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Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328867/glioma-stem-cell-niches-in-human-glioblastoma-are-periarteriolar
#1
Vashendriya V V Hira, Diana A Aderetti, Cornelis J F van Noorden
Survival of primary brain tumor (glioblastoma) patients is seriously hampered by glioma stem cells (GSCs) that are distinct therapy-resistant self-replicating pluripotent cancer cells. GSCs reside in GSC niches, which are specific protective microenvironments in glioblastoma tumors. We have recently found that GSC niches are hypoxic periarteriolar, whereas in most studies, GSC niches are identified as hypoxic perivascular. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the literature on perivascular GSC niches to establish whether these are periarteriolar, pericapillary, perivenular, and/or perilymphatic...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328866/proteoglycans-as-immunomodulators-of-the-innate-immune-response-to-lung-infection
#2
Inkyung Kang, Mary Y Chang, Thomas N Wight, Charles W Frevert
Proteoglycans (PGs) are complex, multifaceted molecules that participate in diverse interactions vital for physiological and pathological processes. As structural components, they provide a scaffold for cells and structural organization that helps define tissue architecture. Through interactions with water, PGs enable molecular and cellular movement through tissues. Through selective ionic interactions with growth factors, chemokines, cytokines, and proteases, PGs facilitate the ability of these soluble ligands to regulate intracellular signaling events and to influence the inflammatory response...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328863/overexpression-of-mtor-and-p-240-244-s6-in-idh1-wild-type-human-glioblastomas-is-predictive-of-low-survival
#3
Luis Eduardo Machado, Arthur William Alvarenga, Fernanda Ferreira da Silva, Martín Roffé, Maria Dirlei Begnami, Luís Fernando Bleggi Torres, Isabela Werneck da Cunha, Vilma Regina Martins, Glaucia Noeli Maroso Hajj
PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway activation is a hallmark of high-grade gliomas, which prompted clinical trials for the use of PI3K and mTOR inhibitors. However, the poor results in the original trials suggested that better patient profiling was needed for such drugs. Thus, accurate and reproducible monitoring of mTOR complexes can lead to improved therapeutic strategies. In this work, we evaluated the expression and phosphorylation of mTOR, RAPTOR, and rpS6 in 195 human astrocytomas and 30 normal brain tissue samples...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303644/expression-of-glutamate-transporters-in-mouse-liver-kidney-and-intestine
#4
Qiu Xiang Hu, Sigrid Ottestad-Hansen, Silvia Holmseth, Bjørnar Hassel, Niels Christian Danbolt, Yun Zhou
Glutamate transport activities have been identified not only in the brain, but also in the liver, kidney, and intestine. Although glutamate transporter distributions in the central nervous system are fairly well known, there are still uncertainties with respect to the distribution of these transporters in peripheral organs. Quantitative information is mostly lacking, and few of the studies have included genetically modified animals as specificity controls. The present study provides validated qualitative and semi-quantitative data on the excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT)1-3 subtypes in the mouse liver, kidney, and intestine...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300519/expression-and-cellular-localization-of-ifitm1-in-normal-and-injured-rat-spinal-cords
#5
Ying Wang, Yu-Hong Lin, Yan Wu, Zong-Feng Yao, Jie Tang, Lin Shen, Rui Wang, Shu-Qin Ding, Jian-Guo Hu, He-Zuo Lü
Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) is a member of the IFITM family that is associated with some acute-phase cytokine-stimulated response. Recently, we demonstrated that IFITM1 was significantly upregulated in the injured spinal cords at the mRNA level. However, its expression and cellular localization at the protein level is still unclear. Here, a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI) was performed to investigate the spatio-temporal expression of IFITM1 after SCI. IFITM1 mRNA and protein were assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and western blot, respectively...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298122/evaluation-of-viral-genome-copies-within-viral-factories-on-different-dna-viruses
#6
Zaven A Karalyan, Roza A Izmailyan, Liana O Abroyan, Aida S Avetisyan, Lina A Hakobyan, Hovakim S Zakaryan, Elena M Karalova
This article describes a simple method of measuring the number of viral genomes within viral factories. For this purpose, we use three DNA viruses replicating in the cytoplasm of the infected cells: wild-type African swine fever virus (ASFV)-Georgia 2007, culture-adapted type ASFV-BA71V, and Vaccinia virus (VV). The measurements are conducted in three steps. In the first step, after DNA staining, we evaluate Integrated Optical Density (IOD) of total DNA for each viral factory. The second step involves the calculations of the mass of DNA in the viral factories in picograms (pg)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297738/periarteriolar-glioblastoma-stem-cell-niches-express-bone-marrow-hematopoietic-stem-cell-niche-proteins
#7
Vashendriya V V Hira, Jill R Wormer, Hala Kakar, Barbara Breznik, Britt van der Swaan, Renske Hulsbos, Wikky Tigchelaar, Zbynek Tonar, Mohammed Khurshed, Remco J Molenaar, Cornelis J F Van Noorden
In glioblastoma, a fraction of malignant cells consists of therapy-resistant glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) residing in protective niches that recapitulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niches in bone marrow. We have previously shown that HSC niche proteins stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), osteopontin (OPN), and cathepsin K (CatK) are expressed in hypoxic GSC niches around arterioles in five human glioblastoma samples. In HSC niches, HSCs are retained by binding of SDF-1α and OPN to their receptors CXCR4 and CD44, respectively...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290146/multifunctional-role-of-35-kilodalton-hyaluronan-in-promoting-defense-of-the-intestinal-epithelium
#8
Sean P Kessler, Dana R Obery, Kourtney P Nickerson, Aaron C Petrey, Christine McDonald, Carol A de la Motte
Intestinal epithelium plays a critical role in host defense against orally acquired pathogens. Dysregulation of this protective barrier is a primary driver of inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's and ulcerative colitis) and also infant gastrointestinal infections. Previously, our lab reported that hyaluronan (HA) isolated from human milk induces the expression of the antimicrobial peptide β-defensin in vivo and protects against Salmonella Typhimurium infection of epithelial cells in vitro. In addition, we demonstrated that commercially available 35 kDa size HA induces the expression of β-defensin, upregulates the expression of tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and attenuates murine Citrobacter rodentium infection in vivo...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268631/regression-of-lingual-lymphatic-vessels-in-sodium-restricted-mice
#9
Lianying He, Lynnette Phillips McCluskey
Lymphatic vessel networks can expand and regress, with consequences for interstitial fluid drainage and nutrient supply to tissues, inflammation, and tumor spread. A diet high in sodium stimulates hyperplasia of cutaneous lymphatic capillaries. We hypothesized that dietary sodium restriction would have the opposite effect, shrinking lymphatic capillaries in the tongue. Lingual lymphatic capillary density and size was significantly reduced in mice fed a low-sodium diet (0.03%) for 3 weeks compared with control-fed mice...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268630/thiazole-orange-as-an-alternative-to-antibody-binding-for-detecting-triple-helical-dna-in-heterochromatin-of-drosophila-and-rhynchosciara
#10
Eduardo Gorab, Peter Lees Pearson
The standard method for detecting triple-stranded DNA over the last 1.5 decades has been immune detection using antibodies raised against non-canonical nucleic acid structures. Many fluorescent dyes bind differentially to nucleic acids and often exhibit distinctive staining patterns along metaphase chromosomes dependent upon features, including binding to the major and minor DNA grooves, level of chromatin compaction, nucleotide specificity, and level of dye stacking. Relatively recently, the fluorochrome Thiazole Orange (TO) was shown to preferentially bind to triplex DNA in gels...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220632/immunohistochemical-localization-of-fibrinogen-c-domain-containing-1-on-epithelial-and-mucosal-surfaces-in-human-tissues
#11
Sebastian von Huth, Jesper B Moeller, Anders Schlosser, Niels Marcussen, Ole Nielsen, Vicki Nielsen, Grith L Sorensen, Uffe Holmskov
Fibrinogen C domain containing 1 (FIBCD1) is a transmembrane receptor that binds chitin and other acetylated compounds with high affinity. FIBCD1 has previously been shown to be present in the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we performed a detailed analysis of normally structured human tissues for the expression of FIBCD1 by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. We find that FIBCD1 is expressed in epithelial cells derived from all three germ layers. Endodermal-derived epithelial cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract and the respiratory system showed high expression of FIBCD1 and also mesodermal-derived cells in the genitourinary system and ectodermal-derived epidermis and sebaceous glands cells expressed FIBCD1...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290153/the-role-of-heparan-sulfate-in-inflammation-and-the-development-of-biomimetics-as-anti-inflammatory-strategies
#12
Brooke L Farrugia, Megan S Lord, James Melrose, John M Whitelock
Key events that occur during inflammation include the recruitment, adhesion, and transmigration of leukocytes from the circulation to the site of inflammation. These events are modulated by chemokines, integrins, and selectins and the interaction of these molecules with glycosaminoglycans, predominantly heparan sulfate (HS). The development of HS/heparin mimetics that interfere or inhibit the interactions that occur between glycosaminoglycans and modulators of inflammation holds great potential for use as anti-inflammatory therapeutics...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290145/glycosaminoglycan-interactions-fine-tune-chemokine-mediated-neutrophil-trafficking-structural-insights-and-molecular-mechanisms
#13
Krishna Rajarathnam, Krishna Mohan Sepuru, Prem Raj B Joseph, Kirti V Sawant, Aaron J Brown
Circulating neutrophils, rapidly recruited in response to microbial infection, form the first line in host defense. Humans express ~50 chemokines, of which a subset of seven chemokines, characterized by the conserved "Glu-Leu-Arg" motif, mediate neutrophil recruitment. Neutrophil-activating chemokines (NACs) share similar structures, exist as monomers and dimers, activate the CXCR2 receptor on neutrophils, and interact with tissue glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Considering cellular assays have shown that NACs have similar CXCR2 activity, the question has been and remains, why do humans express so many NACs? In this review, we make the case that NACs are not redundant and that distinct GAG interactions determine chemokine-specific in vivo functions...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290139/danger-associated-molecular-patterns-derived-from-the-extracellular-matrix-provide-temporal-control-of-innate-immunity
#14
Charles W Frevert, Jessica Felgenhauer, Malgorzata Wygrecka, Madalina V Nastase, Liliana Schaefer
It is evident that components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) act as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) through direct interactions with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and inflammasomes. Through these interactions, ECM-derived DAMPs autonomously trigger sterile inflammation or prolong pathogen-induced responses through the production of proinflammatory mediators and the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of injury and infection. Recent research, however, suggests that ECM-derived DAMPs are additionally involved in the resolution and fine-tuning of inflammation by orchestrating the production of anti-inflammatory mediators that are required for the resolution of tissue inflammation and the transition to acquired immunity...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290138/heparan-sulfate-proteoglycans-as-relays-of-neuroinflammation
#15
Paul O'Callaghan, Xiao Zhang, Jin-Ping Li
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are implicated as inflammatory mediators in a variety of settings, including chemokine activation, which is required to recruit circulating leukocytes to infection sites. Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharide chains are highly interactive and serve co-receptor roles in multiple ligand:receptor interactions. HS may also serve as a storage depot, sequestering ligands such as cytokines and restricting their access to binding partners. Heparanase, through its ability to fragment HS chains, is a key regulator of HS function and has featured prominently in studies of HS's involvement in inflammatory processes...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164988/development-of-peritoneal-carcinomatosis-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-a-review
#16
Juliette O A M van Baal, Cornelis J F van Noorden, Rienk Nieuwland, Koen K Van de Vijver, Auguste Sturk, Willemien J van Driel, Gemma G Kenter, Christianne A R Lok
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) metastasizes intra-abdominally with often numerous, superficial, small-sized lesions. This so-called peritoneal carcinomatosis is difficult to treat, and peritoneal recurrences are frequently observed, leading to a poor prognosis. Underlying mechanisms of interactions between EOC and peritoneal cells are incompletely understood. This review summarizes and discusses the development of peritoneal carcinomatosis from a cell-biological perspective, focusing on characteristics of EOC and peritoneal cells...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125916/histomorphological-and-molecular-assessments-of-the-fixation-times-comparing-formalin-and-ethanol-based-fixatives
#17
Joon-Yong Chung, Joon Seon Song, Kris Ylaya, John D Sears, Lauren Choi, Hanbyoul Cho, Avi Z Rosenberg, Stephen M Hewitt
The lack of standardization of tissue handling and processing hinders the development and validation of new biomarkers in research and clinical settings. We compared the histomorphology and the quality and quantity of biomolecules in paraffin-embedded mouse tissues, followed by fixation with neutral buffered formalin (NBF), 70% ethanol, and buffered ethanol (BE70) fixative. The quality of the histomorphology and immunohistochemistry in BE70 was relatively time-independent, whereas those in NBF rapidly decreased after 1 week of fixation...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116876/preservation-of-functional-microvascular-bed-is-vital-for-long-term-survival-of-cardiac-myocytes-within-large-transmural-post-myocardial-infarction-scar
#18
Colleen Nofi, Yevgen Bogatyryov, Eduard I Dedkov
This study was aimed to understand the mechanism of persistent cardiac myocyte (CM) survival in myocardial infarction (MI) scars. A transmural MI was induced in 12-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats by permanent coronary artery ligation. The hearts were collected 3 days, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after MI and evaluated with histology, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative morphometry. Vasculature patency was assessed in 4-, 8-, and 12-week-old scars by infusion of 15-micron microspheres into the left ventricle before euthanasia...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095670/capillary-network-morphometry-of-pig-soleus-muscle-significantly-changes-in-24-hours-after-death
#19
Ida Eržen, Jiří Janáček, Marko Kreft, Lucie Kubínová, Erika Cvetko
Capillary network characteristics are invaluable for diagnostics of muscle diseases. Biopsy material is limited in size and mostly not accessible for intensive research. Therefore, especially in human tissue, studies are performed on autopsy material. To approach the problem whether it is reliable to deduce hypotheses from autopsy material to explain physiological and pathological processes, we studied capillarity in pig soleus muscle 1 and 24 hr after death. Capillaries and muscle fibers were immunofluorescently marked, and images were acquired with a confocal microscope...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914590/canine-salivary-glands-analysis-of-rab-and-snare-protein-expression-and-snare-complex-formation-with-diverse-tissue-properties
#20
Hiroshi Gomi, Hiromi Osawa, Rie Uno, Tadashi Yasui, Masahiro Hosaka, Seiji Torii, Azuma Tsukise
The comparative structure and expression of salivary components and vesicular transport proteins in the canine major salivary glands were investigated. Histochemical analysis revealed that the morphology of the five major salivary glands-parotid, submandibular, polystomatic sublingual, monostomatic sublingual, and zygomatic glands-was greatly diverse. Immunoblot analysis revealed that expression levels of α-amylase and antimicrobial proteins, such as lysozyme, lactoperoxidase, and lactoferrin, differed among the different glands...
November 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
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