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Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785834/medical-oath-use-and-relevance-of-the-declaration-of-geneva-a-survey-of-member-organizations-of-the-world-medical-association-wma
#1
Zoé Rheinsberg, Ramin Parsa-Parsi, Otmar Kloiber, Urban Wiesing
The Declaration of Geneva is one of the core documents of medical ethics. A revision process was started by the World Medical Association (WMA) in 2016. The WMA has also used this occasion to examine how the Declaration of Geneva is used in countries throughout the world by conducting a survey of all WMA constituent members. The findings are highly important and raise urgent questions for the World Medical Association and its National Medical Associations (NMA): The Declaration of Geneva is only rarely used as an oath text despite the fact that physicians' oaths are generally widespread...
August 7, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755143/relational-autonomy-in-informed-consent-raic-as-an-ethics-of-care-approach-to-the-concept-of-informed-consent
#2
Peter I Osuji
The perspectives of the dominant Western ethical theories, have dominated the concepts of autonomy and informed consent for many years. Recently this dominant understanding has been challenged by ethics of care which, although, also emanates from the West presents a more nuanced concept: relational autonomy, which is more faithful to our human experience. By paying particular attention to relational autonomy, particularity and Process approach to ethical deliberations in ethics of care, this paper seeks to construct a concept of informed consent from the perspective of ethics of care which is here called relational autonomy-in-informed consent (RAIC)...
July 28, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752416/the-particularity-of-dignity-relational-engagement-in-care-at-the-end-of-life
#3
Jeannette Pols, Bernike Pasveer, Dick Willems
This paper articulates dignity as relational engagement in concrete care situations. Dignity is often understood as an abstract principle that represents inherent worth of all human beings. In actual care practices, this principle has to be substantiated in order to gain meaning and inform care activities. We describe three exemplary substantiations of the principle of dignity in care: as a state or characteristic of a situation; as a way to differentiate between socio-cultural positions; or as personal meaning...
July 27, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733796/beyond-integrating-social-sciences-reflecting-on-the-place-of-life-sciences-in-empirical-bioethics-methodologies
#4
Marcel Mertz, Jan Schildmann
Empirical bioethics is commonly understood as integrating empirical research with normative-ethical research in order to address an ethical issue. Methodological analyses in empirical bioethics mainly focus on the integration of socio-empirical sciences (e.g. sociology or psychology) and normative ethics. But while there are numerous multidisciplinary research projects combining life sciences and normative ethics, there is few explicit methodological reflection on how to integrate both fields, or about the goals and rationales of such interdisciplinary cooperation...
July 21, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725950/genome-editing-and-assisted-reproduction-curing-embryos-society-or-prospective-parents
#5
Giulia Cavaliere
This paper explores the ethics of introducing genome-editing technologies as a new reproductive option. In particular, it focuses on whether genome editing can be considered a morally valuable alternative to preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Two arguments against the use of genome editing in reproduction are analysed, namely safety concerns and germline modification. These arguments are then contrasted with arguments in favour of genome editing, in particular with the argument of the child's welfare and the argument of parental reproductive autonomy...
July 19, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711977/books-received
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 15, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710657/bioenhancement-of-morality
#7
EDITORIAL
Bert Gordijn, Henk Ten Have
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710656/medicine-and-technology-remarks-on-the-notion-of-responsibility-in-the-technology-assisted-health-care
#8
Waldemar Kwiatkowski
The introduction of the modern diagnostic and therapeutic procedures to the medical practice provided a new challenge for the medicine. The art of medicine, with its default purpose of acting for the benefit of health, is therefore required to derive from technological progress effectively and rationally. As a result, the medical ethics has been engaged with the rules of economy and management of deficit medical procedures as well as their rational and fair distribution. The above suggests, that medics, given these recourses, should approach each patient with a consideration to their therapeutic rights...
July 14, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710655/about-the-right-to-be-ill
#9
Jacek Halasz
The article raises the issue of 'the right to be ill', formulated by Tadeusz Kielanowski, a Polish physician and humanist. According to him, the right to health should be supplemented by the principle which would serve the protection of people with diseases or disabilities. One-sided interpretation of 'the right to health' may result in various forms of intolerance and discrimination. This paper presents what dangers Kielanowski recognized and explains why his approach was considered to be a novelty; what the idea of 'the right to be ill' is, how the need for it is substantiated...
July 14, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674939/the-care-dialog-the-ethics-of-care-approach-and-its-importance-for-clinical-ethics-consultation
#10
Patrick Schuchter, Andreas Heller
Ethics consultation in institutions of the healthcare system has been given a standard form based on three pillars: education, the development of guidelines and concrete ethics consultation in case conferences. The spread of ethics committees, which perform these tasks on an organizational level, is a remarkable historic achievement. At the same time it cannot be denied that modern ethics consultation neglects relevant aspects of care ethics approaches. In our essay we present an "ethics of care" approach as well as an empirical pilot project-"Ethics from the bottom up"-which organizes ethics consultation based on this focus...
July 3, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669129/assumptions-and-moral-understanding-of-the-wish-to-hasten-death-a-philosophical-review-of-qualitative-studies
#11
Andrea Rodríguez-Prat, Evert van Leeuwen
It is not uncommon for patients with advanced disease to express a wish to hasten death (WTHD). Qualitative studies of the WTHD have found that such a wish may have different meanings, none of which can be understood outside of the patient's personal and sociocultural background, or which necessarily imply taking concrete steps to ending one's life. The starting point for the present study was a previous systematic review of qualitative studies of the WTHD in advanced patients. Here we analyse in greater detail the statements made by patients included in that review in order to examine their moral understandings and representations of illness, the dying process and death...
July 1, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669128/phenomenology-of-pregnancy-and-the-ethics-of-abortion
#12
Fredrik Svenaeus
In this article I investigate the ways in which phenomenology could guide our views on the rights and/or wrongs of abortion. To my knowledge very few phenomenologists have directed their attention toward this issue, although quite a few have strived to better understand and articulate the strongly related themes of pregnancy and birth, most often in the context of feminist philosophy. After introducing the ethical and political contemporary debate concerning abortion, I introduce phenomenology in the context of medicine and the way phenomenologists have understood the human body to be lived and experienced by its owner...
July 1, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647893/the-overdiagnosis-of-what-on-the-relationship-between-the-concepts-of-overdiagnosis-disease-and-diagnosis
#13
Bjørn Hofmann
Overdiagnosis and disease are related concepts. Widened conceptions of disease increase overdiagnosis and vice versa. This is partly because there is a close and complex relationship between disease and overdiagnosis. In order to address the problems with overdiagnosis, we may benefit from a closer understanding this relationship. Accordingly, the objective of this article is to elucidate the relationship between disease and overdiagnosis. To do so, the article starts with scrutinizing how overdiagnosis can explain the expansion of the concept of disease...
June 24, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601921/the-history-of-autonomy-in-medicine-from-antiquity-to-principlism
#14
Toni C Saad
Respect for Autonomy (RFA) has been a mainstay of medical ethics since its enshrinement as one of the four principles of biomedical ethics by Beauchamp and Childress' in the late 1970s. This paper traces the development of this modern concept from Antiquity to the present day, paying attention to its Enlightenment origins in Kant and Rousseau. The rapid C20th developments of bioethics and RFA are then considered in the context of the post-war period and American socio-political thought. The validity and utility of the RFA are discussed in light of this philosophical-historical account...
June 10, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601920/human-dignity-as-a-basis-for-providing-post-trial-access-to-healthcare-for-research-participants-a-south-african-perspective
#15
Pamela Andanda, Jane Wathuta
This paper discusses the need to focus on the dignity of human participants as a legal and ethical basis for providing post-trial access to healthcare. Debate about post-trial benefits has mostly focused on access to products or interventions proven to be effective in clinical trials. However, such access may be modelled on a broad fair benefits framework that emphasises both collateral benefits and interventional products of research, instead of prescribed post-trial access alone (Legal and ethical regulation of biomedical research in developing countries p...
June 10, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597325/the-impossibility-of-reliably-determining-the-authenticity-of-desires-implications-for-informed-consent
#16
Jesper Ahlin
It is sometimes argued that autonomous decision-making requires that the decision-maker's desires are authentic, i.e., "genuine," "truly her own," "not out of character," or similar. In this article, it is argued that a method to reliably determine the authenticity (or inauthenticity) of a desire cannot be developed. A taxonomy of characteristics displayed by different theories of authenticity is introduced and applied to evaluate such theories categorically, in contrast to the prior approach of treating them individually...
June 8, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551773/should-physicians-tell-the-truth-without-taking-social-complications-into-account-a-striking-case
#17
Ercan Avci
The principle of respect for autonomy requires informing patients adequately and appropriately about diagnoses, treatments, and prognoses. However, some clinical cases may cause ethical dilemmas regarding telling the truth. Under the existence especially of certain cultural, social, and religious circumstances, disclosing all the relevant information to all pertinent parties might create harmful effects. Even though the virtue of telling the truth is unquestionable, sometimes de facto conditions compel physicians to act paternalistically to protect the patient/patients from imminent dangers...
May 27, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551772/e-health-beyond-technology-analyzing-the-paradigm-shift-that-lies-beneath
#18
Tania Moerenhout, Ignaas Devisch, Gustaaf C Cornelis
Information and computer technology has come to play an increasingly important role in medicine, to the extent that e-health has been described as a disruptive innovation or revolution in healthcare. The attention is very much focused on the technology itself, and advances that have been made in genetics and biology. This leads to the question: What is changing in medicine today concerning e-health? To what degree could these changes be characterized as a 'revolution'? We will apply the work of Thomas Kuhn, Larry Laudan, Michel Foucault and other philosophers-which offers an alternative understanding of progress and revolution in medicine to the classic discovery-oriented approach-to our analysis...
May 27, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785588/-we-need-to-talk-barriers-to-gps-communication-about-the-option-of-physician-assisted-suicide-and-their-ethical-implications-results-from-a-qualitative-study
#19
Ina C Otte, Corinna Jung, Bernice Elger, Klaus Bally
GPs usually care for their patients for an extended period of time, therefore, requests to not only discontinue a patient's treatment but to assist a patient in a suicide are likely to create intensely stressful situations for physicians. However, in order to ensure the best patient care possible, the competent communication about the option of physician assisted suicide (PAS) as well as the assessment of the origin and sincerity of the request are very important. This is especially true, since patients' requests for PAS can also be an indicator for unmet needs or concerns...
June 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757784/permitting-patients-to-pay-for-participation-in-clinical-trials-the-advent-of-the-p4-trial
#20
David Shaw, Guido de Wert, Wybo Dondorp, David Townend, Gerard Bos, Michel van Gelder
In this article we explore the ethical issues raised by permitting patients to pay for participation (P4) in clinical trials, and discuss whether there are any categorical objections to this practice. We address key considerations concerning payment for participation in trials, including patient autonomy, risk/benefit and justice, taking account of two previous critiques of the ethics of P4. We conclude that such trials could be ethical under certain strict conditions, but only if other potential sources of funding have first been explored or are unavailable...
June 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
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