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Current Opinion in Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229188/plasmodium-p47-a-key-gene-for-malaria-transmission-by-mosquito-vectors
#1
REVIEW
Alvaro Molina-Cruz, Gaspar E Canepa, Carolina Barillas-Mury
Malaria is caused by infection with Plasmodium parasites that have a complex life cycle. The parasite protein P47 is critical for disease transmission. P47 mediates mosquito immune evasion in both Plasmodium berghei (Pbs47) and Plasmodium falciparum (Pfs47), and has been shown to be important for optimal female gamete fertility in P. berghei. Pfs47 presents strong geographic structure in natural P. falciparum populations, consistent with natural selection of Pfs47 haplotypes by the mosquito immune system as the parasite adapted to new vector species worldwide...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227922/evolution-of-virulence-in-enterococcus-faecium-a-hospital-adapted-opportunistic-pathogen
#2
REVIEW
Wei Gao, Benjamin P Howden, Timothy P Stinear
Enterococci are long-standing members of the human microbiome and they are also widely distributed in nature. However, with the surge of antibiotic-resistance in recent decades, two enterococcal species (Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium) have emerged to become significant nosocomial pathogens, acquiring extensive antibiotic resistance. In this review, we summarize what is known about the evolution of virulence in E. faecium, highlighting a specific clone of E. faecium called ST796 that has emerged recently and spread globally...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227820/the-ultimate-picture-the-combination-of-live-cell-superresolution-microscopy-and-single-molecule-tracking-yields-highest-spatio-temporal-resolution
#3
REVIEW
Simon Dersch, Peter L Graumann
We are witnessing a breathtaking development in light (fluorescence) microscopy, where structures can be resolved down to the size of a ribosome within cells. This has already yielded surprising insight into the subcellular structure of cells, including the smallest cells, bacteria. Moreover, it has become possible to visualize and track single fluorescent protein fusions in real time, and quantify molecule numbers within individual cells. Combined, super resolution and single molecule tracking are pushing the limits of our understanding of the spatio-temporal organization even of the smallest cells to an unprecedented depth...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217460/tissue-specific-cellular-immune-responses-to-malaria-pre-erythrocytic-stages
#4
REVIEW
Olivier Silvie, Rogerio Amino, Julius Clemence Hafalla
Complete and long-lasting protective immunity against malaria can be achieved through vaccination with invasive live attenuated Plasmodium sporozoites, the motile stage inoculated in the host skin during a mosquito bite. Protective immunity relies primarily on effector CD8+ T cells targeting the parasite in the liver. Understanding the tissue-specific features of the immune response is emerging as a vital requirement for understanding protective immunity. The small parasite inoculum, the scarcity of infected cells and the tolerogenic properties of the liver represent hurdles for the establishment of protective immunity in endemic areas...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216510/evolution-of-virulence-in-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#5
REVIEW
Mickael Orgeur, Roland Brosch
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis is one of the most widely spread human pathogens. It has succeeded to infect a quarter of the global human population by developing most sophisticated ways to circumvent innate and adaptive immune defences. This highly specialized, major human pathogen has evolved from a pool of ancestral environmental mycobacteria, whose extant representatives are known under the name of Mycobacterium canettii. Recent whole genome analyses in combination with different phenotypic screens have provided key insights into the evolution of M...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207313/regulation-of-host-pathogen-interactions-via-the-post-transcriptional-csr-rsm-system
#6
REVIEW
Maria Kusmierek, Petra Dersch
A successful colonization of specific hosts requires a rapid and efficient adaptation of the virulence-relevant gene expression program by bacterial pathogens. An important element in this endeavor is the Csr/Rsm system. This multi-component, post-transcriptional control system forms a central hub within complex regulatory networks and coordinately adjusts virulence properties with metabolic and physiological attributes of the pathogen. A key function is elicited by the RNA-binding protein CsrA/RsmA. CsrA/RsmA interacts with numerous target mRNAs, many of which encode crucial virulence factors, and alters their translation, stability or elongation of transcription...
December 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207308/road-maps-to-engineer-host-microbiomes
#7
REVIEW
Ben O Oyserman, Marnix H Medema, Jos M Raaijmakers
Microbiomes contribute directly or indirectly to host health and fitness. Thus far, investigations into these emergent traits, referred to here as microbiome-associated phenotypes (MAPs), have been primarily qualitative and taxonomy-driven rather than quantitative and trait-based. We present the MAPs-first approach, a theoretical and experimental roadmap that involves quantitative profiling of MAPs across genetically variable hosts and subsequent identification of the underlying mechanisms. We outline strategies for developing 'modular microbiomes'-synthetic microbial consortia that are engineered in concert with the host genotype to confer different but mutually compatible MAPs to a single host or host population...
December 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202336/colonization-localization-and-inflammation-the-roles-of-h-pylori-chemotaxis-in-vivo
#8
REVIEW
Kevin S Johnson, Karen M Ottemann
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects half of the world's population, causing gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. To establish chronic stomach infection, H. pylori utilizes chemotaxis, driven by a conserved signal transduction system. Chemotaxis allows H. pylori to sense an array of environmental and bacterial signals within the stomach, guiding its motility towards its preferred niche within the gastric mucosa and glands. Fine-tuned localization, regulated by the chemotaxis system, enables robust colonization during the acute stage of infection...
December 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197823/bacterial-social-interactions-and-the-emergence-of-community-intrinsic-properties
#9
REVIEW
Jonas Stenløkke Madsen, Søren Johannes Sørensen, Mette Burmølle
Bacterial communities are dominated and shaped by social interactions, which facilitate the emergence of properties observed only in the community setting. Such community-intrinsic properties impact not only the phenotypes of cells in a community, but also community composition and function, and are thus likely to affect a potential host. Studying community-intrinsic properties is, therefore, important for furthering our understanding of clinical, applied and environmental microbiology. Here, we provide recent examples of research investigating community-intrinsic properties, focusing mainly on community composition and interactions in multispecies biofilms...
November 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197673/after-the-deluge-mining-staphylococcus-aureus-genomic-data-for-clinical-associations-and-host-pathogen-interactions
#10
REVIEW
Richard Copin, Bo Shopsin, Victor J Torres
The genome of Staphylococcus aureus has rapidly become one the most frequently sequenced among bacteria, with more than 40000 genome sequences uploaded to public databases. Computational resources required for analysis and quality assessment have lagged behind accumulation of sequence data. Improved analytic pipelines, in combination with the development of customized S. aureus reference databases, can be used to inform S. aureus biology and potentially predict clinical outcome. Here, we review the currently available data about S...
November 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197672/visualizing-bacterial-dna-replication-and-repair-with-molecular-resolution
#11
REVIEW
Yilai Li, Jeremy W Schroeder, Lyle A Simmons, Julie S Biteen
Although DNA replication and repair in bacteria have been extensively studied for many decades, in recent years the development of single-molecule microscopy has provided a new perspective on these fundamental processes. Because single-molecule imaging super-resolves the nanometer-scale dynamics of molecules, and because single-molecule imaging is sensitive to heterogeneities within a sample, this nanoscopic microscopy technique measures the motions, localizations, and interactions of proteins in real time without averaging ensemble observations, both in vitro and in vivo...
November 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190491/lipid-metabolism-and-its-implication-in-mycobacteria-host-interaction
#12
REVIEW
Gabriela Gago, Lautaro Diacovich, Hugo Gramajo
The complex lipids present in the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) act as major effector molecules that actively interact with the host, modulating its metabolism and stimulating the immune response, which in turn affects the physiology of both, the host cell and the bacilli. Lipids from the host are also nutrient sources for the pathogen and define the fate of the infection by modulating lipid homeostasis. Although new technologies and experimental models of infection have greatly helped understanding the different aspects of the host-pathogen interactions at the lipid level, the impact of this interaction in the Mtb lipid regulation is still incipient, mainly because of the low background knowledge in this area of research...
November 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190490/legionella-quorum-sensing-and-its-role-in-pathogen-host-interactions
#13
REVIEW
Nicolas Personnic, Bianca Striednig, Hubert Hilbi
Legionella pneumophila is a water-borne opportunistic pathogen causing a life-threatening pneumonia called 'Legionnaires' disease'. The Legionella quorum sensing (Lqs) system produces and responds to the α-hydroxyketone signaling molecule 3-hydroxypentadecane-4-one (Legionella autoinducer-1, LAI-1). The Lqs system controls the switch between the replicative/non-virulent and the transmissive/virulent phase of L. pneumophila, and it is a major regulator of natural competence, motility and virulence of the pathogen...
November 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182912/smc-complexes-sweeping-through-the-chromosome-going-with-the-flow-and-against-the-tide
#14
REVIEW
Stephan Gruber
Bacteria transcribe, duplicate and segregate their genomes all at once. Conflicts between DNA replication and active transcription are a major source of DNA damage and jeopardize genome integrity and cell survival. Co-orientation of replication forks and transcription units is thought to reduce the impact of such conflicts. Like transcription and replication, chromosome segregation relies on the translocation of multi-subunit protein complexes along DNA. Here, I highlight recent advances in our understanding of two major classes of structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complexes in bacteria: Smc-ScpAB, whose DNA translocation is co-oriented with DNA replication by specific start sites, and MukBEF, which apparently lacks such co-ordination...
November 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179120/metal-homeostasis-in-the-pathobiology-of-the-opportunistic-human-fungal-pathogen-aspergillus-fumigatus
#15
REVIEW
Michael Blatzer, Jean-Paul Latgé
In contrast to obligate pathogens opportunistic pathogens such as Aspergillus fumigatus do not need a specific host to propagate or survive. However several characteristics of the saprophytic life-style and the selective pressure encountered in the primary ecological niche contribute to the virulence of A. fumigatus. All fungi depend on metals for growth and proliferation, like iron, copper, zinc, manganese or calcium. In the recent past several studies explored the manifold impact of metals modulating virulence of pathogens...
November 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179042/discovery-of-new-rna-classes-and-global-rna-binding-proteins
#16
REVIEW
Alexandre Smirnov, Cornelius Schneider, Jens Hör, Jörg Vogel
The identification of new RNA functions and the functional annotation of transcripts in genomes represent exciting yet challenging endeavours of modern biology. Crucial insights into the biological roles of RNA molecules can be gained from the identification of the proteins with which they form specific complexes. Modern interactome techniques permit to profile RNA-protein interactions in a genome-wide manner and identify new RNA classes associated with globally acting RNA-binding proteins. Applied to a variety of organisms, these methods are already revolutionising our understanding of RNA-mediated biological processes...
November 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179041/host-pathogen-systems-for-early-drug-discovery-against-tuberculosis
#17
REVIEW
Valentin Trofimov, Joana Costa-Gouveia, Eik Hoffmann, Priscille Brodin
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global disease causing 1.8 million deaths each year. The appearance of drug-resistant strains raised the demand for new anti-mycobacterial drugs and therapies, because previously discovered antibiotics are shown to be inefficient. Moreover, the number of newly discovered drugs is not increasing in proportion to the emergence of drug resistance, which suggests that more optimized methodology and screening procedures are required including the incorporation of in vivo properties of TB infection...
November 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175703/omics-based-natural-product-discovery-and-the-lexicon-of-genome-mining
#18
REVIEW
Henrique Machado, Robert N Tuttle, Paul R Jensen
Genome sequencing and the application of omic techniques are driving many important advances in the field of microbial natural products research. Despite these gains, there remain aspects of the natural product discovery pipeline where our knowledge remains poor. These include the extent to which biosynthetic gene clusters are transcriptionally active in native microbes, the temporal dynamics of transcription, translation, and natural product assembly, as well as the relationships between small molecule production and detection...
November 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175679/monitoring-microbial-communities-using-light-sheet-fluorescence-microscopy
#19
REVIEW
Raghuveer Parthasarathy
Microbes often live in dense, dynamic, multi-species communities whose architecture and function are intimately intertwined. Imaging these complex, three-dimensional ensembles presents considerable technical challenges, however. In this review, I describe light sheet fluorescence microscopy, a technique that enables rapid acquisition of three-dimensional images over large fields of view and over long durations, and I highlight recent applications of this method to microbial systems that include artificial closed ecosystems, bacterial biofilms, and gut microbiota...
November 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175340/membrane-trafficking-and-remodeling-at-the-host-parasite-interface
#20
REVIEW
Julien Santi-Rocca, Nicolas Blanchard
Membrane shape is functionally linked with many cellular processes. The limiting membrane of vacuoles containing Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium apicomplexan parasites lies at the host-parasite interface. This membrane comprises intra-vacuolar and extra-vacuolar tubulo-vesicular deformations, which influence host-parasite cross-talk. Here, underscoring specificities and similarities between the T. gondii and Plasmodium contexts, we present recent findings about vacuolar membrane remodeling and its potential roles in parasite fitness and immune recognition...
November 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
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