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Current Opinion in Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907842/making-a-microbiome-the-many-determinants-of-host-associated-microbial-community-composition
#1
REVIEW
Karen L Adair, Angela E Douglas
The composition of many host-associated microbial communities is characterized by seemingly contradictory features: strong selection for specific taxa by the host, but substantial variability among hosts and over time within one host. Recent advances have revealed that both deterministic and stochastic processes operating across multiple spatial scales shape the composition of host-associated microbial communities. Although most research has focused on deterministic processes within individual hosts, the microbiota within each host is increasingly recognized to contribute to a wider metacommunity maintained by transmission between individual hosts and dispersal between host-associated and free-living microbial communities...
November 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907841/bacterial-e3-ligase-effectors-exploit-host-ubiquitin-systems
#2
REVIEW
Hiroshi Ashida, Chihiro Sasakawa
Ubiquitination is a crucial post-translational protein modification involved in regulation of various cellular processes in eukaryotes. In particular, ubiquitination is involved in multiple aspects of bacterial infection and host defense mechanisms. In parallel with the identification of ubiquitination as a component of host defense systems, recently accumulated evidence shows that many bacterial pathogens exploit host ubiquitin systems to achieve successful infection. Here, we highlight the strategies by which bacteria subvert host ubiquitin systems by mimicking E3 ubiquitin ligase activity...
November 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883933/microbiome-metabolites-and-host-immunity
#3
REVIEW
Maayan Levy, Eran Blacher, Eran Elinav
In the intestine, the microbial genomes and repertoire of biochemical reactions outnumber those of the host and significantly contribute to many aspects of the host's health, including metabolism, immunity, development and behavior, while microbial community imbalance is associated with disease. The crosstalk between the host and its microbiome occurs in part through the secretion of metabolites, which have a profound effect on host physiology. The immune system constantly scans the intestinal microenvironment for information regarding the metabolic state of the microbiota as well as the colonization status...
November 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816794/investigating-the-cell-biology-of-plant-infection-by-the-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#4
REVIEW
Xia Yan, Nicholas J Talbot
Rice blast disease is a major constraint on worldwide rice production and understanding the biology of plant infection is a priority for development of new disease control strategies. Recent advances in live cell imaging, coupled with tractability of both host and pathogen to molecular genetics and genomics, has made the rice blast pathosystem an important model for understanding plant disease. Here we review recent advances in understanding the cell biology of plant infection and, in particular, the remarkable ability of the rice blast fungus to invade plant tissue and manipulate the host plant using a battery of secreted effector proteins...
November 3, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816786/how-to-invade-a-susceptible-host-cellular-aspects-of-aspergillosis
#5
REVIEW
Sven Krappmann
Diseases caused by Aspergillus spp. and in particular A. fumigatus are manifold and affect individuals suffering from immune dysfunctions, among them immunocompromised ones. The determinants of whether the encounter of a susceptible host with infectious propagules of this filamentous saprobe results in infection have been characterized to a limited extent. Several cellular characteristics of A. fumigatus that have evolved in its natural environment contribute to its virulence, among them general traits as well as particular ones that affect interaction with the mammalian host...
November 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723513/the-cell-biology-of-late-blight-disease
#6
Stephen C Whisson, Petra C Boevink, Shumei Wang, Paul Rj Birch
Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is a major global disease of potato and tomato. Cell biology is teaching us much about the developmental stages associated with infection, especially the haustorium, which is a site of intimate interaction and molecular exchange between pathogen and host. Recent observations suggest a role for the plant endocytic cycle in specific recruitment of host proteins to the Extra-Haustorial Membrane, emphasising the unique nature of this membrane compartment...
October 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720364/editorial-overview-growth-and-development-prokaryotes
#7
Kumaran S Ramamurthi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700990/sustained-sensing-as-an-emerging-principle-in-second-messenger-signaling-systems
#8
Mona W Orr, Michael Y Galperin, Vincent T Lee
Bacteria utilize a diverse set of nucleotide second messengers to regulate cellular responses by binding macromolecular receptors (RNAs and proteins). Recent studies on cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) have shown that this signaling molecule binds multiple receptors to regulate different steps in the same biological process. We propose this property of the same molecule regulating multiple steps in the same process is biologically meaningful and have termed this phenomenon 'sustained sensing'. Here, we discuss the recent findings that support the concept of sustained sensing of c-di-GMP levels and provide additional examples that support the utilization of sustained sensing by other second messengers...
October 1, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689902/cell-biology-of-candida-albicans-host-interactions
#9
REVIEW
Alessandra da Silva Dantas, Kathy K Lee, Ingrida Raziunaite, Katja Schaefer, Jeanette Wagener, Bhawna Yadav, Neil Ar Gow
Candida albicans is a commensal coloniser of most people and a pathogen of the immunocompromised or patients in which barriers that prevent dissemination have been disrupted. Both the commensal and pathogenic states involve regulation and adaptation to the host microenvironment. The pathogenic potential can be downregulated to sustain commensalism or upregulated to damage host tissue and avoid and subvert immune surveillance. In either case it seems as though the cell biology of this fungus has evolved to enable the establishment of different types of relationships with the human host...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648756/regulations-governing-the-multicellular-lifestyle-of-myxococcus-xanthus
#10
Romain Mercier, Tâm Mignot
In living organisms, cooperative cell movements underlie the formation of differentiated tissues. In bacteria, Myxococcus xanthus uses cooperative group movements, to predate on prey and to form multicellular fruiting bodies, where the cells differentiate into dormant spores. Motility is controlled by a central signaling Che-like pathway, Frz. Single cell studies indicate Frz regulates the frequency at which cells reverse their direction of movement by transmitting signals to a molecular system that controls the spatial activity of the motility engines...
September 17, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621139/how-bacterial-pathogens-use-type-iii-and-type-iv-secretion-systems-to-facilitate-their-transmission
#11
Mariana X Byndloss, Fabian Rivera-Chávez, Renée M Tsolis, Andreas J Bäumler
Work on type III or type IV secretion systems (T3SSs or T4SSs) is often focused on elucidating how these sophisticated bacterial virulence factors manipulate host cell physiology to cause disease. But to fully understand their role in pathogen biology, it is important to consider whether the morbidity or mortality they trigger is somehow linked to enhancing communicability of the microbe. Recent work on Salmonella enterica and Brucella abortus provide captivating examples of how manipulation of host cells with T3SSs or T4SSs instigates distant downstream consequences that promote spread of the pathogen...
September 9, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620716/redefining-the-roles-of-the-ftsz-ring-in-bacterial-cytokinesis
#12
Jie Xiao, Erin D Goley
In most bacteria, cell division relies on the functions of an essential protein, FtsZ. FtsZ polymerizes at the future division site to form a ring-like structure, termed the Z-ring, that serves as a scaffold to recruit all other division proteins, and possibly generates force to constrict the cell. The scaffolding function of the Z-ring is well established, but the force generating function has recently been called into question. Additionally, new findings have demonstrated that the Z-ring is more directly linked to cell wall metabolism than simply recruiting enzymes to the division site...
September 9, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614711/exploiting-the-achilles-heel-of-membrane-trafficking-in-trypanosomes
#13
Martin Zoltner, David Horn, Harry P de Koning, Mark C Field
Pathogenic protozoa are evolutionarily highly divergent from their metazoan hosts, reflected in many aspects of their biology. One particularly important parasite taxon is the trypanosomatids. Multiple transmission modes, distinct life cycles and exploitation of many host species attests to great prowess as parasites, and adaptability for efficient, chronic infection. Genome sequencing has begun uncovering how trypanosomatids are well suited to parasitism, and recent genetic screening and cell biology are revealing new aspects of how to control these organisms and prevent disease...
September 9, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565628/developmental-differentiation-in-leishmania-lifecycle-progression-post-transcriptional-control-conducts-the-orchestra
#14
L M De Pablos, T R Ferreira, P B Walrad
The successful progression of Leishmania spp. through their lifecycle entails a series of differentiation processes; the proliferative procyclic promastigote forms become quiescent, human-infective metacyclic promastigotes during metacyclogenesis in the sandfly vector, which then differentiate into amastigotes during amastigogenesis in the mammalian host. The progression to these infective forms requires two components: environmental cues and a coordinated cellular response. Recent studies have shown that the Leishmania cellular transformation into mammalian-infective stages is triggered by broad changes in the absolute and relative RNA and protein levels...
September 9, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568258/editorial-overview-microbial-systems-biology-systems-biology-prepares-the-ground-for-successful-synthetic-biology
#15
Ralf Takors, Víctor de Lorenzo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567402/editorial-overview-antimicrobials-fighting-bacterial-infections-in-the-21st-century-thinking-outside-of-the-box
#16
Michael J Pucci, Thomas J Dougherty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517351/an-intracellular-compass-spatially-coordinates-cell-cycle-modules-in-caulobacter-crescentus
#17
REVIEW
Keren Lasker, Thomas H Mann, Lucy Shapiro
Cellular functions in Bacteria, such as chromosome segregation and cytokinesis, result from cascades of molecular events operating largely as self-contained modules. Regulated timing of these cellular modules stems from global genetic circuits that allow precise temporal activation with respect to cell cycle progression and cell differentiation. Critically, many of these functions occur at defined locations within the cell, and therefore regulators of each module must communicate to remain coordinated in space...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494248/overloaded-and-stressed-whole-cell-considerations-for-bacterial-synthetic-biology
#18
Olivier Borkowski, Francesca Ceroni, Guy-Bart Stan, Tom Ellis
The predictability and robustness of engineered bacteria depend on the many interactions between synthetic constructs and their host cells. Expression from synthetic constructs is an unnatural load for the host that typically reduces growth, triggers stresses and leads to decrease in performance or failure of engineered cells. Work in systems and synthetic biology has now begun to address this through new tools, methods and strategies that characterise and exploit host-construct interactions in bacteria. Focusing on work in E...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472027/system-level-genome-editing-in-microbes
#19
Bálint Csörgő, Ákos Nyerges, György Pósfai, Tamás Fehér
The release of the first complete microbial genome sequences at the end of the past century opened the way for functional genomics and systems-biology to uncover the genetic basis of various phenotypes. The surge of available sequence data facilitated the development of novel genome editing techniques for system-level analytical studies. Recombineering allowed unprecedented throughput and efficiency in microbial genome editing and the recent discovery and widespread use of RNA-guided endonucleases offered several further perspectives: (i) previously recalcitrant species became editable, (ii) the efficiency of recombineering could be elevated, and as a result (iii) diverse genomic libraries could be generated more effectively...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472026/sensing-new-chemicals-with-bacterial-transcription-factors
#20
Vincent Libis, Baudoin Delépine, Jean-Loup Faulon
Bacteria rely on allosteric transcription factors (aTFs) to sense a wide range of chemicals. The variety of effectors has contributed in making aTFs the most used input system in synthetic biological circuits. Considering their enabling role in biotechnology, an important question concerns the size of the chemical space that can potentially be detected by these biosensors. From digging into the ever changing repertoire of natural regulatory circuits, to advances in aTF engineering, we review here different strategies that are pushing the boundaries of this chemical space...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
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