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Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913914/tragedy-in-moral-case-deliberation
#1
Benita Spronk, Margreet Stolper, Guy Widdershoven
In healthcare practice, care providers are confronted with tragic situations, in which they are expected to make choices and decisions that can have far-reaching consequences. This article investigates the role of moral case deliberation (MCD) in dealing with tragic situations. It focuses on experiences of care givers involved in the treatment of a pregnant woman with a brain tumour, and their evaluation of a series of MCD meetings in which the dilemmas around care were discussed. The study was qualitative, focusing on the views and experiences of the participants...
December 2, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900645/zika-public-health-and-the-distraction-of-abortion
#2
Thana Cristina de Campos
This paper suggests that the focus on abortion legalization in the aftermath of the Zika outbreak is distracting for policy and lawmakers from what needs to be done to address the outbreak effectively. Meeting basic health needs (i.e. preventive measures), together with research and development conducive to a vaccine or treatment for the Zika virus should be priorities.
November 29, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889854/do-we-have-a-moral-responsibility-to-compensate-for-vulnerable-groups-a-discussion-on-the-right-to-health-for-lgbt-people
#3
Perihan Elif Ekmekci
Vulnerability is a broad concept widely addressed in recent scholarly literature. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are among the vulnerable populations with significant disadvantages related to health and the social determinants of health. Medical ethics discourse tackles vulnerability from philosophical and political perspectives. LGBT people experience several disadvantages from both perspectives. This article aims to justify the right to health for LGBT people and their particular claims regarding healthcare because they belong to a vulnerable group...
November 26, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848107/defining-disease-in-the-context-of-overdiagnosis
#4
Mary Jean Walker, Wendy Rogers
Recently, concerns have been raised about the phenomenon of 'overdiagnosis', the diagnosis of a condition that is not causing harm, and will not come to cause harm. Along with practical, ethical, and scientific questions, overdiagnosis raises questions about our concept of disease. In this paper, we analyse overdiagnosis as an epistemic problem and show how it challenges many existing accounts of disease. In particular, it raises questions about conceptual links drawn between disease and dysfunction, harm, and risk...
November 15, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830432/the-usual-suspects-why-techno-fixing-dementia-is-flawed
#5
Karin Rolanda Jongsma, Martin Sand
Dementia is highly prevalent and up until now, still incurable. If we may believe the narrative that is currently dominant in dementia research, in the future we will not have to suffer from dementia anymore, as there will be a simple techno-fix solution. It is just a matter of time before we can solve the growing public health problem of dementia. In this paper we take a critical stance towards overly positive narratives of techno-fixes by placing our empirical analysis of dementia research protocols and political statements in a framework of technology assessment...
November 9, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826684/victims-of-disaster-can-ethical-debriefings-be-of-help-to-care-for-their-suffering
#6
Ignaas Devisch, Stijn Vanheule, Myriam Deveugele, Iskra Nola, Murat Civaner, Peter Pype
Victims of disaster suffer, not only at the very moment of the disaster, but also years after the disaster has taken place, they are still in an emotional journey. While many moral perspectives focus on the moment of the disaster itself, a lot of work is to be done years after the disaster. How do people go through their suffering and how can we take care of them? Research on human suffering after a major catastrophe, using an ethics of care perspective, is scarce. People suffering from disasters are often called to be in distress and their emotional difficulties 'medicalised'...
November 8, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796726/empathizing-with-patients-the-role-of-interaction-and-narratives-in-providing-better-patient-care
#7
EDITORIAL
Carter Hardy
Recent studies have revealed a drop in the ability of physicians to empathize with their patients. It is argued that empathy training needs to be provided to both medical students and physicians in order to improve patient care. While it may be true that empathy would lead to better patient care, it is important that the right theory of empathy is being encouraged. This paper examines and critiques the prominent explanation of empathy being used in medicine. Focusing on the component of empathy that allows us to understand others, it is argued that this understanding is accomplished through a simulation...
October 28, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796725/restoring-a-reputation-invoking-the-unesco-universal-declaration-on-bioethics-and-human-rights-to-bear-on-pharmaceutical-pricing
#8
Daniel J Hurst
In public health, the issue of pharmaceutical pricing is a perennial problem. Recent high-profile examples, such as the September 2015 debacle involving Martin Shkreli and Turing Pharmaceuticals, are indicative of larger, systemic difficulties that plague the pharmaceutical industry in regards to drug pricing and the impact it yields on their reputation in the eyes of the public. For public health ethics, the issue of pharmaceutical pricing is rather crucial. Simply, individuals within a population require pharmaceuticals for disease prevention and management...
October 28, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785588/-we-need-to-talk-barriers-to-gps-communication-about-the-option-of-physician-assisted-suicide-and-their-ethical-implications-results-from-a-qualitative-study
#9
Ina C Otte, Corinna Jung, Bernice Elger, Klaus Bally
GPs usually care for their patients for an extended period of time, therefore, requests to not only discontinue a patient's treatment but to assist a patient in a suicide are likely to create intensely stressful situations for physicians. However, in order to ensure the best patient care possible, the competent communication about the option of physician assisted suicide (PAS) as well as the assessment of the origin and sincerity of the request are very important. This is especially true, since patients' requests for PAS can also be an indicator for unmet needs or concerns...
October 26, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785587/autism-intellectual-disability-and-a-challenge-to-our-understanding-of-proxy-consent
#10
Abraham Graber
This paper focuses on a hypothetical case that represents an intervention request familiar to those who work with individuals with intellectual disability. Stacy has autism and moderate intellectual disability. Her parents have requested treatment for her hand flapping. Stacy is not competent to make her own treatment decisions; proxy consent is required. There are three primary justifications for proxy consent: the right to an open future, substituted judgment, and the best interest standard. The right to an open future justifies proxy consent on the assumption of future autonomy whereas substituted judgment justifies proxy consent via reference to past autonomy...
October 26, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757784/permitting-patients-to-pay-for-participation-in-clinical-trials-the-advent-of-the-p4-trial
#11
David Shaw, Guido de Wert, Wybo Dondorp, David Townend, Gerard Bos, Michel van Gelder
In this article we explore the ethical issues raised by permitting patients to pay for participation (P4) in clinical trials, and discuss whether there are any categorical objections to this practice. We address key considerations concerning payment for participation in trials, including patient autonomy, risk/benefit and justice, taking account of two previous critiques of the ethics of P4. We conclude that such trials could be ethical under certain strict conditions, but only if other potential sources of funding have first been explored or are unavailable...
October 18, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718131/the-false-academy-predatory-publishing-in-science-and-bioethics
#12
Stefan Eriksson, Gert Helgesson
This paper describes and discusses the phenomenon 'predatory publishing', in relation to both academic journals and books, and suggests a list of characteristics by which to identify predatory journals. It also raises the question whether traditional publishing houses have accompanied rogue publishers upon this path. It is noted that bioethics as a discipline does not stand unaffected by this trend. Towards the end of the paper it is discussed what can and should be done to eliminate or reduce the effects of this development...
October 7, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709396/our-genes-our-selves-hereditary-breast-cancer-and-biological-citizenship-in-norway
#13
Kari Nyheim Solbrække, Håvard Søiland, Kirsten Lode, Birgitta Haga Gripsrud
In this paper we explore the rise of 'the breast cancer gene' as a field of medical, cultural and personal knowledge. We address its significance in the Norwegian public health care system in relation to so-called biological citizenship in this particular national context. One of our main findings is that, despite its claims as a measure for health and disease prevention, gaining access to medical knowledge of BRCA 1/2 breast cancer gene mutations can also produce severe instability in the individuals and families affected...
October 5, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699713/personal-autonomy-in-health-settings-and-shi-i-islamic-jurisprudence-a-literature-review
#14
Zohrehsadat Naji, Zari Zamani, Sofia A Koutlaki, Payman Salamati
Respect for personal autonomy in decision-making is one of the four ethical principles in medical circumstances. This paper aims to present evidence that can be considered good exemplars in the clarification of the ethical viewpoints of the western and Shi'i Islamic perspectives on this issue. The method followed was originally a search in international indexing services in April 2016. Our findings point towards various controversies on individuals' autonomy lead to different decision making outcomes by health workers in both different traditions...
October 3, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677610/affectivity-and-narrativity-in-depression-a-phenomenological-study
#15
Anna Bortolan
In this study I explore from a phenomenological perspective the relationship between affectivity and narrative self-understanding in depression. Phenomenological accounts often conceive of the disorder as involving disturbances of the narrative self and suggest that these disturbances are related to the alterations of emotions and moods typical of the illness. In this paper I expand these accounts by advancing two sets of claims. In the first place, I suggest that, due to the loss of feeling characteristic of the illness, the narratives with which the patients identified prior to the onset of depression are altered in various ways, thus leading to the weakening or abandonment of the narratives themselves...
September 27, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663884/clown-s-view-as-respici%C3%A5-looking-respectfully-to-and-after-people-with-dementia
#16
Ruud Hendriks
Clowns seem suspect when it comes to respect. The combination of clowning and people with dementia may seem especially suspicious. In this argument, I take potential concerns about clowning in dementia care as an opportunity to explore the meaning of a respectful approach of people with dementia. Our word 'respect' is derived from the Latin respiciō, meaning 'looking back' or 'seeing again', as well as 'looking after' or 'having regard' for someone or something. I build upon this double meaning of respiciō by examining how simultaneously we look to and after people with dementia...
September 23, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655035/short-literature-notices
#17
Péter Kakuk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638832/trust-me-i-m-a-researcher-the-role-of-trust-in-biomedical-research
#18
Angeliki Kerasidou
In biomedical research lack of trust is seen as a great threat that can severely jeopardise the whole biomedical research enterprise. Practices, such as informed consent, and also the administrative and regulatory oversight of research in the form of research ethics committees and Institutional Review Boards, are established to ensure the protection of future research subjects and, at the same time, restore public trust in biomedical research. Empirical research also testifies to the role of trust as one of the decisive factors in research participation and lack of trust as a barrier for consenting to research...
September 15, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638831/the-whole-spectrum-of-psychiatric-ethics-in-a-standard-work-john-z-sadler-w-c-w-van-staden-and-k-w-m-bill-fulford-eds-2015-oxford-handbook-of-psychiatric-ethics-2-vols-oxford-university-press-oxford-1712-pp-price-%C3%A2-175-00-isbn-978-0199663880
#19
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613411/islamic-perspectives-on-clinical-intervention-near-the-end-of-life-we-can-but-must-we
#20
Aasim I Padela, Omar Qureshi
The ever-increasing technological advances of modern medicine have increased physicians' capacity to carry out a wide array of clinical interventions near the end-of-life. These new procedures have resulted in new "types" of living where a patient's cognitive functions are severely diminished although many physiological functions remain active. In this biomedical context, patients, surrogate decision-makers, and clinicians all struggle with decisions about what clinical interventions to pursue and when therapeutic intent should be replaced with palliative goals of care...
September 9, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
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