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Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637229/can-passage-in-galleria-mellonella-activate-virulence-factors-of-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-as-in-the-murine-model
#1
Liliana Scorzoni, Ana Carolina Alves de Paula E Silva, Haroldo Cesar de Oliveira, Caroline Maria Marcos, Junya de Lacorte Singulani, Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida, Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a fungal disease restricted to Latin countries, and its etiologic agents derive from the Paracoccidioides genus. Attenuation or loss of virulence in Paracoccidioides spp. following successive subculturing has been described. However, virulence can be recovered by passage in mammalian host. In this study, the recovery of adhesion of P. brasiliensis through passage in mice was compared to that in the insect Galleria mellonella. Analysis of in vitro fungal-host cell interaction, gene expression of adhesins, and analysis of the survival curves revealed that Galleria mellonella is useful for the reactivation of P...
June 15, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633410/cryptococcus-neoformans-and-gattii-promote-dna-damage-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#2
Jéssica Cristina Bilizario Noguerol Andrade, Mariana Gatto, Daniela Ramos Rodrigues, Ângela Maria Victoriano de Campos Soares, Sueli Aparecida Calvi
Cryptococcosis, a systemic mycosis capable of disseminating to the central nervous system with frequent lethal effects, is caused by the species Cryptococus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Several infectious agents such as virus, bacteria, and parasites may be associated to DNA damage and carcinogenesis in humans. Products of the oxidative metabolism, such as NO, produced as a host defense mechanism to destroy these pathogens, have been implicated in this damage process, due to excessive production related to an established chronic inflammatory response...
June 15, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595294/coccidioidomycosis-an-underreported-cause-of-death-arizona-2008-2013
#3
Jefferson M Jones, Lia Koski, Mohammed Khan, Shane Brady, Rebecca Sunenshine, Ken K Komatsu
In Arizona during 1997-2013, coccidioidomycosis increased from 21 to 90 cases/100,000 population, but coccidioidomycosis-associated deaths remained stable at 3-6 deaths/million population. We used the capture-recapture method by using death certificates and hospital discharge data to more fully estimate the total number of coccidioidomycosis-attributable deaths and compared this with published estimates. Death certificates were included if any cause of death included coccidioidomycosis; hospital discharge data deaths were included if any discharge diagnosis included coccidioidomycosis and laboratory confirmation...
June 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595275/antifungal-susceptibility-of-sporothrix-schenckii-complex-biofilms
#4
Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, Felipe Rodrigues Magalhães de Aguiar, Maria Lucilene Queiroz da Silva, Jonathas Sales de Oliveira, Zoilo Pires de Camargo, Anderson Messias Rodrigues, Vandbergue Santos Pereira, Rosana Serpa, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Edmilson Emanuel Monteiro Correia, Waldemiro Aquino Pereira-Neto, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha, José Júlio Costa Sidrim
Sporotrichosis, caused by species of Sporothrix schenckii complex, is the most prevalent subcutaneous mycosis in many areas of Latin America. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of Sporothrix spp. to form biofilms in vitro and to characterize the growth kinetics, morphology, and antifungal susceptibility of biofilms against classical antifungals. We investigated the ability of strains to produce biofilms in vitro and determined the effects of exposure to amphotericin B, itraconazole, caspofungin, ketoconazole, voriconazole, and fluconazole at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against planktonic form and at 10× MIC and 50× MIC on the biomass and metabolic activity of these biofilms...
June 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582544/terbinafine-resistance-conferred-by-multiple-copies-of-the-salicylate-1-monooxygenase-gene-in-trichophyton-rubrum
#5
Hemelin L Santos, Elza A S Lang, Fernando Segato, Antonio Rossi, Nilce M Martinez-Rossi
Resistance to antifungals is a leading concern in the treatment of human mycoses. We demonstrate that the salA gene, encoding salicylate 1-monooxygenase, is involved in resistance of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum to terbinafine, one of the most effective antifungal drugs against dermatophytes. A strain with multiple copies of salA was constructed and exhibited elevated expression of salA and increased terbinafine resistance. This reflects a mechanism not yet reported in a pathogenic fungus.
June 2, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575449/efficacy-of-a-poly-aggregated-formulation-of-amphotericin-b-in-treating-systemic-sporotrichosis-caused-by-sporothrix-brasiliensis
#6
Kelly Ishida, Rafaela Alves Castro, Juan J Torrado, Dolores Remedios Serrano, Luana Pereira Borba-Santos, Leonardo Pereira Quintella, Wanderley de Souza, Sonia Rozental, Leila M Lopes-Bezerra
In severe cases of sporotrichosis, it is recommended to use amphotericin B deoxycholate (D-AMB) or its lipid formulations and/or in association with itraconazole (ITC). Our aim was to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of a poly-aggregated amphotericin B (P-AMB), a nonlipid formulation, compared with D-AMB on systemic sporotrichosis caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis. In vitro assays showed that Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and S. brasiliensis yeast clinical isolates were susceptible to low concentrations of P-AMB and D-AMB...
June 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541426/erratum-molecular-identification-of-chromoblastomycosis-clinical-isolates-in-guangdong
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339744/determining-the-analytical-specificity-of-pcr-based-assays-for-the-diagnosis-of-ia-what-is-aspergillus
#8
C Oliver Morton, P Lewis White, Rosemary A Barnes, Lena Klingspor, Manuel Cuenca-Estrella, Katrien Lagrou, Stéphane Bretagne, Willem Melchers, Carlo Mengoli, Angela M Caliendo, Massimo Cogliati, Yvette Debets-Ossenkopp, Rebecca Gorton, Ferry Hagen, Catriona Halliday, Petr Hamal, Kathleen Harvey-Wood, Katia Jaton, Gemma Johnson, Sarah Kidd, Martina Lengerova, Cornelia Lass-Florl, Chris Linton, Laurence Millon, C Orla Morrissey, Melinda Paholcsek, Alida Fe Talento, Markus Ruhnke, Birgit Willinger, J Peter Donnelly, Juergen Loeffler
A wide array of PCR tests has been developed to aid the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA), providing technical diversity but limiting standardisation and acceptance. Methodological recommendations for testing blood samples using PCR exist, based on achieving optimal assay sensitivity to help exclude IA. Conversely, when testing more invasive samples (BAL, biopsy, CSF) emphasis is placed on confirming disease, so analytical specificity is paramount. This multicenter study examined the analytical specificity of PCR methods for detecting IA by blind testing a panel of DNA extracted from a various fungal species to explore the range of Aspergillus species that could be detected, but also potential cross reactivity with other fungal species...
June 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339594/in-vivo-development-of-fluconazole-resistance-in-serial-cryptococcus-gattii-isolates-from-a-cat
#9
Jane E Sykes, Greg Hodge, Anil Singapuri, Mai Lee Yang, Angie Gelli, George R Thompson
Elevated fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) are more frequently observed in Cryptococcus gattii compared to C. neoformans isolates; however, the development of in vivo resistance and the molecular mechanisms responsible have not been reported for this species. We report a case of Cryptococcus gattii (molecular type VGIII) that developed reduced susceptibility to fluconazole during therapy and delineate the molecular mechanisms responsible. Multilocus sequence typing and quantitative DNA analysis of the pre- and post-treatment isolates was performed using well-characterized methods...
June 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339539/unique-aggregation-of-conjugated-amphotericin-b-and-its-interaction-with-lipid-membranes
#10
Sarah Kagan, Diana E Ickowicz, Abraham J Domb, Arie Dagan, Itzhack Polacheck
The purpose of this paper was to investigate the aggregation of amphotericin B (AMB) and AMB-arabinogalactan conjugate (AMB-AGC), and the interactions of these drugs with free and membrane-embedded sterols. Aggregation of AMB and AMB-AGC was studied by circular dichroic (CD) and UV absorbance spectroscopic techniques. The effect of liposomes on the spectra was utilized to investigate the interactions of aggregates with membrane-embedded sterols. Interaction with free sterols was studied by measuring sterols' effect on AMB/AMB-AGC susceptibility test...
June 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339534/inactivation-of-dermatophyte-infection-by-nonthermal-plasma-on-animal-model
#11
Vladimír Scholtz, Hana Soušková, Michaela Švarcová, Vítezslav Kríha, Helena Živná, Jaroslav Julák
Superficial fungal infections are a major epidemiological issue with increasing prevalence and are a common global problem. This article describes experimental therapy of superficial fungal skin infection using low-temperature plasma. Groups of guinea pigs were artificially infected with Trichophyton mentagrophytes SK 3286 dermatophyte and treated with plasma produced by a DC cometary discharge with an inserted grid. The course of infection was a week shorter and milder in animals treated by plasma than that in nontreated animals, the significant lowering of dermatophytic germs also occurred in the treated group...
June 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339533/pneumocystis-pneumonia-versus-rituximab-induced-interstitial-lung-disease-in-lymphoma-patients-receiving-rituximab-containing-chemotherapy
#12
Se Yoon Park, Mi Young Kim, Won Jin Choi, Dok Hyun Yoon, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Cheolwon Suh, Jun Hee Woo, Sung-Han Kim
It is difficult to differentiate Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) from rituximab-induced interstitial lung disease (RILD) in lymphoma patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates who are receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy. Using a clinical scoring system, we aim to differentiate PCP from RILD who are receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy. We reviewed the medical records of lymphoma patients who had received rituximab-containing chemotherapy between 2012 and 2015 in a tertiary hospital. Among 613 lymphoma patients receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy, 97 (16%) had diffuse pulmonary infiltrates...
June 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760829/synergistic-effect-of-anidulafungin-combined-with-posaconazole-in-experimental-aspergillosis
#13
Adela Martin-Vicente, Javier Capilla, Josep Guarro
Clinical and experimental data have shown discrepancies on the efficacy of combinations between triazoles and echinocandins. In this study, anidulafungin plus posaconazole have shown efficacy against a murine systemic infection by three strains of Aspergillus fumigatus. The combination increased mice survival and reduced burden in the kidneys over the corresponding monotherapies and voriconazole. Clearance of kidneys was observed in 62% to 100% of animals (strain dependant). We observed good in vitro- in vivo correlation when a cutoff < 1 was indicative of synergy...
June 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703020/gut-yeast-communities-in-larus-michahellis-from-various-breeding-colonies
#14
Mohammed Hashim Al-Yasiri, Anne-Cécile Normand, Renaud Piarroux, Stéphane Ranque, Jean-François Mauffrey
Yellow-legged gulls have been reported to carry antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae; however, the gut mycobiota of these birds has not yet been described. In this study, we analyzed the gut yeast communities in five yellow-legged gull breeding colonies along the Mediterranean littoral in southern France. Gull fecal samples were inoculated onto four types of culture media, including one supplemented with itraconazole. Yeast species richness, abundance, and diversity were estimated, and factorial analysis was used to highlight correspondences between breeding colonies...
June 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703017/hospitalized-burden-and-outcomes-of-coccidioidomycosis-a-nationwide-analysis-2005-2012
#15
Ruihong Luo, Alan Greenberg, Christian D Stone
The incidence of coccidioidomycosis (CM) infection has increased over the last 20 years. We investigated recent trends of CM-associated hospitalization in the United States. patients with CM-associated hospitalization were identified from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 2005-2012. The outcomes of interest were the trend of annual hospitalization, in-hospital mortality, and independent risk factors for mortality. A total of 30,870 hospitalizations with CM (29,584 of adults; 1,286 of children) were identified...
June 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703016/posaconazole-plasma-concentrations-in-pediatric-patients-receiving-antifungal-prophylaxis-during-neutropenia
#16
Michaela Döring, Karin Melanie Cabanillas Stanchi, Hartwig Klinker, Melinda Eikemeier, Judith Feucht, Franziska Blaeschke, Carl-Philipp Schwarze, Martin Ebinger, Tobias Feuchtinger, Rupert Handgretinger, Werner J Heinz
Invasive fungal infections are one of the major complications in pediatric patients during prolonged neutropenia after chemotherapy. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of the triazole posaconazole in these patients is missing. This multicenter survey analyzed trough concentrations of 33 pediatric patients with a median age of 8 years during 108 neutropenic episodes who received prophylactic posaconazole oral suspension. A total of 172 posaconazole trough levels were determined to median 438 ng/ml (range 111-2011 ng/ml; mean 468 ± 244 ng/ml)...
June 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664994/prevalence-of-azole-resistant-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-the-environment-of-thailand
#17
Marut Tangwattanachuleeporn, Nanthakan Minarin, Saranya Saichan, Pornsuda Sermsri, Ruthairat Mitkornburee, Uwe Groß, Ariya Chindamporn, Oliver Bader
Occurrence of azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (ARAF) in the environment is an emerging problem worldwide, likely impacting on patient treatment. Several resistance mutations are thought to have initially arisen through triazole-based fungicide use in agriculture and subsequently being propagated in a similar manner. Here we investigated the prevalence of ARAF in the environment of Thailand and characterized their susceptibility profiles toward clinically used azole compounds along with underlying resistance mutations...
June 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664993/type-1-diabetes-in-children-is-not-a-predisposing-factor-for-oral-yeast-colonization
#18
Ana L Costa, Branca M A Silva, Rui Soares, Diana Mota, Vera Alves, Alice Mirante, João C Ramos, João Maló de Abreu, Manuel Santos-Rosa, Francisco Caramelo, Teresa Gonçalves
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is considered a risk factor associated with oral yeast infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yeast oral carriage (in saliva and mucosal surface) of children with T1D and potential relation with host factors, particularly the subset of CD4+ T cells. Yeasts were quantified and identified in stimulated saliva and in cheek mucosal swabs of 133 diabetic T1D and 72 healthy control subjects. Salivary lymphocytes were quantified using flow cytometry. The presence of yeasts in the oral cavity (60% of total patients) was not affected by diabetes, metabolic control, duration of the disease, salivary flow rate or saliva buffer capacity, by age, sex, place of residence, number of daily meals, consumption of sweets or frequency of tooth brushing...
June 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664992/transcript-levels-of-the-aspergillus-fumigatus-cdc42-module-polarisome-and-septin-genes-show-little-change-from-dormancy-to-polarity-establishment
#19
Ken Oda, Elaine Bignell, S Earl Kang, Michelle Momany
Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common airborne pathogen causing fatal mycoses in immunocompromised patients. During the first 8 hours of development A. fumigatus conidia break dormancy, expand isotopically, establish an axis of polarity, and begin to extend germ tubes in a polar manner. The transition from isotropic to polar growth is critical for tissue invasion and pathogenesis. In the current work, we used two-color microarrays to examine the A. fumigatus transcriptome during early development, focusing on the isotropic to polar switch...
June 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664991/activity-of-vt-1129-against-cryptococcus-neoformans-clinical-isolates-with-high-fluconazole-mics
#20
Kirsten Nielsen, Priya Vedula, Kyle D Smith, David B Meya, Edward P Garvey, William J Hoekstra, Robert J Schotzinger, David R Boulware
Although antifungal drug resistance in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is relatively uncommon, fluconazole-resistant strains are problematic for preemptive treatment of cryptococcal antigenemia or during cryptococcal meningitis consolidation therapy. We analyzed activity of the experimental antifungal VT-1129 on 51 clinical Cryptococcus neoformans isolates previously screened for fluconazole resistance; with an emphasis on fluconazole dose-dependent (MIC 16-32 μg/ml) or resistant (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml) isolates...
June 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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