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Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767780/medical-phycology-2017
#1
John R Todd, Tadahiko Matsumoto, Ryohei Ueno, Jayaseelan Murugaiyan, Allan Britten, John W King, Yoshinobu Odaka, Arnold Oberle, Christoph Weise, Uwe Roesler, R Scott Pore
In 2014, ISHAM formed a new working group: "Medical Phycology: Protothecosis and Chlorellosis." The purpose of this working group is to help facilitate collaboration and communication among people interested in the pathogenic algae, to share ideas and work together. Here we present reports on recent work we have done in five areas. 1. The history of medical phycology as a branch of science. 2. Aspects of the genetics of Prototheca. 3. Aspects of the proteins of Prototheca. 4. Human infections caused by Prototheca...
May 15, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767770/%C3%AE-1-6-linked-galactofuranose-rich-peptidogalactomannan-of-fusarium-oxysporum-is-important-in-the-activation-of-macrophage-mechanisms-and-as-a-potential-diagnostic-antigen
#2
Nathalia Ferreira de Oliveira, Gustavo R C Santos, Mariana Ingrid D S Xisto, Giulia Maria Pires Dos Santos, Marcio Nucci, Rosa Maria T Haido, Eliana Barreto-Bergter
A peptidogalactomannan (PGM) from Fusarium oxysporum was structurally characterized by a combination of chemical and spectroscopic methods, including one and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D and 2D NMR). The galactomannan component consists of a main chain containing (1→6)-linked β-D-galactofuranose residues with side chains containing (1→2)-linked α-D-Glcp, (1→2)-linked -β-D-Manp (1→2) and β-D-Manp terminal nonreducing end units and differs from that of Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium resinae that present a main chain containing (1→6)-linked α-D-Manp residues presenting β-D-Galf as side chains of 3-4 units that are (1→5)-interlinked...
May 15, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762783/repurposing-the-anthelminthic-salicylanilide-oxyclozanide-against-susceptible-and-clinical-resistant-candida-albicans-strains
#3
Emilie Pic, Anaïs Burgain, Adnane Sellam
Current antifungal drugs suffer from limitations including toxicity, adverse interactions with other commonly prescribed drugs, and the emergence of resistant strains. Here, we repurposed the anthelmintic oxyclozanide as a potent antifungal agent against both sensitive and resistant clinical isolates of Candida albicans, as well as other human opportunistic fungi. Antifungal activity of oxyclozanide was enhanced when C. albicans grew in nonfermentable carbon sources. Our data support a mechanism of action where oxyclozanide uncoupled the mitochondrial electron transport from oxidative phosphorylation and perturbed the mitochondrial membrane potential...
May 14, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762761/burden-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-hiv-patients-under-deoxycholate-amphotericin-b-therapy-for-cryptococcal-meningitis-and-cost-minimization-analysis-of-amphotericin-b-lipid-complex
#4
Felipe Francisco Tuon, Khaiany Lino Florencio, Jaime L Rocha
Deoxycholate amphotericin B (d-AMB) has a higher rate of acute kidney injury (AKI) in comparison of lipid formulations. However, lipid amphotericin B has high costs in developing countries. The aim of this study is to assemble a model of cost-minimization of amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) in patients with cryptococcal meningitis. This is a retrospective study done in a cohort of patients with cryptococcal meningitis to study the economic impact of its use in developing countries. Cost analysis were based on direct cost of different antifungal therapies, chronic dialysis after discharge, and survival of patients based on a retrospective cohort of 102 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus with confirmed diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis...
May 14, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762749/siemens-immulite-aspergillus-specific-igg-assay-for-chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis-diagnosis
#5
Iain D Page, Malcolm D Richardson, David W Denning
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) complicates underlying lung disease, including treated tuberculosis. Measurement of Aspergillus-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a key diagnostic step. Cutoffs have been proposed based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses comparing CPA cases to healthy controls, but performance in at-risk populations with underlying lung disease is unclear. We evaluated optimal cutoffs for the Siemens Immulite Aspergillus-specific IgG assay for CPA diagnosis in relation to large groups of healthy and diseased controls with treated pulmonary tuberculosis...
May 14, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762748/molecular-type-specific-multiplex-pcr-produces-a-distinct-vnii-pcr-pattern-among-cryptococcus-neoformans-species-complex
#6
Massimo Cogliati, Mala Rakoto Andrianarivelo, Mohamed Ellabib, Emmanuel N Nnadi, Muriel Cornet
Prevalence of molecular type VNII among Cryptococcus neoformans species complex is probably underestimated since it can be distinguished from VNI only using molecular typing methods such as URA5-RFLP, AFLP, MLST, or whole genome sequencing. Previously, we described a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method able to identify VNI, VNIV, and VNIII hybrids, but, at that time, VNII molecular type was not described yet. In this study, 16 VNII global isolates were analyzed by our multiplex PCR method, and results showed that it was able to produce a specific pattern for all the studied VNII isolates, which was different from those of VNI, VNIV, and VNIII...
May 14, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762763/yeasts-isolated-from-cloacal-swabs-feces-and-eggs-of-laying-hens
#7
Claudia Cafarchia, Roberta Iatta, Patrizia Danesi, Antonio Camarda, Gioia Capelli, Domenico Otranto
Domestic and wild birds may act as carriers of human pathogenic fungi, although the role of laying hens in spreading yeasts has never been investigated. We evaluated the presence of yeasts in the cloaca (Group I, n = 364), feces (Group II, n = 96), and eggs (Group III, n = 270) of laying hens. The occurrence and the population size of yeasts on the eggshell, as well as in the yolks and albumens, were assessed at the oviposition time and during storage of eggs at 22 ± 1°C and 4 ± 1°C. A statistically higher prevalence and population size of yeasts were recorded in Group I (49...
May 11, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762721/clinical-evaluation-of-the-dermagenius%C3%A2-nail-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-dermatophytes-and-candida-albicans-in-nails
#8
Marie-Pierre Hayette, Laurence Seidel, Caroline Adjetey, Rajae Darfouf, Marie Wéry, Raphaël Boreux, Rosalie Sacheli, Pierrette Melin, Jorge Arrese
Onychomycosis represents one of the most frequent mycoses in the world. Causative agents are mainly dermatophytes, but yeasts and nondermatophyte moulds can also be involved. Conventional diagnostic methods include direct microscopy (or histology) and culturing. However, molecular methods are becoming increasingly popular in this field. The DermaGenius® (DG) Nail multiplex assay (PathoNostics, The Netherlands) is a new commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kit, which can detect Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton interdigitale and Candida albicans directly in nails...
May 11, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762695/development-and-validation-of-an-extended-database-for-yeast-identification-by-maldi-tof-ms-in-argentina
#9
Constanza Giselle Taverna, Mariana Mazza, Nadia Soledad Bueno, Christian Alvarez, Susana Amigot, Mariana Andreani, Natalia Azula, Rubén Barrios, Norma Fernández, Barbara Fox, Liliana Guelfand, Ivana Maldonado, Omar Alejandro Murisengo, Silvia Relloso, Matias Vivot, Graciela Davel
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has revolutionized the identification of microorganisms in clinical laboratories because it is rapid, relatively simple to use, accurate, and can be used for a wide number of microorganisms. Several studies have demonstrated the utility of this technique in the identification of yeasts; however, its performance is usually improved by the extension of the database. Here we developed an in-house database of 143 strains belonging to 42 yeast species in the MALDI Biotyper platform, and we validated the extended database with 388 regional strains and 15 reference strains belonging to 55 yeast species...
May 11, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672727/corrigendum-fungal-infections-in-animals-a-patchwork-of-different-situations
#10
Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Sandra de M G Bosco, Sybren de Hoog, Frank Ebel, Daniel Elad, Renata R Gomes, Ilse D Jacobsen, Henrik E Jensen, An Martel, Bernard Mignon, Frank Pasmans, Elena Piecková, Anderson Messias Rodrigues, Karuna Singh, Vania A Vicente, Gudrun Wibbelt, Nathan P Wiederhold, Jacques Guillot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669009/melanin-quantification-and-protection-against-oxidative-stress-in-chromoblastomycosis-agents
#11
Daiane Heidrich, Valeriano Antonio Corbellini, Sandra Denise Camargo Mendes, Elissa Kerli Fernandes, Letícia Lazzarotto, Amanda Carvalho Ribeiro, Régis Adriel Zanette, Maria Lúcia Scroferneker
Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is a chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous infection caused by melanized fungal species. We quantified the extractable melanin of 77 strains of CBM agents distributed within five genera. Moreover, resistance to oxidative stress was evaluated in strains exposed or not to the melanin inhibitor tricyclazole. The median percentage of melanin mass extracted from dry fungal mass varied from 0.69 (Rhinocladiella similis) to 3.81 (Phialophora americana). Inhibition of melanin synthesis decreased survival rates to hydrogen peroxide...
April 14, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669037/coccidioidomycosis-in-selected-immunosuppressed-hosts
#12
Janis E Blair, Neil M Ampel, Susan E Hoover
After contracting coccidioidomycosis, persons with impaired cellular immunity are more likely than healthy persons to have severe infection, disseminated infection, and higher mortality rates. In this brief review, we summarize the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of coccidioidomycosis in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), recipients of solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplants, and recipients of biologic response modifiers. Among individuals infected with HIV, a diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and a CD4 T-lymphocyte count <250 cells/μl were associated with more severe coccidioidomycosis, whereas less severe disease occurred among those with undetectable HIV-RNA and higher CD4 T-lymphocyte counts, indicating that controlled HIV viremia and improved cellular immune status are important in limiting disease...
April 13, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659990/erratum-in-vitro-activity-of-isavuconazole-against-fluconazole-resistant-isolates-of-histoplasma-capsulatum
#13
Andrej Spec, Patricia Connolly, Rocio Montejano, L Joseph Wheat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635537/revision-of-the-medically-relevant-species-of-the-yeast-genus-diutina
#14
Chunyan Ming, Jin Huang, Yanyan Wang, Qian Lv, Bing Zhou, Taohua Liu, Yu Cao, Bert Gerrits van den Ende, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Sarah A Ahmed, Guanghua Huang, Fengyan Bai, Sybren de Hoog, Yingqian Kang
Diutina (Candida) rugosa is emerging as a causative agent of human infections. Recently some close relatives have been described, that is, D. mesorugosa, D. pseudorugosa, and D. neorugosa, some of which have also been implicated in human infection. Phylogenetic relationships of 24 clinical isolates of the D. rugosa complex are reconstructed using multilocus sequence analysis of five housekeeping genes, supplemented with phenotypic studies of CandiSelect™ 4 Agar and nutritional physiology. Diutina mesorugosa could not meaningfully be distinguished from D...
April 3, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618069/genetic-diversity-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-candida-albicans-isolated-from-iranian-patients
#15
Somayeh Sharifynia, Sasan Rezaie, Abdolreza Mohamadnia, Vida Mortezaee, Atefe Hadian, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi
A total of 105 independent Candida albicans strains isolated from patients in Iran were investigated. According to CLSI documents M27-A3 and M27-S4, the 24 h geometric mean MICs of caspofungin, itraconazole, and fluconazole were 0.27, 3.19, and 11.91 μg/ml, respectively. Microsatellites analysis of CEF3, CAIII, LOC4 Loci identified 93 different allelic genotypes clustered apart into six different clades. Antifungal susceptibility was not linked with the source of isolation and the corresponding genotype of C...
March 29, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618039/in-vitro-synergy-with-fluconazole-plus-doxycycline-or-tigecycline-against-clinical-candida-glabrata-isolates
#16
Randol W Hooper, Deborah S Ashcraft, George A Pankey
Candida species, traditionally viewed as opportunistic agents, are increasingly seen as a cause of infection in hospitalized patients. Treatment options are limited to a few classes of drugs. Increased resistance, especially by Candida glabrata, is problematic. We investigated the interaction between fluconazole and doxycycline or tigecycline, using clinically unique blood culture C. glabrata isolates. Eighteen isolates were screened using an Etest® MIC:MIC synergy method. With the doxycycline plus fluconazole combination, 28% of isolates showed synergy; tigecycline plus fluconazole showed 94% synergy...
March 29, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608706/risks-and-outcomes-of-invasive-fungal-infections-in-pediatric-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-receiving-fluconazole-prophylaxis-a-multicenter-cohort-study-by-the-turkish-pediatric-bone-marrow-transplantation-study-group
#17
Volkan Hazar, Gülsün Tezcan Karasu, Vedat Uygun, Gülyüz Öztürk, Suar Çaki Kiliç, Alphan Küpesiz, Hayriye Daloglu, Serap Aksoylar, Didem Atay, Elif Ünal Ince, Musa Karakükçü, Namik Özbek, Funda Tayfun, Savas Kansoy, Emel Özyürek, Arzu Akçay, Orhan Gürsel, Sule Haskologlu, Zühre Kaya, Sebnem Yilmaz, Atila Tanyeli, Akif Yesilipek
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are a major cause of infection-related morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Data from pediatric settings are scarce. To determine the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of IFIs in a 180-day period post-transplantation, 408 pediatric patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT were retrospectively analyzed. The study included only proven and probable IFIs. The cumulative incidences of IFI were 2.7%, 5.0%, and 6...
March 27, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566248/prevalence-of-sensitization-to-aspergillus-flavus-in-patients-with-allergic-bronchopulmonary-aspergillosis
#18
Inderpaul Singh Sehgal, Hansraj Choudhary, Sahajal Dhooria, Ashutosh Nath Aggarwal, Sandeep Bansal, Mandeep Garg, Digambar Behera, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Ritesh Agarwal
Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common Aspergillus species worldwide; however, A. flavus has also been shown to be prevalent in North India. Herein, we investigate the prevalence of sensitization to A. flavus in subjects with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). We also evaluate the occurrence of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) due to A. flavus. Treatment-naive subjects with ABPA underwent sputum culture; and, skin testing, fungal-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and serum precipitation tests for A...
March 16, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566178/the-efficacy-and-pharmacokinetics-of-terbinafine-against-the-frog-killing-fungus-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis
#19
Alexandra A Roberts, Lee Berger, Sherryl G Robertson, Rebecca J Webb, Tiffany A Kosch, Michael McFadden, Lee F Skerratt, Beverley D Glass, Cherie A Motti, Laura A Brannelly
Captive and wild amphibians are under threat of extinction from the deadly fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). The antifungal drug terbinafine (TBF) is used by pet owners to treat Bd-infected frogs; however, it is not widely used in academic or zoological institutions due to limited veterinary clinical trials. To assess TBF's efficacy, we undertook treatment trials and pharmacokinetic studies to investigate drug absorption and persistence in frog skin; and then we correlated these data to the minimal lethal concentrations (MLC) against Bd...
March 16, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554336/flucytosine-resistance-in-cryptococcus-gattii-is-indirectly-mediated-by-the-fcy2-fcy1-fur1-pathway
#20
Kiem Vu, George R Thompson, Chandler C Roe, Jane E Sykes, Elizabeth M Dreibe, Shawn R Lockhart, Wieland Meyer, David M Engelthaler, Angie Gelli
Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by members of the two sibling species complexes: Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Flucytosine (5FC) is one of the most widely used antifungals against Cryptococcus spp., yet very few studies have looked at the molecular mechanisms responsible for 5FC resistance in this pathogen. In this study, we examined 11 C. gattii clinical isolates of the major molecular type VGIII based on differential 5FC susceptibility and asked whether there were genomic changes in the key genes involved in flucytosine metabolism...
March 15, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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