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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655481/therapeutics
#1
EDITORIAL
Yvonne R A van Zeeland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655480/nontraditional-therapies-traditional-chinese-veterinary-medicine-and-chiropractic-in-exotic-animals
#2
REVIEW
Jessica A Marziani
The nontraditional therapies of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine and chiropractic care are adjunct treatments that can be used in conjunction with more conventional therapies to treat a variety of medical conditions. Nontraditional therapies do not need to be alternatives to Western medicine but, instead, can be used simultaneously. Exotic animal practitioners should have a basic understanding of nontraditional therapies for both client education and patient referral because they can enhance the quality of life, longevity, and positive outcomes for various cases across multiple taxa...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655479/update-on-cancer-treatment-in-exotics
#3
REVIEW
Ashley Zehnder, Jennifer Graham, Gunther Antonissen
Treatment options for animals with cancer are rapidly expanding, including in exotic animal medicine. Limited information is available about treatment effects in exotic pet species beyond individual case reports. Most cancer treatment protocols in exotic animals are extrapolated from those described in humans, dogs, and cats. This review provides an update on cancer treatment in exotic animal species. The Exotic Species Cancer Research Alliance accumulates clinical cases in a central location with standardized clinical information, with resources to help clinicians find and enter their cases for the collective good of exotic clinicians and their patients...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655478/gonadotrophin-releasing-hormone-agonists-and-other-contraceptive-medications-in-exotic-companion-animals
#4
REVIEW
Nico J Schoemaker
The use of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist slow-release implant (GnRH A-SRI) has become increasingly popular as an alternative for surgical contraception in many species. Although these implants have proven to be very effective in some species (eg, ferrets, rats, chicken, psittacines, and iguanas), they have been found less effective in other species (eg, male guinea pigs and rabbits, veiled chameleons, slider turtles, and leopard geckos). This review provides an overview of the available literature on the effects of GnRH A-SRIs in companion exotic animals...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655477/cardiovascular-drugs-in-avian-small-mammal-and-reptile-medicine
#5
Brenna Colleen Fitzgerald, Sara Dias, Jaume Martorell
Cardiovascular disease, including congestive heart failure, pericardial disease, and atherosclerosis, is becoming increasingly better recognized in companion birds, small mammals, and reptiles. A wide range of medications is available to treat these conditions, including diuretics, vasodilators, positive and negative inotropes, antiarrhythmic agents, and pentoxifylline. This review systematically discusses each of these drug classes and their potential applications in exotic species. Although treatment approaches remain largely empirical and extrapolated from small animal and human medicine, the management strategies presented here have the potential to both maintain quality of life and extend survival time for the exotic cardiac patient...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655476/avian-vaccination-current-options-and-strategies
#6
REVIEW
J Jill Heatley, Susan Payne, Ian Tizard
Researchers have generated an array of potential avian antiviral vaccines. However, vaccine and viral complexity, small profit margins, the cost of development and manufacturing, and the small population at risk relegate most avian vaccine use to commercial species. Some vaccines designed for use in nonavian species are used to prevent or ameliorate disease in exotic and companion birds. This article highlights newly developed vaccines that may be used in exotic and pet birds. Information pertinent to vaccine choice and strategy is provided, including disease lethality, species affected, and previous knowledge regarding vaccine safety and efficacy...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655475/antifungal-therapy-in-birds-old-drugs-in-a-new-jacket
#7
REVIEW
Gunther Antonissen, An Martel
The use of antifungals in birds is characterized by interspecies and interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetics, affecting drug safety and efficacy. Oral antifungal drug absorption is a complex process affected by drug formulation characteristics, gastrointestinal anatomy, and physiology. New antifungal drug delivery systems can enhance drug stability, reduce off-target side effects, prolong residence time in the blood, and improve efficacy. Topical administration of antifungals through nebulization shows promising results...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655474/prudent-use-of-antimicrobials-in-exotic-animal-medicine
#8
REVIEW
Els M Broens, Ingeborg M van Geijlswijk
Reduction of antimicrobial use can result in reduction of resistance in commensal bacteria. In exotic animals, information on use of antimicrobials and resistance in commensals and pathogens is scarce. However, use of antimicrobials listed as critically important antimicrobials for human medicine seems high in exotic animals. Ideally, the selection of a therapy should be based on an accurate diagnosis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. When prescribing antimicrobials based on empiricism, knowledge of the most common pathogens causing specific infections and the antimicrobial spectrum of antimicrobial agents is indispensable...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655473/therapeutic-contraindications-in-exotic-pets
#9
REVIEW
Olivia A Petritz, Sue Chen
The selection and dosing of medications for exotic pets are often challenging because most drugs are used in an extralabel manner without pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. Doses are often extrapolated from common domestic animals and safety data are often lacking in exotic species. Just as the bioavailability and therapeutic levels are different for each species, what may be a safe and commonly used medication in one species can be deadly in another. Various drugs with documented contraindications in certain exotic pet species are outlined in this review and the pathophysiology, clinical signs, and treatment options are described when applicable...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655472/considerations-for-treatment-of-large-zoologic-collections-fish
#10
REVIEW
Claire D Erlacher-Reid
Aquatic species live most or all their lives in water; therefore, the health of the environment is intimately connected to their health and medical care. Understanding and maintaining appropriate husbandry and nutrition for the housed aquarium species are essential to sustain health. Most diseases of fish are secondary opportunistic infections; prevention and early diagnosis are recommended. Treatments involve environmental and/or nutritional management first, followed by targeted pharmacologic treatment to control a specific pathogen...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655471/group-treatment-strategies-for-animals-in-a-zoologic-setting
#11
REVIEW
Katie W Delk, Christine M Molter
Providing care for groups of animals is a major part of practicing zoologic medicine. Herd health is key to the mindset of a zoo clinician no matter the species encountered. Group treatment of amphibians and birds is common, but it is uncommon in reptiles and most mammals. The main reason groups of mammals are treated is for gastrointestinal parasitism. In addition to the classic examples of group treatment involving chemotherapeutics, zoo clinicians also practice herd health by preventing disease from entering the collection...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655470/techniques-for-monitoring-drug-efficacy
#12
REVIEW
Marike Visser
The efficacy of drugs can vary greatly between species and individuals. Establishing efficacious drug doses for a species requires integration of population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data into a dose-response curve. Unfortunately, these data sets are rarely available for exotic species. The use of alternative monitoring techniques is required to determine drug efficacy and safety. This article discusses methods to integrate efficacy monitoring into clinical practice, including the use of diagnostic testing and therapeutic drug monitoring...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655469/low-stress-medication-techniques-in-birds-and-small-mammals
#13
REVIEW
Brian L Speer, Melody Hennigh, Bernice Muntz, Yvonne R A van Zeeland
Low-stress medication principles and techniques are key aspects of optimal health care delivery for birds and small mammals. When paired with the medical details of patient management, by balancing medication techniques, the probability of clinical success on the highest ethical and welfare criteria can be greatly enhanced. This review addresses both the effects and the disadvantages of using forceful, coercive, and fear-evoking methods as well as the benefits, principles, and possible applications of low-stress medication in the veterinary setting...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655468/overview-of-drug-delivery-methods-in-exotics-including-their-anatomic-and-physiologic-considerations
#14
REVIEW
Thomas Coutant, Claire Vergneau-Grosset, Isabelle Langlois
Drug delivery to exotic animals may be extrapolated from domestic animals, but some physiologic and anatomic differences complicate treatment administration. Knowing these differences enables one to choose optimal routes for drug delivery. This review provides practitioners with a detailed review of the currently reported methods used for drug delivery of various medications in the most common exotic animal species. Exotic animal peculiarities that are relevant for drug administration are discussed in the text and outlined in tables and boxes to help the reader easily find targeted information...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655467/compounding-and-extralabel-use-of-drugs-in-exotic-animal-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Lauren V Powers, Gigi Davidson
Extralabel drug use is the use of a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug in a manner different from what is stipulated on the approved label. Compounding is the process of preparing a medication in a manner not indicated on the label to create a formulation specifically tailored to the needs of an individual patient. Extralabel drug use and compounding are vital aspects of safe and effective drug delivery to patients in exotic animal practice. There are few FDA-approved drugs for exotic animal species, and many approved drugs for other species are not available in suitable formulations for use in exotic animals...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655466/the-educated-guess-determining-drug-doses-in-exotic-animals-using-evidence-based-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Marike Visser, Seth C Oster
Lack of species-specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data is a challenge for pharmaceutical and dose selection. If available, dose extrapolation can be accomplished via basic equations. If unavailable, several methods have been described. Linear scaling uses an established milligrams per kilograms dose based on weight. This does not allow for differences in species drug metabolism, sometimes resulting in toxicity. Allometric scaling correlates body weight and metabolic rate but fails for drugs with significant hepatic metabolism and cannot be extrapolated to avians or reptiles...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655465/translating-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-data-into-practice
#17
REVIEW
Marike Visser
Pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) publications provide scientific evidence for incorporation in evidence-based veterinary medicine, aiding the clinician in selecting doses and dosing intervals. PK and PD studies have reported wide variations within exotic species, due to physiologic differences in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. PK studies offer species-specific data to help tailor doses and dosing routes to individual patients, minimize toxicity, and provide a cornerstone for PD studies to determine drug efficacy...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146034/preface
#18
Susan E Orosz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146033/analgesics-in-small-mammals
#19
REVIEW
Paul Flecknell
Managing pain effectively in any species is challenging, but small mammals present particular problems. Methods of pain assessment are still under development in these species, so the efficacy of analgesic therapy cannot be evaluated fully. Methods of assessing abdominal pain are established; however, applying these can be challenging. Alternative methods, using assessment of facial expression, may be more applicable to a range of painful procedures and across species. Multimodal and preventive analgesic strategies are most likely to be effective...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146032/clinical-signs-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-encephalitozoon-cuniculi-infection-in-rabbits
#20
REVIEW
Frank Künzel, Peter G Fisher
Central vestibular dysfunction caused by Encephalitozoon cuniculi frequently mimics the condition of a peripheral disorder. A negative antibody titer rules out E cuniculi as the cause of present clinical signs. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis including polymerase chain reaction is considered an inappropriate diagnostic method for in vivo diagnosis of encephalitozoonosis. The usefulness of glucocorticoid anti-inflammatories in the treatment of encephalitozoonosis is called into question. Encouraging activity early in the course of disease and adding in therapeutic exercise may represent the most important part of therapy in rabbits with vestibular dysfunction associated with encephalitozoonosis...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
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