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Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127644/erasmus-mundus-master-of-bioethics-a-case-for-an-effective-model-for-international-bioethics-education
#1
Jan Piasecki, Kevin Dirksen, Hamilton Inbadas
Designing bioethics curriculum for international postgraduate students is a challenging task. There are at least two main questions, which have to be resolved in advance: (1) what is a purpose of a particular teaching program and (2) how to respectfully arrange a classroom for students coming from different cultural and professional backgrounds. In our paper we analyze the case of the Erasmus Mundus Master of Bioethics program and provide recommendations for international bioethics education. In our opinion teaching bioethics to postgraduate international students goes beyond curriculum...
November 10, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124449/the-evolution-of-public-health-ethics-frameworks-systematic-review-of-moral-values-and-norms-in-public-health-policy
#2
REVIEW
Mahmoud Abbasi, Reza Majdzadeh, Alireza Zali, Abbas Karimi, Forouzan Akrami
Given the evolution of the public health (PH) and the changes from the phenomenon of globalization, this area has encountered new ethical challenges. In order to find a coherent approach to address ethical issues in PH policy, this study aimed to identify the evolution of public health ethics (PHE) frameworks and the main moral values and norms in PH practice and policy. According to the research questions, a systematic search of the literature, in English, with no time limit was performed using the main keywords in databases Web of Science (ISI) and PubMed...
November 9, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098562/towards-living-within-my-body-and-accepting-the-past-a-case-study-of-embodied-narrative-identity
#3
Randi Sviland, Kari Martinsen, Målfrid Råheim
This narrative case study, created from several qualitative sources, portrays a young woman's life experiences and an eight yearlong therapy process with Norwegian Psychomotor Physiotherapy (NPMP). It is analyzed retrospectively from an analytical angle, where NPMP theory is expanded with Løgstrup's phenomenology of sensation and Ricoeur's narrative philosophy. Understanding Rita's narrative through this window displayed some foundational phenomena in a singular way, illuminating embodied experiences in inter-subjective relationships in movement, sensation and time entwined...
November 2, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086894/incentivized-goodness
#4
Vojin Rakić
It will be argued that humans have a rational self-interest in voluntarily opting to subject themselves to moral bioenhancement. This interest is based on the fact that goodness appears to be conducive to happiness. Those who understand that will be more inclined to opt for safe and effective moral bioenhancement technologies that have the potential to augment our motivation to become better. The more people decide to follow this path, the likelier it is that states will adopt suitable policies that incentivize moral bioenhancement...
October 31, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086191/public-trust-and-ethics-review-as-a-commodity-the-case-of-genomics-england-limited-and-the-uk-s-100-000-genomes-project
#5
Gabrielle Natalie Samuel, Bobbie Farsides
The UK Chief Medical Officer's 2016 Annual Report, Generation Genome, focused on a vision to fully integrate genomics into all aspects of the UK's National Health Service (NHS). This process of integration, which has now already begun, raises a wide range of social and ethical concerns, many of which were discussed in the final Chapter of the report. This paper explores how the UK's 100,000 Genomes Project (100 kGP)-the catalyst for Generation Genome, and for bringing genomics into the NHS-is negotiating these ethical concerns...
October 30, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081015/dealing-with-treatment-and-transfer-requests-how-pgd-professionals-discuss-ethical-challenges-arising-in-everyday-practice
#6
Melisa Soto-Lafontaine, Wybo Dondorp, Veerle Provoost, Guido de Wert
How do professionals working in pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) reflect upon their decision making with regard to ethical challenges arising in everyday practice? Two focus group discussions were held with staff of reproductive genetic clinics: one in Utrecht (The Netherlands) with PGD-professionals from Dutch PGD-centres and one in Prague (Czech Republic) with PGD-professionals working in centres in different European countries. Both meetings consisted of two parts, exploring participants' views regarding (1) treatment requests for conditions that may not fulfill traditional indications criteria for PGD, and (2) treatment and transfer requests involving welfare-of-the-child considerations...
October 28, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052083/patient-specific-devices-and-population-level-evidence-evaluating-therapeutic-interventions-with-inherent-variation
#7
Mary Jean Walker
Designing and manufacturing medical devices for specific patients is becoming increasingly feasible with developments in 3D printing and 3D imaging software. This raises the question of how patient-specific devices can be evaluated, since our 'gold standard' method for evaluation, the randomised controlled trial (RCT), requires that an intervention is standardised across a number of individuals in an experimental group. I distinguish several senses of patient-specific device, and focus the discussion on understanding the problem of variations between instances of an intervention for RCT evaluation...
October 19, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043540/between-quality-of-life-and-hope-attitudes-and-beliefs-of-muslim-women-toward-withholding-and-withdrawing-life-sustaining-treatments
#8
REVIEW
Chaïma Ahaddour, Stef Van den Branden, Bert Broeckaert
The technological advances in medicine, including prolongation of life, have constituted several dilemmas at the end of life. In the context of the Belgian debates on end-of-life care, the views of Muslim women remain understudied. The aim of this article is fourfold. First, we seek to describe the beliefs and attitudes of middle-aged and elderly Moroccan Muslim women toward withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatments. Second, we aim to identify whether differences are observable among middle-aged and elderly women's attitudes toward withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatments...
October 17, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027632/let-us-talk-about-eggs-professional-resistance-to-elective-egg-vitrification-and-gendered-medical-paternalism
#9
Judit Sándor, Lilla Vicsek, Zsófia Bauer
In this paper, by applying a feminist bioethical perspective, we identify a new form of medical paternalism that still shapes contemporary legal policies on human egg cryopreservation performed without medical reasons. The fear of negligent, careless women who opt to delay their pregnancy for mere convenience is a widely known gender biased stereotype. Nevertheless, the opinions and judgments of medical professionals on this issue have not yet been sufficiently explored by in-depth research. In this essay, therefore, first we look at the broader bioethical, legal, and social aspects of human egg cryopreservation...
October 13, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022171/debating-social-egg-freezing-arguments-from-phases-of-life
#10
Eva Weber-Guskar
So-called "social egg freezing" allows a woman to retain the possibility of trying to have a child with her own oocytes later in life, even after having become infertile in the strict sense of the word (that is, infertile without assistance in reproduction).There is a debate about whether it is morally permissible at all, the extent to which it should be permitted legally or even supported, and whether it is ethically desirable. This paper contributes some thoughts to the issue of ethical desirability. More precisely it deals with the question of whether there is any valuable argument to be made on the basis of the idea of life phases and normative expectations related to them...
October 11, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939999/our-genes-our-selves-hereditary-breast-cancer-and-biological-citizenship-in-norway
#11
Pål Møller, Eivind Hovig
The concept 'hereditary breast cancer' is commonly used to delineate a group of people genetically at risk for breast cancer-all of whom also having risk for other cancers. People carrying pathogenic variants of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are often referred to as those having predisposition for 'hereditary breast cancer'. The two genes, however, are when altered, associated with different risks for and dying from breast cancer. The main risk for dying for carriers of both genes is from ovarian cancer. These biological facts are of philosophical interest, because they are the facts underlying the public debate on BRCA1/2 genetic testing as a model for the discussion of how to implement genetic knowledge and technologies in personalized medicine...
September 22, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905288/on-scientific-integrity-conceptual-clarification
#12
Maria do Céu Patrão Neves
The notion of "integrity" is currently quite common and broadly recognized as complex, mostly due to its recurring and diverse application in various distinct domains such as the physical, psychic or moral, the personal or professional, that of the human being or of the totality of beings. Nevertheless, its adjectivation imprints a specific meaning, as happens in the case of "scientific integrity". This concept has been defined mostly by via negativa, by pointing out what goes against integrity, that is, through the identification of its infringements, which has also not facilitated the elaboration of an overarching and consensual code of scientific integrity...
September 13, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875227/-that-is-why-i-have-trust-unpacking-what-trust-means-to-participants-in-international-genetic-research-in-pakistan-and-denmark
#13
Zainab Sheikh, Klaus Hoeyer
Trust features prominently in a number of policy documents that have been issued in recent years to facilitate data sharing and international collaboration in medical research. However, it often remains unclear what is meant by 'trust'. By exploring a concrete international collaboration between Denmark and Pakistan, we develop a way of unpacking trust that shifts focus from what trust 'is' to what people invest in relationships and what references to trust do for them in these relationships. Based on interviews in both Pakistan and Denmark with people who provide blood samples and health data for the same laboratory, we find that when participants discuss trust they are trying to shape their relationship to researchers while simultaneously communicating important hopes, fears and expectations...
September 5, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864938/danish-sperm-donors-and-the-ethics-of-donation-and-selection
#14
Alison Wheatley
There has been a great deal of discussion about the ethical implications of donating sperm and of the ways in which donated tissue is presented, selected, and sold for use in assisted reproduction. Debates have emerged within the academic sphere, from donor offspring and recipients, and in broader popular culture, including questions about the commodification of human tissue and the eugenic potential of selecting donors from particular demographic categories. However, the voices of donors themselves on this subject have been largely silent...
September 1, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861735/dementia-identity-and-the-role-of-friends
#15
Christopher Cowley
Ronald Dworkin (1993) introduced the example of Margo, who was so severely demented that she could not recognise any family or friends, and could not remember anything of her life. At the same time, however, she seemed full of childish delight. Dworkin also imagines that, before her dementia, Margo signed an advance refusal of life-saving treatment. Now severely demented, she develops pneumonia, easy to treat, but lethal if untreated. Dworkin argues that the advance refusal ought to be heeded and Margo be allowed to die of that pneumonia, on the basis that the prior refusal expresses her true wishes (her 'critical interests')...
August 31, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852938/medicalising-short-children-with-growth-hormone-ethical-considerations-of-the-underlying-sociocultural-aspects
#16
Maria Cristina Murano
In 2003, the Food and Drug Administration approved the use of growth hormone treatment for idiopathic short stature children, i.e. children shorter than average due to an unknown medical cause. Given the absence of any pathological conditions, this decision has been contested as a case of medicalisation. The aim of this paper is to broaden the debate over the reasons for and against the treatment, to include considerations of the sociocultural phenomenon of the medicalisation of short stature, by means of a critical understanding of the concept of medicalisation...
August 29, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852925/against-the-integrative-turn-in-bioethics-burdens-of-understanding
#17
Lovro Savić, Viktor Ivanković
The advocates of Integrative Bioethics have insisted that this recently emerging project aspires to become a new stage of bioethical development, surpassing both biomedically oriented bioethics and global bioethics. We claim in this paper that if the project wants to successfully replace the two existing paradigms, it at least needs to properly address and surmount the lack of common moral vocabulary problem. This problem points to a semantic incommensurability due to cross-language communication in moral terms...
August 29, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866804/medical-epistemology
#18
Henk Ten Have, Bert Gordijn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647893/the-overdiagnosis-of-what-on-the-relationship-between-the-concepts-of-overdiagnosis-disease-and-diagnosis
#19
Bjørn Hofmann
Overdiagnosis and disease are related concepts. Widened conceptions of disease increase overdiagnosis and vice versa. This is partly because there is a close and complex relationship between disease and overdiagnosis. In order to address the problems with overdiagnosis, we may benefit from a closer understanding this relationship. Accordingly, the objective of this article is to elucidate the relationship between disease and overdiagnosis. To do so, the article starts with scrutinizing how overdiagnosis can explain the expansion of the concept of disease...
December 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456925/necessity-and-least-infringement-conditions-in-public-health-ethics
#20
Timothy Allen, Michael J Selgelid
The influential public health ethics framework proposed by Childress et al. includes five "justificatory conditions," two of which are "necessity" and "least infringement." While the framework points to important moral values, we argue it is redundant for it to list both necessity and least infringement because they are logically equivalent. However, it is ambiguous whether Childress et al. would endorse this view, or hold the two conditions distinct. This ambiguity has resulted in confusion in public health ethics discussions citing the Childress et al...
December 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
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