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Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy

Stefan Eriksson, Gert Helgesson
This paper describes and discusses the phenomenon 'predatory publishing', in relation to both academic journals and books, and suggests a list of characteristics by which to identify predatory journals. It also raises the question whether traditional publishing houses have accompanied rogue publishers upon this path. It is noted that bioethics as a discipline does not stand unaffected by this trend. Towards the end of the paper it is discussed what can and should be done to eliminate or reduce the effects of this development...
October 7, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Kari Nyheim Solbrække, Håvard Søiland, Kirsten Lode, Birgitta Haga Gripsrud
In this paper we explore the rise of 'the breast cancer gene' as a field of medical, cultural and personal knowledge. We address its significance in the Norwegian public health care system in relation to so-called biological citizenship in this particular national context. One of our main findings is that, despite its claims as a measure for health and disease prevention, gaining access to medical knowledge of BRCA 1/2 breast cancer gene mutations can also produce severe instability in the individuals and families affected...
October 5, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Zohrehsadat Naji, Zari Zamani, Sofia A Koutlaki, Payman Salamati
Respect for personal autonomy in decision-making is one of the four ethical principles in medical circumstances. This paper aims to present evidence that can be considered good exemplars in the clarification of the ethical viewpoints of the western and Shi'i Islamic perspectives on this issue. The method followed was originally a search in international indexing services in April 2016. Our findings point towards various controversies on individuals' autonomy lead to different decision making outcomes by health workers in both different traditions...
October 3, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Anna Bortolan
In this study I explore from a phenomenological perspective the relationship between affectivity and narrative self-understanding in depression. Phenomenological accounts often conceive of the disorder as involving disturbances of the narrative self and suggest that these disturbances are related to the alterations of emotions and moods typical of the illness. In this paper I expand these accounts by advancing two sets of claims. In the first place, I suggest that, due to the loss of feeling characteristic of the illness, the narratives with which the patients identified prior to the onset of depression are altered in various ways, thus leading to the weakening or abandonment of the narratives themselves...
September 27, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Ruud Hendriks
Clowns seem suspect when it comes to respect. The combination of clowning and people with dementia may seem especially suspicious. In this argument, I take potential concerns about clowning in dementia care as an opportunity to explore the meaning of a respectful approach of people with dementia. Our word 'respect' is derived from the Latin respiciō, meaning 'looking back' or 'seeing again', as well as 'looking after' or 'having regard' for someone or something. I build upon this double meaning of respiciō by examining how simultaneously we look to and after people with dementia...
September 23, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Péter Kakuk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Angeliki Kerasidou
In biomedical research lack of trust is seen as a great threat that can severely jeopardise the whole biomedical research enterprise. Practices, such as informed consent, and also the administrative and regulatory oversight of research in the form of research ethics committees and Institutional Review Boards, are established to ensure the protection of future research subjects and, at the same time, restore public trust in biomedical research. Empirical research also testifies to the role of trust as one of the decisive factors in research participation and lack of trust as a barrier for consenting to research...
September 15, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Aasim I Padela, Omar Qureshi
The ever-increasing technological advances of modern medicine have increased physicians' capacity to carry out a wide array of clinical interventions near the end-of-life. These new procedures have resulted in new "types" of living where a patient's cognitive functions are severely diminished although many physiological functions remain active. In this biomedical context, patients, surrogate decision-makers, and clinicians all struggle with decisions about what clinical interventions to pursue and when therapeutic intent should be replaced with palliative goals of care...
September 9, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Greg Stapleton
In the near future developments in non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) may soon provide couples with the opportunity to test for and diagnose a much broader range of heritable and congenital conditions than has previously been possible. Inevitably, this has prompted much ethical debate on the possible implications of NIPT for providing couples with opportunities for reproductive choice by way of routine prenatal screening. In view of the possibility to test for a significantly broader range of genetic conditions with NIPT, the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) and American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) recommend that, pending further debate, prenatal screening for reproductive choice should only be offered where concerning serious congenital conditions and childhood disorders...
September 8, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Constantinos Kanaris
In 2008 the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act amendments made deliberately choosing to bring disability into the world, using assisted reproduction, a criminal offence. This paper considers whether the legal prohibition above, should influence other policy areas concerning the welfare of future children such as new possibilities presented by foetal surgery and in utero gene therapy. If we have legal duties to avoid disability in one context should this influence our avoidance of disability in this other context? This paper investigates whether the State might have a stake in wider promotion of practices to reduce the degree of disability in foetuses that will come to exist (as opposed to those that will be aborted)...
September 8, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Henk Ten Have, Bert Gordijn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Anna-Karin Andersson, Frode Lindemark, Kjell Arne Johansson
Recent health legislation in Norway significantly increases access to specialist care within a legally binding time frame. The paper describes the contents of the new legislation and introduces some of the challenges with proliferations of rights to health care. The paper describes some of the challenges associated with the proliferation of legal rights to health care. It explains the benefits of assessing the new law in the light of a rights framework. It then analyses the problematic aspects of establishing additional priority rules as solutions to rights conflicts...
September 3, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Gert Helgesson, Niels Lynøe, Niklas Juth
Slippery-slope arguments typically question a course of action by estimating that it will end in misery once the first unfortunate step is taken. Previous studies indicate that estimations of the long-term consequences of certain debated actions, such as legalizing physician-assisted suicide, may be strongly influenced by tacit personal values. In this paper, we suggest that to the extent that slippery-slope arguments rest on estimations of future events, they may be mere rationalizations of personal values...
August 31, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Denard Veshi
This study examines the decisions of the French Conseil d'Etat (Supreme Administrative Court) and the European Court of Human Rights in the Lambert case concerning the withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments. After presenting the facts of this case, the main legal question will be analyzed from an ethical and medical standpoint. The decisions of the Conseil d'État and then of the European Court of Human Rights are studied from a comparative legal perspective. This commentary focuses on the autonomous will of an unconscious patient and on the judicial interpretation of the right to life as recognized in article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights...
August 31, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Sabine Salloch
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) and medical professionalism are two prominent notions in current medical debates. However, proponents of professionalism fear a restriction in doctors' freedom to make their best decisions for individual patients caused by the influence of EBM and highly standardised decision procedures. The challenge which EBM allegedly poses to physicians' discretion forms the starting point for an analysis of the relationship between professionalism, as an inherent value system of medical practice, and EBM, as an approach to optimise the decision-making for individual patients...
August 31, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
John W Murphy, Berkeley A Franz
The move to patient-centered medical practice is important for providing relevant and sustainable health care. Narrative medicine, for example, suggests that patients should be involved significantly in diagnosis and treatment. In order to understand the meaning of symptoms and interventions, therefore, physicians must enter the life worlds of patients. But physicians face high patient loads and limited time for extended consultations. In current medical practice, then, is narrative medicine possible? We argue that engaging patient perspectives in the medical visit does not necessarily require a lengthy interview...
August 30, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Irit Allon, Ahmi Ben-Yehudah, Raz Dekel, Jan-Helge Solbakk, Klaus-Michael Weltring, Gil Siegal
Nanomedicine offers remarkable options for new therapeutic avenues. As methods in nanomedicine advance, ethical questions conjunctly arise. Nanomedicine is an exceptional niche in several aspects as it reflects risks and uncertainties not encountered in other areas of medical research or practice. Nanomedicine partially overlaps, partially interlocks and partially exceeds other medical disciplines. Some interpreters agree that advances in nanotechnology may pose varied ethical challenges, whilst others argue that these challenges are not new and that nanotechnology basically echoes recurrent bioethical dilemmas...
August 13, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Jozsef Kovacs
This paper invokes the conceptual framework of Bourdieu to analyse the mechanisms, which help to maintain inappropriate authorship practices and the functions these practices may serve. Bourdieu's social theory with its emphasis on mechanisms of domination can be applied to the academic field, too, where competition is omnipresent, control mechanisms of authorship are loose, and the result of performance assessment can be a matter of symbolic life and death for the researchers. This results in a problem of game-theoretic nature, where researchers' behaviour will be determined more by the logic of competition, than by individual character or motives...
August 13, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Luciana Garbayo, James Stahl
Guidelines orient best practices in medicine, yet, in health care, many real world constraints limit their optimal realization. Since guideline implementation problems are not systematically anticipated, they will be discovered only post facto, in a learning curve period, while the already implemented guideline is tweaked, debugged and adapted. This learning process comes with costs to human health and quality of life. Despite such predictable hazard, the study and modeling of medical guideline implementation is still seldom pursued...
August 6, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
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