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Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases

Donald L Bliwise, Lauren E Howard, Daniel M Moreira, Gerald L Andriole, Martin L Hopp, Stephen J Freedland
BACKGROUND: Nocturia (voids arising from sleep) is a ubiquitous phenomenon reflecting many diverse conditions but whether it has significance in its own right remains uncertain. We examined whether nocturia was an independent risk factor for mortality METHODS: These were observational analyses employing primarily North American and European participants and included 7343 men, aged 50-75 years participating in the REDUCE (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) trial. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test the association between baseline nocturia (voiding ≥3 times per night) and all-cause mortality...
September 13, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Chang Wook Jeong, Minyong Kang, Seung Il Jung, Tae-Hwan Kim, Sung Woo Park, Jae Young Joung, Seong Soo Jeon, Jun Hyuk Hong, Ji Youl Lee, Byung Ha Chung, Hanjong Ahn, Choung-Soo Kim, Dong Deuk Kwon, Cheol Kwak
BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide can significantly prolong the survival of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, there is a paucity of evidence on continuing androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for mCRPC. Here, we analyzed the effect of concomitant ADT during enzalutamide treatment in men with mCRPC following chemotherapy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 232 patients with mCRPC who received oral enzalutamide (160 mg per day) following chemotherapy at 9 tertiary centers in Korea between 2014 and 2016...
September 13, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Teemu J Murtola, Tatu V J Kasurinen, Kirsi Talala, Kimmo Taari, Teuvo L J Tammela, Anssi Auvinen
BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia has been associated with advanced stage prostate cancer (PCa), but the role of lipid parameters such as HDL and triglycerides is unclear. We examined PCa risk by lipid parameters in a population nested within the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (FinRSPC). METHODS: Cholesterol measurements were available on 17,696 men. During the 17-year median follow-up, 2404 PCa cases were diagnosed. Cox regression model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for overall PCa risk and stratified by Gleason grade and tumor stage...
September 13, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Subhayan Chattopadhyay, Otto Hemminki, Asta Försti, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist, Kari Hemminki
BACKGROUND: Survival rates are increasing in patients with prostate cancer, and second primary cancers (SPCs) are becoming more common in these patients. However, the etiology and clinical consequences of SPCs are not well-known. We define the impact of family history on SPC and causes of mortality in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A nation-wide cohort study based on the Swedish Family-Cancer Database covering 4.4 million men and 80,449 prostate cancers diagnosed between 1990 and 2015...
September 5, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Bogdana Schmidt, Renu S Eapen, Janet E Cowan, Jeanette M Broering, Kirsten L Greene, Peter R Carroll, Matthew R Cooperberg
BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been shown to improve survival for men with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer undergoing external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Using data from a community-based prospective disease registry, we investigated usage of EBRT with or without neoadjuvant ADT. METHODS: The CaPSURE database contains 14,863 men with prostate cancer, including 1337 men diagnosed between 1990 and 2014 with localized disease who received EBRT as primary treatment...
August 31, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Catherine Handy Marshall, Wei Fu, Hao Wang, Alexander S Baras, Tamara L Lotan, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
BACKGROUND: DNA repair gene mutations are present in 8-10% of localized prostate cancers. It is unknown whether this is influenced by clinicopathologic factors. METHODS: We interrogated localized prostate adenocarcinomas with tumor DNA sequencing information from the TCGA validated (n = 333) and Nature Genetics (n = 377) datasets. Homologous recombination repair genes included in our analysis were: ATM, BRCA1/2, CDK12, CHEK1/2, FANCA, FANCD2, FANCL, GEN1, NBN, PALB2, RAD51, and RAD51C...
August 31, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Axel Möller, Henrik Olsson, Henrik Grönberg, Martin Eklund, Markus Aly, Tobias Nordström
BACKGROUND: Several blood-based tests have been suggested to improve prostate cancer testing. The Stockholm3 test has been shown to reduce the number of prostate biopsies, to decrease detection of low-grade cancer and to maintain the detection rate of ISUP Gleason Group (GG) ≥ 2 cancer in a screening-by-invitation setting. We aimed to validate the performance of the Stockholm3 test in an independent, clinical practice cohort. METHODS: The study-population consisted of 533 men in ages 45-75 without previous diagnosis of prostate cancer scheduled for prostate biopsy at any of three centers in Norway and Sweden...
August 31, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Marieke J Krimphove, Alexander P Cole, Sean A Fletcher, Sabrina S Harmouch, Sebastian Berg, Stuart R Lipsitz, Maxine Sun, Junaid Nabi, Paul L Nguyen, Jim C Hu, Adam S Kibel, Toni K Choueiri, Luis A Kluth, Quoc-Dien Trinh
BACKGROUND: Racial differences in prostate cancer (PCa) outcomes in the United States may be due to differences in tumor biology and race-based differences in access and treatment. We designed a study to estimate the relative contribution of these factors on Black/White disparities in overall survival (OS) in advanced PCa. METHODS: We identified Black and White men aged ≥ 40 years with metastatic or locally advanced PCa (cN+ cM+ and/or T3/4) between 2004 and 2010 using the National Cancer Database...
August 31, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Ryan W Dobbs, Neha R Malhotra, David T Greenwald, Alice Y Wang, Gail S Prins, Michael R Abern
BACKGROUND: Hormonal influences such as androgens and estrogens are known contributors in the development and progression of prostate cancer (CaP). While much of the research to the hormonal nature of CaP has focused on androgens, estrogens also have critical roles in CaP development, physiology as well as a potential therapeutic intervention. METHODS: In this review, we provide a critical literature review of the current basic science and clinical evidence for the interaction between estrogens and CaP...
August 21, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Mallika Dhawan, Charles J Ryan
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in genetic sequencing and recent studies focusing on the broader use of Poly ADP Ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have led to an upsurge of interest in DNA repair mutations as they relate to prostate cancer. METHODS: This review outlines ongoing studies and recent publications as they relate to the prevalence and detection of DNA repair mutations in metastatic prostate cancer. The detection of these mutations through multiple diagnostic approaches is discussed, including germline sequencing, somatic sequencing, cell-free DNA assays, and circulating tumor cell assays...
August 21, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
E David Crawford, Axel Heidenreich, Nathan Lawrentschuk, Bertrand Tombal, Antonio C L Pompeo, Arturo Mendoza-Valdes, Kurt Miller, Frans M J Debruyne, Laurence Klotz
BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is foundational in the management of advanced prostate cancer (PCa) and has benefitted from a recent explosion in scientific advances. These include approval of new therapies that suppress testosterone (T) levels or inactivate its function, improvements in diagnostic and assay technologies, identification of lower therapeutic targets for T, discovery of the relevance of germline genetic mutations and identification of the benefits of sequential and combination therapies...
August 21, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Roberto Giulianelli, Barbara Cristina Gentile, Gabriella Mirabile, Giorgia Tema, Luca Albanesi, Paola Tariciotti, Giorgio Rizzo, Cristina Falavolti, Pietro Aloisi, Giorgio Vincenti, Riccardo Lombardo
BACKROUND: Aim of our study is to compare the surgery outcomes and safety of button bipolar enucleation of the prostate vs. open prostatectomy in patients with large prostates (> 80 g) in a single-centre cohort study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients with lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic enlargement undergoing button bipolar enucleation of the prostate (B-TUEP) or open prostatectomy (OP) between May 2012 and December 2013 were enroled in our study...
August 21, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Tim M Govers, Daphne Hessels, Virginie Vlaeminck-Guillem, Bernd J Schmitz-Dräger, Christian G Stief, Claudio Martinez-Ballesteros, Matteo Ferro, Angel Borque-Fernando, Jose Rubio-Briones, J P Michiel Sedelaar, Wim van Criekinge, Jack A Schalken
BACKGROUND: Low specificity of prostate-specific antigen results in a considerable number of unnecessary prostate biopsies in current practice. SelectMDx® predicts significant prostate cancer upon biopsy and is used to reduce the number of unnecessary initial prostate biopsies. Furthermore, potential overtreatment of insignificant prostate cancer can be reduced. Besides the diagnostic accuracy of the test, also the context in a specific country determines the potential health benefit and cost-effectiveness...
August 20, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Vasilis Stavrinides, Francesco Giganti, Mark Emberton, Caroline M Moore
INTRODUCTION: Recent technological advancements and the introduction of modern anatomical and functional sequences have led to a growing role for multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in the detection, risk assessment and monitoring of early prostate cancer. This includes men who have been diagnosed with lower-risk prostate cancer and are looking at the option of active surveillance (AS). The purpose of this paper is to review the recent evidence supporting the use of mpMRI at different time points in AS, as well as to discuss some of its potential pitfalls...
August 16, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Sigfred Ian R Alpajaro, Jerad A K Harris, Christopher P Evans
BACKGROUND: Non-metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (M0CRPC) is a heterogenous disease state affecting an estimated 100,000 men in the United States. Development of more sensitive modalities for detection of metastasis has altered the landscape of advanced prostate cancer, but M0CRPC has remained a condition that previously lacked FDA-approved treatment. The emerging data on new generation Androgen Receptor (AR) pathway inhibitors should address this gap in the management of such patients...
August 16, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Niranjan J Sathianathen, Mohit Butaney, Connie Bongiorno, Badrinath R Konety, Damien M Bolton, Nathan Lawrentschuk
BACKGROUND: Although magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent targeted biopsy ('MRI pathway') have been widely adopted in routine clinical practice, it is still a common practice to perform systematic biopsy concurrently, because the accuracy of the MRI pathway is yet to be fully defined. This systematic review of the literature assessed the sensitivity of the MRI pathway for detecting clinically significant prostate cancer. METHODS: Multiple databases were searched up to May 2017 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement for studies assessing the accuracy of MR-guided biopsy (MRGB) compared to a reference standard which consisted of both MRGB and systematic biopsy with at least 20-cores...
August 14, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Ángel Borque-Fernando, José Rubio-Briones, Luis M Esteban, Yan Dong, Ana Calatrava, Álvaro Gómez-Ferrer, Enrique Gómez-Gómez, Jesús M Gil Fabra, Nuria Rodríguez-García, Pedro Á López González, Jorge García-Rodríguez, Miguel Rodrigo-Aliaga, Bernardo Herrera-Imbroda, Juan Soto-Villalba, Sara Martínez-Breijo, Virginia Hernández-Cañas, Ana M Soto-Poveda, Carlos Sánchez-Rodríguez, Carlos Carrillo-George, Yumaira E Hernández-Martínez, David Okrongly
BACKGROUND: Management of active surveillance (AS) in low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients could be improved with new biomarkers, such as the 4Kscore test. We analyze its ability to predict tumor reclassification by upgrading at the confirmatory biopsy at 6 months. METHODS: Observational, prospective, blinded, and non-randomized study, within the Spanish National Registry on AS (AEU/PIEM/2014/0001; NCT02865330) with 181 patients included after initial Bx and inclusion criteria: PSA ≤10 ng/mL, cT1c-T2a, Grade group 1, ≤2 cores, and ≤5 mm/50% length core involved...
August 14, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Zhenlang Guo, Shu Gan, Yuan Li, Chiming Gu, Songtao Xiang, Jianfu Zhou, Leiliang Gong, Franky Leung Chan, Shusheng Wang
BACKGROUND: Whether the diagnosis of prostate cancer is a contributory psychological stress that causes excess risk of suicide among affected men remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of previous studies to investigate suicide incidence and associated risk factors among men diagnosed with prostate cancer. METHODS: The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO databases were searched to identify eligible studies published before April 2018. The inverse variance method with random-effects modeling was used to calculate summary relative risks (RRs) and their associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
August 14, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Tracy M Layne, Barry I Graubard, Xiaomei Ma, Susan T Mayne, Demetrius Albanes
BACKGROUND: There are few prospective studies comparing race-specific associations between diet, nutrients, and health-related parameters, and prostate cancer risk. METHODS: Race-specific prostate cancer risk associations were examined among men in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study. We identified 1417 cases among black men (209 advanced), and 28,845 among white men (3898 advanced). Cox proportional hazards regression models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
August 14, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Armando Stabile, Francesco Giganti, Mark Emberton, Caroline M Moore
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, evidence has accrued to support the introduction of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in the prostate cancer diagnostic pathway. The exact role of mpMRI in different settings is not widely agreed. In this review, we look at the use of MRI in three groups of men: biopsy naive men, those with a previous negative biopsy and those with a previous positive biopsy suitable for active surveillance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An electronic MEDLINE/PubMed search up to 24th January 2018 was performed, using the search terms (prostate cancer OR prostate adenocarcinoma) AND (MRI OR magnetic resonance) AND (biopsy naive OR active surveillance OR prior negative biopsy OR no prior biopsy)...
August 13, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
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