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Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007938/an-updated-comprehensive-systematic-review-of-cladophialophora-bantiana-and-analysis-of-epidemiology-clinical-characteristics-and-outcome-of-cerebral-cases
#1
A Serda Kantarcioglu, Josep Guarro, Sybren De Hoog, Hulya Apaydin, Nuri Kiraz
Cladophialophora bantiana is a phaeoid fungus that only rarely has been isolated from sources other than the human brain. It has a particular tropism for the central nervous system (CNS). We have integrated and updated large-scale data related to several aspects of C. Bantiana and reviewed all the available reports on its cerebral infections, focusing on their geographical distribution, infection routes, immune status of infected individuals, type and location of infections, clinical manifestations and treatment and outcome, briefly looking over the spectrum of other disease entities associated with C...
August 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915307/diversity-and-antifungal-drug-susceptibility-of-cryptococcus-isolates-in-thailand
#2
Navaporn Worasilchai, Marut Tangwattanachuleeporn, Kornvalee Meesilpavikkai, Claudia Folba, Mourine Kangogo, Uwe Groß, Michael Weig, Oliver Bader, Ariya Chindamporn
Yeasts of the Cryptococcus species complex are the causative agent of cryptococcosis, especially in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals. Cerebral or disseminated cryptococcosis has a very high mortality rate worldwide, including in Thailand. Additionally, an increasing rate of antifungal drug resistant cryptococcal isolates has been reported in several neighboring countries, complicating therapeutic approaches. To understand the situation of this infection in Thailand, we retrospectively investigated the molecular epidemiology and antifungal drug resistance in a collection of 74 clinical, 52 environmental and two veterinary isolates using the URA5-RFLP for typing and the EUCAST guideline for susceptibility testing...
August 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915306/a-consort-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials-for-the-treatment-of-invasive-aspergillosis
#3
Brian L Jones, Malcolm D Richardson, Patricia M Ingram, Samir G Agrawal
There is no assessment of the reporting quality of antifungal randomized, controlled trials (RCT), upon which guidelines for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with hematological malignancy are based. Trial reports were identified through Trip, Cochrane, Medline, and Embase database searches. Report quality was assessed using the 25-item CONSORT checklist and a rating scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree). The primary endpoint was quality as assessed by mean group-scores among papers published at the time of the most recent IA treatment guidelines...
August 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915305/dna-barcoding-coupled-with-high-resolution-melting-analysis-enables-rapid-and-accurate-distinction-of-aspergillus-species
#4
Gabor Fidler, Sandor Kocsube, Eva Leiter, Sandor Biro, Melinda Paholcsek
We describe a high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis method that is rapid, reproducible, and able to identify reference strains and further 40 clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus (14), A. lentulus (3), A. terreus (7), A. flavus (8), A. niger (2), A. welwitschiae (4), and A. tubingensis (2). Asp1 and Asp2 primer sets were designed to amplify partial sequences of the Aspergillus benA (beta-tubulin) genes in a closed-, single-tube system. Human placenta DNA, further Aspergillus (3), Candida (9), Fusarium (6), and Scedosporium (2) nucleic acids from type strains and clinical isolates were also included in this study to evaluate cross reactivity with other relevant pathogens causing invasive fungal infections...
August 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915303/candida-species-isolated-from-different-body-sites-and-their-antifungal-susceptibility-pattern-cross-analysis-of-candida-albicans-and-candida-glabrata-biofilms
#5
Valentina Cataldi, Emanuela Di Campli, Paolo Fazii, Tonino Traini, Luigina Cellini, Mara Di Giulio
Candida species are regular commensal in humans, but-especially in immunocompromised patients-they represent opportunistic pathogens giving rise to systemic infection. The aim of the present work was to isolate and characterize for their antifungal profile Candida species from different body sites and to analyze the biofilms produced by C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates. Eighty-one strains of Candida species from 77 patients were identified. Epidemiological study showed that the most isolated species were C...
August 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915298/multilocus-sequence-typing-mlst-analysis-of-candida-albicans-isolates-colonizing-acrylic-dentures-before-and-after-denture-replacement
#6
Khai How Choo, Hee Ji Lee, Nicholas J Knight, Ann R Holmes, Richard D Cannon
Yeast, in particular Candida albicans, are the principal fungal cause of denture stomatitis, and can also be present as a commensal in many individuals. Few studies, however, have examined oral retention of yeast strains over time. We analyzed the yeast present in saliva samples and from the dentures of 10 individuals colonized with yeast but with no signs of stomatitis, before new complete maxillary dentures were fitted and also at 1, 3, and 6 months after denture replacement. Yeast species were presumptively identified on selective agar plates and were present in nine individuals before denture replacement and in six at the 6-month time point...
August 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838643/impact-of-pre-analytical-variables-in-the-determination-of-serum-galactomannan
#7
Alexandre A Monteiro, Dominique S Rubenich, Marilia R Zandoná, Alessandro C Pasqualotto
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Since Aspergillus species are usually not cultured in these patients, presumptive diagnosis of IA is more commonly based on galactomannan (GM) detection. Several factors are known to cause false-positive results in the GM test, but little is known on the influence of pre-analytical variables interfering on the test. Here we studied the influence of temperature and sample storage duration in GM results, using samples known to be negative and positive (spiked) for GM...
August 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838642/a-comparative-investigation-of-azole-susceptibility-in-candida-isolates-from-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-and-recurrent-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-patients-in-ghana
#8
Gloria Adjapong, Marie Hale, Ashley Garrill
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) affect millions of women and are typically treated with azoles. We know little about azole susceptibility of Candida species from VVC versus RVVC patients, and nothing about African isolates. We have investigated the susceptibility of Candida isolates from Ghana to fluconazole, itraconazole and/or voriconazole. The percentage of Candida albicans isolates showing susceptibility was significantly lower in RVVC than VVC patients. Isolates of Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis showed a similar trend...
August 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838640/role-of-preoperative-versus-postoperative-itraconazole-in-allergic-fungal-rhinosinusitis
#9
Roshan K Verma, Sourabha K Patro, Abhilash Alex Francis, Naresh K Panda, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Paramjeet Singh
Antifungals used as adjuvant to surgery in AFRS (Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis) have shown varying success in delaying recurrences. Itraconazole has been used both as preoperative and postoperative adjuvant. This study investigates the role of itraconazole in AFRS and compares its role between preoperative and postoperative administration of the drug. Patients were randomly divided into groups as: Group 1 (n = 25), received 4 weeks itraconazole in the preoperative period and operated subsequently, Group 2 (n = 25), received 4 weeks itraconazole in the postoperative period, Group 3 (n = 50), matched patients of AFRS, who didn't receive itraconazole...
August 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816906/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-the-oomycete-pythium-insidiosum-to-metallic-compounds-containing-cadmium-lead-copper-manganese-or-zinc
#10
Tatiana Corrêa Ribeiro, Carla Weiblen, Sônia de Avila Botton, Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira, Francielli Pantella Kunz de Jesus, Camila Marina Verdi, Leticia Trevisan Gressler, Luís Antonio Sangioni, Janio Morais Santurio
Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete that causes pythiosis, an important and severe disease of difficult treatment that affects humans, domestic and wild animals. This infection is often described in horses in Brazil and humans in Thailand. In clinical practice, we have observed many cases that do not respond to available therapies, indicating the need to explore alternative therapeutic approaches. In this sense, studies using metal compounds in conjunction with available antimicrobial agents have been demonstrated greater antimicrobial activity...
August 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760831/identification-of-the-causative-dermatophyte-of-tinea-capitis-in-children-attending-mbarara-regional-referral-hospital-in-uganda-by-pcr-elisa-and-comparison-with-conventional-mycological-diagnostic-methods
#11
Cornelia Wiegand, Peter Mugisha, Grace K Mulyowa, Peter Elsner, Uta-Christina Hipler, Yvonne Gräser, Silke Uhrlaß, Pietro Nenoff
Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection common among prepubertal children in sub-Saharan Africa and mainly caused by Trichophyton and Microsporum species. Accurate identification is challenging as conventional methods like culture and microscopy are slow and mostly based on morphological characteristics, which make them less sensitive and specific. Modern molecular methods, like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, are gaining acceptance and are quick as well as accurate. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical patterns of tinea capitis and to accurately identify the most common causative dermatophytes affecting the scalps of children aged 1 to 16 years attending the Skin Clinic at Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST), Mbarara, Uganda, East Africa, using both conventional mycological methods and PCR-ELISA for detection of dermatophyte DNA...
August 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873980/human-primary-myeloid-dendritic-cells-interact-with-the-opportunistic-fungal-pathogen-aspergillus-fumigatus-via-the-c-type-lectin-receptor-dectin-1
#12
Maike Hefter, Jasmin Lother, Esther Weiß, Anna Lena Schmitt, Mirjam Fliesser, Hermann Einsele, Juergen Loeffler
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen causing detrimental infections in immunocompromised individuals. Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells and recognize the A. fumigatus cell wall component β-1,3 glucan via Dectin-1, followed by DC maturation and cytokine release. Here, we demonstrate that human primary myeloid DCs (mDCs) interact with different morphotypes of A. fumigatus. Dectin-1 is expressed on mDCs and is down-regulated after contact with A. fumigatus, indicating that mDCs recognize A...
July 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339548/enhancement-of-the-antidermatophytic-activity-of-silver-nanoparticles-by-q-switched-nd-yag-laser-and-monoclonal-antibody-conjugation
#13
Salama A Ouf, Abdel-Aleam H Mohamed, Amira A El-Adly
The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), free or conjugated with monoclonal antibody and mediated by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on five dermatophytes. The laser was applied for 45 s at 532 nm and 0.8 J/cm2. The application of AgNPs combined with laser caused an increase in fungal susceptibility compared to application of AgNPs alone. The MIC50 and MIC100 recorded 3 and 9 μg/ml in the case of E. floccosum (the most susceptible species), 10 and 19 μg/ml for T...
July 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204557/isolates-of-the-emerging-pathogen-candida-auris-present-in-the-uk-have-several-geographic-origins
#14
Andrew M Borman, Adrien Szekely, Elizabeth M Johnson
Candida auris has recently emerged as a serious nosocomial health risk, with widespread outbreaks in numerous hospitals worldwide and the existence of geographic region-specific discrete clonal lineages. Here we have compared the rDNA sequences of 24 isolates of Candida auris from 14 different hospital centers in the United Kingdom with those of strains from different international origins present in the public sequence databases. Here we show that UK isolates of C. auris fall into three well-supported clades corresponding to lineages that have previously been reported from India, Malaysia and Kuwait, Japan and Korea, and South Africa, respectively...
July 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915301/assessing-the-risk-of-false-positive-serum-galactomannan-among-patients-receiving-piperacillin-tazobactam-for-febrile-neutropenia
#15
Hayati Demiraslan, M Altay Atalay, Esma Eren, Koray Demir, Leylagul Kaynar, A Nedret Koc, Mehmet Doganay
Galactomannan (GM) assay is commonly used as an early diagnostic tool for invasive fungal infection (IFI) in high-risk hematology patients. False positivity is frequently observed in GM with the use of piperacillin/tazobactam. The usage of generic drugs over the original brand has a significant cost advantage. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of GM test among patients receiving original and generic piperacillin/tazobactam formulations. The study included 85 adult patients; 62.4% were male with hematological malignancy currently receiving piperacillin/tazobactam...
July 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816903/molecular-and-antifungal-susceptibility-study-on-trichosporonemia-and-emergence-of-trichosporon-mycotoxinivorans-as-a-bloodstream-pathogen
#16
Yubhisha Dabas, Immaculata Xess, Pratibha Kale
A total of 21 Trichosporon spp. isolates from blood over a period of 5 years (January 2009 to December 2013) were included in the study. The most common underlying diseases found were pancreatitis (33.3%) and cancer (33.3%). Trichosporon asahii (80.9%) was the commonest species followed by Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans (14.2%) and Trichosporon faecale (4.7%). On IGS1 region sequencing the most predominant T. asahii type in our region was genotype 1 (16/17 isolates; 94.1%) and one isolate belonged to genotype 4...
July 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811180/a-new-marker-sequence-for-systematics-of-medically-important-fungi-based-on-amino-acid-sequence-of-the-largest-subunit-of-rna-polymerase-i
#17
Chiaki Yamanishi, Mohamed Mahdi Alshahni, Ayako Sano, Ikuo Nakamura, Koichi Makimura
Molecular evolution has dominated taxonomic studies for decades, replacing traditional methods for identification and classification. However, there is a need for better markers to resolve the problems that have limited their usefulness. In this report, we introduce the protein tag (Ptag) sequence, a highly polymorphic amino acid sequence within the C-terminal region of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I, as a new systematic tag sequence for delineating the evolutionary history of medically important fungi...
July 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811179/diffusion-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-in-the-surrounding-air-of-patients-with-pneumocystis-colonization-frequency-and-putative-risk-factors
#18
Emilie Fréalle, Sandrine Valade, Nicolas Guigue, Samia Hamane, Magali Chabé, Solène Le Gal, Céline Damiani, Anne Totet, El Moukhtar Aliouat, Gilles Nevez, Jean Menotti
In a prospective bicentric study, Pneumocystis jirovecii excretion and diffusion was explored in air samples collected in the rooms occupied by 17 Pneumocystis-colonized patients. P. jirovecii DNA was detected by real-time PCR in the air collected from 3 patients' rooms (17.6%), with identical genotypes in corresponding clinical and air samples. Pneumocystis DNA was detected for 2/3 patients with autoimmune disease treated with corticosteroids versus 1/6 patients with hematologic disease and 0/5 kidney transplant recipients...
July 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771622/refractory-sporotrichosis-due-to-sporothrix-brasiliensis-in-humans-appears-to-be-unrelated-to-in-vivo-resistance
#19
Rodrigo Almeida-Paes, Manoel Marques Evangelista Oliveira, Dayvison Francis Saraiva Freitas, Antônio Carlos Francesconi do Valle, Maria Clara Gutierrez-Galhardo, Rosely Maria Zancopé-Oliveira
Sporotrichosis is a subacute to chronic infection caused by members of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. Itraconazole is the first choice antifungal drug for treating this infection, with terbinafine and potassium iodide as alternatives and amphotericin B used in cases of severe infections. Correlation of antifungal susceptibility data with the clinical outcome of the patients is scarce. The aim of this study was to correlate clinical and mycological data in patients with refractory sporotrichosis. In this work, antifungal susceptibilities, determined according to the reference M38-A2 CLSI protocol, of 25 Sporothrix strains, isolated from seven human cases of sporotrichosis with adversities in the treatment, are presented...
July 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760830/modeling-dermatophytosis-in-reconstructed-human-epidermis-a-new-tool-to-study-infection-mechanisms-and-to-test-antifungal-agents
#20
Émilie Faway, Ludivine Cambier, Bernard Mignon, Yves Poumay, Catherine Lambert de Rouvroit
Dermatophytosis is a superficial fungal infection of keratinized structures that exhibits an increasing prevalence in humans and is thus requesting novel prophylactic strategies and therapies. However, precise mechanisms used by dermatophytes to adhere at the surface of the human epidermis and invade its stratum corneum are still incompletely identified, as well as the responses provided by the underlying living keratinocytes during the infection. We hereby report development of an in vitro model of human dermatophytosis through infection of reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) by arthroconidia of the anthropophilic Trichophyton rubrum species or of the zoophilic Microsporum canis and Arthroderma benhamiae species...
July 1, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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