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Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075835/host-genetic-profiling-to-increase-drug-safety-in-colorectal-cancer-from-discovery-to-implementation
#1
Erika Cecchin, Elena De Mattia, Fabrizio Ecca, Giuseppe Toffoli
Adverse events affect the pharmacological treatment of approximately 90% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients at any stage of the disease. Chemotherapy including fluoropyrimidines, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin is the cornerstone of the pharmacological treatment of CRC. The introduction of novel targeted agents, as anti-EGFR (i.e. cetuximab, panitumumab) and antiangiogenic (i.e. bevacizumab, ziv-aflibercept, regorafenib, and ramucirumab) molecules, into the oncologist's toolbox has led to significant improvements in the life expectancy of advanced CRC patients, but with a substantial increase in toxicity burden...
July 2018: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075834/targeting-invadopodia-for-blocking-breast-cancer-metastasis
#2
Tomer Meirson, Hava Gil-Henn
Dissemination of cancer cells from the primary tumor and their spread to distant sites of the body is the leading cause of mortality in metastatic cancer patients. Metastatic cancer cells invade surrounding tissues and blood vessels by forming F-actin-rich protrusions known as invadopodia, which degrade the extracellular matrix and enable invasion of tumor cells through it. Invadopodia have now been observed in vivo, and recent evidence demonstrates direct molecular links between assembly of invadopodia and cancer metastasis in both mouse models and in human patients...
July 2018: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857816/how-mutations-shape-p53-interactions-with-the-genome-to-promote-tumorigenesis-and-drug-resistance
#3
Thorsten Stiewe, Tali E Haran
The tumor suppressive transcription factor p53 regulates a wide array of cellular processes that confer upon cells an essential protection against cancer development. Wild-type p53 regulates gene expression by directly binding to DNA in a sequence-specific manner. p53 missense mutations are the most common mutations in malignant cells and can be regarded as synonymous with anticancer drug resistance and poor prognosis. The current review provides an overview of how the extraordinary variety of more than 2000 different mutant p53 proteins, known as the p53 mutome, affect the interaction of p53 with DNA...
May 2018: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857815/fighting-bacterial-persistence-current-and-emerging-anti-persister-strategies-and-therapeutics
#4
REVIEW
Valerie Defraine, Maarten Fauvart, Jan Michiels
In addition to the well-known strategies of antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation, bacterial populations possess an additional survival strategy to endure hostile environments or antibiotic exposure. A small fraction of transiently antibiotic-tolerant phenotypical variants, called persister cells, is capable of surviving treatment with high doses of antibiotics. When antibiotic pressure drops, persisters that switch back to a normal phenotype can resume growth, ensuring survival of the bacterial population...
May 2018: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857814/how-the-warburg-effect-supports-aggressiveness-and-drug-resistance-of-cancer-cells
#5
Philippe Icard, Seth Shulman, Diana Farhat, Jean-Marc Steyaert, Marco Alifano, Hubert Lincet
Cancer cells employ both conventional oxidative metabolism and glycolytic anaerobic metabolism. However, their proliferation is marked by a shift towards increasing glycolytic metabolism even in the presence of O2 (Warburg effect). HIF1, a major hypoxia induced transcription factor, promotes a dissociation between glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, a process limiting the efficient production of ATP and citrate which otherwise would arrest glycolysis. The Warburg effect also favors an intracellular alkaline pH which is a driving force in many aspects of cancer cell proliferation (enhancement of glycolysis and cell cycle progression) and of cancer aggressiveness (resistance to various processes including hypoxia, apoptosis, cytotoxic drugs and immune response)...
May 2018: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680499/corrigendum-to-hepatitis-c-virus-drug-resistance-associated-substitutions-and-their-clinical-relevance-update-2018-drug-resist-updates-37-march-2018-17-39
#6
Maria C Sorbo, Valeria Cento, Velia C Di Maio, Anita Y M Howe, Federico Garcia, Carlo F Perno, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2018: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548479/thymidine-kinase-and-protein-kinase-in-drug-resistant-herpesviruses-heads-of-a-lernaean-hydra
#7
Dimitri Topalis, Sarah Gillemot, Robert Snoeck, Graciela Andrei
Herpesviruses thymidine kinase (TK) and protein kinase (PK) allow the activation of nucleoside analogues used in anti-herpesvirus treatments. Mutations emerging in these two genes often lead to emergence of drug-resistant strains responsible for life-threatening diseases in immunocompromised populations. In this review, we analyze the binding of different nucleoside analogues to the TK active site of the three α-herpesviruses [Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) and Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV)] and present the impact of known mutations on the structure of the viral TKs...
March 2018: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525636/hepatitis-c-virus-drug-resistance-associated-substitutions-and-their-clinical-relevance-update-2018
#8
REVIEW
Maria C Sorbo, Valeria Cento, Velia C Di Maio, Anita Y M Howe, Federico Garcia, Carlo F Perno, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein
Nowadays, due to the development of potent Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents (DAAs) that specifically target NS3, NS5A and NS5B viral proteins, several new and highly efficacious options to treat chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are available. The natural presence of resistance associated substitutions (RASs), as well as their rapid emergence during incomplete drug-pressure, are intrinsic characteristics of HCV that greatly affect treatment outcome and the chances to achieve a virolgical cure. To date, a high number of RASs in NS3, NS5A, and NS5B have been associated in vivo and/or in vitro with reduced susceptibility to DAAs, but no comprehensive RASs list is available...
March 2018: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499837/redundant-angiogenic-signaling-and-tumor-drug-resistance
#9
Rajesh N Gacche, Yehuda G Assaraf
Angiogenesis research in the past two decades has contributed significantly towards understanding the molecular pathophysiology of cancer progression and inspired target-oriented research and pharma industry for the development of novel anti-angiogenic agents. Currently, over eleven drugs targeting angiogenesis have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of various malignancies. Of the registered anti-angiogenic clinical trials until the end of 2017 (ClinicalTrials.gov), over 47% were completed, 10% were terminated, 3% withdrawn, over 0...
January 2018: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499836/new-tools-for-old-drugs-functional-genetic-screens-to-optimize-current-chemotherapy
#10
Nora M Gerhards, Sven Rottenberg
Despite substantial advances in the treatment of various cancers, many patients still receive anti-cancer therapies that hardly eradicate tumor cells but inflict considerable side effects. To provide the best treatment regimen for an individual patient, a major goal in molecular oncology is to identify predictive markers for a personalized therapeutic strategy. Regarding novel targeted anti-cancer therapies, there are usually good markers available. Unfortunately, however, targeted therapies alone often result in rather short remissions and little cytotoxic effect on the cancer cells...
January 2018: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499835/an-update-on-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor-discovery-and-development
#11
REVIEW
Jean-Denis Docquier, Stefano Mangani
Antibiotic resistance, and the emergence of pan-resistant clinical isolates, seriously threatens our capability to treat bacterial diseases, including potentially deadly hospital-acquired infections. This growing issue certainly requires multiple adequate responses, including the improvement of both diagnosis methods and use of antibacterial agents, and obviously the development of novel antibacterial drugs, especially active against Gram-negative pathogens, which represent an urgent medical need. Considering the clinical relevance of both β-lactam antibiotics and β-lactamase-mediated resistance, the discovery and development of combinations including a β-lactamase inhibitor seems to be particularly attractive, despite being extremely challenging due to the enormous diversity, both structurally and mechanistically, of the potential β-lactamase targets...
January 2018: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499834/targeting-bacterial-energetics-to-produce-new-antimicrobials
#12
REVIEW
Kiel Hards, Gregory M Cook
From the war on drug resistance, through cancer biology, even to agricultural and environmental protection: there is a huge demand for rapid and effective solutions to control infections and diseases. The development of small molecule inhibitors was once an accepted "one-size fits all" approach to these varied problems, but persistence and resistance threaten to return society to a pre-antibiotic era. Only five essential cellular targets in bacteria have been developed for the majority of our clinically-relevant antibiotics...
January 2018: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145973/tak-ing-aim-at-chemoresistance-the-emerging-role-of-map3k7-as-a-target-for-cancer-therapy
#13
Raffaela Santoro, Carmine Carbone, Geny Piro, Paul J Chiao, Davide Melisi
Cellular drug resistance remains the main obstacle to the clinical efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. Alterations in key pathways regulating cell cycle checkpoints, apoptosis and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), such as the Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, appear to be closely associated to cancer chemoresistance. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)- activated kinase 1 (TAK1, also known as MAP3K7) is a serine/threonine kinase in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP3K) family...
November 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145972/cancer-immunotherapy-getting-brainy-visualizing-the-distinctive-cns-metastatic-niche-to-illuminate-therapeutic-resistance
#14
REVIEW
Mark Owyong, Niloufar Hosseini-Nassab, Gizem Efe, Alexander Honkala, Renske J E van den Bijgaart, Vicki Plaks, Bryan Ronain Smith
The advent of cancer immunotherapy (CIT) and its success in treating primary and metastatic cancer may offer substantially improved outcomes for patients. Despite recent advancements, many malignancies remain resistant to CIT, among which are brain metastases, a particularly virulent disease with no apparent cure. The immunologically unique niche of the brain has prompted compelling new questions in immuno-oncology such as the effects of tissue-specific differences in immune response, heterogeneity between primary tumors and distant metastases, and the role of spatiotemporal dynamics in shaping an effective anti-tumor immune response...
November 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145971/antimicrobial-blue-light-inactivation-of-pathogenic-microbes-state-of-the-art
#15
REVIEW
Yucheng Wang, Ying Wang, Yuguang Wang, Clinton K Murray, Michael R Hamblin, David C Hooper, Tianhong Dai
As an innovative non-antibiotic approach, antimicrobial blue light in the spectrum of 400-470nm has demonstrated its intrinsic antimicrobial properties resulting from the presence of endogenous photosensitizing chromophores in pathogenic microbes and, subsequently, its promise as a counteracter of antibiotic resistance. Since we published our last review of antimicrobial blue light in 2012, there have been a substantial number of new studies reported in this area. Here we provide an updated overview of the findings from the new studies over the past 5 years, including the efficacy of antimicrobial blue light inactivation of different microbes, its mechanism of action, synergism of antimicrobial blue light with other angents, its effect on host cells and tissues, the potential development of resistance to antimicrobial blue light by microbes, and a novel interstitial delivery approach of antimicrobial blue light...
November 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145976/not-only-p-glycoprotein-amplification-of-the-abcb1-containing-chromosome-region-7q21-confers-multidrug-resistance-upon-cancer-cells-by-coordinated-overexpression-of-an-assortment-of-resistance-related-proteins
#16
REVIEW
Ilaria Genovese, Andrea Ilari, Yehuda G Assaraf, Francesco Fazi, Gianni Colotti
The development of drug resistance continues to be a dominant hindrance toward curative cancer treatment. Overexpression of a wide-spectrum of ATP-dependent efflux pumps, and in particular of ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein or MDR1) is a well-known resistance mechanism for a plethora of cancer chemotherapeutics including for example taxenes, anthracyclines, Vinca alkaloids, and epipodopyllotoxins, demonstrated by a large array of published papers, both in tumor cell lines and in a variety of tumors, including various solid tumors and hematological malignancies...
May 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145975/in-cancer-a-to-i-rna-editing-can-be-the-driver-the-passenger-or-the-mechanic
#17
REVIEW
Nabeel S Ganem, Noa Ben-Asher, Ayelet T Lamm
In recent years, A-to-I RNA modifications performed by the Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA (ADAR) protein family were found to be expressed at altered levels in multiple human malignancies. A-to-I RNA editing changes adenosine to inosine on double stranded RNA, thereby changing transcript sequence and structure. Although A-to-I RNA editing have the potential to change essential mRNA transcripts, affecting their corresponding protein structures, most of the human editing sites identified to date reside in non-coding repetitive transcripts such as Alu elements...
May 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145974/immunotherapy-for-triple-negative-breast-cancer-existing-challenges-and-exciting-prospects
#18
REVIEW
Hongyan Jia, Cristina I Truica, Bin Wang, Yanhong Wang, Xingcong Ren, Harold A Harvey, Jianxun Song, Jin-Ming Yang
Patients with breast tumors that do not express the estrogen receptor, the progesterone receptor, nor Her-2/neu are hence termed "triple negatives", and generally have a poor prognosis, with high rates of systemic recurrence and refractoriness to conventional therapy regardless of the choice of adjuvant treatment. Thus, more effective therapeutic options are sorely needed for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which occurs in approximately 20% of diagnosed breast cancers. In recent years, exploiting intrinsic mechanisms of the host immune system to eradicate cancer cells has achieved impressive success, and the advances in immunotherapy have yielded potential new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of this devastating subtype of breast cancer...
May 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867243/a-mechanopharmacology-approach-to-overcome-chemoresistance-in-pancreatic-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Stefano Coppola, Ilaria Carnevale, Erik H J Danen, Godefridus J Peters, Thomas Schmidt, Yehuda G Assaraf, Elisa Giovannetti
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly chemoresistant malignancy. This chemoresistant phenotype has been historically associated with genetic factors. Major biomedical research efforts were concentrated that resulted in the identification of subtypes characterized by specific genetic lesions and gene expression signatures that suggest important biological differences. However, to date, these distinct differences could not be exploited for therapeutic interventions. Apart from these genetic factors, desmoplasia and tumor microenvironment have been recognized as key contributors to PDAC chemoresistance...
March 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867242/can-microbial-cells-develop-resistance-to-oxidative-stress-in-antimicrobial-photodynamic-inactivation
#20
REVIEW
Nasim Kashef, Michael R Hamblin
Infections have been a major cause of disease throughout the history of humans on earth. With the introduction of antibiotics, it was thought that infections had been conquered. However, bacteria have been able to develop resistance to antibiotics at an exponentially increasing rate. The growing threat from multi-drug resistant organisms calls for intensive action to prevent the emergence of totally resistant and untreatable infections. Novel, non-invasive, non-antibiotic strategies are needed that act more efficiently and faster than current antibiotics...
March 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
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