential future experiences and achievements over your predicted post-transformation attitudes...
September 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Casey Rentmeester
Communication between medical professionals and patients is an important aspect of therapy and patient satisfaction. Common barriers that get in the way of effective communication in this sphere include: (1) gender, age, and cultural differences; (2) physical or psychological discomfort or pain; (3) medical literacy; and (4) distraction due to technological factors or simply being overworked. The author examines these communicative barriers from a philosophical lens and then utilizes Martin Heidegger's phenomenology and hermeneutics to provide guidance for medical professional-patient interactions...
September 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Gert Helgesson, Stefan Eriksson
This paper concerns the responsibility of co-authors in cases of scientific misconduct. Arguments in research integrity guidelines and in the bioethics literature concerning authorship responsibilities are discussed. It is argued that it is unreasonable to claim that for every case where a research paper is found to be fraudulent, each author is morally responsible for all aspects of that paper, or that one particular author has such a responsibility. It is further argued that it is more constructive to specify what task responsibilities come with different roles in a project and describe what kinds of situations or events call for some kind of action, and what the appropriate actions might be...
September 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
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