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Current Opinion in Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317152/rodent-malaria-models-insights-into-human-disease-and-parasite-biology
#1
REVIEW
Mariana De Niz, Volker T Heussler
The use of rodents as model organisms to study human disease is based on the genetic and physiological similarities between the species. Successful molecular methods to generate transgenic reporter or humanized rodents has rendered rodents as powerful tools for understanding biological processes and host-pathogen interactions relevant to humans. In malaria research, rodent models have been pivotal for the study of liver stages, syndromes arising from blood stages of infection, and malaria transmission to and from the mammalian host...
October 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317151/effector-variation-at-tandem-gene-arrays-in-tissue-dwelling-coccidia-who-needs-antigenic-variation-anyway
#2
REVIEW
Matthew L Blank, Jon P Boyle
Locus expansion and diversification is pervasive in apicomplexan genomes and is predominantly found in loci encoding secreted proteins that interact with factors outside of the parasite. Key for understanding the impact of each of these loci on the host requires identification and functional characterization of their protein products, but these repetitive loci often are refractory to genome assembly. In this review we focus on Toxoplasma gondii and its nearest relatives to highlight the known impact of duplicated and diversified loci on our understanding of the host-pathogen molecular arms race...
October 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317150/fasciola-hepatica-tgf-%C3%AE-and-host-mimicry-the-enemy-within
#3
REVIEW
Mayowa Musah-Eroje, Robin J Flynn
Helminths parasites undergo developmental changes and migration within their definitive host, in addition to establishing chronic infection. Essential to this is the evasion of host immune responses; the canonical Th2 response is effective at removing parasites resident in the intestine. Conversely, helminths also promote the development of antigen-specific anergy and regulation. This often limits pathology but allows parasite survival, parasite effectors mediating this are the subject of intense study. They may be useful as future vaccine targets or xenogenic therapeutics...
October 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218951/opportunities-for-plant-natural-products-in-infection-control
#4
REVIEW
Akram M Salam, Cassandra L Quave
The continued spread of antimicrobial resistance represents one of the most serious infectious disease threats to global health. There is consensus that a key component of addressing this threat is to replenish the waning pipeline of antimicrobials, with attention being paid to novel mechanisms of action. This includes the development of new classes of classic bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotics as well as antivirulence drugs, and it is especially in these areas where plant natural products demonstrate great potential...
September 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30195150/microbial-exposure-and-human-health
#5
REVIEW
Anukriti Sharma, Jack A Gilbert
The human body comprises of micro-ecosystem made up of trillions of microbes (i.e. bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists and viruses). The total microbial gene content, which is referred to as the human microbiome, is fundamental to human physiology and immunity. There exists an intricate relationship between the surrounding microbial world (i.e. the environment) and the endogenous human microbiome, mediated by the immune system. Disrupting this relationship can a profound effect on human health and disease. Understanding how microbial exposure influences immune response and the feedback on endogenous microbial metabolic activity could have profound implications for the development of novel microbial therapeutics...
September 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177439/editorial-overview-antimicrobials
#6
EDITORIAL
Gilles P van Wezel, Gerald D Wright
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172862/helminth-extracellular-vesicles-in-host-parasite-interactions
#7
REVIEW
Lucienne Tritten, Timothy G Geary
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been characterized from many species of parasitic helminths, and recent experimental evidence supports important functions for their cargo in host-parasite relationships as immunomodulatory mediators. Here we summarize available data on the effects of parasite-derived EVs, including their protein and/or small RNA contents, on their hosts.
August 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172106/from-systems-biology-to-metabolically-engineered-cells-an-omics-perspective-on-the-development-of-industrial-microbes
#8
REVIEW
Judith Becker, Christoph Wittmann
Green routes are indispensable for a sustainable production of energy, chemicals and materials, and health and nutrition products from renewable resources. Naturally, microbes are capable to conduct many of the desired biochemical conversions involved, however, only at rather low efficiency. It is therefore essential to metabolically engineer them towards efficient cell factories, which enable a high product titer, yield and productivity, exhibit a good process robustness and a broad substrate spectrum, and are safe to be used, to name a few prominent points from the wish list for industrial bio-production...
August 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30145038/editorial-overview-it-s-the-ecology-stupid-microbiome-research-in-the-post-stamp-collecting-age
#9
EDITORIAL
Jeroen Raes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096485/the-criminal-association-of-leishmania-parasites-and-viruses
#10
REVIEW
Matteo Rossi, Nicolas Fasel
In nature, humans infected with protozoan parasites can encounter viruses, which could alter their host immune response. The impact of viruses on human parasitic diseases remains largely unexplored due to the highly sterilized environment in experimental studies and the difficulty to draw a correlation between co-infection and pathology. Recent studies show that viral infections exacerbate pathology and promote dissemination of some Leishmania infections, based on a hyper-inflammatory reaction driven by type I interferons...
August 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086431/early-life-colonization-of-the-human-gut-microbes-matter-everywhere
#11
REVIEW
Katri Korpela, Willem M de Vos
Microbes colonising the infant intestine, especially bacteria, are considered important for metabolic and immunological programming in early life, potentially affecting the susceptibility of the host to disease. We combined published data to provide a global view of microbiota development in early life. The results support the concept that the microbiota develops with age in an orchestrated manner, showing common patterns across populations. Furthermore, infants are colonised at birth by specific, selected maternal faecal bacteria and likely their bacteriophages...
August 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30059827/integrating-genetic-and-protein-protein-interaction-networks-maps-a-functional-wiring-diagram-of-a-cell
#12
REVIEW
Benjamin VanderSluis, Michael Costanzo, Maximilian Billmann, Henry N Ward, Chad L Myers, Brenda J Andrews, Charles Boone
Systematic experimental approaches have led to construction of comprehensive genetic and protein-protein interaction networks for the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetic interactions capture functional relationships between genes using phenotypic readouts, while protein-protein interactions identify physical connections between gene products. These complementary, and largely non-overlapping, networks provide a global view of the functional architecture of a cell, revealing general organizing principles, many of which appear to be evolutionarily conserved...
July 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30056329/standardization-in-host-microbiota-interaction-studies-challenges-gnotobiology-as-a-tool-and-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Catherine Mooser, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg
Considering the increasing list of diseases linked to the commensal microbiota, experimental studies of host-microbe interactions are of growing interest. Axenic and differently colonized animal models are inalienable tools to study these interactions. Factors, such as host genetics, diet, antibiotics and litter affect microbiota composition and can be confounding factors in many experimental settings. The use of gnotobiotic mice harboring defined microbiotas of different complexity plus additional housing standardization have thus become a gold standard to study the influence of the microbiome on the host...
July 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053750/mechanisms-of-biofilm-stimulation-by-subinhibitory-concentrations-of-antimicrobials
#14
REVIEW
Michael Rm Ranieri, Cynthia B Whitchurch, Lori L Burrows
Biofilms are a typical mode of growth for most microorganisms and provide them with a variety of survival benefits. Biofilms can pose medical and industrial challenges due to their increased tolerance of antimicrobials and disinfectants. Exposure of bacteria to subinhibitory concentrations of those compounds can further exacerbate the problem, as they provoke physiological changes that lead to increased biofilm production and potential therapeutic failure. The protected niche of a biofilm provides conditions that promote selection for persisters and resistant mutants...
July 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30041083/microbial-communities-as-dynamical-systems
#15
REVIEW
Didier Gonze, Katharine Z Coyte, Leo Lahti, Karoline Faust
Nowadays, microbial communities are frequently monitored over long periods of time and the interactions between their members are explored in vitro. This development has opened the way to apply mathematical models to characterize community structure and dynamics, to predict responses to perturbations and to explore general dynamical properties such as stability, alternative stable states and periodicity. Here, we highlight the role of dynamical systems theory in the exploration of microbial communities, with a special emphasis on the generalized Lotka-Volterra (gLV) equations...
July 21, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30036705/low-diversity-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-drivers-functional-implications-and-recovery
#16
REVIEW
Michael Kriss, Keith Z Hazleton, Nichole M Nusbacher, Casey G Martin, Catherine A Lozupone
Dysbiosis, an imbalance in microbial communities, is linked with disease when this imbalance disturbs microbiota functions essential for maintaining health or introduces processes that promote disease. Dysbiosis in disease is predicted when microbiota differ compositionally from a healthy control population, but only truly defined when these differences are mechanistically related to adverse phenotypes. For the human gut microbiota, dysbiosis varies across diseases. One common manifestation is replacement of the complex community of anaerobes typical of the healthy adult gut microbiome with a community of lower overall microbial diversity and increased facultative anaerobes...
July 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30059804/are-microbiome-studies-ready-for-hypothesis-driven-research
#17
REVIEW
Anupriya Tripathi, Clarisse Marotz, Antonio Gonzalez, Yoshiki Vázquez-Baeza, Se Jin Song, Amina Bouslimani, Daniel McDonald, Qiyun Zhu, Jon G Sanders, Larry Smarr, Pieter C Dorrestein, Rob Knight
Hypothesis-driven research has led to many scientific advances, but hypotheses cannot be tested in isolation: rather, they require a framework of aggregated scientific knowledge to allow questions to be posed meaningfully. This framework is largely still lacking in microbiome studies, and the only way to create it is by discovery-driven, tool-driven, and standards-driven research projects. Here we illustrate these issues using several such non-hypothesis-driven projects from our own laboratories, including spatial mapping, the American Gut Project, the Earth Microbiome Project (which is an umbrella project integrating many smaller hypothesis-driven projects), and the knowledgebase-driven tools GNPS and Qiita...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031243/resolving-host-microbe-interactions-in-the-gut-the-promise-of-in-vitro-models-to-complement-in-vivo-research
#18
REVIEW
Wilmes Paul, Calatayud Marta, Van de Wiele Tom
While animal models remain essential for inferring causality, they exhibit important limitations, which restrict the direct translation of findings into new approaches aimed at steering host-microbe interactions for the improvement of human health. Different in vitro models have therefore been developed which incorporate human cell types and microbiota. By virtue of their intricate designs, these models result in human and microbial read-outs reflective of in vivo gut physiology, and present important alternatives to animal models...
July 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007202/a-unified-conceptual-framework-for-prediction-and-control-of-microbiomes
#19
REVIEW
James C Stegen, Eric M Bottos, Janet K Jansson
Microbiomes impact nearly all systems on Earth, and despite vast differences among systems, we contend that it is possible and highly beneficial to develop a unified conceptual framework for understanding microbiome dynamics that is applicable across systems. The ability to robustly predict and control environmental and human microbiomes would provide impactful opportunities to sustain and improve the health of ecosystems and humans alike. Doing so requires understanding the processes governing microbiome temporal dynamics, which currently presents an enormous challenge...
July 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929732/repeat-containing-effectors-of-filamentous-pathogens-and-symbionts
#20
REVIEW
Lay-Sun Ma, Clément Pellegrin, Regine Kahmann
Pathogenic and symbiotic filamentous microbes secrete effectors which suppress host immune responses and promote a successful colonization. Pathogen effectors are engaged in the arms race with their hosts and because of this they are subject to intense evolutionary pressure. Effectors particularly prone to rapid evolution display repeat-containing domains which can easily expand or contract and accumulate point mutations without altering their original function. In this review we address the diversity of function in such repeat-containing effectors, focus on new findings and point out avenues for future work...
June 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
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