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International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology

Simona Scheggi, Maria Graziella De Montis, Carla Gambarana
A markedly reduced interest or pleasure in activities previously considered pleasurable is a main symptom in mood disorder and psychosis, and is often present in other psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. This condition can be labeled as "anhedonia", although in its most rigorous connotation the term refers to the lost capacity to feel pleasure that is one aspect of the complex phenomenon of processing and responding to reward. The responses to rewarding stimuli are relatively easy to study in rodents, and the experimental conditions that consistently and persistently impair these responses are used to model anhedonia...
September 20, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Kazutaka Ohi, Takamitsu Shimada, Aki Kuwata, Yuzuru Kataoka, Hiroaki Okubo, Kohei Kimura, Toshiki Yasuyama, Takashi Uehara, Yasuhiro Kawasaki
Background: Cigarette smoking is consistently more common among schizophrenia patients than the general population worldwide; however, the findings of studies in Japan are inconsistent. Recently, the smoking rate has gradually decreased among the general population. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of smoking status in a large Japanese cohort of (1) 1845 schizophrenia patients and 196845 general population and (2) 842 schizophrenia patients and 766 psychiatrically healthy controls from 12 studies over a 25-year period, including 301 patients and 131 controls from our study...
September 17, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Anna Höflich, Paul Michenthaler, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Pleasure and motivation are important factors for goal-directed behaviour and wellbeing in both animals and humans. Intact hedonic capacity requires an undisturbed interplay between a number of different brain regions and transmitter systems. Concordantly, dysfunction of networks encoding for reward have been shown in depression and other psychiatric disorders. The development of technological possibilities to investigate connectivity on a functional level in humans and to directly influence networks in animals using optogenetics among other techniques has provided new important insights in this field of research (Lenz and Lobo, 2013; Ferenczi et al...
September 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Marcos Gómez-Revuelta, José María Pelayo-Terán, María Juncal-Ruiz, Víctor Ortiz-García de la Foz, Javier Vázquez-Bourgon, Ana González-Pinto, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro
Background: Different effectiveness profiles among second generation antipsychotics may be a key point to optimize treatment in patients suffering a first episode of psychosis (FEP) to impact on long-term outcome. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical effectiveness of aripiprazole, ziprasidone and quetiapine in the treatment of FEP at 3-year follow-up. Method: From October 2005 to January 2011 a prospective, randomized, open-label study was undertaken...
September 12, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Po-Yu Chen, Chun-Hsin Chen, Chin-Kuo Chang, Chung-Feng Kao, Mong-Liang Lu, Shih-Ku Lin, Ming-Chyi Huang, Ling-Ling Hwang, Valeria Mondelli
Background: The role of orexin-A in regulating metabolic homeostasis has been recognized, but its association with antipsychotic-induced metabolic abnormalities remains unclear. We investigated the association between orexin-A levels and metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine or less obesogenic antipsychotics compared with nonpsychiatric controls. Methods: Plasma orexin-A levels and metabolic parameters were determined in 159 patients with schizophrenia: 109 taking clozapine; 50 taking aripiprazole, amisulpride, ziprasidone, or haloperidol; and 60 nonpsychiatric controls...
September 11, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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September 4, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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September 3, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Elisabetta Burchi, Eric Hollander, Stefano Pallanti
Despite longitudinal studies reporting symptomatic remission rates ranging from 32% to 70%, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is considered a persistent and very disabling disorder. However, these studies suggest that recovery can be a realistic goal for a subgroup of the OCD population and that a clear definition of recovery is timely in OCD. The aim of this paper is to discuss the dimensions, and propose an operational definition of recovery, in OCD. In light of the impact generated by the definition of recovery for other mental disorders, this article discusses how this concept may shape the future of research and clinical practice in OCD...
September 3, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Lawrence Park, Maura Furey, Allison C Nugent, Cristan Farmer, Jessica Ellis, Joanna Szczepanik, Marc S Lener, Carlos A Zarate
Background: This randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial examined the antidepressant efficacy of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine in major depressive disorder subjects with more severe and refractory forms of major depressive disorder relative to previous reports. Methods: Participants included 23 medication-free major depressive disorder subjects (12 F/11 M, 20-55 years) currently experiencing a major depressive episode. Subjects had scored ≥20 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Denisse Paredes, Jeri D Silva, David A Morilak
Background: Individuals with stress-related psychiatric disorders exhibit deficits in cognitive flexibility. We have shown that chronic intermittent cold (CIC) stress induces deficits in reversal learning, a form of cognitive flexibility mediated in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), that was reversed by ketamine in male rats. Such effects have not been tested in females. In this study, we examined effects of CIC stress and ketamine on reversal learning in females. Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 14 days of CIC, and 3 days later received an injection of ketamine (10 mg/kg, i...
August 31, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Run-Hua Wang, Ye-Fei Chen, Si Chen, Bo Hao, Li Xue, Xiao-Guang Wang, Yan-Wei Shi, Hu Zhao
Background: Early life stress (ELS) increases the risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the epigenetic mechanism of ELS-induced susceptibility to PTSD in adulthood remains unclear. Methods: Rat pups were exposed to maternal deprivation (MD) during postnatal day (PND) 1-14 for 3 h daily and treated with the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor zebularine, L-methionine or vehicle 7 days before contextual fear conditioning (CFC). CFC was used as a second stress and to mimic the re-experiencing symptom of PTSD in adulthood...
August 29, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Han Wang, Ji-Tao Li, Yue Zhang, Rui Liu, Xiao-Dong Wang, Tian-Mei Si, Yun-Ai Su
Background: With the growing use of second-generation antipsychotics for the treatment of a spectrum of psychiatric illnesses in pregnancy, concerns have been raised about the long-term impact of these medications on offspring neurodevelopment. However, preclinical and clinical evidence on the lasting effects of prenatal antipsychotic exposure is still sparse. Methods: Risperidone, a widely used second-generation antipsychotic, and haloperidol, a representative first-generation antipsychotic, were administered to pregnant C57BL/6N mice from embryonic day 6 to 16...
August 29, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ann-Marie Low, Julijana le Sommer, Signe Vangkilde, Birgitte Fagerlund, Birte Glenthøj, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Thomas Habekost, Jens Richardt Møllegaard Jepsen
Background: ADHD is a heterogeneous disorder, associated with deficits in motivation (e.g., delay aversion) and cognition. Methylphenidate is recommended as a first line treatment for ADHD symptoms, but little is known about its non-acute effects on motivational and cognitive deficits, particularly in adults with ADHD. Methods: We utilized a prospective, non-randomized, non-blinded, six-week follow-up design with 42 initially stimulant medication-naïve adult patients with moderate to severe ADHD, and 42 age- and parental education-matched healthy controls...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Beata R Godlewska, Michael Browning, Ray Norbury, Artemis Igoumenou, Philip J Cowen, Catherine J Harmer
Background: Identification of biomarkers predicting therapeutic outcome to antidepressant treatment is one of the most important tasks in current research because it may transform the lengthy process of finding the right treatment for a given individual with depression. In the current study we explored the potential of pre-treatment pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) activity as a putative biomarker of treatment response. Methods: Thirty-two medication-free patients with depression were treated for 6 weeks with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, escitalopram...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Chuan-Chia Chang, Nian-Sheng Tzeng, Che-Yi Chao, Chin-Bin Yeh, Hsin-An Chang
Background: The efficacy of fronto-temporal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in treating auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) and other psychopathological symptoms of schizophrenia patients has been examined in a small number of clinical trials with limited sample sizes, but the results are mixed. Fronto-temporal tDCS has also been demonstrated to enhance patients' insight into their mental illness in an open-label pilot study. The current investigation aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of fronto-temporal tDCS on the severity of AVHs, other schizophrenia symptoms and insight in a large double blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Thomaz F S Bastiaanssen, Caitlin S M Cowan, Marcus J Claesson, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Microorganisms can be found almost anywhere, including in and on the human body. The collection of microorganisms associated with a certain location is called a microbiota with its collective genetic material referred to as the microbiome. The largest population of microorganisms on the human body resides in the gastrointestinal tract thus it is not surprising that most investigated human microbiome is the human gut microbiome. On average, the gut hosts microbes from more than 60 genera and contains more cells than the human body...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Zheng Tian, Chao Dong, Kai Zhang, Lijia Chang, Kenji Hashimoto
Background: A recent study demonstrated that low-voltage-sensitive T-type calcium channel (T-VSCC) blocker ethosuximide shows rapid antidepressant actions. This study was conducted to compare the antidepressant actions of ethosuximide and (R)-ketamine in a chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model. Methods: Ethosuximide (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg), (R)-ketamine (10 mg/kg), or saline was administered intraperitoneally to CSDS susceptible mice. Subsequently, locomotion test, tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and 1% sucrose preference test (SPT) were performed...
August 6, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Kelly A Berg, William P Clarke
Constitutive receptor activity/inverse agonism and functional selectivity/biased agonism are two concepts in contemporary pharmacology that have major implications for the use of drugs in medicine and research, as well as for the processes of new drug development. Traditional receptor theory postulated that receptors in a population are quiescent unless activated by a ligand. Within this framework ligands could act as agonists, with various degrees of intrinsic efficacy, or as antagonists, with zero intrinsic efficacy...
August 6, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Shuxia Yao, Weihua Zhao, Yayuan Geng, Yuanshu Chen, Zhiying Zhao, Xiaole Ma, Lei Xu, Benjamin Becker, Keith M Kendrick
Background: The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) can extensively modulate human social behavior and affective processing and its effects can be interpreted in terms of mediating approach-avoidance (AA) motivational processes. However, little is known about how OT mediates AA behavior and particularly the underlying neural mechanisms. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, between-subject design, the present pharmaco-fMRI study used an AA paradigm to investigate OT's effects on AA behavior and associated neural mechanisms...
August 4, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Sheng-Chang Wang, Ren-Hua Chung, Hsiang-Wei Kuo, Tung-Hsia Liu, Chiu-Ping Fang, Shu Chih Liu, Chia-Chen Liu, Hsiao-Hui Tsou, Andrew C H Chen, Yu-Li Liu
Background: There is no countable biomarker for opioid dependence treatment responses thus far. In this study, we recruited Taiwanese methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients to search for genes involving the regulatory mechanisms of methadone dose by genome-wide association analyses. Methods: 344 Taiwanese MMT patients were included for a genome-wide association study. The involvement of GRK5 in opioid dependence was then further confirmed by gene expression study on lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 3 independent age- and gender-matched groups, namely MMT patients, medication-free former heroin abusers, and normal controls...
July 27, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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