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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146034/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Susan E Orosz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146033/analgesics-in-small-mammals
#2
REVIEW
Paul Flecknell
Managing pain effectively in any species is challenging, but small mammals present particular problems. Methods of pain assessment are still under development in these species, so the efficacy of analgesic therapy cannot be evaluated fully. Methods of assessing abdominal pain are established; however, applying these can be challenging. Alternative methods, using assessment of facial expression, may be more applicable to a range of painful procedures and across species. Multimodal and preventive analgesic strategies are most likely to be effective...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146032/clinical-signs-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-encephalitozoon-cuniculi-infection-in-rabbits
#3
REVIEW
Frank Künzel, Peter G Fisher
Central vestibular dysfunction caused by Encephalitozoon cuniculi frequently mimics the condition of a peripheral disorder. A negative antibody titer rules out E cuniculi as the cause of present clinical signs. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis including polymerase chain reaction is considered an inappropriate diagnostic method for in vivo diagnosis of encephalitozoonosis. The usefulness of glucocorticoid anti-inflammatories in the treatment of encephalitozoonosis is called into question. Encouraging activity early in the course of disease and adding in therapeutic exercise may represent the most important part of therapy in rabbits with vestibular dysfunction associated with encephalitozoonosis...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146031/avian-ganglioneuritis-in-clinical-practice
#4
REVIEW
Giacomo Rossi, Robert D Dahlhausen, Livio Galosi, Susan E Orosz
Avian ganglioneuritis (AG) comprises one of the most intricate pathologies in avian medicine and is researched worldwide. Avian bornavirus (ABV) has been shown to be a causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease in birds. The avian Bornaviridae represent a genetically diverse group of viruses that are widely distributed in captive and wild populations around the world. ABV and other infective agents are implicated as a cause of the autoimmune pathology that leads to AG, similar to human Guillain Barrè syndrome...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146030/pain-in-birds-the-anatomical-and-physiological-basis
#5
REVIEW
Jamie M Douglas, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Joanne R Paul-Murphy
This article reviews the current understanding of the anatomy and physiology of pain in birds, with consideration of some of its differences from mammalian pain. From transduction to transmission, modulation, projection, and perception, birds possess the neurologic components necessary to respond to painful stimuli and they likely perceive pain in a manner similar to mammals. This article also describes the current understating of opioid receptors, inflammatory mediators, and additional factors in the modulation of pain in avian species...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146029/gut-brain-axis-and-its-microbiota-regulation-in-mammals-and-birds
#6
REVIEW
Jan S Suchodolski
This article provides a brief overview of the advances made in microbiota research in parrots and pet birds. It describes this complex ecosystem and the contribution of the intestinal microbiota to host health and disease, including the nervous system.
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146028/functional-and-anatomic-correlates-of-neural-aging-in-birds
#7
REVIEW
Mary Ann Ottinger
Avian species show variation in longevity, habitat, physiologic characteristics, and lifetime endocrine patterns. Lifetime reproductive and metabolic function vary. Much is known about the neurobiology of the song system in many altricial birds. Little is known about aging in neural systems in birds. Captive birds often survive beyond the age they would in the wild, providing an opportunity to gain an understanding of the physiologic and neural changes. This paper reviews the available information with the goal of capturing areas of potential investigation into gaps in our understanding of neural aging as reflected in physiologic, endocrine, and cognitive aging...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146027/medication-for-behavior-modification-in-birds
#8
REVIEW
Yvonne van Zeeland
The use of behavior modifying drugs may be considered in birds with behavior problems, especially those refractory to behavior modification therapy and environmental management. To accomplish behavior change, a variety of drugs can be used, including psychoactive drugs, hormones, antihistamines, analgesics, and anticonvulsants. Because their prescription to birds is off-label, these drugs are considered appropriate only when a sound rationale can be provided for their use. This requires a (correct) behavioral diagnosis to be established...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146026/vaccination-of-ferrets-for-rabies-and-distemper
#9
REVIEW
Laura L Wade
Companion ferrets need to be vaccinated against 2 viral diseases that cause neurologic illness: canine distemper and rabies. Although not common in ferrets, both viruses are fatal in ferrets and rabies virus is also fatal in humans. In this article, we provide a basic review of the 2 diseases, highlighting key neurologic concerns. We also review and update current vaccine concerns from a practitioner's perspective, including available vaccines, vaccine schedule recommendations, vaccine reactions, and risk assessment...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146025/pain-and-its-control-in-reptiles
#10
REVIEW
Sean M Perry, Javier G Nevarez
Reptiles have the anatomic and physiologic structures needed to detect and perceive pain. Reptiles are capable of demonstrating painful behaviors. Most of the available literature indicates pure μ-opioid receptor agonists are best to provide analgesia in reptiles. Multimodal analgesia should be practiced with every reptile patient when pain is anticipated. Further research is needed using different pain models to evaluate analgesic efficacy across reptile orders.
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781047/preface
#11
EDITORIAL
Nicola Di Girolamo, Alexandra L Winter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781046/how-to-report-exotic-animal-research
#12
REVIEW
Nicola Di Girolamo, Alexandra L Winter
Reporting the results of primary research is a key step in knowledge creation. Many well-conducted studies are rejected by journal editors, criticized by peers, or unsuitable for systematic reviewers because of poor reporting. This article summarizes the most important methodological items to report when writing an original research article.
September 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781045/an-introduction-to-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses-for-exotic-animal-practitioners
#13
REVIEW
Reint Meursinge Reynders
Developing and conducting systematic reviews and meta-analyses is a complex process that requires many judgments and the input from a wide variety of stakeholders. This article presents an introduction on how to develop, conduct, and report these research studies. Veterinary clinicians should seek systematic reviews to address their research questions. Criteria for including meta-analyses in a systematic review are presented. However, before applying the findings of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to a particular patient, clinicians should weigh a variety of issues...
September 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781044/advanced-statistics-for-exotic-animal-practitioners
#14
REVIEW
John Hodsoll, Jennifer M Hellier, Elizabeth G Ryan
Correlation and regression assess the association between 2 or more variables. This article reviews the core knowledge needed to understand these analyses, moving from visual analysis in scatter plots through correlation, simple and multiple linear regression, and logistic regression. Correlation estimates the strength and direction of a relationship between 2 variables. Regression can be considered more general and quantifies the numerical relationships between an outcome and 1 or multiple variables in terms of a best-fit line, allowing predictions to be made...
September 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781043/basic-statistics-for-the-exotic-animal-practitioner
#15
REVIEW
Michelle A Giuffrida
Clinical research attempts to answer questions about patient populations by studying small samples of patients drawn from those populations. Statistics are used to describe the data collected in a study and to make inferences about the larger populations. Practitioners of evidence-based practice need a basic understanding of these principles to critically appraise the results of research studies. The main paradigm for statistical inference in medicine is called hypothesis testing, which involves generating a null hypothesis and examining the strength of evidence against it...
September 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781042/information-resources-for-the-exotic-animal-practitioner
#16
REVIEW
Laura L Pavlech
An essential component of evidence-based practice is finding the best available evidence to answer a clinical question. Finding evidence is difficult for veterinarians in general, and exotic animal clinicians in particular, owing to the lack of studies that provide a high level of clinically relevant evidence and limited access to resources. Knowing where and how to search for evidence can facilitate evidence-based practice.
September 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781041/advancements-in-evidence-based-anesthesia-of-exotic-animals
#17
REVIEW
Julie A Balko, Sathya K Chinnadurai
Anesthesia and sedation of pet nondomestic species are often necessary for both invasive and noninvasive procedures. Even minimally invasive procedures can be stressful for small prey species that are not domesticated or acclimated to human contact and restraint. Recent advancements in evidence-based practice will continue to improve the field based on scientifically sound best practices and rely less on anecdotal recommendations. This article focuses on new scientific literature that has been published in the past 5 years...
September 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781040/advancements-in-evidence-based-analgesia-in-exotic-animals
#18
REVIEW
Julie A Balko, Sathya K Chinnadurai
The importance of appropriate recognition, assessment, and treatment of pain in all veterinary species, including exotic animals, cannot be overstated. Although the assessment of pain perception in nondomestic species is still in its infancy, this does not preclude appropriate analgesic management in these species. Although analgesic drug selection is often based on data extrapolated from similar species, as the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of many drugs can vary greatly between species, an evidence-based approach to analgesic therapy should be used whenever possible...
September 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781039/evidence-based-reptile-housing-and-nutrition
#19
REVIEW
Dennis Oonincx, Jeroen van Leeuwen
The provision of a good light source is important for reptiles. For instance, ultraviolet light is used in social interactions and used for vitamin D synthesis. With respect to housing, most reptilians are best kept pairwise or individually. Environmental enrichment can be effective but depends on the form and the species to which it is applied. Temperature gradients around preferred body temperatures allow accurate thermoregulation, which is essential for reptiles. Natural distributions indicate suitable ambient temperatures, but microclimatic conditions are at least as important...
September 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781038/evidence-based-rabbit-housing-and-nutrition
#20
REVIEW
Marcus Clauss, Jean-Michel Hatt
Because most research on rabbit husbandry, welfare, and nutrition was performed on production animals, evidence for best practices in pet rabbits is scarce, and guidelines must be based on transfer of results, deduction, and common sense. Rabbits benefit from being kept with at least one conspecific; from large enclosures and multistory hutches; from drinking water offered ad libitum in open dish drinker systems; and from receiving hay ad libitum, with restricted amounts of fresh grass, herbs, or green leafy vegetables, and a high-fiber complete diet...
September 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
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