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Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145973/tak-ing-aim-at-chemoresistance-the-emerging-role-of-map3k7-as-a-target-for-cancer-therapy
#1
Raffaela Santoro, Carmine Carbone, Geny Piro, Paul J Chiao, Davide Melisi
Cellular drug resistance remains the main obstacle to the clinical efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. Alterations in key pathways regulating cell cycle checkpoints, apoptosis and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), such as the Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, appear to be closely associated to cancer chemoresistance. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)- activated kinase 1 (TAK1, also known as MAP3K7) is a serine/threonine kinase in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP3K) family...
November 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145972/cancer-immunotherapy-getting-brainy-visualizing-the-distinctive-cns-metastatic-niche-to-illuminate-therapeutic-resistance
#2
Mark Owyong, Niloufar Hosseini-Nassab, Gizem Efe, Alexander Honkala, Renske J E van den Bijgaart, Vicki Plaks, Bryan Ronain Smith
The advent of cancer immunotherapy (CIT) and its success in treating primary and metastatic cancer may offer substantially improved outcomes for patients. Despite recent advancements, many malignancies remain resistant to CIT, among which are brain metastases, a particularly virulent disease with no apparent cure. The immunologically unique niche of the brain has prompted compelling new questions in immuno-oncology such as the effects of tissue-specific differences in immune response, heterogeneity between primary tumors and distant metastases, and the role of spatiotemporal dynamics in shaping an effective anti-tumor immune response...
November 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145971/antimicrobial-blue-light-inactivation-of-pathogenic-microbes-state-of-the-art
#3
Yucheng Wang, Ying Wang, Yuguang Wang, Clinton K Murray, Michael R Hamblin, David C Hooper, Tianhong Dai
As an innovative non-antibiotic approach, antimicrobial blue light in the spectrum of 400-470nm has demonstrated its intrinsic antimicrobial properties resulting from the presence of endogenous photosensitizing chromophores in pathogenic microbes and, subsequently, its promise as a counteracter of antibiotic resistance. Since we published our last review of antimicrobial blue light in 2012, there have been a substantial number of new studies reported in this area. Here we provide an updated overview of the findings from the new studies over the past 5 years, including the efficacy of antimicrobial blue light inactivation of different microbes, its mechanism of action, synergism of antimicrobial blue light with other angents, its effect on host cells and tissues, the potential development of resistance to antimicrobial blue light by microbes, and a novel interstitial delivery approach of antimicrobial blue light...
November 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145976/not-only-p-glycoprotein-amplification-of-the-abcb1-containing-chromosome-region-7q21-confers-multidrug-resistance-upon-cancer-cells-by-coordinated-overexpression-of-an-assortment-of-resistance-related-proteins
#4
Ilaria Genovese, Andrea Ilari, Yehuda G Assaraf, Francesco Fazi, Gianni Colotti
The development of drug resistance continues to be a dominant hindrance toward curative cancer treatment. Overexpression of a wide-spectrum of ATP-dependent efflux pumps, and in particular of ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein or MDR1) is a well-known resistance mechanism for a plethora of cancer chemotherapeutics including for example taxenes, anthracyclines, Vinca alkaloids, and epipodopyllotoxins, demonstrated by a large array of published papers, both in tumor cell lines and in a variety of tumors, including various solid tumors and hematological malignancies...
May 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145975/in-cancer-a-to-i-rna-editing-can-be-the-driver-the-passenger-or-the-mechanic
#5
Nabeel S Ganem, Noa Ben-Asher, Ayelet T Lamm
In recent years, A-to-I RNA modifications performed by the Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA (ADAR) protein family were found to be expressed at altered levels in multiple human malignancies. A-to-I RNA editing changes adenosine to inosine on double stranded RNA, thereby changing transcript sequence and structure. Although A-to-I RNA editing have the potential to change essential mRNA transcripts, affecting their corresponding protein structures, most of the human editing sites identified to date reside in non-coding repetitive transcripts such as Alu elements...
May 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145974/immunotherapy-for-triple-negative-breast-cancer-existing-challenges-and-exciting-prospects
#6
Hongyan Jia, Cristina I Truica, Bin Wang, Yanhong Wang, Xingcong Ren, Harold A Harvey, Jianxun Song, Jin-Ming Yang
Patients with breast tumors that do not express the estrogen receptor, the progesterone receptor, nor Her-2/neu are hence termed "triple negatives", and generally have a poor prognosis, with high rates of systemic recurrence and refractoriness to conventional therapy regardless of the choice of adjuvant treatment. Thus, more effective therapeutic options are sorely needed for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which occurs in approximately 20% of diagnosed breast cancers. In recent years, exploiting intrinsic mechanisms of the host immune system to eradicate cancer cells has achieved impressive success, and the advances in immunotherapy have yielded potential new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of this devastating subtype of breast cancer...
May 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867243/a-mechanopharmacology-approach-to-overcome-chemoresistance-in-pancreatic-cancer
#7
Stefano Coppola, Ilaria Carnevale, Erik H J Danen, Godefridus J Peters, Thomas Schmidt, Yehuda G Assaraf, Elisa Giovannetti
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly chemoresistant malignancy. This chemoresistant phenotype has been historically associated with genetic factors. Major biomedical research efforts were concentrated that resulted in the identification of subtypes characterized by specific genetic lesions and gene expression signatures that suggest important biological differences. However, to date, these distinct differences could not be exploited for therapeutic interventions. Apart from these genetic factors, desmoplasia and tumor microenvironment have been recognized as key contributors to PDAC chemoresistance...
March 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867242/can-microbial-cells-develop-resistance-to-oxidative-stress-in-antimicrobial-photodynamic-inactivation
#8
Nasim Kashef, Michael R Hamblin
Infections have been a major cause of disease throughout the history of humans on earth. With the introduction of antibiotics, it was thought that infections had been conquered. However, bacteria have been able to develop resistance to antibiotics at an exponentially increasing rate. The growing threat from multi-drug resistant organisms calls for intensive action to prevent the emergence of totally resistant and untreatable infections. Novel, non-invasive, non-antibiotic strategies are needed that act more efficiently and faster than current antibiotics...
March 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867241/targeted-nanomedicine-for-cancer-therapeutics-towards-precision-medicine-overcoming-drug-resistance
#9
Maya Bar-Zeev, Yoav D Livney, Yehuda G Assaraf
Intrinsic anticancer drug resistance appearing prior to chemotherapy as well as acquired resistance due to drug treatment, remain the dominant impediments towards curative cancer therapy. Hence, novel targeted strategies to overcome cancer drug resistance constitute a key aim of cancer research. In this respect, targeted nanomedicine offers innovative therapeutic strategies to overcome the various limitations of conventional chemotherapy, enabling enhanced selectivity, early and more precise cancer diagnosis, individualized treatment as well as overcoming of drug resistance, including multidrug resistance (MDR)...
March 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867240/new-strategies-for-targeting-and-treatment-of-multi-drug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#10
L Mayrink Assis, M Nedeljković, A Dessen
Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of bacterial infection in humans, and has been notoriously able to acquire resistance to a variety of antibiotics. An example is methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), which despite having been initially associated with clinical settings, now is one of the key causative agents of community-acquired infections. Antibiotic resistance in S. aureus involves mechanisms ranging from drug efflux to increased expression or mutation of target proteins, and this has required innovative approaches to develop novel treatment methodologies...
March 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189397/corrigendum-to-the-reduced-concentration-of-citrate-in-cancer-cells-an-indicator-of-cancer-aggressiveness-and-a-possible-therapeutic-target-drug-resistance-updates-29-2016-47-53
#11
Philippe Icard, Hubert Lincet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363336/active-efflux-in-dormant-bacterial-cells-new-insights-into-antibiotic-persistence
#12
Yingying Pu, Yuehua Ke, Fan Bai
Bacterial persisters are phenotypic variants of an isogenic cell population that can survive antibiotic treatment and resume growth after the antibiotics have been removed. Cell dormancy has long been considered the principle mechanism underlying persister formation. However, dormancy alone is insufficient to explain the full range of bacterial persistence. Our recent work revealed that in addition to 'passive defense' via dormancy, persister cells employ 'active defense' via enhanced efflux activity to expel drugs...
January 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363335/drug-biomarker-co-development-in-oncology-20-years-and-counting
#13
Julianne D Twomey, Nina N Brahme, Baolin Zhang
Predictive biomarkers for oncology are necessary to accurately identify patients who will benefit from anticancer treatment. Recently approved oncology drugs target discrete molecular aberrations or pathways in tumor cells and consequently are active on a subset of patient population, yet clinical studies have shown that not all biomarker-positive patients respond. The advancement of predictive biomarkers needs to detect novel and evolving drug resistance mechanisms, not only to guide the selection of patient subsets for specific treatments, but to identify new therapeutic targets...
January 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363334/novel-immune-check-point-inhibiting-antibodies-in-cancer-therapy-opportunities-and-challenges
#14
Yael Diesendruck, Itai Benhar
Drug resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapy is limiting the therapeutic efficacy of most anticancer drugs and represents a major obstacle in medical oncology. However, treatment of various human malignancies with biologics, mostly monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), is not limited by such chemoresistance mechanisms. However, other resistance or evasion mechanisms limit the efficacy to anticancer therapeutic mAbs that engage tumor-associated antigens on the surface of the malignant cells. Immune checkpoint blocking monoclonal antibodies are heralded as a promising therapeutic approach in clinical oncology...
January 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363333/inverse-correlation-between-the-metastasis-suppressor-rkip-and-the-metastasis-inducer-yy1-contrasting-roles-in-the-regulation-of-chemo-immuno-resistance-in-cancer
#15
Stephanie Wottrich, Samantha Kaufhold, Emmanuel Chrysos, Odysseas Zoras, Stavroula Baritaki, Benjamin Bonavida
Several gene products have been postulated to mediate inherent and/or acquired anticancer drug resistance and tumor metastasis. Among these, the metastasis suppressor and chemo-immuno-sensitizing gene product, Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein (RKIP), is poorly expressed in many cancers. In contrast, the metastasis inducer and chemo-immuno-resistant factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is overexpressed in many cancers. This inverse relationship between RKIP and YY1 expression suggests that these two gene products may be regulated via cross-talks of molecular signaling pathways, culminating in the expression of different phenotypes based on their targets...
January 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363332/the-importance-of-breast-cancer-resistance-protein-to-the-kidneys-excretory-function-and-chemotherapeutic-resistance
#16
REVIEW
Pedro Caetano-Pinto, Jitske Jansen, Yehuda G Assaraf, Rosalinde Masereeuw
The relevance of membrane transporters gained momentum in recent years and it is now widely recognized that transporters are key players in drug disposition and chemoresistance. As such, the kidneys harbor a variety of drug transporters and are one of the main routes for xenobiotic excretion. The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is widely accepted as a key mediator of anticancer drug resistance and is a prominent renal drug transporter. Here, we review the role of BCRP in both processes and present a multitude of variables that can influence its activity...
January 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363331/sensitizing-pathogens-to-antibiotics-using-the-crispr-cas-system
#17
Moran Goren, Ido Yosef, Udi Qimron
The extensive use of antibiotics over the last century has resulted in a significant artificial selection pressure for antibiotic-resistant pathogens to evolve. Various strategies to fight these pathogens have been introduced including new antibiotics, naturally-derived enzymes/peptides that specifically target pathogens and bacteriophages that lyse these pathogens. A new tool has recently been introduced in the fight against drug-resistant pathogens-the prokaryotic defense mechanism-clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated (CRISPR-Cas) system...
January 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912846/new-insights-and-evolving-role-of-pegylated-liposomal-doxorubicin-in-cancer-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Alberto A Gabizon, Yogita Patil, Ninh M La-Beck
We herein review various pharmacological and clinical aspects of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), the first nanomedicine to be approved for cancer therapy, and discuss the gap between its potent antitumor activity in preclinical studies and its comparatively modest achievements in clinical studies and limited use in clinical practice. PLD is a complex formulation of doxorubicin based on pharmaceutical nanotechnology with unique pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Its long circulation time with stable retention of the payload and its accumulation in tumors with high vascular permeability both result in important advantages over conventional chemotherapy...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912845/molecular-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications-of-bacterial-persistence
#19
Joran Elie Michiels, Bram Van den Bergh, Natalie Verstraeten, Jan Michiels
Any bacterial population harbors a small number of phenotypic variants that survive exposure to high concentrations of antibiotic. Importantly, these so-called 'persister cells' compromise successful antibiotic therapy of bacterial infections and are thought to contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance. Intriguingly, drug-tolerant persisters have also been identified as a factor underlying failure of chemotherapy in tumor cell populations. Recent studies have begun to unravel the complex molecular mechanisms underlying persister formation and revolve around stress responses and toxin-antitoxin modules...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912844/heparanase-from-basic-research-to-therapeutic-applications-in-cancer-and-inflammation
#20
Israel Vlodavsky, Preeti Singh, Ilanit Boyango, Lilach Gutter-Kapon, Michael Elkin, Ralph D Sanderson, Neta Ilan
Heparanase, the sole heparan sulfate degrading endoglycosidase, regulates multiple biological activities that enhance tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Heparanase expression is enhanced in almost all cancers examined including various carcinomas, sarcomas and hematological malignancies. Numerous clinical association studies have consistently demonstrated that upregulation of heparanase expression correlates with increased tumor size, tumor angiogenesis, enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis. In contrast, knockdown of heparanase or treatments of tumor-bearing mice with heparanase-inhibiting compounds, markedly attenuate tumor progression further underscoring the potential of anti-heparanase therapy for multiple types of cancer...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
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