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Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239804/pathophysiological-aspects-of-aspergillus-colonization-in-disease
#1
Sara Gago, David W Denning, Paul Bowyer
Aspergillus colonization of the lower respiratory airways is common in normal people, and of little clinical significance. However, in some patients, colonization is associated with severe disease including poorly controlled asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) with sputum plugs, worse lung function in chronic obstructive pulmonary aspergillosis (COPD), invasive aspergillosis, and active infection in patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). Therefore, understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of fungal colonization in disease is essential to develop strategies to avert or minimise disease...
September 15, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212911/hemagglutination-ability-and-hemolytic-activity-of-trichosporon-asahii
#2
Tomoe Ichikawa, Kota Uchiyama, Yuta Yoshizawa, Yuka Arai, Atsuyo Shimizu, Reiko Ikeda
Trichosporon asahii is a human fungal pathogen that causes deep-seated infections in immunocompromised patients. While the pathogenic mechanisms of T. asahii remain unknown, our previous studies indicate that adherent colony morphologies were generated from parent strains, which may contribute to their pathogenicity. In the present study, we analyzed the hemolytic and hemagglutination activities of T. asahii. We report that T. asahii cells demonstrate hemagglutination and hemolytic activities, and that cell surface molecules play a role in the hemagglutination activity of adherent strains...
September 12, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212901/assessment-of-the-anti-biofilm-effect-of-micafungin-in-an-animal-model-of-catheter-related-candidemia
#3
Beatriz Salinas, María Guembe, Lorena Cussó, Martha Kestler, Jesús Guinea, Manuel Desco, Patricia Muñoz, Emilio Bouza
In cases where catheter-related candidemia (CRC) must be managed without catheter withdrawal, antifungal lock therapy using highly active anti-biofilm (HAAB) agents is combined with systemic treatment. However, the activity of HAAB agents has never been studied in in vivo models using bioluminescence. We assessed the efficacy of micafungin using a bioluminescent Candida albicans SKCA23-ACTgLuc strain in an animal model of CRC. We divided 33 female Wistar rats into five groups: sham (A), infected nontreated (B), treated with lock therapy (0...
September 12, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212862/temporal-variability-in-the-allergenicity-of-airborne-alternaria-spores
#4
Lukasz Grewling, Malgorzata Nowak, Agata Szymanska, Lukasz Kostecki, Pawel Bogawski
The concentration of fungal spores in the air is traditionally considered as a proxy of allergen exposure. However, in vitro experiments have shown that the allergenicity of Alternaria spores varies depending on ecophysiological and developmental factors. Despite the potential clinical significance of these findings, it has never been verified in outdoor environments. This study, therefore, aims to investigate variability in the amount of the major allergen (Alt a 1) released from Alternaria spores in outdoor air...
September 12, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30202852/does-the-composition-of-polystyrene-trays-affect-candida-spp-biofilm-formation
#5
Judith Díaz-García, Laura Judith Marcos-Zambrano, Patricia Muñoz, Jesús Guinea, Pilar Escribano
The biofilm formation ability of Candida species seems to have a role in the prognosis of patients with candidemia. Biofilm formation is usually tested using 96 well flat bottom polystyrene microtiter plates, although the type of plastic used is not commonly reported. This study compares biofilm formation by Candida spp. on six types of plates from three brands (three non-tissue-treated and three tissue-treated). Thirty isolates of each of the following species were selected: C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C...
September 6, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30169683/protective-effect-of-inactivated-blastoconidia-in-keratinocytes-and-human-reconstituted-epithelium-against-c-albicans-infection
#6
Claudio Alburquenque, José Amaro, Marisol Fuentes, Mary A Falconer, Claudia Moreno, Cristian Covarrubias, Cristian Pinto, Paula I Rodas, Sergio A Bucarey, Germán Hermosilla, Fabien Magne, Cecilia V Tapia
Candida albicans is commensal yeast that colonizes skin and mucosa; however, it can become an opportunist pathogen by changing from blastoconidia (commensal form) into hypha (pathogenic form). Each form activates a different cytokines response in epithelial cells. Little is known about the commensal role of C. albicans in the innate immunity. This work studied whether stimulation with C. albicans blastoconidia induces protection in keratinocytes and/or in a reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) infected with C...
August 30, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30165659/antigen-host-response-differences-between-the-animal-type-strain-and-human-clinical-pythium-insidiosum-isolates-used-for-serological-diagnosis-in-thailand
#7
N Worasilchai, A Leelahavanichkul, N Permpalung, C Kuityo, T Phaisanchatchawan, T Palaga, R Reantragoon, A Chindamporn
The detection of Pythium insidiosum-specific-immunoglobulin-G antibody (Pi-Ab) with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test depends on the source of antigen. In this study, the Pi-Ab levels in 140 serum samples from patients with pythiosis were evaluated by ELISA using antigens from 10 P. insidiosum clinical isolates in comparison with antigen from the equine-standard-type strain. The ELISA values (EVs), calculated from antibody levels from serum of patients with pythiosis or other infections versus healthy controls, were significantly higher in the test with clinical-isolates antigen than the standard-equine-type strain (6...
August 24, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124992/evaluation-of-isavuconazole-mic-strips-for-susceptibility-testing-of-aspergillus-and-scedosporium-species
#8
L Trovato, G Scalia, C I Palermo, C M Costanzo, S Oliveri
Isavuconazole is a new triazole with an expanded-spectrum and potent activity against moulds and yeasts. It has been authorized for use in adults for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis and for mucormycosis. The only commercially available isavuconazole susceptibility test is the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) strip isavuconazole test. The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro activity of isavuconazole using gradient concentration MIC strips, compared with the EUCAST broth microdilution reference method...
August 14, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30085109/agapornis-sp-pet-birds-source-of-dissemination-of-azole-resistant-yeasts
#9
Eduardo J C Reis, Fabio Buscariolo, João P Z Siqueira, Elza M Castilho, Margarete T G Almeida
The objectives of this study were to identify yeasts in 40 feces samples of Agapornis birds and determine their antifungal susceptibility profile by two methodologies. Results indicated 92.5% of positivity (46 isolates). Six genera were identified (14 species): Cryptococcus (39.13%), four species; Candida (36.96%), four species; Rhodotorula (13.05%), two species; Trichosporon (6.52%), two species; Kodamaea ohmeri (2.17%); and Sporobolomyces salmonicolor (2.17%). Regarding the susceptibility profiles, 41.3% of the isolates showed low sensibility to fluconazole and 47...
August 4, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30085075/evidence-of-amphotericin-b-resistance-in-macrorhabdus-ornithogaster-in-australian-cage-birds
#10
Hamish R Baron, Katerina C L Leung, Ben C Stevenson, Mikel Sabater Gonzalez, David N Phalen
Amphotericin B is widely used for the treatment of Macrorhabdus ornithogaster infections. To date, however, there have been no randomized controlled trials confirming its efficacy where cure was confirmed by postmortem examination. To determine the efficacy of amphotericin B against M. ornithogaster, a three-part study was undertaken. Treatment outcomes of M. ornithogaster infected birds treated amphotericin B were reviewed. A pilot treatment trial with two naturally infected birds (Melopsittacus undulatus and Agapornis roseicollis) was undertaken, administering amphotericin B at 100 mg/kg twice daily for 30 days...
August 4, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30085158/a-prospective-multicenter-study-on-mucormycosis-in-india-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#11
Hariprasath Prakash, Anup Kumar Ghosh, Shivaprakash Mandya Rudramurthy, Pankaj Singh, Immaculata Xess, Jayanthi Savio, Umabala Pamidimukkala, Joseph Jillwin, Subhash Varma, Ashim Das, Naresh K Panda, Surjit Singh, Amanjit Bal, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
Mucormycosis due to Mucorales is reported at large numbers in uncontrolled diabetics across India, but systematic multicenter epidemiological study has not been published yet. The present prospective study was conducted at four major tertiary care centers of India (two in north and two in south India) during 2013-2015 to compare the epidemiology, treatment strategies and outcome of mucormycosis between the two regions. Molecular techniques were employed to confirm the identity of the isolates or to identify the agent in biopsy samples...
August 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30085101/the-importance-of-toll-like-receptor-4-during-experimental-sporothrix-brasiliensis-infection
#12
Luana Rossato, Suelen Silvana Dos Santos, Lucas Gonçalves Ferreira, Sandro Rogério de Almeida
Here we investigated the importance of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) in innate immune response to Sporothrix brasiliensis, a virulent fungus of Sporothrix spp. In vitro assays, using C57Bl/6 (wild type [WT]) bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), and TLR-4 knockout (TLR-4-/-) showed that the absence of TLR-4 resulted in impaired phagocytosis and lower levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and nitric oxide. In vivo assays were also performed, and the mice (WT and TLR-4-/-) were intraperitoneally infected with S...
August 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30085270/candida-auris-the-recent-emergence-of-a-multidrug-resistant-fungal-pathogen
#13
Kaitlin Forsberg, Kate Woodworth, Maroya Walters, Elizabeth L Berkow, Brendan Jackson, Tom Chiller, Snigdha Vallabhaneni
Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast that causes serious invasive infections with high mortality. It was first discovered in 2009, and since then, individual cases or outbreaks have been reported from over 20 countries on five continents. Controlling C. auris is challenging for several reasons: (1) it is resistant to multiple classes of antifungals, (2) it can be misidentified as other yeasts by commonly available identification methods, and (3) because of its ability to colonize patients perhaps indefinitely and persist in the healthcare environment, it can spread between patients in healthcare settings...
July 31, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30085253/vntr-confirms-the-heterogeneity-of-madurella-mycetomatis-and-is-a-promising-typing-tool-for-this-mycetoma-causing-agent
#14
Wilson Lim, Kimberly Eadie, Deborah Horst-Kreft, Sarah Abdalla Ahmed, Ahmed H Fahal, Wendy W J van de Sande
The neglected tropical disease mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous inflammatory and infectious disease affecting various body parts. The most common causative agent is the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. In order to study the genetic diversity of this fungus and to monitor any potential outbreaks, a good typing method that can be used in endemic settings is needed. Previous typing methods developed were not discriminative and not easy to perform in resource-limited laboratories. Variable-Number-Tandem-Repeat (VNTR) typing overcomes these difficulties and further enables interlaboratory data comparison...
July 31, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30085212/pcr-terminal-restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism-for-direct-detection-and-identification-of-dermatophytes-in-veterinary-mycology
#15
J Verrier, L Jeanneau-Imparato, C Guillet, P Bourdeau, J P Bouchara
The biological diagnosis of dermatophytosis in veterinary medicine usually relies on direct microscopic examination and inoculation of the samples on appropriate culture media. However, identification of dermatophytes needs expertise, and cultures which require from days to weeks to be conclusive, may lack of sensitivity because of the quite common overgrowth of contaminants. Here we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), which may improve sensitivity of the biological diagnosis and reduce the delay for initiation of treatment...
July 31, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30085141/interlaboratory-agreement-of-coccidioidomycosis-enzyme-immunoassay-from-two-different-manufacturers
#16
Soofia Khan, Michael A Saubolle, Terry Oubsuntia, Arash Heidari, Kelly Barbian, Kate Goodin, Megan Eguchi, Orion Z McCotter, Kenneth Komatsu, Benjamin J Park, Matthew Casey Geiger, Ahmed Mohamed, Tom Chiller, Rebecca H Sunenshine
Coccidioidomycosis, a fungal infection endemic to the Southwestern United States, is challenging to diagnose. The coccidioidomycosis enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test is the least expensive and simplest to perform to detect coccidioidomycosis antibodies in the serum. Concerns regarding falsely positive immunoglobulin (Ig) M EIA test results have led to questions about the agreement of commercially available EIA test kits among laboratories. We sought to evaluate the laboratory agreement of the EIA test at three laboratories using both IMMY and Meridian EIA test kits...
July 31, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053114/characterizing-in-vitro-spherule-morphogenesis-of-multiple-strains-of-both-species-of-coccidioides
#17
Heather L Mead, Marcus de Melo Teixeira, John N Galgiani, Bridget M Barker
The disease San Joaquin Valley Fever (coccidioidomycosis) is caused by the inhalation of Coccidioides arthroconidia. In vivo, arthroconidia transform into pathogenic structures termed spherules. Exposure to the host milieu triggers spherule development; however, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the morphological shift are not well characterized. This study compared the morphogenesis of five strains of both species of Coccidioides in two media types to improve the in vitro model of dimorphism that can be easily reproduced, and is amenable to tissue culture...
July 20, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30010978/role-of-the-fungus-specific-flavin-carrier-flc1-in-antifungal-resistance-in-the-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#18
Ping Zhang, Chenxi Li, Liang Huo, Biyun Xiang, Kashif Rahim, Xiaoran Hao, Xudong Zhu
FLC family, a conserved fungus-specific family of integral membrane proteins, has been demonstrated to play important roles in flavin transport, growth, and virulence in several fungi but not yet in Cryptococcus neoformans. In this study, we have identified the single homologue of flavin adenine dinucleotide transporter in the opportunistic pathogen C. neoformans. The computational and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the fungal specificity of cryptococcal Flc1 protein, thus providing a promising drug target for clinical treatment of cryptococcosis...
July 14, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30010938/malassezia-ecology-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#19
Bart Theelen, Claudia Cafarchia, Georgios Gaitanis, Ioannis Dimitrios Bassukas, Teun Boekhout, Thomas L Dawson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955881/reidentification-and-antifungal-susceptibility-profile-of-candida-guilliermondii-and-candida-famata-clinical-isolates-from-a-culture-collection-in-argentina
#20
Constanza Giselle Taverna, Susana Córdoba, Matías Vivot, Wanda Szusz, Walter Vivot, María Eugenia Bosco-Borgeat, Graciela Davel
The aim of this work was to reidentify strains previously identified as Candida guilliermondii and Candida famata by conventional phenotypic methods conserved in a culture collection from Argentina using ribosomal DNA sequencing, ACT1 gene sequencing, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). In addition, we performed antifungal susceptibility tests of eight antifungal drugs commonly used in clinical treatment. We identified 68 isolates belonging to the Candida guilliermondii species complex (59 C...
June 28, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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