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Biological Research for Nursing

Ainitze Labaka, Olatz Goñi-Balentziaga, Andrea Lebeña, Joana Pérez-Tejada
Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide, and its prevalence is 2 times higher in women than in men. There is, however, a lack of data on sex-specific pathophysiology of this disorder. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the biological sex differences found in major depressive disorder (MDD) in studies published in the last 10 years. We conducted a literature search using the Medline, PsycInfo, PubMed, and Web of Science databases, selecting English-language studies that included physiological measures compared by sex in addition to MDD...
July 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Jesús Serrano Merino, Luis Ángel Pérula de Torres, Wayne A Bardwell, Rafaela Muñoz Gómez, Ana Roldán Villalobos, Nuria Feu Collado, Roger Ruiz-Moral, Bernabé Jurado-Gámez
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic illness that increases in prevalence with age. Treatment includes continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices. Studies about the use of CPAP in the elderly are scarce. The main objective of this study is to determine whether CPAP contributes to improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQL) in elderly patients with OSA. METHOD: This was a prospective, pre-/postintervention assessment of a cohort of patients ≥65 years of age with OSA diagnosis by polysomnography who were being treated with CPAP and were physically independent and had good cognitive status...
July 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Marilyn J Hockenberry, Ida M Ki Moore, Michael E Scheurer, Mary C Hooke, Olga A Taylor, Kari M Koerner, Patricia M Gundy, Wei Pan
The focus on a cure for childhood leukemia over the last three decades has resulted in survival rates of more than 80%. However, efforts to manage leukemia-treatment symptoms have not kept pace with new therapies. Symptom toxicity during treatment can result in complications, treatment delays, and therapy dose reductions. Compromise in therapy can negatively influence the quality of life and, even more notably, jeopardize chances for long-term survival. This study examined biologic mechanisms that influence fatigue caused by increased reactive oxidative species (ROS) or actual failure of the antioxidant defense system due to genetic variation by investigating reactive nitrosative species, a "downstream" consequence of ROS...
July 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Youjeong Kang, Bonnie G Steele, Robert L Burr, Cynthia M Dougherty
Cardiopulmonary rehabilitation (CR) improves physical function and quality of life (QoL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart failure (HF), but it is unknown if CR improves outcomes in very severe disease. This study's purpose was to describe functional capacity (6-min walk distance [6MWD], steps/day), symptoms (dyspnea, depression), QoL (Short-Form Health Survey-Veterans [SF-36 V]) and cardiopulmonary function ( N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP], forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1 ]), and derive predictors of mortality among patients with severe COPD and HF who participated in CR...
July 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Komal P Singh, Christine Miaskowski, Anand A Dhruva, Elena Flowers, Kord M Kober
Research on gene expression (GE) provides insights into the physiology of a cell or group of cells at a given point in time. Studies of changes in GE can be used to identify patients at higher risk for various medical conditions, a higher symptom burden, and/or the adverse consequences associated with various treatments. The aims of this article are as follows: (1) to describe the different types of RNA transcripts, (2) to describe the processes involved in GE (i.e., RNA transcription, epigenetics, and posttranscriptional modifications), (3) to describe common sources of variation in GE, (4) to describe the most common methods used to measure GE, and (5) to discuss factors to consider when choosing tissue for a GE study...
July 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Jia-Sian Hou, Chih-Hsien Wang, Yu-Hsien Lai, Yu-Li Lin, Chiu-Huang Kuo, Yi-Maun Subeq, Bang-Gee Hsu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin levels and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. METHOD: Blood samples were obtained from 120 HD patients. cfPWV was measured with a validated tonometry system (SphygmoCor; AtCor Medical, West Ryde, Australia). Serum adiponectin levels were measured using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. RESULTS: By univariate linear analysis of cfPWV in HD patients, we found that diabetes ( r = ...
July 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
An-Yun Yeh, Susan J Pressler, Bruno J Giordani, Bunny J Pozehl, Ann M Berger
Impaired episodic memory in older adults has been linked to many factors. One of these factors is sleep disturbances, which are reported by more than 50% of older adults. The relationship between episodic memory and sleep disturbances remains unclear, however, because of the multiple types of measures of sleep and episodic memory used in previous studies. The purpose of this integrative literature review was to integrate and compare findings on this relationship in adults aged 65 years. An electronic search was conducted in PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsychINFO, and Medline for material published from the inception of the databases to December 2016...
July 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Elizabeth W Moxley, Donald Smith, Lauretta Quinn, Chang Park
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is a serious health problem affecting approximately 29.1 million individuals in the United States. Another 86 million have prediabetes. The development and implementation of lifestyle modifications such as physical activity for these persons are among the most effective methods for prevention and treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine relationships between glycemic control (HbA1c) and cardiovascular fitness (peak maximal oxygen uptake [VO2 peak] and ventilatory threshold [VT]) in overweight/obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM)...
July 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Lea Ann Matura, Susan Malone, Rosario Jaime-Lara, Barbara Riegel
Fatigue, a commonly reported symptom, is defined as an overwhelming, debilitating, and sustained sense of exhaustion that decreases the ability to function and carry out daily activities. To date, cancer researchers have been in the forefront in investigating the possible biological mechanisms of fatigue, identifying inflammation, dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and activation of the autonomic nervous system. The purpose of this systematic review is to describe fatigue and what is known about the biological mechanisms described in cancer in five chronic, noninfectious illnesses: heart failure, multiple sclerosis, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
July 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Ida M Ki Moore, Kari M Koerner, Patricia M Gundy, David W Montgomery, Kathleen C Insel, Lynnette L Harris, Olga A Taylor, Marilyn J Hockenberry
Aggressive central nervous system (CNS)-directed treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most prevalent cancer among children and adolescents, prevents metastasis of leukemia cells into the brain. Up to 60% of survivors experience cognitive problems, but knowledge about risk factors for and mechanisms of neurologic injury is lacking. Objectives of the present study were to (1) quantify changes in oxidant defense and apoptosis over the course of ALL therapy and (2) elucidate risk factors for long-term cognitive problems...
July 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Sheila A Alexander
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Christiana Martin, Young-Eun Cho, Hyungsuk Kim, Sijung Yun, Rebekah Kanefsky, Hyunhwa Lee, Vincent Mysliwiec, Ann Cashion, Jessica Gill
Military personnel experience posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is associated with differential DNA methylation across the whole genome. However, the relationship between these DNA methylation patterns and clinically relevant increases in PTSD severity is not yet clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in DNA methylation associated with PTSD symptoms and investigate DNA methylation changes related to increases in the severity of PTSD in military personnel. In this pilot study, a cross-sectional comparison was made between military personnel with PTSD (n = 8) and combat-matched controls without PTSD (n = 6)...
May 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Ansley Grimes Stanfill, Athena Starlard-Davenport
Most common disorders affecting human health are not attributable to simple Mendelian (single-gene) inheritance patterns. Rather, the risk of developing a complex disease is often the result of interactions across genes, whereby one gene modifies the phenotype of another gene. These types of interactions can occur between two or more genes and are referred to as epistasis. There are five major types of epistatic interactions, but in human genetics, additive epistasis is most often discussed and includes both positive and negative subtypes...
May 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Allyson R Duffy, Donna L Schminkey, Maureen W Groer, Melissa Shelton, Samia Dutra
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate relationships between hair cortisol levels and perceived stress in mothers who deliver preterm and term. We hypothesized that the rate of change in cortisol levels would be greater in the preterm delivery group. METHODS: This preliminary study compared hair cortisol levels and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) scores in predominately Caucasian mothers who delivered preterm ( n = 22) and term ( n = 30). We collected PSS and hair samples of ≥10 cm in length from mothers after delivery...
May 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Rungnapa Ruchob, Julienne N Rutherford, Aleeca F Bell
BACKGROUND: Neonates born small for gestational age (SGA) face increased risk of neonatal mortality, childhood developmental problems, and adult disease. The placenta is a key factor in SGA development because of its multiple biological processes that underlie fetal growth. However, valid and reliable placental biomarkers of SGA have not been determined. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article was to systematically identify and review studies examining associations between placental biomarkers and SGA and assess those biomarkers' predictive value...
May 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Barbara J Kupferschmid, Barbara Therrien, Pamela J Rowsey
OBJECTIVE: Immune challenges result in sickness responses such as decreased activity, fever, and spatial learning deficits. While these responses occur simultaneously, they are not usually evaluated concurrently or for an extended time. The purpose of this study was to examine how an immune challenge affected activity and temperature responses in animals tested concurrently in the Morris water maze (MWM) over 5 days and how aging interacts with such responses. METHOD: An accepted model of aging, adult ( n = 10; 5-6 months) and aged ( n = 7; 22 months) male Brown-Norway rats were implanted with a telemetry device (Mini Mitter, Oakmont, PA) to continuously monitor temperature and activity following an immune challenge...
May 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Nicole B Fritz, Álvaro Juesas, Pedro Gargallo, Joaquín Calatayud, Julio Fernández-Garrido, Michael E Rogers, Juan C Colado
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a resistance training program (RTP) in older overweight women (OOW) using two different types of elastic devices. METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled trial with pre- and postintervention measures. Participants included OOW, aged 60-85 years, with no medical history of disease that would preclude them from engaging in physical exercise. Participants were randomly divided into the following groups: elastic tubes with handles group (ETG; n = 22), traditional elastic bands group ( n = 21), and control group (CG; n = 20)...
May 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Fang Zhou, Cui Chen, Yue Huang, Huihui Hu, Li Li, Yingchun Tan
Chronic pain (CP) adversely impacts people's health. However, the influence of CP on pregnant women and their fetuses remains unclear. Few reasonable interventions have been offered to these women. This study aimed to examine the effects of enriched environmental intervention (EEI) on the delivery outcome and offspring health of pregnant mice with CP. Forty pregnant mice were equally and randomly divided into four groups (control, sham, CP, and CP + EEI). Monoarthritis was induced by subcutaneous injection of the complete Freund's adjuvant (100 μg/100 μl) into the left hind paw of mice on Day 0 of gestation...
May 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Kristen R Weaver, Gail D'Eramo Melkus, Jason Fletcher, Wendy A Henderson
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract associated with high psychological comorbidity and diminished quality of life. Patients with IBS display a heightened sensitivity to stress, although the literature is inconsistent as to whether they have a dysregulated stress response. The purpose of the present investigation, a substudy of a larger research effort, was to examine physiological correlates of perceived stress in patients with IBS (cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone) and to explore associations between perceived stress and quality of life...
May 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Maureen Groer, Dietmar Fuchs, Allyson Duffy, Adetola Louis-Jacques, Amy D'Agata, Teodor T Postolache
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate relationships among obesity in pregnancy and plasma levels of tryptophan (TRP) and kynurenine (KYN), inflammatory markers, and depressed mood. METHODS: Pregnant women ( N = 374) were enrolled, and data were collected at a mean gestation of 20 weeks in this cross-sectional study. Plasma was analyzed for TRP, KYN, neopterin, and nitrite levels. Women completed demographic and mood scales. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant inverse correlation between body mass index (BMI) and TRP and positive correlations between BMI and KYN and the kynurenine/tryptophan (KYN/TRP) ratio...
May 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
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