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International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407508/emodin-rescued-hyperhomocysteinemia-induced-dementia-and-alzheimer-s-disease-like-features-in-rats
#1
Peng Zeng, Yan Shi, Xiao-Ming Wang, Li Lin, Yan-Jun Du, Na Tang, Qun Wang, Ying-Yan Fang, Jian-Zhi Wang, Xin-Wen Zhou, Youming Lu, Qing Tian
Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is an independent risk factor for dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Lowering homocysteine levels with folic acid treatment with or without vitamin B12 was shown few clinical benefits on cognition. Methods: To verify the effect of emodin, a naturally active compound from Rheum officinale, on HHcy-induced dementia, rats were treated with homocysteine injection (HCY, 400 g/kg/day, 2 weeks) via vena caudalis. Afterwards, HCY rats with cognitive deficits were administered intragastric emodin at different concentrations, namely, 0 (HCY-E0), 20 (HCY-E20), 40 (HCY-E40) and 80 mg/kg/day (HCY-E80) for 2 weeks...
November 8, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407505/antidepressant-effects-of-rhodomyrtone-in-mice-with-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depression
#2
Huihui Chai, Bin Liu, Haoqiang Zhan, Xueqian Li, Zhipeng He, Jingan Ye, Qiang Guo, Junxi Chen, Jun Zhang, Shaopeng Li
Background: Rhodomyrtone is one of the main active compounds derived from Rhodomyrtustomentosa, which belongs to the Myrtaceae family. In the current study, we investigated the properties of rhodomyrtone as a potential drug candidate for the treatment of stress-caused depression. Methods: We assessed the function of rhodomyrtone in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), a well-validated depression model in mice. Depression-like behaviour tests, including a sucrose performance test, social interaction test, and forced swimming test, were used to validate the antidepressant effects of rhodomyrtone...
November 8, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407503/inhibition-of-phosphodiesterase-4-by-fcpr03-alleviates-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depressive-like-behaviors-and-prevents-dendritic-spine-loss-in-mice-hippocampi
#3
Hui Yu, Jiahong Zhong, Bo Niu, Qiuping Zhong, Jiao Xiao, Jinfeng Xie, Manna Lin, Zhongzhen Zhou, Jiangping Xu, Haitao Wang
Background: Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is a promising target for developing novel antidepressants. However, prototype PDE4 inhibitors show severe side effects, including nausea and vomiting. FCPR03 is a novel PDE4 inhibitor with little emetic potential. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of FCPR03 on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive-like behaviors in mice and explored the underlying mechanisms. Methods: The depression model of mice was established by CUMS...
November 8, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30346535/serotonin-and-norepinephrine-transporter-occupancy-of-tramadol-in-non-human-primate-using-positron-emission-tomography
#4
Ryosuke Arakawa, Akihiro Takano, Christer Halldin
Background: Tramadol, a centrally acting analgesic drug, has relatively high affinity to serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) in addition to μ-opioid receptor. Based on this characteristic, tramadol is expected to have antidepressant effect. Methods: Positron emission tomography measurements with [ 11C]MADAM and [ 18F]FMeNER-D2 were performed at the baseline and after intravenous administration of three different doses (1, 2, and 4mg/kg) of tramadol using six cynomolgus monkeys...
October 20, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335150/melanin-concentrating-hormone-mch-and-mch-r1-in-the-locus-coeruleus-may-be-involved-in-the-regulation-of-depressive-like-behavior
#5
Hui Ye, Xiang-Yu Cui, Hui Ding, Su-Ying Cui, Xiao Hu, Yu-Tong Liu, Hui-Ling Zhao, Yong-He Zhang
Background: Previous anatomical and behavioral studies have shown that melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is involved in the modulation of emotional states. However, little is known about brain regions other than the dorsal raphe nucleus that relate the MCH-ergic system to depressive states. Numerous studies have shown that the locus coeruleus (LC) is involved in the regulation of depression and sleep. Although direct physiological evidence is lacking, previous studies suggest that MCH release in the LC decreases neuronal discharge...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329063/lipid-lowering-drug-effects-beyond-the-cardiovascular-system-relevance-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#6
Falk W Lohoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30260415/propofol-for-treatment-resistant-depression-a-pilot-study
#7
Brian J Mickey, Andrea T White, Anna M Arp, Kolby Leonardi, Marina M Torres, Adam L Larson, David H Odell, Sara A Whittingham, Michael M Beck, Jacob E Jessop, Derek J Sakata, Lowry A Bushnell, Matthew D Pierson, Daniela Solzbacher, E Jeremy Kendrick, Howard R Weeks, Alan R Light, Kathleen C Light, Scott C Tadler
Background: We hypothesized that propofol -- a unique general anesthetic that engages N-methyl-D-aspartate and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors -- has antidepressant properties. This open-label trial was designed to collect preliminary data regarding the feasibility, tolerability, and efficacy of deep propofol anesthesia for treatment-resistant depression. Methods: Ten participants with moderate-to-severe medication-resistant depression (age 18-45 and otherwise healthy) each received a series of 10 propofol infusions...
September 27, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30247630/enriched-physical-environment-attenuates-spatial-and-social-memory-impairments-of-aged-socially-isolated-mice
#8
Linmei Wang, Min Cao, Tinglin Pu, Huang Huang, Charles Marshall, Ming Xiao
Background: Social isolation (SI) in the elderly is one of the principal health risks in an ageing society. Physical environmental enrichment (EE) is shown to improve sensory, cognitive and motor functions, but it is unknown whether or not EE could protect against brain impairments caused by SI. Methods: Eighteen-month-old mice were housed in either grouped or isolated, in a standard or enriched environment for 2 months, respectively. Behavioral tests were performed to evaluate cognitive functional and social interaction ability...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239793/smoking-rates-and-number-of-cigarettes-smoked-per-day-in-schizophrenia-a-large-cohort-meta-analysis-in-a-japanese-population
#9
Kazutaka Ohi, Takamitsu Shimada, Aki Kuwata, Yuzuru Kataoka, Hiroaki Okubo, Kohei Kimura, Toshiki Yasuyama, Takashi Uehara, Yasuhiro Kawasaki
Background: Cigarette smoking is consistently more common among schizophrenia patients than the general population worldwide; however, the findings of studies in Japan are inconsistent. Recently, the smoking rate has gradually decreased among the general population. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of smoking status in a large Japanese cohort of (1) 1845 schizophrenia patients and 196845 general population and (2) 842 schizophrenia patients and 766 psychiatrically healthy controls from 12 studies over a 25-year period, including 301 patients and 131 controls from our study...
September 17, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239748/circuit-mechanisms-of-reward-anhedonia-and-depression
#10
Anna Höflich, Paul Michenthaler, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Pleasure and motivation are important factors for goal-directed behaviour and wellbeing in both animals and humans. Intact hedonic capacity requires an undisturbed interplay between a number of different brain regions and transmitter systems. Concordantly, dysfunction of networks encoding for reward have been shown in depression and other psychiatric disorders. The development of technological possibilities to investigate connectivity on a functional level in humans and to directly influence networks in animals using optogenetics among other techniques has provided new important insights in this field of research (Lenz and Lobo, 2013; Ferenczi et al...
September 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30215723/long-term-antipsychotic-effectiveness-in-first-episode-of-psychosis-a-3-year-follow-up-randomized-clinical-trial-comparing-aripiprazole-quetiapine-and-ziprasidone
#11
Marcos Gómez-Revuelta, José María Pelayo-Terán, María Juncal-Ruiz, Víctor Ortiz-García de la Foz, Javier Vázquez-Bourgon, Ana González-Pinto, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro
Background: Different effectiveness profiles among second generation antipsychotics may be a key point to optimize treatment in patients suffering a first episode of psychosis (FEP) to impact on long-term outcome. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical effectiveness of aripiprazole, ziprasidone and quetiapine in the treatment of FEP at 3-year follow-up. Method: From October 2005 to January 2011 a prospective, randomized, open-label study was undertaken...
September 12, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30204875/orexin-a-levels-in-relation-to-the-risk-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-taking-antipsychotics
#12
Po-Yu Chen, Chun-Hsin Chen, Chin-Kuo Chang, Chung-Feng Kao, Mong-Liang Lu, Shih-Ku Lin, Ming-Chyi Huang, Ling-Ling Hwang, Valeria Mondelli
Background: The role of orexin-A in regulating metabolic homeostasis has been recognized, but its association with antipsychotic-induced metabolic abnormalities remains unclear. We investigated the association between orexin-A levels and metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine or less obesogenic antipsychotics compared with nonpsychiatric controls. Methods: Plasma orexin-A levels and metabolic parameters were determined in 159 patients with schizophrenia: 109 taking clozapine; 50 taking aripiprazole, amisulpride, ziprasidone, or haloperidol; and 60 nonpsychiatric controls...
September 11, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30184133/neurophysiological-changes-associated-with-antidepressant-response-to-ketamine-not-observed-in-a-negative-trial-of-scopolamine-in-major-depressive-disorder
#13
Lawrence Park, Maura Furey, Allison C Nugent, Cristan Farmer, Jessica Ellis, Joanna Szczepanik, Marc S Lener, Carlos A Zarate
Background: This randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial examined the antidepressant efficacy of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine in major depressive disorder subjects with more severe and refractory forms of major depressive disorder relative to previous reports. Methods: Participants included 23 medication-free major depressive disorder subjects (12 F/11 M, 20-55 years) currently experiencing a major depressive episode. Subjects had scored ≥20 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30169648/ketamine-corrects-a-deficit-in-reversal-learning-caused-by-chronic-intermittent-cold-stress-in-female-rats
#14
Denisse Paredes, Jeri D Silva, David A Morilak
Background: Individuals with stress-related psychiatric disorders exhibit deficits in cognitive flexibility. We have shown that chronic intermittent cold (CIC) stress induces deficits in reversal learning, a form of cognitive flexibility mediated in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), that was reversed by ketamine in male rats. Such effects have not been tested in females. In this study, we examined effects of CIC stress and ketamine on reversal learning in females. Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 14 days of CIC, and 3 days later received an injection of ketamine (10 mg/kg, i...
August 31, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30169628/prenatal-exposure-to-antipsychotics-disrupts-the-plasticity-of-dentate-neurons-and-memory-in-adult-male-mice
#15
Han Wang, Ji-Tao Li, Yue Zhang, Rui Liu, Xiao-Dong Wang, Tian-Mei Si, Yun-Ai Su
Background: With the growing use of second-generation antipsychotics for the treatment of a spectrum of psychiatric illnesses in pregnancy, concerns have been raised about the long-term impact of these medications on offspring neurodevelopment. However, preclinical and clinical evidence on the lasting effects of prenatal antipsychotic exposure is still sparse. Methods: Risperidone, a widely used second-generation antipsychotic, and haloperidol, a representative first-generation antipsychotic, were administered to pregnant C57BL/6N mice from embryonic day 6 to 16...
August 29, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239762/making-sense-of-rodent-models-of-anhedonia
#16
Simona Scheggi, Maria Graziella De Montis, Carla Gambarana
A markedly reduced interest or pleasure in activities previously considered pleasurable is a main symptom in mood disorder and psychosis and is often present in other psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. This condition can be labeled as "anhedonia," although in its most rigorous connotation the term refers to the lost capacity to feel pleasure that is one aspect of the complex phenomenon of processing and responding to reward. The responses to rewarding stimuli are relatively easy to study in rodents, and the experimental conditions that consistently and persistently impair these responses are used to model anhedonia...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30184143/corrigendum
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30184141/from-treatment-response-to-recovery-a-realistic-goal-in-ocd
#18
Elisabetta Burchi, Eric Hollander, Stefano Pallanti
Despite longitudinal studies reporting symptomatic remission rates ranging from 32% to 70%, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is considered a persistent and very disabling disorder. However, these studies suggest that recovery can be a realistic goal for a subgroup of the Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder population and that a clear definition of recovery is timely in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. The aim of this paper is to discuss the dimensions of and propose an operational definition of recovery in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30169690/maternal-deprivation-enhances-contextual-fear-memory-via-epigenetically-programming-second-hit-stress-induced-reelin-expression-in-adult-rats
#19
Run-Hua Wang, Ye-Fei Chen, Si Chen, Bo Hao, Li Xue, Xiao-Guang Wang, Yan-Wei Shi, Hu Zhao
Background: Early-life stress increases the risk for posttraumatic stress disorder. However, the epigenetic mechanism of early-life stress-induced susceptibility to posttraumatic stress disorder in adulthood remains unclear. Methods: Rat pups were exposed to maternal deprivation during postnatal days 1 to 14 for 3 hours daily and treated with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor zebularine, L-methionine, or vehicle 7 days before contextual fear conditioning, which was used as a second stress and to mimic the reexperiencing symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder in adulthood...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124878/delay-aversion-and-executive-functioning-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-before-and-after-stimulant-treatment
#20
Ann-Marie Low, Julijana le Sommer, Signe Vangkilde, Birgitte Fagerlund, Birte Glenthøj, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Thomas Habekost, Jens Richardt Møllegaard Jepsen
Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a heterogeneous disorder, associated with deficits in motivation (e.g., delay aversion) and cognition. Methylphenidate is recommended as a first line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, but little is known about its nonacute effects on motivational and cognitive deficits, particularly in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Methods: We utilized a prospective, non-randomized, non-blinded, 6-week follow-up design with 42 initially stimulant medication-naïve adult patients with moderate to severe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and 42 age- and parental education-matched healthy controls...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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