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Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30428080/occurrence-and-species-diversity-of-human-pathogenic-mucorales-in-commercial-food-stuffs-purchased-in-paris-area
#1
Bita Mousavi, Françoise Botterel, Jean-Marc Costa, Pascal Arné, Jacques Guillot, Eric Dannaoui
Mucormycoses are life-threatening fungal diseases that affect a variety of patients including those with diabetes mellitus or hematological malignancies. The responsible agents, the Mucorales, are opportunistic pathogens originating from the environment such as soil or decaying organic matter. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and diversity of human-pathogenic species of Mucorales in commercially available foodstuffs in France. All food samples were purchased from January 2014 to May 2015 in France...
November 14, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30418567/usefulness-of-guideline-recommendations-for-prognosis-in-patients-with-candidemia
#2
Guillermo Cuervo, Carolina Garcia-Vidal, Mireia Puig-Asensio, Paloma Merino, Antonio Vena, Almudena Martín-Peña, José Miguel Montejo, Alba Ruiz, Fernando Lázaro-Perona, Jesús Fortún, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Ana Isabel Suarez, Carmen Castro, Celia Cardozo, Carlota Gudiol, José María Aguado, Jose Ramón Paño, Javier Pemán, Miquel Salavert, José Garnacho-Montero, José Miguel Cisneros, Alex Soriano, Patricia Muñoz, Benito Almirante, Jordi Carratalà
We aimed to analyze whether the lack of inclusion of specific recommendations for the management of candidemia is an independent risk factor for early and overall mortality. Multicenter study of adult patients with candidemia in 13 hospitals. We assessed the proportion of patients on whom nine specific ESCMID and IDSA guidelines recommendations had been applied, and analyzed its impact on mortality. 455 episodes of candidemia were documented. Patients who died within the first 48 hours were excluded. Sixty-two percent of patients received an appropriate antifungal treatment...
November 10, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30418569/paracoccidioidomycosis-characterization-of-subpopulations-of-macrophages-and-cytokines-in-human-mucosal-lesions
#3
C Pagliari, L Kanashiro-Galo, A C C Jesus, M G Saldanha, M N Sotto
Mucosal lesions of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) are frequently described and clinically important. Macrophages are classified as M1 or M2. M1 are proinflammatory and M2 are related to chronicity. Dectin-1 recognizes β-glucan and plays an important role against fungal cells. The objective was to verify the presence of M1, M2, and dectin-1 and a possible correlation with Th1/Th2 cytokines in mucosal PCM lesions. In sum, 33 biopsies of oral PCM were submitted to histological and immunohistochemistry analysis, and positive cells were quantified...
November 9, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388269/characterization-of-candida-species-isolated-from-the-hands-of-the-healthcare-workers-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#4
Ralciane de Paula Menezes, Felipe F Silva, Sávia G O Melo, Priscila G V Alves, Murilo O Brito, Meliza Arantes de Souza Bessa, Máario Paulo Amante Penatti, Reginaldo S Pedroso, Vânia O S Abdallah, Denise von D B Röder
Colonization of health professional hands by potentially pathogenic microorganisms capable to expressing virulence factors, such as Candida spp., is worrisome because of the high contact between patients and professionals. The study aims to evaluate, in vitro, the following virulence factors: hemolytic activity, DNAse expression, biofilm formation, and susceptibility for antifungal agents of Candida species isolated from health professionals hands of a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The study includes 50 isolates of Candida spp...
November 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388249/dichotomous-response-of-malassezia-infected-macrophages-to-malassezia-pachydermatis-and-malassezia-furfur
#5
Rossana Teotonio de Farias Moreira, Maria Anete Lallo, Anuska Marcelino Alvares-Saraiva, Elizabeth Cristina Perez Hurtado, Fabiana Toshie Konno, Diva Spadacci-Morena, Selene Dall' Acqua Coutinho
Malassezia pachydermatis and Malassezia furfur are lipophilic yeasts of the cutaneous microbiome, although these organisms are occasionally responsible for serious invasive infections in neonates. Since phagocytosis is an important mechanism mediating the adaptive immune response, here we evaluated the phagocytosis capacity and production of nitric oxide and cytokine by macrophages after challenged with M. furfur CBS-1878 and M. pachydermatis CBS-1696. The phagocytic indexes was determined using RAW 264.7 cultivated or not with M...
November 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30380094/epidemiological-survey-of-onychomycosis-pathogens-in-japan-by-real-time-pcr
#6
Harunari Shimoyama, Kazuo Satoh, Koichi Makimura, Yoshihiro Sei
In Japan, an epidemiological survey of onychomycosis pathogens was performed using culture methods; however, the positive culture rate was 40% or less. As part of an epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses in Japan, we overcame this low positive rate by employing a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that allowed rapid and accurate detection and identification. In 2011, nail specimens were collected from patients at nine institutes in various prefectures in Japan and diagnosed as onychomycosis...
October 31, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30380089/the-presence-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-dna-in-plasma-is-associated-with-a-higher-mortality-rate-in-patients-with-aids-associated-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#7
Mengyan Wang, Xiahong Dai, Ying Huang, Jia Sun, Xiaotian Dong, Yongzheng Guo, Caiqin Hu, Qihui Zhou, Biao Zhu
To examine the relationship between Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA (PJ-DNA) levels in blood from AIDS-associated Pneumocystis pneumonia (AIDS-PCP) and mortality, and to correlate mitochondrial large subunit rRNA (mtLSUrRNA) gene polymorphism with mortality, we performed a retrospective study including AIDS-PCP patients between 2014 and 2016 from one hospital in China. PJ-DNA in plasma was measured by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the mtLSUrRNA gene and in positive specimens we further detected the level of PJ-DNA using qPCR...
October 31, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30380077/virulence-and-susceptibility-patterns-of-clinical-candida-spp-isolates-from-a-tertiary-hospital-tanzania
#8
Martha F Mushi, Oliver Bader, Christine Bii, Uwe Groß, Stephen E Mshana
Despite the increased burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other comobidities in developing countries, information regarding antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida spp. and their virulence potential are still limited. Here, we report the virulence and antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida spp. from varieties spectrum of candidiasis in a tertiary hospital, Tanzania. The study was conducted from March to December 2017. Candida spp. from clinical samples were characterized. Antifungal susceptibility patterns based on EUCAST guidelines and virulence activities (phospholipase, protease, hemolysin, and coagulase activity) were determined...
October 31, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339235/baseline-serum-aspergillus-galactomannan-index-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancy-and-culture-documented-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-is-there-a-difference-among-aspergillus-species
#9
Eleni E Magira, Ying Jiang, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
It is unclear whether differences exist in baseline serum galactomannan (sGM) in patients with hematologic malignancies and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) caused by non-fumigatus Aspergillus species vs Aspergillus fumigatus. We found no differences in baseline sGM positivity rates, median sGM levels, and 42-day mortality in 72 such patients (Aspergillus fumigatus in 43 and non-fumigatus Aspergillus in 29).
October 19, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339200/multilocus-sequence-typing-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-var-grubii-from-laos-in-a-regional-and-global-context
#10
Lam Tuan Thanh, Trieu Hai Phan, Sayaphet Rattanavong, Trinh Mai Nguyen, Anh Van Duong, Cherrelle Dacon, Thu Nha Hoang, Lan Phu Huong Nguyen, Chau Thi Hong Tran, Viengmon Davong, Chau Van Vinh Nguyen, Guy E Thwaites, Maciej F Boni, David Dance, Philip M Ashton, Jeremy N Day
Cryptococcosis causes approximately 180 000 deaths each year in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Patients with other forms of immunosuppression are also at risk, and disease is increasingly recognized in apparently immunocompetent individuals. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, responsible for the majority of cases, is distributed globally. We used the consensus ISHAM Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme to define the population structure of clinical C. neoformans var. grubii isolates from Laos (n = 81), which we placed into the global context using published MLST data from other countries (total N = 1047), including a reanalysis of 136 Vietnamese isolates previously reported...
October 19, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339238/growth-kinetics-in-candida-spp-differences-between-species-and-potential-impact-on-antifungal-susceptibility-testing-as-described-by-the-eucast
#11
María Ángeles Bordallo-Cardona, Carlos Sánchez-Carrillo, Patricia Muñoz, Emilio Bouza, Pilar Escribano, Jesús Guinea
We studied the growth kinetic parameters of clinically relevant Candida species to verify the differences between species following the incubation and medium conditions recommended by the EUCAST. We analyzed 705 susceptible Candida spp. from patients with candidemia and Candida glabrata isolates resistant to echinocandins or fluconazole (n = 38) and calculated the average growth rate, maximum peak, time to maximum rate, and lag phase. We also examined inter- and intra-species differences, as well as the percentage of isolates reaching an optical density of 0...
October 18, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339227/fluconazole-is-not-inferior-than-caspofungin-micafungin-or-amphotericin-b-in-the-presence-of-50-human-serum-against-candida-albicans-and-candida-parapsilosis-biofilms
#12
Fruzsina Nagy, Zoltán Tóth, Aliz Bozó, András Czeglédi, István Rebenku, László Majoros, Renátó Kovács
Biofilm formation is a relevant risk factor for mortality in candidemia. Data about serum-based susceptibility testing against Candida biofilms are scant; therefore, the activity of fluconazole, amphotericin B, caspofungin and micafungin was determined against Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis biofilms with or without 50% human serum using XTT-based assays. Serum caused a remarkable adverse effect regarding biofilm structure for both species. Additionally, the ratio of nonviable cells increased for C. parapsilosis biofilms, as confirmed by fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry...
October 18, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339223/photodithazine-mediated-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-against-fluconazole-resistant-candida-albicans-in-vivo
#13
Fernanda Alves, Juliana Cabrini Carmello, Ewerton Garcia de Oliveira Mima, Carlos Alberto de Souza Costa, Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato, Ana Cláudia Pavarina
This study evaluated the efficacy of antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT) against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans in a murine model of oral candidosis. Mice were inoculated with two clinical isolates (R10, R15) and one reference strain (ATCC) of resistant C. albicans to produce oral candidosis. After inoculation, aPDT mediated by Photodithazine® (PDZ) and LED light was performed. The use of PDZ or light only was also investigated. Additional animals were treated with Nystatin (NYS). Untreated or healthy mice were also evaluated...
October 18, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329097/pulmonary-cryptococcosis-a-review-of-pathobiology-and-clinical-aspects
#14
Findra Setianingrum, Riina Rautemaa-Richardson, David W Denning
Pulmonary cryptococcosis is an important opportunistic invasive mycosis in immunocompromised patients, but it is also increasingly seen in immunocompetent patients. The main human pathogens are Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii, which have a worldwide distribution. In contrast to cryptococcal meningitis, pulmonary cryptococcosis is still underdiagnosed because of limitations in diagnostic tools. It can mimic lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, bacterial pneumonia, and other pulmonary mycoses both clinically and radiologically...
October 16, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329094/comparison-of-two-fda-cleared-eia-assays-for-the-detection-of-coccidioides-antibodies-against-a-composite-clinical-standard
#15
Thomas E Grys, Anjuli Brighton, Yu-Hui Chang, Rachael Liesman, Cassie Bolster LaSalle, Janis E Blair
Coccidioidomycosis is a disease endemic to the southwestern United States, parts of Mexico, and Central and South America. Diagnosis of the disease is commonly delayed because of the lack of prompt testing and the dearth of reliable diagnostic tests. Culture and nucleic acid testing require a specimen, yet the typical patient presents with a dry cough and no sputum. Serologic methods depend on an effective antibody response by the patient, but antibody production may be unreliable or delayed until several weeks after initial symptom onset...
October 16, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329089/pcr-rflp-assays-for-species-specific-identification-of-fungi-belonging-to-scopulariopsis-and-related-genera
#16
Milena Kordalewska, Joanna Kalita, Zofia Bakula, Anna Brillowska-Dabrowska, Tomasz Jagielski
Fungi of the Scopulariopsis genus, commonly found in the environment, are opportunistic pathogens that can cause various types of human infections. So far, no efficient molecular method has been developed for species differentiation among Scopulariopsis and related genera. In order to advance this field, we have evaluated performance of polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assays, based on cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and β-tubulin genes. The assays resulted in 2-10 restriction patterns, depending on the gene amplified and restriction enzyme applied...
October 16, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329084/multi-locus-sequence-typing-as-a-tool-to-investigate-environmental-sources-of-infection-for-cryptococcosis-in-captive-birds
#17
Laura J Schmertmann, Kate Bodley, Wieland Meyer, Richard Malik, Mark B Krockenberger
A systematic investigation into environmental sources of infection was conducted at an Australian zoological park after cryptococcosis, caused by Cryptococcus gattii VGI, was diagnosed in a red-tailed black cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus banksii) residing in a large aviary with a diverse range of other avian species. A single tree with an extensive hollow was identified as the likely source of infection based on heavy culture of C. gattii VGI, multi-locus sequence typing and phylogenetic analysis of environmental and disease-related isolates...
October 16, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329075/phenotypic-switching-in-newly-emerged-multidrug-resistant-pathogen-candida-auris
#18
Meghan L Bentz, D Joseph Sexton, Rory M Welsh, Anastasia P Litvintseva
Candida auris is an emerging, multidrug-resistant yeast that can spread rapidly in healthcare settings. Phenotypic switching has been observed in other Candida species and can potentially interfere with correct identification. The aim of this study is to address misidentification of C. auris by describing alternate phenotypes after broth enrichment and subculturing on CHROMagar Candida. Each isolate displayed different frequencies of phenotypic switching, suggesting a strain to strain variability. Increased knowledge of the multiple phenotypes of C...
October 16, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329066/a-novel-dermatophyte-relative-nannizzia-perplicata-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-case-of-tinea-corporis-in-the-united-kingdom
#19
Andrew M Borman, Adrien Szekely, Mark Fraser, Simon Lovegrove, Elizabeth M Johnson
A novel dermatophyte was isolated from skin scales of a female patient presenting with tinea corporis of the wrist and arm. Her principal risk factor was long-term corticosteroid use for underlying Lupus autoimmune syndrome. Microscopic examination of skin scales from lesions revealed hyphae consistent with dermatophyte infection, and a morphologically identical fungus grew in pure culture on all cultures of skin scales. Repeat isolation of the same organism from persistent lesions five months later confirmed the novel species as the causative agent...
October 16, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30295881/synergistic-combinations-of-azoles-and-antihistamines-against-candida-species-in-vitro
#20
Emily K Dennis, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova
Fungal infections are a major cause of skin and mucosal membrane disease. Immunocompromised individuals, such as those undergoing chemotherapy, are most susceptible to fungal infections. With a growing population of immunocompromised patients, there are many reports of increasing numbers of infections and of fungal strains resistant to current antifungals. One way to treat drug-resistant infections is to administer combinations of drugs to patients. Azoles are the most prescribed antifungals, as they are broad-spectrum and orally bioavailable...
October 8, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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