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Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189397/corrigendum-to-the-reduced-concentration-of-citrate-in-cancer-cells-an-indicator-of-cancer-aggressiveness-and-a-possible-therapeutic-target-drug-resistance-updates-29-2016-47-53
#1
Philippe Icard, Hubert Lincet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363336/active-efflux-in-dormant-bacterial-cells-new-insights-into-antibiotic-persistence
#2
Yingying Pu, Yuehua Ke, Fan Bai
Bacterial persisters are phenotypic variants of an isogenic cell population that can survive antibiotic treatment and resume growth after the antibiotics have been removed. Cell dormancy has long been considered the principle mechanism underlying persister formation. However, dormancy alone is insufficient to explain the full range of bacterial persistence. Our recent work revealed that in addition to 'passive defense' via dormancy, persister cells employ 'active defense' via enhanced efflux activity to expel drugs...
January 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363335/drug-biomarker-co-development-in-oncology-20-years-and-counting
#3
Julianne D Twomey, Nina N Brahme, Baolin Zhang
Predictive biomarkers for oncology are necessary to accurately identify patients who will benefit from anticancer treatment. Recently approved oncology drugs target discrete molecular aberrations or pathways in tumor cells and consequently are active on a subset of patient population, yet clinical studies have shown that not all biomarker-positive patients respond. The advancement of predictive biomarkers needs to detect novel and evolving drug resistance mechanisms, not only to guide the selection of patient subsets for specific treatments, but to identify new therapeutic targets...
January 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363334/novel-immune-check-point-inhibiting-antibodies-in-cancer-therapy-opportunities-and-challenges
#4
Yael Diesendruck, Itai Benhar
Drug resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapy is limiting the therapeutic efficacy of most anticancer drugs and represents a major obstacle in medical oncology. However, treatment of various human malignancies with biologics, mostly monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), is not limited by such chemoresistance mechanisms. However, other resistance or evasion mechanisms limit the efficacy to anticancer therapeutic mAbs that engage tumor-associated antigens on the surface of the malignant cells. Immune checkpoint blocking monoclonal antibodies are heralded as a promising therapeutic approach in clinical oncology...
January 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363333/inverse-correlation-between-the-metastasis-suppressor-rkip-and-the-metastasis-inducer-yy1-contrasting-roles-in-the-regulation-of-chemo-immuno-resistance-in-cancer
#5
Stephanie Wottrich, Samantha Kaufhold, Emmanuel Chrysos, Odysseas Zoras, Stavroula Baritaki, Benjamin Bonavida
Several gene products have been postulated to mediate inherent and/or acquired anticancer drug resistance and tumor metastasis. Among these, the metastasis suppressor and chemo-immuno-sensitizing gene product, Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein (RKIP), is poorly expressed in many cancers. In contrast, the metastasis inducer and chemo-immuno-resistant factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is overexpressed in many cancers. This inverse relationship between RKIP and YY1 expression suggests that these two gene products may be regulated via cross-talks of molecular signaling pathways, culminating in the expression of different phenotypes based on their targets...
January 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363332/the-importance-of-breast-cancer-resistance-protein-to-the-kidneys-excretory-function-and-chemotherapeutic-resistance
#6
REVIEW
Pedro Caetano-Pinto, Jitske Jansen, Yehuda G Assaraf, Rosalinde Masereeuw
The relevance of membrane transporters gained momentum in recent years and it is now widely recognized that transporters are key players in drug disposition and chemoresistance. As such, the kidneys harbor a variety of drug transporters and are one of the main routes for xenobiotic excretion. The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is widely accepted as a key mediator of anticancer drug resistance and is a prominent renal drug transporter. Here, we review the role of BCRP in both processes and present a multitude of variables that can influence its activity...
January 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363331/sensitizing-pathogens-to-antibiotics-using-the-crispr-cas-system
#7
Moran Goren, Ido Yosef, Udi Qimron
The extensive use of antibiotics over the last century has resulted in a significant artificial selection pressure for antibiotic-resistant pathogens to evolve. Various strategies to fight these pathogens have been introduced including new antibiotics, naturally-derived enzymes/peptides that specifically target pathogens and bacteriophages that lyse these pathogens. A new tool has recently been introduced in the fight against drug-resistant pathogens-the prokaryotic defense mechanism-clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated (CRISPR-Cas) system...
January 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912846/new-insights-and-evolving-role-of-pegylated-liposomal-doxorubicin-in-cancer-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Alberto A Gabizon, Yogita Patil, Ninh M La-Beck
We herein review various pharmacological and clinical aspects of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), the first nanomedicine to be approved for cancer therapy, and discuss the gap between its potent antitumor activity in preclinical studies and its comparatively modest achievements in clinical studies and limited use in clinical practice. PLD is a complex formulation of doxorubicin based on pharmaceutical nanotechnology with unique pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Its long circulation time with stable retention of the payload and its accumulation in tumors with high vascular permeability both result in important advantages over conventional chemotherapy...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912845/molecular-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications-of-bacterial-persistence
#9
Joran Elie Michiels, Bram Van den Bergh, Natalie Verstraeten, Jan Michiels
Any bacterial population harbors a small number of phenotypic variants that survive exposure to high concentrations of antibiotic. Importantly, these so-called 'persister cells' compromise successful antibiotic therapy of bacterial infections and are thought to contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance. Intriguingly, drug-tolerant persisters have also been identified as a factor underlying failure of chemotherapy in tumor cell populations. Recent studies have begun to unravel the complex molecular mechanisms underlying persister formation and revolve around stress responses and toxin-antitoxin modules...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912844/heparanase-from-basic-research-to-therapeutic-applications-in-cancer-and-inflammation
#10
Israel Vlodavsky, Preeti Singh, Ilanit Boyango, Lilach Gutter-Kapon, Michael Elkin, Ralph D Sanderson, Neta Ilan
Heparanase, the sole heparan sulfate degrading endoglycosidase, regulates multiple biological activities that enhance tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Heparanase expression is enhanced in almost all cancers examined including various carcinomas, sarcomas and hematological malignancies. Numerous clinical association studies have consistently demonstrated that upregulation of heparanase expression correlates with increased tumor size, tumor angiogenesis, enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis. In contrast, knockdown of heparanase or treatments of tumor-bearing mice with heparanase-inhibiting compounds, markedly attenuate tumor progression further underscoring the potential of anti-heparanase therapy for multiple types of cancer...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912843/the-reduced-concentration-of-citrate-in-cancer-cells-an-indicator-of-cancer-aggressiveness-and-a-possible-therapeutic-target
#11
Icard Philippe, Lincet Hubert
Proliferating cells reduce their oxidative metabolism and rely more on glycolysis, even in the presence of O2 (Warburg effect). This shift in metabolism reduces citrate biosynthesis and diminishes intracellular acidity, both of which promote glycolysis sustaining tumor growth. Because citrate is the donor of acetyl-CoA, its reduced production favors a deacetylation state of proteins favoring resistance to apoptosis and epigenetic changes, both processes contributing to tumor aggressiveness. Citrate levels could be monitored as an indicator of cancer aggressiveness (as already shown in human prostate cancer) and/or could serve as a biomarker for response to therapy...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912842/the-rapid-spread-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae
#12
REVIEW
Robert F Potter, Alaric W D'Souza, Gautam Dantas
Carbapenems, our one-time silver bullet for multidrug resistant bacterial infections, are now threatened by widespread dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Successful expansion of Enterobacteriaceae clonal groups and frequent horizontal gene transfer of carbapenemase expressing plasmids are causing increasing carbapenem resistance. Recent advances in genetic and phenotypic detection facilitate global surveillance of CRE diversity and prevalence. In particular, whole genome sequencing enabled efficient tracking, annotation, and study of genetic elements colocalized with carbapenemase genes on chromosomes and on plasmids...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912841/plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-two-decades-on
#13
REVIEW
José Manuel Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús Machuca, María Eliecer Cano, Jorge Calvo, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Alvaro Pascual
After two decades of the discovery of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR), three different mechanisms have been associated to this phenomenon: target protection (Qnr proteins, including several families with multiple alleles), active efflux pumps (mainly QepA and OqxAB pumps) and drug modification [AAC(6')-Ib-cr acetyltransferase]. PMQR genes are usually associated with mobile or transposable elements on plasmids, and, in the case of qnr genes, are often incorporated into sul1-type integrons. PMQR has been found in clinical and environmental isolates around the world and appears to be spreading...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912840/the-semaphorins-and-their-receptors-as-modulators-of-tumor-progression
#14
Gera Neufeld, Yelena Mumblat, Tanya Smolkin, Shira Toledano, Inbal Nir-Zvi, Keren Ziv, Ofra Kessler
The semaphorins were initially characterized as repulsive axon guidance factors. However, they are currently also recognized as important regulators of diverse biological processes which include regulation of immune responses, angiogenesis, organogenesis, and a variety of additional physiological and developmental functions. The semaphorin family consists of more than 20 genes divided into seven subfamilies, all of which contain the sema domain signature. They usually transduce signals by activation of receptors belonging to the plexin family, either directly, or indirectly following the binding of some semaphorins to receptors of the neuropilin family which subsequently associate with plexins...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620957/renew-or-die-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-peptidoglycan-recycling-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-gram-negative-pathogens
#15
Teresa Domínguez-Gil, Rafael Molina, Martín Alcorlo, Juan A Hermoso
Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious health threats. Cell-wall remodeling processes are tightly regulated to warrant bacterial survival and in some cases are directly linked to antibiotic resistance. Remodeling produces cell-wall fragments that are recycled but can also act as messengers for bacterial communication, as effector molecules in immune response and as signaling molecules triggering antibiotic resistance. This review is intended to provide state-of-the-art information about the molecular mechanisms governing this process and gather structural information of the different macromolecular machineries involved in peptidoglycan recycling in Gram-negative bacteria...
September 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620956/antibiotic-resistance-in-burkholderia-species
#16
Katherine A Rhodes, Herbert P Schweizer
The genus Burkholderia comprises metabolically diverse and adaptable Gram-negative bacteria, which thrive in often adversarial environments. A few members of the genus are prominent opportunistic pathogens. These include Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei of the B. pseudomallei complex, which cause glanders and melioidosis, respectively. Burkholderia cenocepacia, Burkholderia multivorans, and Burkholderia vietnamiensis belong to the Burkholderia cepacia complex and affect mostly cystic fibrosis patients...
September 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620955/old-drugs-novel-ways-out-drug-resistance-toward-cytotoxic-chemotherapeutics
#17
Ruud H Wijdeven, Baoxu Pang, Yehuda G Assaraf, Jacques Neefjes
Efficacy of chemotherapy in the treatment of distinct malignancies is often hampered by drug resistance arising in the tumor. Understanding the molecular basis of drug resistance and translating this knowledge into personalized treatment decisions can enhance therapeutic efficacy and even curative outcome. Over the years, multiple drug resistance mechanisms have been identified that enable tumors to cope with the damage instigated by a specific drug or group of anti-tumor agents. Here we provide an overview of the molecular pathways leading to resistance against conventional anti-cancer drugs, with emphasis on the utility of these pathways for rational selection of treatments for individual cancer patients...
September 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620954/folylpoly-%C3%AE-glutamate-synthetase-a-key-determinant-of-folate-homeostasis-and-antifolate-resistance-in-cancer
#18
Shachar Raz, Michal Stark, Yehuda G Assaraf
Mammalians are devoid of autonomous biosynthesis of folates and hence must obtain them from the diet. Reduced folate cofactors are B9-vitamins which play a key role as donors of one-carbon units in the biosynthesis of purine nucleotides, thymidylate and amino acids as well as in a multitude of methylation reactions including DNA, RNA, histone and non-histone proteins, phospholipids, as well as intermediate metabolites. The products of these S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methylations are involved in the regulation of key biological processes including transcription, translation and intracellular signaling...
September 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620953/the-pharmacogenomics-of-drug-resistance-to-protein-kinase-inhibitors
#19
Nancy K Gillis, Howard L McLeod
Dysregulation of growth factor cell signaling is a major driver of most human cancers. This has led to development of numerous drugs targeting protein kinases, with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of a wide spectrum of cancers. Despite their high initial response rates and survival benefits, the majority of patients eventually develop resistance to these targeted therapies. This review article discusses examples of established mechanisms of drug resistance to anticancer therapies, including drug target mutations or gene amplifications, emergence of alternate signaling pathways, and pharmacokinetic variation...
September 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620952/multidrug-efflux-pumps-as-main-players-in-intrinsic-and-acquired-resistance-to-antimicrobials
#20
REVIEW
Sara Hernando-Amado, Paula Blanco, Manuel Alcalde-Rico, Fernando Corona, Jose A Reales-Calderón, María B Sánchez, José L Martínez
Multidrug efflux pumps constitute a group of transporters that are ubiquitously found in any organism. In addition to other functions with relevance for the cell physiology, efflux pumps contribute to the resistance to compounds used for treating different diseases, including resistance to anticancer drugs, antibiotics or antifungal compounds. In the case of antimicrobials, efflux pumps are major players in both intrinsic and acquired resistance to drugs currently in use for the treatment of infectious diseases...
September 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
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