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Physiological Genomics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339477/the-effect-of-high-fat-diet-feeding-and-associated-transcriptome-changes-in-the-peak-lactation-mammary-gland-in-c57bl-6-dams
#1
Adrienne A Cheng, Laura L Hernandez, Wenli Li
Maternal consumption of a high fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy has established adverse effects on the developing neonate. In this study, we aimedto investigate the effect of a HFD on the murine mammary gland during mid-lactation. Female C57BL/6J mice were placed on either a low-fat diet (LFD/10% fat) or HFD (60% fat) from three weeks of age through peak lactation (lactation day 11/L11). After four weeks of consuming either the LFD or HFD, female mice were bred. There were no significant differences in milk yield between treatment groups, which was measured from L1-L9...
October 19, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312140/comparative-gene-array-analyses-of-severe-elastic-fiber-defects-in-late-embryonic-and-newborn-mouse-aorta
#2
Marius Catalin Staiculescu, Austin Cocciolone, Jesse Procknow, Jungsil Kim, Jessica E Wagenseil
Elastic fibers provide reversible elasticity to the large arteries and are assembled during development when hemodynamic forces are increasing. Mutations in elastic fiber genes are associated with cardiovascular disease. Mice lacking expression of the elastic fiber genes elastin (Eln-/- ), fibulin-4 (Efemp2-/- ), or lysyl oxidase (Lox-/- ) die at birth with severe cardiovascular malformations. All three genetic knockout models have elastic fiber defects, aortic wall thickening, and arterial tortuosity. However, Eln-/- mice develop arterial stenoses, while Efemp2-/- and Lox-/- mice develop ascending aortic aneurysms...
October 12, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289747/a-transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-development-of-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-in-cancer-cachexia-in-tumor-bearing-mice
#3
Thomas A Blackwell, Igor Cervenka, Bhuwan Khatri, Jacob L Brown, Megan E Rosa-Caldwell, David E Lee, Richard A Perry, Lemuel A Brown, Wesley S Haynie, Michael P Wiggs, Walter G Bottje, Tyrone A Washington, Byungwhi Caleb Kong, Jorge L Ruas, Nicholas P Greene
Cancer-Cachexia (CC) is a wasting condition directly responsible for 20-40% of cancer-related deaths. The mechanisms controlling development of CC-induced muscle wasting are not fully elucidated. Most investigations focus on the post-cachectic state and do not examine progression of the condition. We recently demonstrated mitochondrial degenerations precede muscle wasting in time course progression of CC. However, the extent of muscle perturbations prior to wasting in CC is unknown. Therefore, we performed global gene expression analysis in CC-induced muscle wasting to enhance understanding of intramuscular perturbations across the development of CC...
October 5, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289746/identifying-snps-and-candidate-genes-for-three-litter-traits-using-single-step-gwas-across-six-parities-in-landrace-and-large-white-pigs
#4
Pingxian Wu, Kai Wang, Qiang Yang, Jie Zhou, Dejuan Chen, Jideng Ma, Qianzi Tang, Long Jin, Weihang Xiao, Anan Jiang, Yanzhi Jiang, Li Zhu, Mingzhou Li, Xuewei Li, Guoqing Tang
Total number born(TNB),number born alive(NBA)and litter weight born alive(LWB)are critically important traits in pig production.The sow's parity is one of the major factors influencing litter traits.Because of monogenic or polygenic contributions and the presence of temporal gene effects in different sows' parities,it is difficult to clarify the biological and genetic background.To systematically explore the genetic mechanism of litter traits,18 GWASs were conducted using single-step GWAS(ssGWAS) based on two breeds(908 Landrace and 1130 Large White sow litter records)for each litter trait in different parities...
October 5, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289745/proteome-and-transcriptome-profiling-of-equine-myofibrillar-myopathy-identifies-diminished-peroxiredoxin-6-and-altered-cysteine-metabolic-pathways
#5
Stephanie J Valberg, Sudeep Perumbakkam, Erica C McKenzie, Carrie J Finno
Equine myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) causes exertional muscle pain and is characterized by myofibrillar disarray and ectopic desmin aggregates of unknown origin. To investigate the pathophysiology of MFM, we compared resting and 3 h post-exercise transcriptomes of gluteal muscle and the resting skeletal muscle proteome of MFM and control Arabian horses using RNA-sequencing and iTRAQ analyses. Three hours after exercise, 191 genes were identified as differentially expressed (DE) in MFM vs. control muscle with > 1 log2 fold change [FC] in genes involved in sulfur compound/ cysteine metabolism such as cystathionine-beta-synthase [CBS, ↓4...
October 5, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30265594/portfolio-analysis-on-preeclampsia-and-pregnancy-associated-hypertension-research-funded-by-the-national-heart-lung-and-blood-institute
#6
Christine Maric-Bilkan
Chronic hypertension and preeclampsia are the most common complications of pregnancy. To clarify the contributions of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) to the field and identify potential research gaps, we performed portfolio analysis of awards related to preeclampsia and pregnancy-associated hypertension. A list of National Institutes of Health-funded awards between fiscal years 2008-present was obtained through an NIH RePORTER search using the following terms: "preeclampsia" and "pregnancy-associated hypertension"...
September 28, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30265593/identification-of-loci-affecting-sexually-dimorphic-patterns-for-height-and-recurrent-laryngeal-neuropathy-risk-in-american-belgian-draft-horses
#7
Samantha A Brooks, John Stick, Ashley Braman, Katelyn Palermo, N Edward Robinson, Dorothy M Ainsworth
Equine recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) is a bilateral mononeuropathy with an unknown etiology. In Thoroughbreds (TB), we previously demonstrated that the haplotype association for height (LCORL/NCAPG locus on ECA3 which affects body size) and RLN were coincident. In the present study, we performed a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) for RLN in 458 American Belgian Draft Horses, a breed fixed for the LCORL/NCAPG risk alelle. In this breed, RLN risk is associated with sexually dimorphic differences in height, and we identified a novel locus contributing to height in a sex-specific manner: MYPN (ECA 1)...
September 28, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240347/identification-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-broiler-offspring-under-maternal-folate-deficiency
#8
Jinyi Xing, Wenqian Jing, Yujie Zhang, Lin Liu, Junjie Xu, Xianwei Chen
Folate plays an important role in DNA and RNA synthesis by donating methyl groups. To investigate the effects of maternal folate deficiency (FD) on the abdominal adipose transcriptome, and on the accumulation of lipid droplets in the liver tissue of chicken offspring, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of FD were identified with digital gene expression tag profiling. Ultramicroscopy suggested that the size of lipid droplets in hepatocytes increased with FD, while the lipid droplets population number was largely not affected...
September 21, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240346/the-epigenetics-of-metabolic-syndrome
#9
Caryn Carson, Heather A Lawson
The dramatic increase in global prevalence of metabolic disease is inexplicable when considering only environmental or only genetic factors, leading to the need to explore the possible roles of epigenetic factors. A great deal of progress has been made in this interdisciplinary field in recent years, with many studies investigating various aspects of the metabolic syndrome and its associated epigenetic changes. Rodent models of metabolic diseases have been particularly illuminating due to the ability to leverage tools such as genetic and environmental modifications...
September 21, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240345/adverse-early-life-environment-induces-anxiety-like-behavior-and-increases-expression-of-fkbp5-mrna-splice-variants-in-mouse-brain
#10
Xingrao Ke, Qi Fu, Amber Majnik, Susan Cohen, Qiuli Liu, Robert Lane
Adverse early life environment (AELE) predisposes adult offspring towards 35 anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders are associated with prenatal injuries in key regions 36 of the brain including prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HP) and hypothalamus 37 (HT). Injuries in these brain regions result in an impaired hypothalamus-pituitary-38 adrenal axis (HPA axis) and stress response. An important regulator of the stress 39 response is FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5). FKBP5 is a co-chaperone of the 40 glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and inhibits GR-mediated regulatory feed-back on the HPA 41 axis in response to stress...
September 21, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240344/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-the-human-and-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans-uncovers-potential-reproductive-genes-and-disease-associations-in-humans
#11
Yongsoon Kim, YoungJoon Park, JoonYeon Hwang, KyuBum Kwack
Reproduction is an important biological process. However, studies of human reproduction at the molecular level are limited due to the difficulty of performing in vivo studies. Hence, a mechanistic understanding of human reproduction remains still poor. Thus, it is important to use an alternative model organism for mechanistic studies of human reproduction. In this study, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for studying human reproduction and identified 61 human and 535 worm reproductive genes through a combination of comparative genomic and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses...
September 21, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216136/salt-stress-in-the-renal-tubules-is-linked-to-tal-specific-expression-of-uromodulin-and-an-upregulation-of-heat-shock-genes
#12
Lesley A Graham, Alisha Aman, Desmond D Campbell, Julian Augley, Delyth Graham, Martin W McBride, Niall J Fraser, Nicholas R Ferreri, Anna F Dominiczak, Sandosh Padmanabhan
Previously, our comprehensive cardiovascular characterisation study validated Uromodulin as a blood pressure gene. Uromodulin is a glycoprotein exclusively synthesised at the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle and is encoded by the Umod gene. Umod-/- mice have significantly lower blood pressure than Umod+/+ mice, are resistant to salt-induced changes in blood pressure, and show a leftward shift in pressure-natriuresis curves reflecting changes of sodium reabsorption. Salt stress triggers transcription factors and genes that alter renal sodium reabsorption...
September 14, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30192712/fetal-growth-restriction-shortens-cardiac-telomere-length-but-this-is-attenuated-by-exercise-in-early-life
#13
Scott A Booth, Glenn D Wadley, Francine Z Marques, Mary E Wlodek, Fadi J Charchar
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fetal and postnatal growth restriction predispose to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. Telomeres are repetitive DNA-protein structures that protect chromosome ends, and the loss of these repeats (a reduction in telomere length) is associated with CVD. As exercise preserves telomere length and cardiovascular health, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of growth restriction and exercise training on cardiac telomere length and telomeric genes...
September 7, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30169133/the-impact-of-pyroxd1-deficiency-on-cellular-respiration-and-correlations-with-genetic-analyses-of-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophy-in-saudi-arabia-and-sudan
#14
Madhurima Saha, Hemakumar M Reddy, Mustafa Salih, Elicia Estrella, Michael D Jones, Satomi Mitsuhashi, Kyung-Ah Cho, Silveli Suzuki-Hatano, Skylar A Rizzo, Muddathir H Hamad, Maowia M Mukhtar, Ahlam A Hamed, Maha A Elseed, Monkol Lek, Elise Valkanas, Daniel G MacArthur, Louis M Kunkel, Christina A Pacak, Isabelle Draper, Peter B Kang
Next generation sequencing is commonly used to screen for pathogenic mutations in families with Mendelian disorders, but due to the pace of discoveries, gaps have widened for some diseases between genetic and pathophysiological knowledge. We recruited and analyzed 16 families with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) of Arab descent from Saudi Arabia and Sudan who did not have confirmed genetic diagnoses. The analysis included both traditional and next generation sequencing approaches. Cellular and metabolic studies were performed on Pyroxd1 siRNA C2C12 myoblasts and controls...
August 31, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30169132/sex-specific-differences-in-primary-neonatal-murine-lung-fibroblasts-exposed-to-hyperoxia-in-vitro-implications-for-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-bpd
#15
Swathi Balaji, Xiaoyu Dong, Hui Li, Yuhao Zhang, Emily Steen, Krithika Lingappan
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease of the neonate characterized by impaired alveolarization and vascular growth. BPD is more common in premature male infants but the reasons underlying sexually dimorphic outcomes are not known. It is thought that alterations in fibroblast phenotype in response to environmental stress such as hyperoxia contributes to BPD. Notch signaling creates a pro-fibrotic environment in the lung. However, the role of hyperoxia on differential Notch pathway activation in male vs...
August 31, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30169131/molecular-and-genetic-aspects-of-guanylyl-cyclase-natriuretic-peptide-receptor-a-in-regulation-of-blood-pressure-and-renal-function
#16
Kailash N Pandey
Natriuretic peptides (NPs) exert diverse effects on several biological and physiological systems, such as kidney function, neural and endocrine signaling, energy metabolism, and cardiovascular function, playing pivotal roles in the regulation of blood pressure (BP) and cardiac and vascular homeostasis. NPs are collectively known as anti-hypertensive hormones and their main functions are directed towards eliciting natriuretic/diuretic, vasorelaxant, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hypertrophic effects, thereby, regulating the fluid volume, BP, and renal and cardiovascular conditions...
August 31, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30345904/impact-of-pyroxd1-deficiency-on-cellular-respiration-and-correlations-with-genetic-analyses-of-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophy-in-saudi-arabia-and-sudan
#17
Madhurima Saha, Hemakumar M Reddy, Mustafa A Salih, Elicia Estrella, Michael D Jones, Satomi Mitsuhashi, Kyung-Ah Cho, Silveli Suzuki-Hatano, Skylar A Rizzo, Muddathir H Hamad, Maowia M Mukhtar, Ahlam A Hamed, Maha A Elseed, Monkol Lek, Elise Valkanas, Daniel G MacArthur, Louis M Kunkel, Christina A Pacak, Isabelle Draper, Peter B Kang
Next-generation sequencing is commonly used to screen for pathogenic mutations in families with Mendelian disorders, but due to the pace of discoveries, gaps have widened for some diseases between genetic and pathophysiological knowledge. We recruited and analyzed 16 families with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) of Arab descent from Saudi Arabia and Sudan who did not have confirmed genetic diagnoses. The analysis included both traditional and next-generation sequencing approaches. Cellular and metabolic studies were performed on Pyroxd1 siRNA C2C12 myoblasts and controls...
November 1, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30345903/sex-specific-differences-in-primary-neonatal-murine-lung-fibroblasts-exposed-to-hyperoxia-in-vitro-implications-for-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#18
Swathi Balaji, Xiaoyu Dong, Hui Li, Yuhao Zhang, Emily Steen, Krithika Lingappan
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease of the neonate characterized by impaired alveolarization and vascular growth. BPD is more common in premature male infants, but the reasons underlying sexually dimorphic outcomes are not known. It is thought that alterations in fibroblast phenotype in response to environmental stress such as hyperoxia contribute to BPD. Notch signaling creates a profibrotic environment in the lung. However, the role of hyperoxia on differential Notch pathway activation in male vs...
November 1, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30192713/dysbiosis-signatures-of-gut-microbiota-in-coronary-artery-disease
#19
Qi Zhu, Renyuan Gao, Yi Zhang, Dengdeng Pan, Yefei Zhu, Xiaohui Zhang, Rong Yang, Rong Jiang, Yawei Xu, Huanlong Qin
Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been considered to be an important risk factor that contributes to coronary artery disease (CAD), but limited evidence exists about the involvement of gut microbiota in the disease. Our study aimed to characterize the dysbiosis signatures of gut microbiota in coronary artery disease. The gut microbiota represented in stool samples were collected from 70 patients with coronary artery disease and 98 healthy controls. 16S rRNA sequencing was applied, and bioinformatics methods were used to decipher taxon signatures and function alteration, as well as the microbial network and diagnostic model of gut microbiota in coronary artery disease...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30142028/neuronal-pro-renin-receptor-regulates-deoxycorticosterone-induced-sodium-intake
#20
Fatima Trebak, Wencheng Li, Yumei Feng
Increased sodium appetite is a physiological response to sodium deficiency; however, it has also been implicated in disease conditions such as congestive heart failure, kidney failure, and salt-sensitive hypertension. The central nervous system is the major regulator of sodium appetite and intake behavior; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this behavior remain incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the involvement of the (pro)renin receptor (PRR), a component of the brain renin-angiotensin system, in the regulation of sodium intake in a neuron-specific PRR knockout (PRRKO) mouse model generated previously in our laboratory...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Genomics
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