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Physiological Genomics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916635/the-genetics-of-hypertension-an-assessment-of-progress-in-the-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#1
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916634/ppar%C3%AE-and-retinol-binding-protein-7-form-a-regulatory-hub-promoting-antioxidant-properties-of-the-endothelium
#2
Addison W Woll, Frederick W Quelle, Curt D Sigmund
NO ABSTRACT- REVIEW ARTICLE.
September 15, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916633/systems-genetics-identifies-a-co-regulated-module-of-liver-micrornas-associated-with-plasma-ldl-cholesterol-in-murine-diet-induced-dyslipidemia
#3
Alisha R Coffey, Tangi L Smallwood, Jody Albright, Kunjie Hua, Matt Kanke, Daniel Pomp, Brian J Bennett, Praveen Sethupathy
Chronically altered levels of circulating lipids, termed dyslipidemia, is a significant risk factor for a number of metabolic and cardiovascular morbidities. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of lipid balance, have been implicated in dyslipidemia, and have been proposed as candidate therapeutic targets in lipid-related disorders including atherosclerosis. A major limitation of most murine studies of miRNAs in lipid metabolic disorders is that they have been performed in just one (or very few) inbred strains, such as C57BL/6...
September 15, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916632/tissue-sex-and-age-specific-dna-methylation-of-rat-glucocorticoid-receptor-gene-promoter-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-2-imprinting-control-region
#4
Ogechukwu Brenda Agba, Ludwig Lausser, Klaus Huse, Christoph Bergmeier, Niels Jahn, Marco Groth, Martin Bens, Arne Sahm, Maria Gall, Otto W Witte, Hans A Kestler, Matthias Schwab, Matthias Platzer
Tissue-, sex- and age-specific epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation are largely unknown. Changes in DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) and imprinting control region (ICR) of IGF2 and H19 genes during the lifespan are particularly interesting since these genes are susceptible to epigenetic modifications by prenatal stress or malnutrition. They are important regulators of development and aging. Methylation changes of NR3C1 affect glucocorticoid receptor expression, which is associated with stress sensitivity and stress-related diseases predominantly occurring during aging...
September 15, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887371/germline-genetic-variants-with-implications-for-disease-risk-and-therapeutic-outcomes
#5
Amy L Pasternak, Kristen M Ward, Jasmine A Luzum, Vicki L Ellingrod, Daniel L Hertz
Genetic testing has multiple clinical applications including disease risk assessment, diagnosis and pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics can be utilized to predict whether a pharmacologic therapy will be effective or to identify patients at risk for treatment-related toxicity. Although genetic tests are typically ordered for a distinct clinical purpose, the genetic variants that are found may have additional implications for either disease or pharmacology. This review will address multiple examples of germline genetic variants that are informative for both disease and pharmacogenomics...
September 8, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887370/genome-reprogramming-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-upon-nonylphenol-exposure
#6
Ceyhun Bereketoglu, Kazim Yalcin Arga, Serpil Eraslan, Bulent Mertoglu
Bioaccumulative environmental estrogen, nonylphenol (NP; 4-nonylphenol), is widely used as a non-ionic surfactant and can affect human health. Since genomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes share many structural and functional similarities, we investigated subcellular effects of NP on S. cerevisiae BY4742 cells by analyzing genome-wide transcriptional profiles. We examined effects of low (1 mg/L NP) and high (5 mg/L NP) inhibitory concentration exposures for 120 or 180 min. After 120 and 180 min of 1 mg/L NP exposure, 187 (63 downregulated, 124 upregulated) and 103 genes (56 downregulated, 47 upregulated), respectively, were differentially expressed...
September 8, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887369/genetic-mechanisms-of-human-hypertension-and-their-implications-for-blood-pressure-physiology
#7
Eric Seidel, Ute I Scholl
Hypertension, or elevated blood pressure, constitutes a major public health burden that affects more than 1 billion people worldwide and contributes to about 9 million deaths annually. Hereditary factors are thought to contribute to up to 50% of interindividual blood pressure variability. Blood pressure in the general population approximately shows a normal distribution and is thought to be a polygenic trait. In rare cases, early-onset hypertension or hypotension are inherited as Mendelian traits. The identification of the underlying Mendelian genes and variants has contributed to our understanding of the physiology of blood pressure regulation, emphasizing renal salt handling and the renin angiotensin aldosterone system as players in the determination of blood pressure...
September 8, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887368/segment-specific-responses-of-intestinal-epithelium-transcriptome-to-in-feed-antibiotics-in-pigs
#8
Kaifan Yu, Chunlong Mu, Yuxiang Yang, Yong Su, Wei-Yun Zhu
Despite widespread use of antibiotics for treatment of human diseases and promotion of growth of agricultural animals, our understanding of their effects on the host is still very limited. We used a pig model fed with a cocktail of antibiotics or without, and found based on the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns that the fecal bacteria from the treatment and control animals were distinct. Furthermore, the total bacterial population in the feces tended to be decreased by the antibiotic treatment (P=0...
September 8, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842435/mesenchymal-stem-cells-correct-impaired-diabetic-wound-healing-by-decreasing-ecm-proteolysis
#9
Junwang Xu, Carlos Zgheib, Maggie Hodges, Robert C Caskey, Junyi Hu, Kenneth W Liechty
Impaired diabetic wound healing is associated with a dermal extracellular matrix protein profile favoring proteolysis; within the healing diabetic wound, this is represented by an increase in activated matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs). Treatment of diabetic wounds with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to improve wound healing. Using in vitro models of fibroblast co-culture with MSCs and in vivo murine wound healing models, we tested the hypothesis that MSCs correct dysregulation of MMPs in a microRNA-29b dependent mechanism...
August 25, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842434/enhanced-hemodynamic-responses-to-angiotensin-ii-in-diabetes-are-associated-with-increased-expression-and-activity-of-at1-receptors-in-the-afferent-arteriole
#10
Jie Zhang, Helena Y Qu, Jiangping Song, Jin Wei, Shan Jiang, Lei Wang, Liqing Wang, Jacentha Buggs, Ruisheng Liu
The prevalence of hypertension is about 2-fold higher in diabetic than in non-diabetic subjects. Hypertension aggravates the progression of diabetic complications, especially diabetic nephropathy. However, the mechanisms for the development of hypertension in diabetes have not been elucidated. We hypothesized that enhanced constrictive responsiveness of renal afferent arterioles (Af-Art) to angiotensin II (Ang II) mediated by Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptors contributes to the development of hypertension in diabetes...
August 25, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821567/chronic-spinal-cord-changes-in-a-high-fat-diet-fed-male-rat-model-of-thoracic-spinal-contusion
#11
Redin A Spann, William J Lawson, Raymond J Grill, Michael R Garrett, Bernadette E Grayson
Individuals that suffer injury to the spinal cord can result in long-term, debilitating sequelae. Spinal cord injured patients have increased risk for the development of metabolic disease which can further hinder the effectiveness of treatments to rehabilitate the cord and improve quality of life. In the present study, we sought to understand the impact of high-fat diet induced obesity on spinal cord injury (SCI) by examining transcriptome changes in the area of the injury and rostral and caudal to site of damage 12 weeks after injury...
August 18, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802263/symposium-on-single-cell-analysis-and-genomic-approaches
#12
Hilary Ann Coller
On April 23, 2017, Physiological Genomics hosted a Symposium entitled "Single Cell Analysis and Genomic Approaches" as part of Experimental Biology 2017 in Chicago.
August 11, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802262/small-noncoding-rna-expression-during-extreme-anoxia-tolerance-of-annual-killifish-austrofundulus-limnaeus-embryos
#13
Claire Louise Riggs, Jason E Podrabsky
Small noncoding RNAs (sncRNA) have recently emerged as specific and rapid regulators of gene expression, involved in a myriad of cellular and organismal processes. MicroRNAs, a class of sncRNAs, are differentially expressed in diverse taxa in response to environmental stress, including anoxia. In most vertebrates, a brief period of oxygen deprivation results in severe tissue damage or death. Studies on sncRNA and anoxia have focused on these anoxia-sensitive species. Studying sncRNAs in anoxia-tolerant organisms may provide insight into adaptive mechanisms supporting anoxia tolerance...
August 11, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754823/elevation-of-fumarase-attenuates-hypertension-and-can-result-from-a-nonsynonymous-sequence-variation-or-increased-expression-depending-on-rat-strain
#14
Kristie Usa, Yong Liu, Aron M Geurts, Yuan Cheng, Jozef Lazar, Maria Angeles Baker, Michael Grzybowski, Yongcheng He, Zhongmin Tian, Mingyu Liang
The activity of fumarase, an enzyme in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, is lower in Dahl salt-sensitive SS rats compared to SS.13(BN) rats. SS.13(BN) rats have a Brown Norway (BN) allele of fumarase and exhibit attenuated hypertension. The SS allele of fumarase differs from the BN allele by a K481E sequence variation. It remains unknown whether higher fumarase activities can attenuate hypertension and whether the mechanism is relevant in the absence of the K481E variation. We developed SS-TgFh1 transgenic rats over-expressing fumarase on the background of the SS rat...
July 28, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754822/epigenetic-research-in-multiple-sclerosis-progress-challenges-and-opportunities
#15
Galina Zheleznyakova, Eliane Piket, Francesco Marabita, Majid Pahlevan Kakhki, Ewoud Ewing, Sabrina Ruhrmann, Maria Needhamsen, Maja Jagodic, Lara Kular
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. MS likely results from a complex interplay between predisposing causal gene variants (the strongest influence coming from HLA class II locus) and environmental risk factors such as smoking, infectious mononucleosis and lack of sun exposure/vitamin D. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying MS development and progression. Moreover, the clinical heterogeneity and variable response to treatment represent additional challenges to a comprehensive understanding and efficient treatment of disease...
July 28, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698229/changes-in-the-phosphoproteome-of-brown-adipose-tissue-during-hibernation-in-the-ground-squirrel-ictidomys-tridecemlineatus
#16
Didier Vertommen, Gaetan Herinckx, Nusrat Hussain, Fred Opperdoes, Kenneth B Storey, Mark H Rider
Mammalian hibernation is characterized by metabolic rate depression and a strong decrease in core body temperature. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), a thermogenic tissue that uses uncoupled mitochondrial respiration to generate heat instead of ATP, plays a major role in rewarming from deep torpor. In the present study we developed a label-free LC-MS strategy to investigate both differential protein expression and protein phosphorylation in BAT extracts from euthermic versus hibernating ground squirrels. In particular, we incorporated the filter-assisted sample preparation (FASP) protocol, which provides a more in-depth analysis compared with gel-based and other LC-MS proteomics approaches...
July 10, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698228/perturbations-to-lysyl-oxidase-expression-broadly-influence-the-transcriptome-of-lung-fibroblasts
#17
Ivana Mižíková, Francesco Palumbo, Tamás Tábi, Susanne Herold, István Vadász, Konstantin Mayer, Werner Seeger, Rory E Morty
Lysyl oxidases are credited with pathogenic roles in lung diseases, including cancer, fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Lysyl oxidases facilitate the covalent intra- and inter-molecular cross-linking of collagen and elastin fibers, thereby imparting tensile strength to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Alternative ECM-independent roles have recently been proposed for lysyl oxidases, including regulation of growth factor signaling, chromatin remodeling, and transcriptional regulation; all of which impact cell phenotype...
July 10, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778982/circular-rnas-in-rat-models-of-cardiovascular-and-renal-diseases
#18
Xi Cheng, Bina Joe
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have emerged as an important new class of genomic regulatory molecules contributing to the development of various diseases, but their relevance to the development and progression of hypertension remains largely unknown. A major impediment to begin studying circRNAs in rat models of inherited hypertension is that the rat as a valuable model of human diseases lags far behind the mouse and human in providing knowledge on circRNAs. In this study, a genome-wide circRNA profiling was performed from four rat strains that are widely used in hypertension research: the Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), the Dahl salt-resistant rat (R), the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), and the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY)...
September 1, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710295/relationships-between-gastrointestinal-microbiota-and-blood-group-antigens
#19
Anuhya Gampa, Phillip A Engen, Rima Shobar, Ece A Mutlu
FUT2 is a gene for a fucosyltransferase that encodes expression of ABO blood group antigens found on gastrointestinal mucosa and secretions. We hypothesized that the fecal microbiomes of healthy subjects, with blood group antigens A, B, and O, have differing compositions. We analyzed 33 fecal and blood specimens from healthy subjects for FUT2 genotype, and the fecal microbiome was determined by 454 pyrosequencing. Our data show that being a blood group secretor is associated with less diversity at higher orders of taxonomy; and the presence of blood group A antigens in the secretor subjects are associated with an expansion families of bacteria within the gut...
September 1, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698227/comparative-transcriptomics-of-hepatic-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-adult-human-liver-tissue
#20
Nidal Ghosheh, Barbara Küppers-Munther, Annika Asplund, Josefina Edsbagge, Benjamin Ulfenborg, Tommy B Andersson, Petter Björquist, Christian X Andersson, Helena Carén, Stina Simonsson, Peter Sartipy, Jane Synnergren
Hepatocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-HEP) have the potential to replace presently used hepatocyte sources applied in liver disease treatment and models of drug discovery and development. Established hepatocyte differentiation protocols are effective and generate hepatocytes, which recapitulate some key features of their in vivo counterparts. However, generating mature hPSC-HEP remains a challenge. In this study, we applied transcriptomics to investigate the progress of in vitro hepatic differentiation of hPSCs at the developmental stages, definitive endoderm, hepatoblasts, early hPSC-HEP, and mature hPSC-HEP, to identify functional targets that enhance efficient hepatocyte differentiation...
August 1, 2017: Physiological Genomics
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