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Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838644/aspergillus-in-chronic-lung-disease-modeling-what-goes-on-in-the-airways
#1
Takahiro Takazono, Donald C Sheppard
Aspergillus species cause a range of respiratory diseases in humans. While immunocompromised patients are at risk for the development of invasive infection with these opportunistic molds, patients with underlying pulmonary disease can develop chronic airway infection with Aspergillus species. These conditions span a range of inflammatory and allergic diseases including Aspergillus bronchitis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and severe asthma with fungal sensitization. Animal models are invaluable tools for the study of the molecular mechanism underlying the colonization of airways by Aspergillus and the host response to these non-invasive infections...
November 12, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838643/impact-of-pre-analytical-variables-in-the-determination-of-serum-galactomannan
#2
Alexandre A Monteiro, Dominique S Rubenich, Marilia R Zandoná, Alessandro C Pasqualotto
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Since Aspergillus species are usually not cultured in these patients, presumptive diagnosis of IA is more commonly based on galactomannan (GM) detection. Several factors are known to cause false-positive results in the GM test, but little is known on the influence of pre-analytical variables interfering on the test. Here we studied the influence of temperature and sample storage duration in GM results, using samples known to be negative and positive (spiked) for GM...
November 12, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838642/a-comparative-investigation-of-azole-susceptibility-in-candida-isolates-from-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-and-recurrent-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-patients-in-ghana
#3
Gloria Adjapong, Marie Hale, Ashley Garrill
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) affect millions of women and are typically treated with azoles. We know little about azole susceptibility of Candida species from VVC versus RVVC patients, and nothing about African isolates. We have investigated the susceptibility of Candida isolates from Ghana to fluconazole, itraconazole and/or voriconazole. The percentage of Candida albicans isolates showing susceptibility was significantly lower in RVVC than VVC patients. Isolates of Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis showed a similar trend...
November 12, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838641/successful-treatment-of-aspergillus-ventriculitis-through-voriconazole-adaptive-pharmacotherapy-immunomodulation-and-therapeutic-monitoring-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-1%C3%A2-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan
#4
Tempe K Chen, Paula K Groncy, Ramin Javahery, Richard Y Chai, Pablito Nagpala, Malcolm Finkelman, Ruta Petraitiene, Thomas J Walsh
Aspergillus ventriculitis is an uncommon but often fatal form of invasive aspergillosis of the central nervous system (CNS). As little is known about the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of this potentially lethal infection, we report the strategies used to successfully treat Aspergillus ventriculitis complicating a pineal and pituitary germinoma with emphasis on the critical role of adaptive pharmacotherapy of voriconazole and serial monitoring of (1→3)-β-D-glucan in cerebrospinal fluid. We describe several rationally based therapeutic modalities, including adaptive pharmacotherapy, combination therapy, sargramostim-based immunomodulation, and biomarker-based therapeutic monitoring of the CNS compartment...
November 12, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838640/role-of-preoperative-versus-postoperative-itraconazole-in-allergic-fungal-rhinosinusitis
#5
Roshan K Verma, Sourabha K Patro, Abhilash Alex Francis, Naresh K Panda, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Paramjeet Singh
Antifungals used as adjuvant to surgery in AFRS (Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis) have shown varying success in delaying recurrences. Itraconazole has been used both as preoperative and postoperative adjuvant. This study investigates the role of itraconazole in AFRS and compares its role between preoperative and postoperative administration of the drug. Patients were randomly divided into groups as: Group 1 (n = 25), received 4 weeks itraconazole in the preoperative period and operated subsequently, Group 2 (n = 25), received 4 weeks itraconazole in the postoperative period, Group 3 (n = 50), matched patients of AFRS, who didn't receive itraconazole...
November 12, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816906/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-the-oomycete-pythium-insidiosum-to-metallic-compounds-containing-cadmium-lead-copper-manganese-or-zinc
#6
Tatiana Corrêa Ribeiro, Carla Weiblen, Sônia de Avila Botton, Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira, Francielli Pantella Kunz de Jesus, Camila Marina Verdi, Leticia Trevisan Gressler, Luís Antonio Sangioni, Janio Morais Santurio
Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete that causes pythiosis, an important and severe disease of difficult treatment that affects humans, domestic and wild animals. This infection is often described in horses in Brazil and humans in Thailand. In clinical practice, we have observed many cases that do not respond to available therapies, indicating the need to explore alternative therapeutic approaches. In this sense, studies using metal compounds in conjunction with available antimicrobial agents have been demonstrated greater antimicrobial activity...
November 5, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816905/aspergillus-fumigatus-virulence-through-the-lens-of-transcription-factors
#7
Katherine M Bultman, Caitlin H Kowalski, Robert A Cramer
Invasive aspergillosis (IA), most commonly caused by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, occurs in immune compromised individuals. The ability of A. fumigatus to proliferate in a multitude of environments is hypothesized to contribute to its pathogenicity and virulence. Transcription factors (TF) have long been recognized as critical proteins for fungal pathogenicity, as many are known to play important roles in the transcriptional regulation of pathways implicated in virulence. Such pathways include regulation of conidiation and development, adhesion, nutrient acquisition, adaptation to environmental stress, and interactions with the host immune system among others...
November 5, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816904/aspergillus-serology-have-we-arrived-yet
#8
Malcolm D Richardson, Iain D Page
Aspergillosis presents in various clinical forms, among them chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, which is a spectrum of disease entities including aspergilloma, chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis, and chronic fibrosing pulmonary aspergillosis. Aspergillus also contributes to fungal allergy and sensitization. Analysis of the immune response to Aspergillus and its antigens is an integral part of the diagnosis of these diseases. Over the past half century, the techniques used to determine antibody titers have evolved from testing for precipitating and agglutinating antibodies by agar gel double diffusion and immunolectrophoresis to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using recombinant proteins as capture antigens...
November 5, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816903/molecular-and-antifungal-susceptibility-study-on-trichosporonemia-and-emergence-of-trichosporon-mycotoxinivorans-as-a-bloodstream-pathogen
#9
Yubhisha Dabas, Immaculata Xess, Pratibha Kale
A total of 21 Trichosporon spp. isolates from blood over a period of 5 years (January 2009 to December 2013) were included in the study. The most common underlying diseases found were pancreatitis (33.3%) and cancer (33.3%). Trichosporon asahii (80.9%) was the commonest species followed by Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans (14.2%) and Trichosporon faecale (4.7%). On IGS1 region sequencing the most predominant T. asahii type in our region was genotype 1 (16/17 isolates; 94.1%) and one isolate belonged to genotype 4...
November 5, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816902/aspergillus-related-pulmonary-diseases-in-lung-transplantation
#10
S Pasupneti, O Manouvakhova, M R Nicolls, J L Hsu
While lung transplantation is an attractive treatment option for many end stage lung diseases, the relatively high 5-year mortality continues to be a significant limiting factor. Among the foremost reasons for this is the eventual development of obstructive chronic lung allograft dysfunction. Infections, which the lung allograft is especially prone to, are a major risk factor. Specifically, the Aspergillus species cause a higher burden of disease among lung transplant recipients, due to unique risk factors, such as relative hypoxemia...
November 5, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811180/a-new-marker-sequence-for-systematics-of-medically-important-fungi-based-on-amino-acid-sequence-of-the-largest-subunit-of-rna-polymerase-i
#11
Chiaki Yamanishi, Mohamed Mahdi Alshahni, Ayako Sano, Ikuo Nakamura, Koichi Makimura
Molecular evolution has dominated taxonomic studies for decades, replacing traditional methods for identification and classification. However, there is a need for better markers to resolve the problems that have limited their usefulness. In this report, we introduce the protein tag (Ptag) sequence, a highly polymorphic amino acid sequence within the C-terminal region of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I, as a new systematic tag sequence for delineating the evolutionary history of medically important fungi...
November 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811179/diffusion-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-in-the-surrounding-air-of-patients-with-pneumocystis-colonization-frequency-and-putative-risk-factors
#12
Emilie Fréalle, Sandrine Valade, Nicolas Guigue, Samia Hamane, Magali Chabé, Solène Le Gal, Céline Damiani, Anne Totet, El Moukhtar Aliouat, Gilles Nevez, Jean Menotti
In a prospective bicentric study, Pneumocystis jirovecii excretion and diffusion was explored in air samples collected in the rooms occupied by 17 Pneumocystis-colonized patients. P. jirovecii DNA was detected by real-time PCR in the air collected from 3 patients' rooms (17.6%), with identical genotypes in corresponding clinical and air samples. Pneumocystis DNA was detected for 2/3 patients with autoimmune disease treated with corticosteroids versus 1/6 patients with hematologic disease and 0/5 kidney transplant recipients...
November 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811178/crispr-cas9-the-new-kid-on-the-block-of-fungal-molecular-biology
#13
Sven Krappmann
Research on fungal pathogens with the aim to identify virulence determinants strictly relies on the generation of defined, recombinant strains, a task that is executed by means of a sophisticated molecular biology toolbox. Recent developments in fungal genome engineering have opened a new frontier by implementing the CRISPR-Cas9 technology, based on expression of the Cas9 endonuclease that is loaded by a single guiding RNA (sgRNA) molecule to target a defined site in the recipient genome. This novel approach has been adapted successfully to engineer fungal genomes, among them the one of the human-pathogenic mould Aspergillus fumigatus Implementation of the required components was achieved by various means that differ with respect to expression of the Cas9 enzyme and sgRNA delivery...
November 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794529/bronchiectasis-and-aspergillus-how-are-they-linked
#14
Anthony De Soyza, Stefano Aliberti
Bronchiectasis is a chronic airway infection syndrome, distinct from cystic fibrosis that is rising in prevalence and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It can be caused by many etiologies including post-infectious effects or be seen in common lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or severe asthma. Bronchiectasis is associated with many Aspergillus-associated syndromes: allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) may complicate asthma, thus leading to bronchiectasis as part of the diagnostic criteria of ABPA or can complicate preexisting bronchiectasis due to another etiology...
October 28, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771622/refractory-sporotrichosis-due-to-sporothrix-brasiliensis-in-humans-appears-to-be-unrelated-to-in-vivo-resistance
#15
Rodrigo Almeida-Paes, Manoel Marques Evangelista Oliveira, Dayvison Francis Saraiva Freitas, Antônio Carlos Francesconi do Valle, Maria Clara Gutierrez-Galhardo, Rosely Maria Zancopé-Oliveira
Sporotrichosis is a subacute to chronic infection caused by members of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. Itraconazole is the first choice antifungal drug for treating this infection, with terbinafine and potassium iodide as alternatives and amphotericin B used in cases of severe infections. Correlation of antifungal susceptibility data with the clinical outcome of the patients is scarce. The aim of this study was to correlate clinical and mycological data in patients with refractory sporotrichosis. In this work, antifungal susceptibilities, determined according to the reference M38-A2 CLSI protocol, of 25 Sporothrix strains, isolated from seven human cases of sporotrichosis with adversities in the treatment, are presented...
October 22, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760831/identification-of-the-causative-dermatophyte-of-tinea-capitis-in-children-attending-mbarara-regional-referral-hospital-in-uganda-by-pcr-elisa-and-comparison-with-conventional-mycological-diagnostic-methods
#16
Cornelia Wiegand, Peter Mugisha, Grace K Mulyowa, Peter Elsner, Uta-Christina Hipler, Yvonne Gräser, Silke Uhrlaß, Pietro Nenoff
Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection common among prepubertal children in sub-Saharan Africa and mainly caused by Trichophyton and Microsporum species. Accurate identification is challenging as conventional methods like culture and microscopy are slow and mostly based on morphological characteristics, which make them less sensitive and specific. Modern molecular methods, like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, are gaining acceptance and are quick as well as accurate. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical patterns of tinea capitis and to accurately identify the most common causative dermatophytes affecting the scalps of children aged 1 to 16 years attending the Skin Clinic at Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST), Mbarara, Uganda, East Africa, using both conventional mycological methods and PCR-ELISA for detection of dermatophyte DNA...
October 19, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760830/modeling-dermatophytosis-in-reconstructed-human-epidermis-a-new-tool-to-study-infection-mechanisms-and-to-test-antifungal-agents
#17
Émilie Faway, Ludivine Cambier, Bernard Mignon, Yves Poumay, Catherine Lambert de Rouvroit
Dermatophytosis is a superficial fungal infection of keratinized structures that exhibits an increasing prevalence in humans and is thus requesting novel prophylactic strategies and therapies. However, precise mechanisms used by dermatophytes to adhere at the surface of the human epidermis and invade its stratum corneum are still incompletely identified, as well as the responses provided by the underlying living keratinocytes during the infection. We hereby report development of an in vitro model of human dermatophytosis through infection of reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) by arthroconidia of the anthropophilic Trichophyton rubrum species or of the zoophilic Microsporum canis and Arthroderma benhamiae species...
October 19, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760829/synergistic-effect-of-anidulafungin-combined-with-posaconazole-in-experimental-aspergillosis
#18
Adela Martin-Vicente, Javier Capilla, Josep Guarro
Clinical and experimental data have shown discrepancies on the efficacy of combinations between triazoles and echinocandins. In this study, anidulafungin plus posaconazole have shown efficacy against a murine systemic infection by three strains of Aspergillus fumigatus The combination increased mice survival and reduced burden in the kidneys over the corresponding monotherapies and voriconazole. Clearance of kidneys was observed in 62% to 100% of animals (strain dependant). We observed good in vitro- in vivo correlation when a cutoff < 1 was indicative of synergy...
October 19, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744310/galactomannan-testing-and-aspergillus-pcr-in-same-day-bronchoalveolar-lavage-and-blood-samples-for-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis
#19
Susanne Eigl, Martin Hoenigl, Birgit Spiess, Sven Heldt, Juergen Prattes, Peter Neumeister, Albert Wolfler, Jasmin Rabensteiner, Florian Prueller, Robert Krause, Mark Reinwald, Holger Flick, Dieter Buchheidt, Tobias Boch
In recent years galactomannan antigen testing (GM) and also Aspergillus PCR have become increasingly important for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Whether or not these tests need to be performed with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF; i.e., primary site of infection), or testing of blood samples is sufficient, remains, however, a matter of debate. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of GM ELISA, and Aspergillus PCR by using BALF samples and blood samples obtained at the same day from a total of 53 immunocompromised patients (16 with probable/proven IA and 37 with no evidence of IA according to the revised EORTC/MSG criteria; 38 patients with hematological malignancies were prospectively enrolled at the Medical University of Graz, Austria, 15 patients with mixed underlying diseases at the Mannheim University Hospital)...
October 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744309/continuous-increase-of-trichophyton-tonsurans-as-a-cause-of-tinea-capitis-in-the-urban-area-of-paris-france-a-5-year-long-study
#20
Maud Gits-Muselli, Mazouz Benderdouche, Samia Hamane, Anselme Mingui, Martine Feuilhade de Chauvin, Nicolas Guigue, Marie-Quitterie Picat, Emmanuelle Bourrat, Antoine Petit, Martine Bagot, Alexandre Alanio, Stéphane Bretagne
Tinea capitis (TC) is a highly contagious fungal infection of the scalp due to dermatophytes in children. To obtain information on the epidemiology of TC in the urban area of Paris, we analysed the microbiological results of 3090 patients seen with suspected TC from October 2010 to September 2015 at Saint Louis hospital, Paris, France. A peak of TC was observed in 3-6 year-old children, followed by a progressive decrease until 16 years of age. Of the 1311 positive cultures, 95% (1246) yielded one of the three anthropophilic species [Trichophyton tonsurans (33...
October 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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