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Current Opinion in Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544996/temperate-bacteriophages-as-regulators-of-host-behavior
#1
REVIEW
Tal Argov, Gil Azulay, Anna Pasechnek, Olga Stadnyuk, Shai Ran-Sapir, Ilya Borovok, Nadejda Sigal, Anat A Herskovits
Bacteriophages are ubiquitous and affect most facets of life, from evolution of bacteria, through ecology and global biochemical cycling to human health. The interactions between phages and bacteria often lead to biological novelty and an important milestone in this process is the ability of phages to regulate their host's behavior. In this review article, we will focus on newly reported cases that demonstrate how temperate phages regulate bacterial gene expression and behavior in a variety of bacterial species, pathogenic and environmental...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538166/an-evolutionary-perspective-on-plasmid-lifestyle-modes
#2
REVIEW
Nils Hülter, Judith Ilhan, Tanita Wein, A Samer Kadibalban, Katrin Hammerschmidt, Tal Dagan
Plasmids are extra-chromosomal genetic elements whose ecology and evolution depend on their genetic repertoire and interaction with the host. We review the events that lead to transitions between plasmid lifestyle modes - invasion, host range, plasmid persistence and adaptation - from a plasmid perspective. Plasmid lifestyle is determined by various traits, including mobility, stability and indispensability that vary in their magnitude. Transitions between the plasmid lifestyles, invasion, host range, plasmid persistence and adpatation, are caused by the interplay between plasmid traits and host biology...
May 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527384/embracing-the-enemy-the-diversification-of-microbial-gene-repertoires-by-phage-mediated-horizontal-gene-transfer
#3
REVIEW
Marie Touchon, Jorge A Moura de Sousa, Eduardo Pc Rocha
Bacteriophages and archaeal viruses contribute, through lysogenic conversion or transduction, to the horizontal transfer of genetic material between microbial genomes. Recent genomics, metagenomics, and single cell studies have shown that lysogenic conversion is widespread and provides hosts with adaptive traits often associated with biotic interactions. The quantification of the evolutionary impact of transduction has lagged behind and requires further theoretical and experimental work. Nevertheless, recent studies suggested that generalized transduction plays a role in the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes and in the acquisition of novel genes during intra-specific bacterial competition...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486162/the-impact-of-nutrition-on-intestinal-bacterial-communities
#4
REVIEW
Harry J Flint, Sylvia H Duncan, Petra Louis
What we eat influences the species composition of our gut microbiota. This is not only because diet composition determines the supply of substrates for microbial growth (in the form of dietary residue, mainly fibre, that reaches the large intestine) but also because of impacts on gut transit and the gut environment. In turn the metabolic activities of the gut microbiota, which have important health consequences, are influenced by diet and diet-driven changes in microbiota composition. Better understanding of the metabolic capabilities and host-interactions of dominant members of the gut microbiota will aid our ability to improve human health through diet...
May 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486146/plant-insect-pathogen-interactions-a-naturally-complex-m%C3%A3-nage-%C3%A3-trois
#5
REVIEW
Flávia P Franco, Daniel S Moura, Jorge M Vivanco, Marcio C Silva-Filho
Under environmental conditions, plants are constantly exposed to a wide range of biotic interactions, which include insects, and pathogens. Usually scientists are tempted to study each association individually, which reduces the complexity of the interaction. This restricted view of the problem does not consider that plants are the ballroom in which a multitude of organisms are constantly interacting with each other affecting not only plant responses but also how one organism responds to the other. Plants attacked by insects and pathogens display profound physiological, morphological and chemical changes or adaptations that result in organism attraction or avoidance, depending on the species involved...
May 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482231/mobile-self-splicing-introns-and-inteins-as-environmental-sensors
#6
REVIEW
Marlene Belfort
Self-splicing introns and inteins are often mobile at the level of the genome. Although these RNA and protein elements, respectively, are generally considered to be selfish parasites, group I and group II introns and inteins can be triggered by environmental cues to splice and/or to mobilize. These cues include stressors such as oxidizing agents, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, starvation, temperature, osmolarity and DNA damage. Their sensitivity to these stimuli leads to a carefully choreographed dance between the mobile element and its host that is in tune with the cellular environment...
May 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482230/mechanisms-of-stabilization-of-integrative-and-conjugative-elements
#7
REVIEW
Vincent Burrus
Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are nearly ubiquitous in microbial genomes and influence their evolution by providing adaptive functions to their host and by enhancing genome plasticity and diversification. For a long-time, it has been assumed that by integrating into the chromosome of their host, these self-transmissible elements were passively inherited in subsequent generations. Recent findings point to a much more complex story that includes multiple strategies used by ICEs to leverage maintenance in cell populations such as transient replication, active partition of the excised circular intermediate or disassembly into multiple parts scattered in the chromosome...
May 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472712/casposons-mobile-genetic-elements-that-gave-rise-to-the-crispr-cas-adaptation-machinery
#8
REVIEW
Mart Krupovic, Pierre Béguin, Eugene V Koonin
A casposon, a member of a distinct superfamily of archaeal and bacterial self-synthesizing transposons that employ a recombinase (casposase) homologous to the Cas1 endonuclease, appears to have given rise to the adaptation module of CRISPR-Cas systems as well as the CRISPR repeats themselves. Comparison of the mechanistic features of the reactions catalyzed by the casposase and the Cas1-Cas2 heterohexamer, the CRISPR integrase, reveals close similarity but also important differences that explain the requirement of Cas2 for integration of short DNA fragments, the CRISPR spacers...
May 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458096/selective-adaptor-dependent-protein-degradation-in-bacteria
#9
REVIEW
Nathan J Kuhlmann, Peter Chien
Energy dependent proteolysis is essential for all life, but uncontrolled degradation leads to devastating consequences. In bacteria, oligomeric AAA+ proteases are responsible for controlling protein destruction and are regulated in part by adaptor proteins. Adaptors are regulatory factors that shape protease substrate choice by either restricting or enhancing substrate recognition in several ways. In some cases, protease activity or assembly itself requires adaptor binding. Adaptors can also alter specificity by acting as scaffolds to tether particular substrates to already active proteases...
April 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458095/the-shrinking-human-gut-microbiome
#10
REVIEW
Andrew H Moeller
Mammals harbor complex assemblages of gut bacteria that are deeply integrated with their hosts' digestive, immune, and neuroendocrine systems. Recent work has revealed that there has been a substantial loss of gut bacterial diversity from humans since the divergence of humans and chimpanzees. This bacterial depauperation began in humanity's ancient evolutionary past and has accelerated in recent years with the advent of modern lifestyles. Today, humans living in industrialized societies harbor the lowest levels of gut bacterial diversity of any primate for which metagenomic data are available, a condition that may increase risk of infections, autoimmune disorders, and metabolic syndrome...
April 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458094/in-and-out-contribution-of-natural-transformation-to-the-shuffling-of-large-genomic-regions
#11
REVIEW
Melanie Blokesch
Naturally competent bacteria can pull free DNA from their surroundings. This incoming DNA can serve various purposes, ranging from acting as a source of nutrients or DNA stretches for repair to the acquisition of novel genetic information. The latter process defines the natural competence for transformation as a mode of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and led to its discovery almost a century ago. However, although it is widely accepted that natural competence can contribute to the spread of genetic material among prokaryotes, the question remains whether this mode of HGT can foster the transfer of larger DNA regions or only transfers shorter fragments, given that extracellular DNA is often heavily fragmented...
April 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453971/segmented-filamentous-bacteria-th17-inducers-and-helpers-in-a-hostile-world
#12
REVIEW
Pamela Schnupf, Valérie Gaboriau-Routhiau, Philippe J Sansonetti, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan
The Th17 cell composition in the murine gut is strikingly dependent on the presence of the commensal segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB). SFB potently stimulates innate and adaptive immune responses and protects the host from pathogens both in and outside of the gut, partly due to its unique ability to promote a Th17-fostering environment. Recent work has highlighted the role of the tight adherence of SFB to the intestinal surface in mediating the potent immunostimulatory potential of SFB. Progress has also been made in our understanding of how SFB fosters this protective immune environment on the cellular and molecular level...
April 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441577/membrane-vesicles-and-horizontal-gene-transfer-in-prokaryotes
#13
REVIEW
Sara Domingues, Kaare M Nielsen
Membrane vesicles (MVs) are released from all living cells. MVs are lumen-containing spheres of lipid-bilayers derived from the cell surface. MVs are biologically active and contain various components, including genetic material. Both chromosomal and plasmid DNA, as well as different types of RNA have been detected in MVs. Vesicle-mediated transfer of genes coding for antibiotic resistance, virulence and metabolic traits has been reported in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and in Archaea. MVs can persist over time in natural environments...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441534/managing-the-plant-microbiome-for-biocontrol-fungi-examples-from-hypocreales
#14
REVIEW
Ryan M Kepler, Jude E Maul, Stephen A Rehner
Feeding an increasing global population requires continued improvements in agricultural efficiency and productivity. Meeting estimated future production levels requires the adoption of practices that increase output without environmental degradation associated with external inputs to supplement nutrition or control pests. Enriching the community of microbes associated with plants in agricultural systems for those providing ecosystem services such as pest control is one possible component towards achieving sustainable productivity increases...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437665/jasmonic-acid-signalling-and-the-plant-holobiont
#15
REVIEW
Lilia C Carvalhais, Peer M Schenk, Paul G Dennis
The plant holobiont - which is the plant and its associated microbiome - is increasingly viewed as an evolving entity. Some interacting microbes that compose the microbiome assist plants in combating pathogens and herbivorous insects. However, knowledge of the factors that influence the microbiome in the context of defence signalling pathways is still in its infancy. Recent research reported that changes in jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid signalling affects the root microbiome of Arabidopsis thaliana...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437664/upscaling-of-fungal-bacterial-interactions-from-the-lab-to-the-field
#16
REVIEW
Wietse de Boer
Fungal-bacterial interactions (FBI) are an integral component of microbial community networks in terrestrial ecosystems. During the last decade, the attention for FBI has increased tremendously. For a wide variety of FBI, information has become available on the mechanisms and functional responses. Yet, most studies have focused on pairwise interactions under controlled conditions. The question to what extent such studies are relevant to assess the importance of FBI for functioning of natural microbial communities in real ecosystems remains largely unanswered...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437663/microbial-communities-associated-with-plants-learning-from-nature-to-apply-it-in-agriculture
#17
REVIEW
Fernando Dini Andreote, Michele de Cássia Pereira E Silva
It is a new consensus that any living organism depends on its partners to strive under environmental conditions along their living period. Plants are also highly dependent on their associated microbes, which can support its development and proper protection under stressors. Along their evolution, plants learned to interact to soil microbiota, extracting their utmost capacity to provide resources for plant development and successful colonization of terrestrial systems, where the great soil biodiversity is keen on properly exert this role...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437662/life-in-earth-the-root-microbiome-to-the-rescue
#18
REVIEW
Tim H Mauchline, Jacob G Malone
Manipulation of the soil microbiome holds great promise for contributing to more environmentally benign agriculture, with soil microbes such as Pseudomonas promoting plant growth and effectively suppressing pathogenic microorganisms. Next-generation sequencing has enabled a new generation of research into soil microbiomes, presenting the opportunity to better understand and exploit these valuable resources. Soil bacterial communities are both highly complex and variable, and contain vast interspecies and intraspecies diversity, both of which respond to environmental variation...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437661/ecological-patterns-of-seed-microbiome-diversity-transmission-and-assembly
#19
REVIEW
Ashley Shade, Marie-Agnès Jacques, Matthieu Barret
Seeds are involved in the transmission of microorganisms from one plant generation to another and consequently act as the initial inoculum for the plant microbiota. The purpose of this mini-review is to provide an overview of current knowledge on the diversity, structure and role of the seed microbiota. The relative importance of the mode of transmission (vertical vs horizontal) of the microbial entities composing the seed microbiota as well as the potential connections existing between seed and other plant habitats such as the anthosphere and the spermosphere is discussed...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433932/the-unseen-rhizosphere-root-soil-microbe-interactions-for-crop-production
#20
REVIEW
Ruifu Zhang, Jorge M Vivanco, Qirong Shen
The underground root-soil-microbe interactions are extremely complex, but vitally important for aboveground plant growth, health and fitness. The pressure to reduce our reliance on agrochemicals, and sustainable efforts to develop agriculture makes rhizosphere interactions' research a hotspot. Recent advances provide new insights about the signals, pathways, functions and mechanisms of these interactions. In this review, we provide an overview about recent progress in rhizosphere interaction networks in crops...
April 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
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