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Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136186/clonal-spread-and-azole-resistant-mechanisms-of-non-susceptible-candida-albicans-isolates-from-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-patients-in-three-shanghai-maternity-hospitals
#1
YongQin Wu, Cui Li, ZhiHeng Wang, Jing Gao, ZhenHua Tang, HuiFen Chen, ChunMei Ying
In our multicenter study, 43 fluconazole non-susceptible and 45 fluconazole-susceptible isolates were collected from vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) patients from three Shanghai maternity hospitals to analyze their molecular epidemiological features and fluconazole resistant mechanisms. Cross-resistance to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole was observed in 53.5% of the nonsusceptible isolates. Though we acquired 12 clonal complexes (CCs) of diploid sequence types (DSTs) in clinical isolates by a multilocus sequence typing method, fluconazole nonsusceptible isolates all belonged to CC69 with a predominant genotype of DST 79...
November 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087533/experimental-sporotrichosis-in-a-cyclophosphamide-induced-immunosuppressed-mice-model
#2
Francine Alessandra Manente, Camila Quinello, Lucas Souza Ferreira, Cleverton Roberto de Andrade, Juliana Aparecida Jellmayer, Deivys Leandro Portuondo, Alexander Batista-Duharte, Iracilda Zeppone Carlos
This report describes a model of host resistance for Sporothrix schenckii, an opportunistic fungi in immunosuppressed mice with cyclophosphamide (CY) to be used in studies of immunotoxicology and immunopharmacology. Two doses of CY were administered intraperitoneally: 200 mg/kg and a booster of 150 mg/kg at 9-day intervals. Three days after the first dose of CY the animals were infected subcutaneously with 1.8 × 108 yeast/ml (S. schenckii ATCC 16345). At 7 and 14 days post-infection, the animals were euthanized and analyzed the fungal load by unit forming colony count in the spleen and popliteal lymph nodes...
October 26, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087525/chromoblastomycosis-in-taiwan-a-report-of-30-cases-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#3
Ching-Sheng Yang, Chun-Bing Chen, Yung-Yi Lee, Chih-Hsun Yang, Ya-Ching Chang, Wen-Hung Chung, Hua-En Lee, Rosaline Chung-Yee Hui, Ya-Hui Chuang, Hong-Shang Hong, Pei-Lun Sun
Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is an implantation mycosis characterized by the presence of pigmented muriform cells in tissue. CBM is endemic in Taiwan, but only three formal cases have been reported to date because of underreporting. To describe and update its epidemiologic features, we report a series of 30 cases between 2003 and 2016 at a single medical center. Patients were predominately male (2.75:1). The mean age of onset was 65.9 years, and disease duration ranged from 2 months to 20 years. Diabetes was the most common comorbidity, and extremities were the most frequent sites of involvement...
October 26, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087521/comparison-of-the-rolling-circle-amplification-and-ligase-dependent-reaction-methods-for-the-identification-of-opportunistic-exophiala-species
#4
Engin Kaplan, Macit Ilkit, G Sybren de Hoog
We developed two ligase-dependent probe amplification assays based on rolling circle amplification (RCA) and the ligase-dependent reaction (LDR) to differentiate species of Exophiala targeting the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region. We focused on Exophiala dermatitidis and E. phaeomuriformis, two opportunistic inhabitants of indoor wet cells, and further detected E. heteromorpha, E. xenobiotica, and E. crusticola; 57 reference isolates representing the five species were tested. Depending on the RCA probes used, the sensitivity was 100%, and the specificity ranged from 3...
October 26, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087518/diagnosis-of-aspergillosis-by-pcr-clinical-considerations-and-technical-tips
#5
Rosemary A Barnes, P Lewis White, C Oliver Morton, Thomas R Rogers, Mario Cruciani, Juergen Loeffler, J Peter Donnelly
Standardization of Aspergillus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols has progressed, and analytical validity of blood-based assays has been formally established. It remains necessary to consider how the tests can be used in practice to maximize clinical utility. To determine the optimal diagnostic strategies and influence on patient management, several factors require consideration, including the patient population, incidence of invasive aspergillosis (and other fungal disease), and the local antifungal prescribing policy...
October 26, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087508/cryptococcal-antigen-detection-in-broncho-alveolar-lavage-fluid
#6
Y Senghor, J Guitard, A Angoulvant, C Hennequin
Cryptococcal antigen (CryAg) testing in serum and CSF is a clue diagnostic tool for cryptococcosis. In this study, we reviewed the performances of the CryAg detection (Premier EIA, Meridian) routinely performed in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) during a 7-year period (2007-2013). CryAg was detected in 12 cases among 4650 BALF analyzed, while positive culture from BALF was detected in nine cases. We found sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values at 0.44-0.80 (according to the radio-clinical form), 0...
October 26, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087496/tinea-folliculorum-complicating-tinea-of-the-glabrous-skin-an-important-yet-neglected-entity
#7
Pei-Lun Sun, Yang-Chih Lin, Yu-Hung Wu, Pei-Han Kao, Yu-Ming Ju, Yun-Chen Fan
Dermatophytes are capable of infecting the skin and its appendages such as nails and hairs producing a variety of clinical conditions. Hair invasion by dermatophytes is a key feature of tinea capitis and tinea barbae but not of tinea of glabrous skin. In this project, we studied the clinico-mycological aspects of follicular involvement in patients with dermatophytosis of the glabrous skin. In total, 16 patients, eight males and eight females, were included in the study. All were adults except for one girl. The disease durations ranged from one month to more than ten years...
October 26, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087495/overexpression-of-aspergillus-nidulans-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-synthase-increases-cellular-adhesion-and-causes-cell-wall-defects
#8
Xiaoxiao He, Shengnan Li, Susan G W Kaminskyj
Alpha-1,3-glucan is important for pathogenesis by Aspergillus fumigatus, but the mechanism is unclear since the deletion has no hyphal phenotype. We dissected the roles of A. nidulans α-1,3-glucan in constitutive overexpression strains. Constitutive high-level α-1,3-glucan synthase activity increased hyphal wall thickness, but colonies grew slowly and sporulated poorly and had much higher adhesion to hydrophobic materials. Surprisingly, this overexpression strain formed a biofilm-like structure in plastic culture wells that was as adhesive as wild-type A...
October 26, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087494/an-evaluation-of-the-performance-of-the-dynamiker%C3%A2-fungus-1-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-assay-to-assist-in-the-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#9
P Lewis White, Raquel B Posso, Rebecca L Gorton, Jessica S Price, E Wey, Rosemary A Barnes
The Dynamiker® Fungus (1-3)-β-D-Glucan Assay (D-BDG) has recently become available in the Western Hemisphere for the diagnosis of invasive fungal disease (IFD). Evaluations of its performance for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) are limited. A retrospective evaluation of D-BDG diagnosis of PcP was performed (23 PcP cases and 23 controls). Sensitivity and specificity were 87% and 70%, respectively, reducing the positivity threshold to 45 pg/ml increased sensitivity (96%), whereas a threshold of 300 pg/ml increased specificity (96%)...
October 26, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087483/nationwide-survey-of-neonatal-invasive-fungal-infection-in-japan
#10
Naruhiko Ishiwada, Hiroyuki Kitajima, Ichiro Morioka, Noriko Takeuchi, Mamiko Endo, Akira Watanabe, Katsuhiko Kamei
Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a life-threating infectious disease in high-risk neonates. Strategies for the treatment and prevention of IFI in neonates in Japan remain unclear. We conducted a nationwide retrospective survey to determine IFI incidence between January 2014 and October 2015. Primary survey questionnaires were submitted to 309 medical facilities that regularly treat high-risk neonates. The questionnaire assessed IFI incidence during the study period, methods for preventing fungal infection in early delivery neonates, and methods for preventing mother-to-child fungal transmission...
October 26, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087478/mixed-yeast-infections-in-taiwan
#11
Yun-Liang Yang, Wen-Li Chu, Chih-Chao Lin, Zi-Li Zhou, Pei-Ning Chen, Hsiu-Jung Lo
Clinically significant yeast isolates were collected via Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance of Yeasts (TSARY) in 2014, and mixed infections were investigated. Among 44 out of 1092 specimens containing multiple species, 17, 11, 5, 3, and 8 were from urine, sputum, blood, ascites, and 6 others, respectively. There predominant combinations of mixed infection were 14 Candida albicans/Candida glabrata, 13 C. albicans/Candida tropicalis, and 9 C. glabrata/C. tropicalis. Furthermore, we also detected fluconazole resistant isolates Candida norvegensis and Candida krusei...
October 26, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040645/erratum-epidemiology-and-clinical-characteristics-of-invasive-mould-infections-a-multicenter-retrospective-analysis-in-five-asian-countries
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036605/survey-of-laboratory-practices-for-diagnosis-of-fungal-infection-in-seven-asian-countries-an-asia-fungal-working-group-afwg-initiative
#13
Ariya Chindamporn, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Ruoyu Li, Pei-Lun Sun, Ban-Hock Tan, Mitzi Chua, Retno Wahyuningsih, Atul Patel, Zhengyin Liu, Yee-Chun Chen, Methee Chayakulkeeree
An online survey of mycology laboratories in seven Asian countries was conducted to assess the status, competence, and services available. Country representatives from the Asia Fungal Working Group (AFWG) contacted as many laboratories performing mycology diagnosis as possible in their respective countries, requesting that the laboratory heads complete the online survey. In total, 241 laboratories responded, including 71 in China, 104 in India, 11 in Indonesia, 26 in the Philippines, four in Singapore, 18 in Taiwan, and seven in Thailand...
September 20, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992315/amphotericin-b-and-terbinafine-but-not-the-azoles-prolong-survival-in-galleria-mellonella-larvae-infected-with-madurella-mycetomatis
#14
Wendy Kloezen, Florianne Parel, Roger Brüggemann, Khalid Asouit, Marilyn Helvert-van Poppel, Ahmed Fahal, Johan Mouton, Wendy van de Sande
Mycetoma is a tropical neglected disease characterized by large subcutaneous lesions in which the causative organisms reside in the form of grains. The most common causative agent is Madurella mycetomatis. Antifungal therapy often fails due to these grains, but to identify novel treatment options has been difficult since grains do not form in vitro. We recently used Galleria mellonella larvae to develop an in vivo grain model. In the current study, we set out to determine the therapeutic efficacy of commonly used antifungal agents in this larval model...
September 14, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992332/l-tyrosine-induces-the-production-of-a-pyomelanin-like-pigment-by-the-parasitic-yeast-form-of-histoplasma-capsulatum
#15
Rodrigo Almeida-Paes, Fernando Almeida-Silva, Gabriela Costa Maia Pinto, Marcos de Abreu Almeida, Mauro de Medeiros Muniz, Claudia Vera Pizzini, Gary J Gerfen, Joshua Daniel Nosanchuk, Rosely Maria Zancopé-Oliveira
Melanization of Histoplasma capsulatum remains poorly described, particularly in regards to the forms of melanin produced. In the present study, 30 clinical and environmental H. capsulatum strains were grown in culture media with or without L-tyrosine under conditions that produced either mycelial or yeast forms. Mycelial cultures were not melanized under the studied conditions. However, all strains cultivated under yeast conditions produced a brownish to black soluble pigment compatible with pyomelanin when grew in presence of L-tyrosine...
September 12, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992138/antifungal-susceptibilities-to-amphotericin-b-triazoles-and-echinocandins-of-77-clinical-isolates-of-cryptic-aspergillus-species-in-multicenter-surveillance-in-korea
#16
Eun Jeong Won, Jong Hee Shin, Soo Hyun Kim, Min Ji Choi, Seung A Byun, Mi-Na Kim, Wee-Gyo Lee, Kyungwon Lee, Young Uh, Myung Geun Shin, Soon Pal Suh
We investigated the in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of cryptic Aspergillus species from nine Korean hospitals. Based on the CLSI epidemiological cutoff values, resistance rates to amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and caspofungin were as follows: A. awamori (34 isolates; all 0%), A. tubingensis (22; 0%, 4.5%, 0%, 0%, and 0%, respectively), A. sydowii (16; 0%, 6.3%, 0%, 0%, and 6.3%), A. lentulus (2; 50%, 0%, 100%, 50%, and 0%), and A. tamarii (2; all 0%). A. calidoustus (one isolate) showed resistance to multiple drugs...
September 12, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992352/in-vivo-pathogenicity-of-trichosporon-asahii-isolates-with-different-in-vitro-enzymatic-profiles-in-an-immunocompetent-murine-model-of-systemic-trichosporonosis
#17
Alexandra M Montoya, Carolina E Luna-Rodríguez, Rogelio de J Treviño-Rangel, Miguel Becerril-García, Raquel G Ballesteros-Elizondo, Odila Saucedo-Cárdenas, Gloria M González
Trichosporon asahii is an opportunistic yeastlike fungus that colonizes the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts and human skin. Although it is an important cause of disseminated infections by non-Candida species, there are a few reports related to its virulence factors and their possible role in in vivo pathogenicity. We developed a murine model of disseminated trichosporonosis in immunocompetent mice for the evaluation of the in vivo pathogenicity of 6 T. asahii isolates with different in vitro virulence factor profiles...
September 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992307/attempted-molecular-detection-of-the-thermally-dimorphic-human-fungal-pathogen-emergomyces-africanus-in-terrestrial-small-mammals-in-south-africa
#18
Nadine Cronjé, Ilan S Schwartz, Liezl Retief, Armanda D S Bastos, Sonja Matthee, Wolfgang Preiser, Nigel C Bennett, Tsidiso Maphanga, Nelesh P Govender, Robert Colebunders, Chris Kenyon
The ecological niche of Emergomyces africanus (formerly Emmonsia species), a dimorphic fungus that causes an AIDS-related mycosis in South Africa, is unknown. We hypothesized that natural infection with E. africanus occurs in wild small mammals. Using molecular detection with primers specific for E. africanus, we examined 1402 DNA samples from 26 species of mole-rats, rodents, and insectivores trapped in South Africa that included 1324 lung, 37 kidney, and 41 liver specimens. DNA of E. africanus was not detected in any animals...
September 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992282/intraspecies-variation-in-the-efficacy-of-adjunctive-recombinant-interferon-%C3%AE-therapy-against-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis-in-mice
#19
Yurika Ikeda-Dantsuji, Shigeki Nakamura, Hideaki Ohno, Tatsuya Inukai, Minoru Nagi, Keigo Ueno, Takashi Umeyama, Yuki Kinjo, Satoshi Yamagoe, Kazutoshi Shibuya, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki
The efficacy of recombinant interferon γ (rIFN-γ) for cryptococcal meningoencephalitis has been poorly understood. Compared to Cryptococcus gattii, rIFN-γ significantly improved the survival in experimental meningoencephalitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans. The number of phagocytic macrophages and the levels of inflammatory cytokines production for ex vivo co-incubation with C. neoformans were increased after rIFN-γ stimulation but not C. gattii. Intraspecies differences of phagocytosis by the rIFN-γ-activated macrophages might be associated to the severity of cryptococcal infection...
September 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992260/simulations-of-cyp51a-from-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-a-model-bilayer-provide-insights-into-triazole-drug-resistance
#20
Anthony Nash, Johanna Rhodes
Azole antifungal drugs target CYP51A in Aspergillus fumigatus by binding with the active site of the protein, blocking ergosterol biosynthesis. Resistance to azole antifungal drugs is now common, with a leucine to histidine amino acid substitution at position 98 the most frequent, predominantly conferring resistance to itraconazole, although cross-resistance has been reported in conjunction with other mutations. In this study, we create a homology model of CYP51A using a recently published crystal structure of the paralog protein CYP51B...
September 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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