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Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350341/health-priority-to-the-worse-off-and-time
#1
Anders Herlitz
It is a common view that benefits to the worse off should be given priority when health benefits are distributed. This paper addresses how to understand who is worse off in this context when individuals are differently well off at different times. The paper argues that the view that this judgment about who is worse off should be based solely on how well off individuals are when their complete lives are considered (i.e. 'the complete lives view') is implausible in this context. Instead, it is argued that a pluralistic stance toward this issue should be accepted...
January 19, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344910/mimesis-and-clinical-pictures-thinking-with-plato-and-broekman-through-the-production-and-meaning-of-images-of-disease
#2
Marjolein Oele
This paper contends, following Plato and Broekman, that (1) seeing images as images is crucial to theorizing medicine and that (2) considering clinical pictures as images of images is a much-needed epistemic complement to the domineering view that sees clinical pictures as mirrors of disease. This does not only offer epistemic, but also ethical benefits to individual patients, especially in those cases where patients suffer from chronic, debilitating, and terminal illnesses and where medicine provides no, or limited, answers in terms of treatment, intervention, and meaning...
January 17, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332204/supplementing-living-kidney-transplantees-medical-records-with-donor-and-recipient-narratives
#3
Anne Hambro Alnæs
Norway provides total social welfare coverage for organ transplantations, including free immunosuppressive medication and prepaid life-long follow up for both recipients and donors. Despite these benefits the proportion of living kidney donors (LKD) has in recent years declined from around 40% (2011) of all kidney transplantations to 24% (2016). This study suggests harnessing patient- and donor-narratives as a tool for addressing the current fall in donation rates. The hospital records of 18 recipient/donor dyads were compared with patient and donor accounts elicited in semi-structured interviews...
January 13, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330666/heidegger-communication-and-healthcare
#4
Casey Rentmeester
Communication between medical professionals and patients is an important aspect of therapy and patient satisfaction. Common barriers that get in the way of effective communication in this sphere include: (1) gender, age, and cultural differences; (2) physical or psychological discomfort or pain; (3) medical literacy; and (4) distraction due to technological factors or simply being overworked. The author examines these communicative barriers from a philosophical lens and then utilizes Martin Heidegger's phenomenology and hermeneutics to provide guidance for medical professional-patient interactions...
January 12, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29264707/the-trilemma-of-designing-international-bioethics-curricula
#5
EDITORIAL
Bert Gordijn, Henk Ten Have
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29264706/from-art-to-science-a-new-epistemological-status-for-medicine-on-expectations-regarding-personalized-medicine
#6
Urban Wiesing
Personalized medicine plays an important role in the development of current medicine. Among the numerous statements regarding the future of personalized medicine, some can be found that accord medicine a new scientific status. Medicine will be transformed from an art to a science due to personalized medicine. This prognosis is supported by references to models of historical developments. The article examines what is meant by this prognosis, what consequences it entails, and how feasible it is. It refers to the long tradition of epistemological thinking in medicine and the use of historical models for the development of medicine...
December 20, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247313/rethinking-moral-distress-conceptual-demands-for-a-troubling-phenomenon-affecting-health-care-professionals
#7
Daniel W Tigard
Recent medical and bioethics literature shows a growing concern for practitioners' emotional experience and the ethical environment in the workplace. Moral distress, in particular, is often said to result from the difficult decisions made and the troubling situations regularly encountered in health care contexts. It has been identified as a leading cause of professional dissatisfaction and burnout, which, in turn, contribute to inadequate attention and increased pain for patients. Given the natural desire to avoid these negative effects, it seems to most authors that systematic efforts should be made to drastically reduce moral distress, if not altogether eliminate it from the lives of vulnerable practitioners...
December 15, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243015/relational-autonomy-in-the-care-of-the-vulnerable-health-care-professionals-reasoning-in-moral-case-deliberation-mcd
#8
Kaja Heidenreich, Anders Bremer, Lars Johan Materstvedt, Ulf Tidefelt, Mia Svantesson
In Moral Case Deliberation (MCD), healthcare professionals discuss ethically difficult patient situations in their daily practice. There is a lack of knowledge regarding the content of MCD and there is a need to shed light on this ethical reflection in the midst of clinical practice. Thus, the aim of the study was to describe the content of healthcare professionals' moral reasoning during MCD. The design was qualitative and descriptive, and data consisted of 22 audio-recorded inter-professional MCDs, analysed with content analysis...
December 14, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222668/responsibility-for-scientific-misconduct-in-collaborative-papers
#9
Gert Helgesson, Stefan Eriksson
This paper concerns the responsibility of co-authors in cases of scientific misconduct. Arguments in research integrity guidelines and in the bioethics literature concerning authorship responsibilities are discussed. It is argued that it is unreasonable to claim that for every case where a research paper is found to be fraudulent, each author is morally responsible for all aspects of that paper, or that one particular author has such a responsibility. It is further argued that it is more constructive to specify what task responsibilities come with different roles in a project and describe what kinds of situations or events call for some kind of action, and what the appropriate actions might be...
December 8, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214555/how-to-respond-to-resistiveness-towards-assistive-technologies-among-persons-with-dementia
#10
Anders Nordgren
It is a common experience among care professionals that persons with dementia often say 'no' to conventional caring measures such as taking medication, eating or having a shower. This tendency to say 'no' may also concern the use of assistive technologies such as fall detectors, mobile safety alarms, Internet for social contact and robots. This paper provides practical recommendations for care professionals in home health care and social care about how to respond to such resistiveness towards assistive technologies...
December 6, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189943/relieving-one-s-relatives-from-the-burdens-of-care
#11
Govert den Hartogh
It has been proposed that an old and ill person may have a 'duty to die', i.e. to refuse life-saving treatment or to end her own life, when she is dependent on the care of intimates and the burdens of care are becoming too heavy for them. In this paper I argue for three contentions: (1) You cannot have a strict duty to die, correlating to a claim-right of your relatives, because if they reach the point at which the burdens of care are larger than you can reasonably expect them to take, the natural conclusion is that their duty ends...
November 30, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127644/erasmus-mundus-master-of-bioethics-a-case-for-an-effective-model-for-international-bioethics-education
#12
Jan Piasecki, Kevin Dirksen, Hamilton Inbadas
Designing bioethics curriculum for international postgraduate students is a challenging task. There are at least two main questions, which have to be resolved in advance: (1) what is a purpose of a particular teaching program and (2) how to respectfully arrange a classroom for students coming from different cultural and professional backgrounds. In our paper we analyze the case of the Erasmus Mundus Master of Bioethics program and provide recommendations for international bioethics education. In our opinion teaching bioethics to postgraduate international students goes beyond curriculum...
November 10, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124449/the-evolution-of-public-health-ethics-frameworks-systematic-review-of-moral-values-and-norms-in-public-health-policy
#13
REVIEW
Mahmoud Abbasi, Reza Majdzadeh, Alireza Zali, Abbas Karimi, Forouzan Akrami
Given the evolution of the public health (PH) and the changes from the phenomenon of globalization, this area has encountered new ethical challenges. In order to find a coherent approach to address ethical issues in PH policy, this study aimed to identify the evolution of public health ethics (PHE) frameworks and the main moral values and norms in PH practice and policy. According to the research questions, a systematic search of the literature, in English, with no time limit was performed using the main keywords in databases Web of Science (ISI) and PubMed...
November 9, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098562/towards-living-within-my-body-and-accepting-the-past-a-case-study-of-embodied-narrative-identity
#14
Randi Sviland, Kari Martinsen, Målfrid Råheim
This narrative case study, created from several qualitative sources, portrays a young woman's life experiences and an eight yearlong therapy process with Norwegian Psychomotor Physiotherapy (NPMP). It is analyzed retrospectively from an analytical angle, where NPMP theory is expanded with Løgstrup's phenomenology of sensation and Ricoeur's narrative philosophy. Understanding Rita's narrative through this window displayed some foundational phenomena in a singular way, illuminating embodied experiences in inter-subjective relationships in movement, sensation and time entwined...
November 2, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086894/incentivized-goodness
#15
Vojin Rakić
It will be argued that humans have a rational self-interest in voluntarily opting to subject themselves to moral bioenhancement. This interest is based on the fact that goodness appears to be conducive to happiness. Those who understand that will be more inclined to opt for safe and effective moral bioenhancement technologies that have the potential to augment our motivation to become better. The more people decide to follow this path, the likelier it is that states will adopt suitable policies that incentivize moral bioenhancement...
October 31, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086191/public-trust-and-ethics-review-as-a-commodity-the-case-of-genomics-england-limited-and-the-uk-s-100-000-genomes-project
#16
Gabrielle Natalie Samuel, Bobbie Farsides
The UK Chief Medical Officer's 2016 Annual Report, Generation Genome, focused on a vision to fully integrate genomics into all aspects of the UK's National Health Service (NHS). This process of integration, which has now already begun, raises a wide range of social and ethical concerns, many of which were discussed in the final Chapter of the report. This paper explores how the UK's 100,000 Genomes Project (100 kGP)-the catalyst for Generation Genome, and for bringing genomics into the NHS-is negotiating these ethical concerns...
October 30, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081015/dealing-with-treatment-and-transfer-requests-how-pgd-professionals-discuss-ethical-challenges-arising-in-everyday-practice
#17
Melisa Soto-Lafontaine, Wybo Dondorp, Veerle Provoost, Guido de Wert
How do professionals working in pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) reflect upon their decision making with regard to ethical challenges arising in everyday practice? Two focus group discussions were held with staff of reproductive genetic clinics: one in Utrecht (The Netherlands) with PGD-professionals from Dutch PGD-centres and one in Prague (Czech Republic) with PGD-professionals working in centres in different European countries. Both meetings consisted of two parts, exploring participants' views regarding (1) treatment requests for conditions that may not fulfill traditional indications criteria for PGD, and (2) treatment and transfer requests involving welfare-of-the-child considerations...
October 28, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866804/medical-epistemology
#18
Henk Ten Have, Bert Gordijn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647893/the-overdiagnosis-of-what-on-the-relationship-between-the-concepts-of-overdiagnosis-disease-and-diagnosis
#19
Bjørn Hofmann
Overdiagnosis and disease are related concepts. Widened conceptions of disease increase overdiagnosis and vice versa. This is partly because there is a close and complex relationship between disease and overdiagnosis. In order to address the problems with overdiagnosis, we may benefit from a closer understanding this relationship. Accordingly, the objective of this article is to elucidate the relationship between disease and overdiagnosis. To do so, the article starts with scrutinizing how overdiagnosis can explain the expansion of the concept of disease...
December 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456925/necessity-and-least-infringement-conditions-in-public-health-ethics
#20
Timothy Allen, Michael J Selgelid
The influential public health ethics framework proposed by Childress et al. includes five "justificatory conditions," two of which are "necessity" and "least infringement." While the framework points to important moral values, we argue it is redundant for it to list both necessity and least infringement because they are logically equivalent. However, it is ambiguous whether Childress et al. would endorse this view, or hold the two conditions distinct. This ambiguity has resulted in confusion in public health ethics discussions citing the Childress et al...
December 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
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