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Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30010978/role-of-the-fungus-specific-flavin-carrier-flc1-in-antifungal-resistance-in-the-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#1
Ping Zhang, Chenxi Li, Liang Huo, Biyun Xiang, Kashif Rahim, Xiaoran Hao, Xudong Zhu
FLC family, a conserved fungus-specific family of integral membrane proteins, has been demonstrated to play important roles in flavin transport, growth, and virulence in several fungi but not yet in Cryptococcus neoformans. In this study, we have identified the single homologue of flavin adenine dinucleotide transporter in the opportunistic pathogen C. neoformans. The computational and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the fungal specificity of cryptococcal Flc1 protein, thus providing a promising drug target for clinical treatment of cryptococcosis...
July 14, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30010938/malassezia-ecology-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#2
Bart Theelen, Claudia Cafarchia, Georgios Gaitanis, Ioannis Dimitrios Bassukas, Teun Boekhout, Thomas L Dawson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955881/reidentification-and-antifungal-susceptibility-profile-of-candida-guilliermondii-and-candida-famata-clinical-isolates-from-a-culture-collection-in-argentina
#3
Constanza Giselle Taverna, Susana Córdoba, Matías Vivot, Wanda Szusz, Walter Vivot, María Eugenia Bosco-Borgeat, Graciela Davel
The aim of this work was to reidentify strains previously identified as Candida guilliermondii and Candida famata by conventional phenotypic methods conserved in a culture collection from Argentina using ribosomal DNA sequencing, ACT1 gene sequencing, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). In addition, we performed antifungal susceptibility tests of eight antifungal drugs commonly used in clinical treatment. We identified 68 isolates belonging to the Candida guilliermondii species complex (59 C...
June 28, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29945180/thiosemicarbazone-of-lapachol-acts-on-cell-membrane-in-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis
#4
Nívea Pereira de Sá, Patrícia Silva Cisalpino, Caryne Margotto Bertollo, Patrícia Campi Santos, Carlos Augusto Rosa, Daniele da Glória de Souza, Paulo Jorge Sanches Barbeira, Tânia Maria de Almeida Alves, Carlos Leomar Zani, Susana Johann
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin American countries. Amphotericin B, sulfonamides, and azoles may be used in the treatment of PCM. However, the high toxicity, prolonged course of treatment, and significant frequency of disease relapse compromise their use. Therefore, there is a need to seek new therapeutic options. We conducted tests with thiosemicarbazone of lapachol (TSC-lap) to determine the antifungal activity and phenotypic effects against several isolates of Paracoccidioides spp...
June 26, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924372/in-vitro-combination-of-antifungal-agents-against-malassezia-pachydermatis
#5
Karine B Schlemmer, Francielli P K de Jesus, Erico S Loreto, Julia B Farias, Sydney H Alves, Laerte Ferreiro, Janio M Santurio
The yeast Malassezia pachydermatis is a common commensal and occasional opportunistic pathogen of theskin microbiota of animals and humans. In this study, the susceptibility of M. pachydermatis isolates to fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITZ), ketoconazole (KTZ), clotrimazole (CLZ), and miconazole (MCZ) alone and in combination with terbinafine (TRB), nystatin (NYS), and caspofungin (CSP) was evaluated in vitro based on the M27-A3 technique and the checkerboard microdilution method using Sabouraud dextrose broth with 1% tween 80 (SDB)...
June 19, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924365/antifungal-activity-of-diphenyl-diselenide-alone-and-in-combination-with-itraconazole-against-sporothrix-brasiliensis
#6
Vanice Rodrigues Poester, Antonella Souza Mattei, Josiara Furtado Mendes, Gabriel Baracy Klafke, Ivy Bastos Ramis, Karine Ortiz Sanchotene, Melissa Orzechowski Xavier
Sporothrix brasiliensis is the main agent of feline and zoonotic sporotrichosis. Given the scarcity of options for sporotrichosis treatment and the promising activity of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 against a diversity of fungal pathogens, this study aimed to evaluate the in vitro susceptibility of Sporothrix brasiliensis to (PhSe)2 alone and in combination with itraconazole (ITC). Forty clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis were subjected to broth microdilution method to evaluate their susceptibility to (PhSe)2 in concentrations ranging between 0...
June 19, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924359/identification-of-aspergillus-and-mucorales-in-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissue-samples-comparison-of-specific-and-broad-range-fungal-qpcr-assays
#7
J Springer, I McCormick Smith, S Hartmann, R Winkelmann, D Wilmes, O Cornely, J Kessel, J Löffler, V Rickerts
Establishing the etiology of invasive fungal infections is important to guide therapeutic options and for epidemiologic purposes. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens from patients with proven invasive fungal infections are valuable to determine the etiology of systemic fungal infections. We compared different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification strategies from FFPE tissue blocks to identify agents of invasive fungal infections. We found that specific PCR assays show superior sensitivity in the identification of DNA of Mucorales and Aspergillus and mixed infections caused by both as compared to broad-range PCR assays...
June 19, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924358/blastomycosis-in-southern-saskatchewan-2000-2015-unique-presentations-and-disease-characteristics
#8
Sarah Lohrenz, Jessica Minion, Mamata Pandey, Kumudhini Karunakaran
In the literature, cases of blastomycosis in Canada have been documented in provinces bordering the Great Lakes, including Ontario and Quebec, as well as Manitoba. This is the first study to our knowledge reporting cases of mycosis seen in southern Saskatchewan suggesting a broader area of endemicity. We searched the Regina Qu'Appelle Health Region (RQHR) Microbiology Laboratory for all culture-confirmed cases of Blastomyces from January 2000 to December 2015 and identified 15 cases. Thirteen cases were reviewed, identifying common presenting symptoms, misdiagnosis, comorbidities, travel history, time from presentation to diagnosis, diagnostic specimen, treatment, and clinical outcome...
June 19, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924357/galleria-mellonella-as-a-model-system-to-study-virulence-potential-of-mucormycetes-and-evaluation-of-antifungal-treatment
#9
Elisabeth Maurer, Caroline Hörtnagl, Michaela Lackner, Denise Grässle, Verena Naschberger, Patrizia Moser, Esther Segal, Margarita Semis, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Ulrike Binder
Mucorales can cause cutaneous to deep-seated infections, mainly in the immunocompromised host, resulting in high mortality rates due to late and inefficient treatment. In this study, Galleria mellonella larvae were evaluated as a heterologous invertebrate host to study pathogenicity of clinically relevant mucormycetes (Rhizopus spp., Rhizomucor spp., Lichtheimia spp., Mucor spp.). All tested species were able to infect G. mellonella larvae. Virulence potential was species-specific and correlated to clinical relevance...
June 19, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889264/transcriptional-profiling-of-scedosporium-apiospermum-enzymatic-antioxidant-gene-battery-unravels-the-involvement-of-thioredoxin-reductases-against-chemical-and-phagocytic-cells-oxidative-stress
#10
Cindy Staerck, Julie Tabiasco, Charlotte Godon, Yves Delneste, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Maxime J J Fleury
Scedosporium species rank the second, after Aspergillus fumigatus, among the filamentous fungi colonizing the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Development of microorganisms in the respiratory tract depends on their capacity to evade killing by the host immune system, particularly through the oxidative response of macrophages and neutrophils, with the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). This is particularly true in the airways of CF patients which display an exacerbated inflammatory reaction...
June 8, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878229/combination-of-nutrients-in-a-mammalian-cell-culture-medium-kills-cryptococci
#11
Donald L Granger, Donna M Call
We found that a large inoculum of Cryptococcus gattii cells, when plated on Dulbecco's modified eagle's medium (DMEM) incorporated into agar, died within a few hours provided that DMEM agar plates had been stored in darkness for approximately 3 days after preparation. Standard conditions were developed for quantification of killing. The medium lost its fungicidal activity when exposed to visible light of wave length ∼400 nm. The amount of energy required was estimated at 5.8 × 104 joules @ 550 nm. Liquid DMEM conditioned by incubation over DMEM agar plates stored in darkness was fungicidal...
June 6, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846682/antifungal-susceptibilities-in-vitro-production-of-virulence-factors-and-activities-of-ceragenins-against-candida-spp-isolated-from-vulvovaginal-candidiasis
#12
Mayram Hacioglu, Cagla Bozkurt Guzel, Paul B Savage, A Seher Birteksoz Tan
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is the second most common cause of vaginitis after bacterial vaginosis, affecting millions of women worldwide every year. Candida albicans is the most frequent agent of VVC followed by other species of Candida such as C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis. Out of a total of 100 clinical isolates of Candida spp. obtained from patients diagnosed with VVC, 84 were identified as C. albicans, while the remaining isolates were identified as non--albicans Candida strains. Phospholipases and proteinases were produced by a majority of the C...
May 26, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846667/seroprevalence-of-anti-pythium-insidiosum-antibodies-in-the-thai-population
#13
Tassanee Lohnoo, Wanta Yingyong, Yothin Kumsang, Penpan Payattikul, Chalisa Jaturapaktrarak, La-Or Chailurkit, Wichai Aekplakorn, Theerapong Krajaejun
Pythiosis is a life-threatening disease of humans and other animals in tropical and subtropical countries. The causative agent is Pythium insidiosum. Diagnosis of pythiosis can be missed due to the lack of awareness in the medical community. Treatment of the disease is difficult and challenging. Most pythiosis patients end up losing an infected organ (i.e., eye or leg), and many die from uncontrolled infection. In 2006, the largest series of human cases of pythiosis (∼100) was reported from Thailand, highlighting the nationwide distribution of this high morbidity and mortality disease...
May 26, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800467/multi-azole-resistant-strain-of-malassezia-pachydermatis-isolated-from-a-canine-malassezia-dermatitis
#14
Rui Kano, Shinichi Yokoi, Naoki Kariya, Karin Oshimo, Hiroshi Kamata
In the case presented here, we describe the isolation of an azole-resistant strain of M. pachydermatis from a canine Malassezia dermatitis. The isolate (NUBS18001) from this case exhibited a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 320 μg/ml to itraconazole (ITZ) by broth microdilution (BM) assay, >32 μg/ml to ITZ by E-test, and >32 μg/ml to KTZ by E-test. Synergistic effects between FK506 and ITZ in the azole-resistant strain was evaluated using the microdilution checker-board method. The ITZ-resistant strain exhibited MICs of 320 μg/mL of ITZ alone and 5 μg/ml of FK506 alone; the addition of FK506 attenuated the ITZ MIC to 2...
May 24, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796666/lactobacillus-species-increase-the-survival-of-galleria-mellonella-infected-with-candida-albicans-and-non-albicans-candida-clinical-isolates
#15
Rafaella Braga Santos, Liliana Scorzoni, Andressa Mayumi Namba, Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Juliana Campos Junqueira
Investigation into new therapeutic strategies, such as the use of bacterial isolates with probiotic characteristics, has increased in importance due to the high incidence of Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida infections. This study evaluates Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains as prophylactic and therapeutic agents against infection caused by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, and Candida tropicalis in a Galleria mellonella model. Prophylactic treatment provided greater benefits during Candida spp...
May 23, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767770/%C3%AE-1-6-linked-galactofuranose-rich-peptidogalactomannan-of-fusarium-oxysporum-is-important-in-the-activation-of-macrophage-mechanisms-and-as-a-potential-diagnostic-antigen
#16
Nathalia Ferreira de Oliveira, Gustavo R C Santos, Mariana Ingrid D S Xisto, Giulia Maria Pires Dos Santos, Marcio Nucci, Rosa Maria T Haido, Eliana Barreto-Bergter
A peptidogalactomannan (PGM) from Fusarium oxysporum was structurally characterized by a combination of chemical and spectroscopic methods, including one and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D and 2D NMR). The galactomannan component consists of a main chain containing (1→6)-linked β-D-galactofuranose residues with side chains containing (1→2)-linked α-D-Glcp, (1→2)-linked -β-D-Manp (1→2) and β-D-Manp terminal nonreducing end units and differs from that of Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium resinae that present a main chain containing (1→6)-linked α-D-Manp residues presenting β-D-Galf as side chains of 3-4 units that are (1→5)-interlinked...
May 15, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762783/repurposing-the-anthelminthic-salicylanilide-oxyclozanide-against-susceptible-and-clinical-resistant-candida-albicans-strains
#17
Emilie Pic, Anaïs Burgain, Adnane Sellam
Current antifungal drugs suffer from limitations including toxicity, adverse interactions with other commonly prescribed drugs, and the emergence of resistant strains. Here, we repurposed the anthelmintic oxyclozanide as a potent antifungal agent against both sensitive and resistant clinical isolates of Candida albicans, as well as other human opportunistic fungi. Antifungal activity of oxyclozanide was enhanced when C. albicans grew in nonfermentable carbon sources. Our data support a mechanism of action where oxyclozanide uncoupled the mitochondrial electron transport from oxidative phosphorylation and perturbed the mitochondrial membrane potential...
May 14, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762761/burden-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-hiv-patients-under-deoxycholate-amphotericin-b-therapy-for-cryptococcal-meningitis-and-cost-minimization-analysis-of-amphotericin-b-lipid-complex
#18
Felipe Francisco Tuon, Khaiany Lino Florencio, Jaime L Rocha
Deoxycholate amphotericin B (d-AMB) has a higher rate of acute kidney injury (AKI) in comparison of lipid formulations. However, lipid amphotericin B has high costs in developing countries. The aim of this study is to assemble a model of cost-minimization of amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) in patients with cryptococcal meningitis. This is a retrospective study done in a cohort of patients with cryptococcal meningitis to study the economic impact of its use in developing countries. Cost analysis were based on direct cost of different antifungal therapies, chronic dialysis after discharge, and survival of patients based on a retrospective cohort of 102 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus with confirmed diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis...
May 14, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762749/siemens-immulite-aspergillus-specific-igg-assay-for-chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis-diagnosis
#19
Iain D Page, Malcolm D Richardson, David W Denning
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) complicates underlying lung disease, including treated tuberculosis. Measurement of Aspergillus-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a key diagnostic step. Cutoffs have been proposed based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses comparing CPA cases to healthy controls, but performance in at-risk populations with underlying lung disease is unclear. We evaluated optimal cutoffs for the Siemens Immulite Aspergillus-specific IgG assay for CPA diagnosis in relation to large groups of healthy and diseased controls with treated pulmonary tuberculosis...
May 14, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762748/molecular-type-specific-multiplex-pcr-produces-a-distinct-vnii-pcr-pattern-among-cryptococcus-neoformans-species-complex
#20
Massimo Cogliati, Mala Rakoto Andrianarivelo, Mohamed Ellabib, Emmanuel N Nnadi, Muriel Cornet
Prevalence of molecular type VNII among Cryptococcus neoformans species complex is probably underestimated since it can be distinguished from VNI only using molecular typing methods such as URA5-RFLP, AFLP, MLST, or whole genome sequencing. Previously, we described a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method able to identify VNI, VNIV, and VNIII hybrids, but, at that time, VNII molecular type was not described yet. In this study, 16 VNII global isolates were analyzed by our multiplex PCR method, and results showed that it was able to produce a specific pattern for all the studied VNII isolates, which was different from those of VNI, VNIV, and VNIII...
May 14, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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