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Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905288/on-scientific-integrity-conceptual-clarification
#1
Maria do Céu Patrão Neves
The notion of "integrity" is currently quite common and broadly recognized as complex, mostly due to its recurring and diverse application in various distinct domains such as the physical, psychic or moral, the personal or professional, that of the human being or of the totality of beings. Nevertheless, its adjectivation imprints a specific meaning, as happens in the case of "scientific integrity". This concept has been defined mostly by via negativa, by pointing out what goes against integrity, that is, through the identification of its infringements, which has also not facilitated the elaboration of an overarching and consensual code of scientific integrity...
September 13, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887623/short-literature-notices
#2
EDITORIAL
Péter Kakuk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875227/-that-is-why-i-have-trust-unpacking-what-trust-means-to-participants-in-international-genetic-research-in-pakistan-and-denmark
#3
Zainab Sheikh, Klaus Hoeyer
Trust features prominently in a number of policy documents that have been issued in recent years to facilitate data sharing and international collaboration in medical research. However, it often remains unclear what is meant by 'trust'. By exploring a concrete international collaboration between Denmark and Pakistan, we develop a way of unpacking trust that shifts focus from what trust 'is' to what people invest in relationships and what references to trust do for them in these relationships. Based on interviews in both Pakistan and Denmark with people who provide blood samples and health data for the same laboratory, we find that when participants discuss trust they are trying to shape their relationship to researchers while simultaneously communicating important hopes, fears and expectations...
September 5, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866804/medical-epistemology
#4
Henk Ten Have, Bert Gordijn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864938/danish-sperm-donors-and-the-ethics-of-donation-and-selection
#5
Alison Wheatley
There has been a great deal of discussion about the ethical implications of donating sperm and of the ways in which donated tissue is presented, selected, and sold for use in assisted reproduction. Debates have emerged within the academic sphere, from donor offspring and recipients, and in broader popular culture, including questions about the commodification of human tissue and the eugenic potential of selecting donors from particular demographic categories. However, the voices of donors themselves on this subject have been largely silent...
September 1, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861735/dementia-identity-and-the-role-of-friends
#6
Christopher Cowley
Ronald Dworkin (1993) introduced the example of Margo, who was so severely demented that she could not recognise any family or friends, and could not remember anything of her life. At the same time, however, she seemed full of childish delight. Dworkin also imagines that, before her dementia, Margo signed an advance refusal of life-saving treatment. Now severely demented, she develops pneumonia, easy to treat, but lethal if untreated. Dworkin argues that the advance refusal ought to be heeded and Margo be allowed to die of that pneumonia, on the basis that the prior refusal expresses her true wishes (her 'critical interests')...
August 31, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852938/medicalising-short-children-with-growth-hormone-ethical-considerations-of-the-underlying-sociocultural-aspects
#7
Maria Cristina Murano
In 2003, the Food and Drug Administration approved the use of growth hormone treatment for idiopathic short stature children, i.e. children shorter than average due to an unknown medical cause. Given the absence of any pathological conditions, this decision has been contested as a case of medicalisation. The aim of this paper is to broaden the debate over the reasons for and against the treatment, to include considerations of the sociocultural phenomenon of the medicalisation of short stature, by means of a critical understanding of the concept of medicalisation...
August 29, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852925/against-the-integrative-turn-in-bioethics-burdens-of-understanding
#8
Lovro Savić, Viktor Ivanković
The advocates of Integrative Bioethics have insisted that this recently emerging project aspires to become a new stage of bioethical development, surpassing both biomedically oriented bioethics and global bioethics. We claim in this paper that if the project wants to successfully replace the two existing paradigms, it at least needs to properly address and surmount the lack of common moral vocabulary problem. This problem points to a semantic incommensurability due to cross-language communication in moral terms...
August 29, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785834/medical-oath-use-and-relevance-of-the-declaration-of-geneva-a-survey-of-member-organizations-of-the-world-medical-association-wma
#9
Zoé Rheinsberg, Ramin Parsa-Parsi, Otmar Kloiber, Urban Wiesing
The Declaration of Geneva is one of the core documents of medical ethics. A revision process was started by the World Medical Association (WMA) in 2016. The WMA has also used this occasion to examine how the Declaration of Geneva is used in countries throughout the world by conducting a survey of all WMA constituent members. The findings are highly important and raise urgent questions for the World Medical Association and its National Medical Associations (NMA): The Declaration of Geneva is only rarely used as an oath text despite the fact that physicians' oaths are generally widespread...
August 7, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755143/relational-autonomy-in-informed-consent-raic-as-an-ethics-of-care-approach-to-the-concept-of-informed-consent
#10
Peter I Osuji
The perspectives of the dominant Western ethical theories, have dominated the concepts of autonomy and informed consent for many years. Recently this dominant understanding has been challenged by ethics of care which, although, also emanates from the West presents a more nuanced concept: relational autonomy, which is more faithful to our human experience. By paying particular attention to relational autonomy, particularity and Process approach to ethical deliberations in ethics of care, this paper seeks to construct a concept of informed consent from the perspective of ethics of care which is here called relational autonomy-in-informed consent (RAIC)...
July 28, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752416/the-particularity-of-dignity-relational-engagement-in-care-at-the-end-of-life
#11
Jeannette Pols, Bernike Pasveer, Dick Willems
This paper articulates dignity as relational engagement in concrete care situations. Dignity is often understood as an abstract principle that represents inherent worth of all human beings. In actual care practices, this principle has to be substantiated in order to gain meaning and inform care activities. We describe three exemplary substantiations of the principle of dignity in care: as a state or characteristic of a situation; as a way to differentiate between socio-cultural positions; or as personal meaning...
July 27, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733796/beyond-integrating-social-sciences-reflecting-on-the-place-of-life-sciences-in-empirical-bioethics-methodologies
#12
Marcel Mertz, Jan Schildmann
Empirical bioethics is commonly understood as integrating empirical research with normative-ethical research in order to address an ethical issue. Methodological analyses in empirical bioethics mainly focus on the integration of socio-empirical sciences (e.g. sociology or psychology) and normative ethics. But while there are numerous multidisciplinary research projects combining life sciences and normative ethics, there is few explicit methodological reflection on how to integrate both fields, or about the goals and rationales of such interdisciplinary cooperation...
July 21, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725950/genome-editing-and-assisted-reproduction-curing-embryos-society-or-prospective-parents
#13
Giulia Cavaliere
This paper explores the ethics of introducing genome-editing technologies as a new reproductive option. In particular, it focuses on whether genome editing can be considered a morally valuable alternative to preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Two arguments against the use of genome editing in reproduction are analysed, namely safety concerns and germline modification. These arguments are then contrasted with arguments in favour of genome editing, in particular with the argument of the child's welfare and the argument of parental reproductive autonomy...
July 19, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711977/books-received
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 15, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710657/bioenhancement-of-morality
#15
EDITORIAL
Bert Gordijn, Henk Ten Have
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710656/medicine-and-technology-remarks-on-the-notion-of-responsibility-in-the-technology-assisted-health-care
#16
Waldemar Kwiatkowski
The introduction of the modern diagnostic and therapeutic procedures to the medical practice provided a new challenge for the medicine. The art of medicine, with its default purpose of acting for the benefit of health, is therefore required to derive from technological progress effectively and rationally. As a result, the medical ethics has been engaged with the rules of economy and management of deficit medical procedures as well as their rational and fair distribution. The above suggests, that medics, given these recourses, should approach each patient with a consideration to their therapeutic rights...
July 14, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710655/about-the-right-to-be-ill
#17
Jacek Halasz
The article raises the issue of 'the right to be ill', formulated by Tadeusz Kielanowski, a Polish physician and humanist. According to him, the right to health should be supplemented by the principle which would serve the protection of people with diseases or disabilities. One-sided interpretation of 'the right to health' may result in various forms of intolerance and discrimination. This paper presents what dangers Kielanowski recognized and explains why his approach was considered to be a novelty; what the idea of 'the right to be ill' is, how the need for it is substantiated...
July 14, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674939/the-care-dialog-the-ethics-of-care-approach-and-its-importance-for-clinical-ethics-consultation
#18
Patrick Schuchter, Andreas Heller
Ethics consultation in institutions of the healthcare system has been given a standard form based on three pillars: education, the development of guidelines and concrete ethics consultation in case conferences. The spread of ethics committees, which perform these tasks on an organizational level, is a remarkable historic achievement. At the same time it cannot be denied that modern ethics consultation neglects relevant aspects of care ethics approaches. In our essay we present an "ethics of care" approach as well as an empirical pilot project-"Ethics from the bottom up"-which organizes ethics consultation based on this focus...
July 3, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669129/assumptions-and-moral-understanding-of-the-wish-to-hasten-death-a-philosophical-review-of-qualitative-studies
#19
Andrea Rodríguez-Prat, Evert van Leeuwen
It is not uncommon for patients with advanced disease to express a wish to hasten death (WTHD). Qualitative studies of the WTHD have found that such a wish may have different meanings, none of which can be understood outside of the patient's personal and sociocultural background, or which necessarily imply taking concrete steps to ending one's life. The starting point for the present study was a previous systematic review of qualitative studies of the WTHD in advanced patients. Here we analyse in greater detail the statements made by patients included in that review in order to examine their moral understandings and representations of illness, the dying process and death...
July 1, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669128/phenomenology-of-pregnancy-and-the-ethics-of-abortion
#20
Fredrik Svenaeus
In this article I investigate the ways in which phenomenology could guide our views on the rights and/or wrongs of abortion. To my knowledge very few phenomenologists have directed their attention toward this issue, although quite a few have strived to better understand and articulate the strongly related themes of pregnancy and birth, most often in the context of feminist philosophy. After introducing the ethical and political contemporary debate concerning abortion, I introduce phenomenology in the context of medicine and the way phenomenologists have understood the human body to be lived and experienced by its owner...
July 1, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
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