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Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340656/antagonistic-effect-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-ktp-and-issatchenkia-occidentalis-apc-on-hyphal-development-and-adhesion-of-candida-albicans
#1
K Lohith, K A Anu-Appaiah
The morphological transition from yeast to a hyphal form, as well as the adhesion capability to the gastrointestinal tract, are implicated virulent determinant in Candida albicans and could be potential targets for prevention of the opportunistic pathogen. Based on this rationale, two yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae KTP and Issatchenkia occidentalis ApC along with reference strain Saccharomyces boulardii NCDC 363 were screened for the probiotic potential. Characters like pH, temperature, bile, simulated gastrointestinal juice tolerance tests, and Caco-2 cell line adhesion assay were determined in the present study...
January 11, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340615/a-simple-method-to-detect-the-tandem-repeat-of-the-cyp51a-promoter-in-azole-resistant-strains-of-aspergillus-fumigatus
#2
Takahito Toyotome, Daisuke Hagiwara, Akira Watanabe, Katsuhiko Kamei
We designed primers and cycling probes to detect the tandem repeat (TR) of cyp51A promoter in Aspergillus fumigatus. A control-probe was designed to anneal to the outside of the TR region, whereas a TR-probe was designed to anneal to the inside of the TR region. For amplification and probe-hydrolysis detection, the CycleavePCR system was used. Although the difference between Ct values of the wild-type genome for the control-probe and the TR-probe was around -0.1, the difference between Ct values of TR-harboring strains was around 0...
January 11, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325080/dst659-genotype-of-candida-albicans-showing-positive-association-between-biofilm-formation-and-dominance-in-taiwan
#3
Jang-Jih Lu, Hsiu-Jung Lo, Yen-Mu Wu, Jia-Yuan Chang, Yin-Zhi Chen, Shao-Hung Wang
Based on multiple locus sequence typing, we previously found that DST659 and DST693 were dominant genotypes of Candida albicans among the bloodstream isolates at Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou. Biofilm-forming activity, which is critical for C. albicans virulence, probably contributed to the dominance of antifungal sensitive isolates in hospital. Both in vitro membrane weighting and in vivo zebrafish egg infection assays were used to evaluate the biofilm-forming activity of DST659 and DST693 genotypes...
January 8, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325170/ecology-of-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-p-lutzii-and-related-species-infection-in-armadillos-soil-occurrence-and-mycological-aspects
#4
Marluce Francisca Hrycyk, Hans Garcia Garces, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes Bosco, Sílvio Luis de Oliveira, Sílvio Alencar Marques, Eduardo Bagagli
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and the related species P. americana, P. restrepiensis, P. venezuelensis, and P. lutzii (Ascomycota, Ajellomycetaceae) are the etiological agents of paracoccidoidoimycosis (PCM), one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. They are dimorphic fungi, with a mycelial life cycle in soil and a yeast phase associated with tissues of mammalian hosts. This study aimed to detect Paracoccidioides spp. in armadillo tissues and associated soil samples in three well-defined geographic areas, including the Alta Floresta, an area not only endemic for PCM in the central region of Brazil but also of probable P...
January 6, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294129/in-vitro-interactions-of-azoles-and-echinocandins-against-clinical-strains-of-aspergillus-flavus
#5
Laura Bedin Denardi, Vanessa Oliveira, Francielli Pantella Kunz de Jesus, Bianca Hoch Dalla-Lana, Janio Morais Santurio, Régis Adriel Zanette, Sydney Hartz Alves
Combinations of an azole (itraconazole, voriconazole, or posaconazole) with an echinocandin (caspofungin, micafungin, or anidulafungin) were tested against 20 clinical isolates of Aspergillus flavus according to EUCAST guidelines. The interactions were determined using two endpoints-minimal effective concentration (MEC) and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)-via calculation of the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index. A higher prevalence of synergistic interactions was observed for MIC, whereas indifference was the most frequent outcome according to MEC among the 20 strains...
December 27, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294061/phenotypic-and-genetic-diversity-of-malassezia-furfur-from-domestic-and-zoo-animals
#6
Laura Puig, M Rosa Bragulat, Gemma Castellá, F Javier Cabañes
Malassezia furfur is traditionally associated to human skin, although more recent studies have been revealing its presence in a variety of animals. The aim of this study was to analyze phenotypically and genetically the diversity among strains isolated from animals of this species. We have examined 21 strains of M. furfur from domestic and wild animals held in captivity. On the one hand, their phenotypic characteristics were studied, by assessing its growth at different incubation temperatures, their catalase and β-glucosidase activities and the Tween diffusion test on Sabouraud glucose agar (SGA), and on yeast nitrogen base agar (YNBA), a synthetic medium without lipids...
December 27, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294049/molecular-detection-of-histoplasma-capsulatum-in-insectivorous-and-frugivorous-bats-in-southeastern-brazil
#7
Bruna Dos Santos, Helio Langoni, Rodrigo Costa da Silva, Benedito Donizete Menozzi, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes Bosco, Laís Moraes Paiz, Livia Carla Ramos Augusto, Virgínia Bodelão Richini-Pereira
Bats are considered to play a significant role in the epidemiology of histoplasmosis, worldwide. We investigated the occurrence of H. capsulatum in lung samples from 89 bats, from urban areas in Southeastern Brazil, using nested PCR based on ribosomal DNA. Fungal DNA was detected in 31/89 samples (34.8%), of which 13/31 were Molossids (41.9%), 4/31 Eumops spp. (12.9%), 2/31 Artibeus lituratus (6.5%), and 12/31 others (38.7%). This is the first report of natural infection by H. capsulatum in A. lituratus in Southeastern Brazil, which reinforces the importance of these synanthropic animals in the epidemiology of histoplasmosis in urban areas...
December 27, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294039/oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-responses-during-macrophage-candida-albicans-biofilm-interaction
#8
Julio E Arce Miranda, José L Baronetti, Claudia E Sotomayor, M Gabriela Paraje
Candida albicans is an important source of device-associated infection because of its capacity for biofilm formation. This yeast has the ability to form biofilms which favors the persistence of the infection. Furthermore, the innate immune response has a critical role in the control of these infections and macrophages (Mø) are vital to this process. An important fungicidal mechanism employed by Mø involves the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI). The interaction between biofilms and these immune cells, and the contribution of oxidative and nitrosative stress, that is determinant to the course of the infection, remains elusive...
December 27, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294025/blood-culture-procedures-and-diagnosis-of-malassezia-furfur-bloodstream-infections-strength-and-weakness
#9
Roberta Iatta, Michela Battista, Giuseppe Miragliotta, Teun Boekhout, Domenico Otranto, Claudia Cafarchia
The occurrence of Malassezia spp. bloodstream infections (BSIs) in neonatal intensive care unit was evaluated by using pediatric Isolator, BacT/Alert systems and central venous catheter (CVC) culture. The efficacy of BacT/Alert system in detecting Malassezia was assessed by conventional procedures, culturing 1 ml of bottle content before incubation and by studying the survival of Malassezia spp. strains in BacT/Alert bottles. Of the 492 neonates enrolled, blood was collected by pediatric Isolator (290 patients; group I) or by BacT/Alert bottles (202 patients; group II)...
December 27, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29267980/the-trophic-life-cycle-stage-of-pneumocystis-species-induces-protective-adaptive-responses-without-inflammation-mediated-progression-to-pneumonia
#10
Heather M Evans, Beth A Garvy
Pneumocystis species are fungal pathogens that cause pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts. Lung damage during Pneumocystis pneumonia is predominately due to the inflammatory immune response. Pneumocystis species have a biphasic life cycle. Optimal innate immune responses to Pneumocystis species are dependent on stimulation with the cyst life cycle stage. Conversely, the trophic life cycle stage broadly suppresses proinflammatory responses to multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including β-1,3-glucan...
December 18, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29267891/infections-caused-by-scedosporium-lomentospora-species-clinical-and-microbiological-findings-in-21-cases
#11
Fernando Cobo, Ana Lara-Oya, Javier Rodríguez-Granger, Antonio Sampedro, Luis Aliaga-Martínez, José María Navarro-Marí
The clinical and microbiological characteristics of infections caused by Scedosporium/ Lomentospora species in 21 patients are described. We searched retrospectively the records for Scedosporium/ Lomentospora species seen at the University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves from 2006 to 2017. Out of them, 16 were male; mean age at diagnosis was 57.8 (±SD 15) years; all patients had risk factors for fungal infection such as corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive treatment in 18 (85.7%) patients, pulmonary diseases in seven (33...
December 18, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253204/in-vitro-activity-of-isavuconazole-against-fluconazole-resistant-isolates-of-histoplasma-capsulatum
#12
Andrej Spec, Patricia Connoly, Rocio Montejano, L Joseph Wheat
No clinical trials for histoplasmosis have been performed with the newer azoles, leaving itraconazole as the azole of choice. In vitro studies suggest that Histoplasma capsulatum from patients that relapse on fluconazole has higher minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to fluconazole and voriconazole but not itraconazole and posaconazole. The newest azole, isavuconazole, shares structural similarity to voriconazole, but to date nobody has explored emergence of resistance. In vitro susceptibilities to isavucoanzole and fluconazole were performed on previously obtained isolates from the patients who relapsed on fluconazole therapy...
December 14, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253200/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-transplantation-alters-the-course-of-experimental-paracoccidioidomycosis-by-exacerbating-the-chronic-pulmonary-inflammatory-response
#13
Julián Camilo Arango, Juan David Puerta-Arias, Paula Andrea Pino-Tamayo, David Arboleda-Toro, Ángel González
Several studies have shown the potential use of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) as a therapeutic approach to infectious diseases. Since BM-MSCs can exert antimicrobial properties and influence the immune response against pathogens, our aim was to study the antimicrobial therapeutic potential of BM-MSCs in an experimental model of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). BM-MSCs were isolated from BALB/c donor mice. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis-infected male BALB/c mice were injected with purified BM-MSCs at 8th week post-infection...
December 14, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228397/yeast-identification-by-sequencing-biochemical-kits-maldi-tof-ms-and-rep-pcr-dna-fingerprinting
#14
Ying Zhao, Chi-Ching Tsang, Meng Xiao, Jasper F W Chan, Susanna K P Lau, Fanrong Kong, Yingchun Xu, Patrick C Y Woo
No study has comprehensively evaluated the performance of 28S nrDNA and ITS sequencing, commercial biochemical test kits, MALDI-TOF MS platforms, and the emerging rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting technology using a cohort of yeast strains collected from a clinical microbiology laboratory. In this study, using 71 clinically important yeast isolates (excluding Candida albicans) collected from a single centre, we determined the concordance of 28S nrDNA and ITS sequencing and evaluated the performance of two commercial test kits, two MALDI-TOF MS platforms, and rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228389/high-resolution-melting-analysis-a-novel-approach-for-clade-differentiation-in-pythium-insidiosum-and-pythiosis
#15
Navaporn Worasilchai, Nitipong Permpalung, Ariya Chindamporn
Pythium insidiosum causes life-threatening human pythiosis. Based on phylogenetic analysis using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase II (COX2) gene, intergenic spacer (IGS) region and exo-1,3-β-glucanase gene (exo1), P. insidiosum is classified into clade ATH, BTH, and CTH related to geographic distribution. At present, polymerase chain reaction in any of these specific regions with DNA sequencing is the only technique to provide clade diagnosis. In this study, P. insidiosum-specific primers targeting COX2 gene were designed and used in real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with subsequent high-resolution melting (HRM) to provide rapid identification as well as clade classification for P...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228383/oral-fungal-bacterial-biofilm-models-in-vitro-a-review
#16
Marlene Chevalier, Stephane Ranque, Isabelle Prêcheur
Inclusion of fungi as commensals in oral biofilm is an important innovation in oral biology, and this work aimed to review the literature on the available biofilm and related disease in vitro models. Actually, thousands of bacterial and around one hundred of fungal phylotypes can colonize the oral cavity. Taxonomic profiling combined with functional expression analysis has revealed that Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and prominent periodontopathogens are not always present or numerically important in candidiasis, caries, or periodontitis lesions...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228380/elderly-versus-nonelderly-patients-with-invasive-aspergillosis-in-the-icu-a-comparison-and-risk-factor-analysis-for-mortality-from-the-aspicu-cohort
#17
D K Matthaiou, G Dimopoulos, F S Taccone, P Bulpa, A M Van den Abeele, B Misset, W Meersseman, H Spapen, T Cardoso, P E Charles, D Vogelaers, S Blot
Data regarding the epidemiology and diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in the critically ill population are limited, with data regarding elderly patients (≥75 years old) even scarcer. We aimed to further compare the epidemiology, characteristics and outcome of elderly versus nonelderly critically ill patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA) Prospective, international, multicenter observational study (AspICU) including adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients, with a culture and/or direct examination and/or histopathological sample positive for Aspergillus spp...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228377/genotyping-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-in-colonized-patients-with-various-pulmonary-diseases
#18
Magdalena Sokulska, Marta Kicia, Maria Wesolowska, Pawel Piesiak, Aneta Kowal, Maria Luísa Lobo, Zaneta Kopacz, Andrzej B Hendrich, Olga Matos
Pneumocystis jirovecii is an opportunistic fungus causing Pneumocystis pneumonia primarily in immunosuppressed patients. However, immunocompetent individuals may become colonized and, as asymptomatic carriers, serve as reservoirs of the pathogen. Moreover, these asymptomatic carriers are at higher risk of developing pneumonia if favorable conditions occur. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of P. jirovecii in patients with various pulmonary diseases and to characterize the genetic diversity of organisms circulating in the studied population...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228375/influence-of-temperature-on-in-vitro-zoosporogenesis-of-pythium-insidiosum
#19
Cristina Gomes Zambrano, Angelita Reis Gomes, Carolina Litchina Brasil, Júlia de Souza Silveira Valente, Carolina Quintana Braga, Maria Isabel de Azevedo, Sônia de Avila Botton, Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira
This study verified the influence of different temperatures on P. insidiosum in vitro zoosporogenesis. P. insidiosum isolates (n = 26) were submitted to zoosporogenesis and incubated at 5°C, 15°C, 20°C and 37°C (1st stage). Grass fragments were evaluated under optical microscopy at 4, 8, and 24 hours of incubation. Afterward, all isolates were incubated at 37°C and assessed at the same periods of time (2nd stage). The development of hyphae, presence of vesicles, zoosporangia and zoospores were checked...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228372/a-novel-tomographic-imaging-probe-for-rapid-diagnosis-of-fungal-keratitis
#20
Min Hee Lee, Gregory Wiedman, Steven Park, Arkady Mustaev, Yanan Zhao, David S Perlin
Fungal keratitis is a leading cause of ocular morbidity and blindness in developing countries. Diagnosing fungal keratitis currently relies on a comparative evaluation of corneal biopsy or scraping using a direct microscopy and culture results. These methods not only carry the risk of developing complications due to the invasive tissue sampling but also are largely limited by diagnostic speed and accuracy, making it difficult to initiate timely appropriate antifungal therapy. Therefore, rapid and noninvasive diagnostic tools are a pressing need for improved outcomes for fungal keratitis...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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