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Current Opinion in Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068612/bacterial-mechanotransduction
#1
REVIEW
Alexandre Persat
Bacteria rapidly adapt to changes in their environment by leveraging sensing systems that permanently probe their surroundings. One common assumption is that such systems are responsive to signals that are chemical in nature. Yet, bacteria frequently experience changes in mechanical forces, for example as they transition from planktonic to sessile states. Do single bacteria actively sense and respond to mechanical forces? I here briefly review evidence indicating that bacteria actively respond to mechanical stimuli, and along concisely describe their intricate machinery enabling the transduction of force into biochemical activity...
January 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013162/bacteria-and-endothelial-cells-a-toxic-relationship
#2
REVIEW
Ashira Lubkin, Victor J Torres
Pathogenic bacteria use the bloodstream as a highway for getting around the body, and thus have to find ways to enter and exit through the endothelium. Many bacteria approach this problem by producing toxins that can breach the endothelial barrier through diverse creative mechanisms, including directly killing endothelial cells (ECs), weakening the cytoskeleton within ECs, and breaking the junctions between ECs. Toxins can also modulate the immune response by influencing endothelial biology, and can modulate endothelial function by influencing the response of leukocytes...
December 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997855/actin-based-motility-and-cell-to-cell-spread-of-bacterial-pathogens
#3
REVIEW
Rebecca L Lamason, Matthew D Welch
Subversion of the host actin cytoskeleton is a critical virulence mechanism used by a variety of intracellular bacterial pathogens during their infectious life cycles. These pathogens manipulate host actin to promote actin-based motility and coordinate motility with cell-to-cell spread. Growing evidence suggests that the tactics employed by pathogens are surprisingly diverse. Here, we review recent advances suggesting that bacterial surface proteins exhibit divergent biochemical mechanisms of actin polymerization and recruit distinct host protein networks to drive motility, and that bacteria deploy secreted effector proteins that alter host cell mechanotransduction pathways to enable spread...
December 17, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997854/the-emerging-metabolic-view-of-clostridium-difficile-pathogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Andrew J Hryckowian, Kali M Pruss, Justin L Sonnenburg
It is widely accepted that Clostridium difficile exploits dysbiosis and leverages inflammation to thrive in the gut environment, where it can asymptomatically colonize humans or cause a toxin-mediated disease ranging in severity from frequent watery diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis or toxic megacolon. Here, we synthesize recent findings from the gut microbiota and enteric pathogenesis fields to inform the next steps toward a better understanding of C. difficile infection (CDI). In this review, we present a model in which the lifestyle of C...
December 17, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984783/autophagic-targeting-and-avoidance-in-intracellular-bacterial-infections
#5
REVIEW
Lara J Kohler, Craig R Roy
Eukaryotic cells use autophagy to break down and recycle components such as aggregated proteins and damaged organelles. Research in the past decade, particularly using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as a model pathogen, has revealed that autophagy can also target invading intracellular bacterial pathogens for degradation. However, many bacterial pathogens have evolved mechanisms that allow for evasion of the autophagic pathway, such as motility or direct and irreversible cleavage of proteins that comprise the autophagic machinery...
December 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940028/viral-bacterial-co-infections-in-the-respiratory-tract
#6
REVIEW
Lauren O Bakaletz
Preceding or concurrent viral respiratory tract infection can predispose to secondary bacterial co-infection throughout the airway. The mechanisms by which viruses promote these superinfections are diverse and replete. Whereas we understand much as to how viruses damage the airway and dysregulate both innate and acquired immune responses which, in turn, supports bacterial growth, adherence and invasion into normally sterile sites within the respiratory tract, new information regarding these co-infections is being gained from recent advances in microbiome research and our enhanced appreciation of the contribution of bacterial biofilms, among others...
December 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907842/making-a-microbiome-the-many-determinants-of-host-associated-microbial-community-composition
#7
REVIEW
Karen L Adair, Angela E Douglas
The composition of many host-associated microbial communities is characterized by seemingly contradictory features: strong selection for specific taxa by the host, but substantial variability among hosts and over time within one host. Recent advances have revealed that both deterministic and stochastic processes operating across multiple spatial scales shape the composition of host-associated microbial communities. Although most research has focused on deterministic processes within individual hosts, the microbiota within each host is increasingly recognized to contribute to a wider metacommunity maintained by transmission between individual hosts and dispersal between host-associated and free-living microbial communities...
November 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907841/bacterial-e3-ligase-effectors-exploit-host-ubiquitin-systems
#8
REVIEW
Hiroshi Ashida, Chihiro Sasakawa
Ubiquitination is a crucial post-translational protein modification involved in regulation of various cellular processes in eukaryotes. In particular, ubiquitination is involved in multiple aspects of bacterial infection and host defense mechanisms. In parallel with the identification of ubiquitination as a component of host defense systems, recently accumulated evidence shows that many bacterial pathogens exploit host ubiquitin systems to achieve successful infection. Here, we highlight the strategies by which bacteria subvert host ubiquitin systems by mimicking E3 ubiquitin ligase activity...
November 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883933/microbiome-metabolites-and-host-immunity
#9
REVIEW
Maayan Levy, Eran Blacher, Eran Elinav
In the intestine, the microbial genomes and repertoire of biochemical reactions outnumber those of the host and significantly contribute to many aspects of the host's health, including metabolism, immunity, development and behavior, while microbial community imbalance is associated with disease. The crosstalk between the host and its microbiome occurs in part through the secretion of metabolites, which have a profound effect on host physiology. The immune system constantly scans the intestinal microenvironment for information regarding the metabolic state of the microbiota as well as the colonization status...
November 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986216/editorial-overview-parasitic-and-fungal-diseases
#10
EDITORIAL
Gero Steinberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816794/investigating-the-cell-biology-of-plant-infection-by-the-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#11
REVIEW
Xia Yan, Nicholas J Talbot
Rice blast disease is a major constraint on worldwide rice production and understanding the biology of plant infection is a priority for development of new disease control strategies. Recent advances in live cell imaging, coupled with tractability of both host and pathogen to molecular genetics and genomics, has made the rice blast pathosystem an important model for understanding plant disease. Here we review recent advances in understanding the cell biology of plant infection and, in particular, the remarkable ability of the rice blast fungus to invade plant tissue and manipulate the host plant using a battery of secreted effector proteins...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816786/how-to-invade-a-susceptible-host-cellular-aspects-of-aspergillosis
#12
REVIEW
Sven Krappmann
Diseases caused by Aspergillus spp. and in particular A. fumigatus are manifold and affect individuals suffering from immune dysfunctions, among them immunocompromised ones. The determinants of whether the encounter of a susceptible host with infectious propagules of this filamentous saprobe results in infection have been characterized to a limited extent. Several cellular characteristics of A. fumigatus that have evolved in its natural environment contribute to its virulence, among them general traits as well as particular ones that affect interaction with the mammalian host...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723513/the-cell-biology-of-late-blight-disease
#13
REVIEW
Stephen C Whisson, Petra C Boevink, Shumei Wang, Paul Rj Birch
Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is a major global disease of potato and tomato. Cell biology is teaching us much about the developmental stages associated with infection, especially the haustorium, which is a site of intimate interaction and molecular exchange between pathogen and host. Recent observations suggest a role for the plant endocytic cycle in specific recruitment of host proteins to the Extra-Haustorial Membrane, emphasising the unique nature of this membrane compartment...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720364/editorial-overview-growth-and-development-prokaryotes
#14
EDITORIAL
Kumaran S Ramamurthi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700990/sustained-sensing-as-an-emerging-principle-in-second-messenger-signaling-systems
#15
REVIEW
Mona W Orr, Michael Y Galperin, Vincent T Lee
Bacteria utilize a diverse set of nucleotide second messengers to regulate cellular responses by binding macromolecular receptors (RNAs and proteins). Recent studies on cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) have shown that this signaling molecule binds multiple receptors to regulate different steps in the same biological process. We propose this property of the same molecule regulating multiple steps in the same process is biologically meaningful and have termed this phenomenon 'sustained sensing'. Here, we discuss the recent findings that support the concept of sustained sensing of c-di-GMP levels and provide additional examples that support the utilization of sustained sensing by other second messengers...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689902/cell-biology-of-candida-albicans-host-interactions
#16
REVIEW
Alessandra da Silva Dantas, Kathy K Lee, Ingrida Raziunaite, Katja Schaefer, Jeanette Wagener, Bhawna Yadav, Neil Ar Gow
Candida albicans is a commensal coloniser of most people and a pathogen of the immunocompromised or patients in which barriers that prevent dissemination have been disrupted. Both the commensal and pathogenic states involve regulation and adaptation to the host microenvironment. The pathogenic potential can be downregulated to sustain commensalism or upregulated to damage host tissue and avoid and subvert immune surveillance. In either case it seems as though the cell biology of this fungus has evolved to enable the establishment of different types of relationships with the human host...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648756/regulations-governing-the-multicellular-lifestyle-of-myxococcus-xanthus
#17
REVIEW
Romain Mercier, Tâm Mignot
In living organisms, cooperative cell movements underlie the formation of differentiated tissues. In bacteria, Myxococcus xanthus uses cooperative group movements, to predate on prey and to form multicellular fruiting bodies, where the cells differentiate into dormant spores. Motility is controlled by a central signaling Che-like pathway, Frz. Single cell studies indicate Frz regulates the frequency at which cells reverse their direction of movement by transmitting signals to a molecular system that controls the spatial activity of the motility engines...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620716/redefining-the-roles-of-the-ftsz-ring-in-bacterial-cytokinesis
#18
REVIEW
Jie Xiao, Erin D Goley
In most bacteria, cell division relies on the functions of an essential protein, FtsZ. FtsZ polymerizes at the future division site to form a ring-like structure, termed the Z-ring, that serves as a scaffold to recruit all other division proteins, and possibly generates force to constrict the cell. The scaffolding function of the Z-ring is well established, but the force generating function has recently been called into question. Additionally, new findings have demonstrated that the Z-ring is more directly linked to cell wall metabolism than simply recruiting enzymes to the division site...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614711/exploiting-the-achilles-heel-of-membrane-trafficking-in-trypanosomes
#19
REVIEW
Martin Zoltner, David Horn, Harry P de Koning, Mark C Field
Pathogenic protozoa are evolutionarily highly divergent from their metazoan hosts, reflected in many aspects of their biology. One particularly important parasite taxon is the trypanosomatids. Multiple transmission modes, distinct life cycles and exploitation of many host species attests to great prowess as parasites, and adaptability for efficient, chronic infection. Genome sequencing has begun uncovering how trypanosomatids are well suited to parasitism, and recent genetic screening and cell biology are revealing new aspects of how to control these organisms and prevent disease...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565628/developmental-differentiation-in-leishmania-lifecycle-progression-post-transcriptional-control-conducts-the-orchestra
#20
REVIEW
L M De Pablos, T R Ferreira, P B Walrad
The successful progression of Leishmania spp. through their lifecycle entails a series of differentiation processes; the proliferative procyclic promastigote forms become quiescent, human-infective metacyclic promastigotes during metacyclogenesis in the sandfly vector, which then differentiate into amastigotes during amastigogenesis in the mammalian host. The progression to these infective forms requires two components: environmental cues and a coordinated cellular response. Recent studies have shown that the Leishmania cellular transformation into mammalian-infective stages is triggered by broad changes in the absolute and relative RNA and protein levels...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
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