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Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD

P Hemachandra Reddy, Maria Manczak, XiangLin Yin, Arubala P Reddy
The purpose of our study was to determine the synergistic protective effects of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31 and mitochondria division inhibitor 1 (Mdivi1) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using biochemical methods, we assessed mitochondrial function by measuring the levels of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome c oxidase activity, mitochondrial ATP, and GTPase Drp1 enzymatic activity in mutant AβPP cells. Using biochemical methods, we also measured cell survival and apoptotic cell death...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Douglas W Scharre, Emily Weichart, Dylan Nielson, Jun Zhang, Punit Agrawal, Per B Sederberg, Michael V Knopp, Ali R Rezai
The study objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) at the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) region to specifically modulate frontal lobe behavioral and cognitive networks as a novel treatment approach for Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. This is a non-randomized phase I prospective open label interventional trial of three subjects with matched comparison groups. AD participants given DBS for at least 18 months at the VC/VS target were compared on the Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB), our primary outcome clinical measure, to matched groups without DBS from the AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Massimiliano Grassi, Giampaolo Perna, Daniela Caldirola, Koen Schruers, Ranjan Duara, David A Loewenstein
BACKGROUND: Available therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) can only alleviate and delay the advance of symptoms, with the greatest impact eventually achieved when provided at an early stage. Thus, early identification of which subjects at high risk, e.g., with MCI, will later develop AD is of key importance. Currently available machine learning algorithms achieve only limited predictive accuracy or they are based on expensive and hard-to-collect information. OBJECTIVE: The current study aims to develop an algorithm for a 3-year prediction of conversion to AD in MCI and PreMCI subjects based only on non-invasively and effectively collectable predictors...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Ana Subic, Pavla Cermakova, Dorota Religa, Shuang Han, Mia von Euler, Ingemar Kåreholt, Kristina Johnell, Johan Fastbom, Liselia Bognandi, Bengt Winblad, Milica Gregoric Kramberger, Maria Eriksdotter, Sara Garcia-Ptacek
BACKGROUND: Patients with dementia might have higher risk for hemorrhagic complications with anticoagulant therapy prescribed for atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the risks and benefits of warfarin, antiplatelets, and no treatment in patients with dementia and AF. METHODS: Of 49,792 patients registered in the Swedish Dementia Registry 2007-2014, 8,096 (16%) had a previous diagnosis of AF. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the risk for ischemic stroke (IS), nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage, any-cause hemorrhage, and death...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Ruma Raha-Chowdhury, James W Henderson, Animesh Alexander Raha, Simon R W Stott, Romina Vuono, Simona Foscarin, Liam Wilson, Tiina Annus, Robert Fincham, Kieren Allinson, Vinod Devalia, Robert P Friedland, Anthony Holland, Shahid H Zaman
BACKGROUND: Down syndrome (DS; trisomy 21) individuals have a spectrum of hematopoietic and neuronal dysfunctions, and by the time they reach the age of 40 years, almost all develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology which includes senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Inflammation and innate immunity are key players in AD and DS. Triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) variants have been identified as risk factors for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Malene Schjnning Nielsen, Anja Hviid Simonsen, Volkert Siersma, Steen Gregers Hasselbalch, Peter Hoegh
BACKGROUND: Daily living requires the ability to perform dual-tasking. As cognitive skills decrease in dementia, performing a cognitive and motor task simultaneously become increasingly challenging and subtle gait abnormalities may even be present in pre-dementia stages. Therefore, a dual-tasking paradigm, such as the Timed Up and Go-Dual Task (TUG-DT), may be useful in the diagnostic assessment of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnostic and prognostic ability of a dual-tasking paradigm in patients with MCI or mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to evaluate the association between the dual-tasking paradigm and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Benson O A Botchway, Masania K Moore, Faith O Akinleye, Ishwari C Iyer, Marong Fang
Since its discovery some hundred years ago, Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease and an eminent cause of most dementia, continues to pose problems for affected families and society, especially in developed countries. With the approved medications by the Food and Drugs Administration in the United States, effectual treatment of AD apropos to the complete eradication of the disease continues to be elusive due to complexities relating to the pathophysiology of the disease. Nutrition has and continues to play a salient role in the survival of living organisms with no exception for human beings...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Shan-Shan Wang, Jianjun Jia, Zhenfu Wang
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been reported to exhibit therapeutic effects in various animal models of neurological diseases, such as stroke and hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the potential beneficial effect of MSC-derived EVs in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: APP/PS1 mice and their non-transgenic littermates (WT) received intracerebroventricle injection of MSC-derived EVs once per two days for two weeks...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Dimitri Renard, Laurent Collombier, Christophe Demattei, Anne Wacongne, Mahmoud Charif, Xavier Ayrignac, Souhayla Azakri, Nicolas Gaillard, Vincent Boudousq, Sylvain Lehmann, Nicolas Menjot de Champfleur, Eric Thouvenot
BACKGROUND: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAA-ri) is associated with a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker profile similar to that observed in CAA. Few CAA-ri patients have been studied by fibrillar amyloid-β (Aβ) imaging (using 11C-Pittsburgh compound B and 18F-florbetapir, but not 18F-florbetaben). OBJECTIVE: To describe CSF biomarkers, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and 18F-florbetaben (FBB)-positron emission tomography (PET) changes in CAA-ri patients...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Eric X Wei, Esther S Oh, Aisha Harun, Matthew Ehrenburg, Yuri Agrawal
The vestibular system is an important contributor to balance control, spatial orientation, and falls risk. Recent evidence has shown that Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have a higher prevalence of vestibular impairment relative to healthy controls. We sought to evaluate whether vestibular loss is specifically associated with poor spatial cognitive skills among patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. We enrolled 50 patients (22 MCI and 28 AD) from an interdisciplinary Memory Clinic and measured vestibular physiologic function in all patients...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
António José Gabriel, Maria Rosário Almeida, Maria Helena Ribeiro, Diogo Carneiro, Daniela Valério, Ana Cristina Pinheiro, Rui Pascoal, Isabel Santana, Inês Baldeiras
BACKGROUND: Several demographic and genetic prognostic factors of conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been recognized so far. The most frequent polymorphism of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), the K-variant, has been proposed as a risk factor for AD, but data regarding its influence on early disease progression is still limited. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the BuChE-K variant in MCI progression to AD. METHODS: 96 MCI patients were included in the study and were genotyped for BuChE-K variant and Apolipoprotein E (ApoE)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Jaume Folch, Oriol Busquets, Miren Ettcheto, Elena Sánchez-López, Ruben Dario Castro-Torres, Ester Verdaguer, Maria Luisa Garcia, Jordi Olloquequi, Gemma Casadesús, Carlos Beas-Zarate, Carme Pelegri, Jordi Vilaplana, Carme Auladell, Antoni Camins
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence in the brain of extracellular amyloid-β protein (Aβ) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. The N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR), ionotropic glutamate receptor, are essential for processes like learning and memory. An excessive activation of NMDARs has been associated with neuronal loss. The discovery of extrasynaptic NMDARs provided a rational and physiological explanation between physiological and excitotoxic actions of glutamate...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Rannveig Sakshaug Eldholm, Maria Lage Barca, Karin Persson, Anne-Brita Knapskog, Hege Kersten, Knut Engedal, Geir Selbæk, Anne Brækhus, Eva Skovlund, Ingvild Saltvedt
BACKGROUND: The course of Alzheimer's disease (AD) varies considerably between individuals. There is limited evidence on factors important for disease progression. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to study the progression of AD, as measured by the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB). Secondary aims were to investigate whether baseline characteristics are important for differences in progression, and to examine the correlation between progression assessed using three different instruments: CDR-SB (0-18), the cognitive test Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, 0-30), and the functional measure Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL, 0-1)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Sokratis G Papageorgiou, Panagiota Voskou, Alexandra Economou, Ion Beratis, Athanasios Douzenis
BACKGROUND: In current practice, it is common for the medical practitioner to assess a person's testamentary capacity (TC) and give evidence to the Courts about a potential will contest. TC is an advanced cognitive activity that is both situation- and task-specific. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was the development of a brief, specialized instrument for TC assessment in patients with dementia. METHOD: We developed a short tool consisting of four subtests, assessing the person's core functions which are required for TC: memory (orientation, autobiographical memory, and realistic perception of beneficiaries), absence of serious psychopathology, knowledge of financial parameters (value of assets, everyday life products, bills), and intention (vignettes, theory of mind)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Sheina Emrani, David J Libon, Melissa Lamar, Catherine C Price, Angela L Jefferson, Katherine A Gifford, Timothy J Hohman, Daniel A Nation, Lisa Delano-Wood, Amy Jak, Katherine J Bangen, Mark W Bondi, Adam M Brickman, Jennifer Manly, Rodney Swenson, Rhoda Au
BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM) is often assessed with serial order tests such as repeating digits backward. In prior dementia research using the Backward Digit Span Test (BDT), only aggregate test performance was examined. OBJECTIVE: The current research tallied primacy/recency effects, out-of-sequence transposition errors, perseverations, and omissions to assess WM deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: Memory clinic patients (n = 66) were classified into three groups: single domain amnestic MCI (aMCI), combined mixed domain/dysexecutive MCI (mixed/dys MCI), and non-MCI where patients did not meet criteria for MCI...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Boriana Atanasova, Karl Mondon, Lise Dreyfuss, Emilie Beaufils, Thomas Desmidt, Caroline Hommet, Wissam El-Hage, Catherine Belzung
BACKGROUND: Several clinical studies concerning the olfactory function of patients with cognitive impairment have used sensory scales to investigate hedonic perception. However, no study has focused on the choice of the most appropriate sensory hedonic scale for the individuals with neurodegenerative disorders or other psychiatric diseases involving cognitive deficits. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) to use two hedonic scales (category scale and linear scale) and compare their discriminatory capacity, repeatability, and ease of use...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Patrick J Lao, Ben L Handen, Tobey J Betthauser, Iulia Mihaila, Sigan L Hartley, Annie D Cohen, Dana L Tudorascu, Peter D Bulova, Brian J Lopresti, Rameshwari V Tumuluru, Dhanabalan Murali, Chester A Mathis, Todd E Barnhart, Charles K Stone, Julie C Price, Darlynne A Devenny, Sterling C Johnson, William E Klunk, Bradley T Christian
BACKGROUND: The Down syndrome (DS) population is genetically predisposed to amyloid-β protein precursor overproduction and Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: The temporal ordering and spatial association between amyloid-β, glucose metabolism, and gray matter (GM) volume in the DS population can provide insight into those associations in the more common sporadic AD. METHODS: Twenty-four adults (13 male, 11 female; 39±7 years) with DS underwent [11C]PiB, [18F]FDG, and volumetric MRI scans...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Antonio Di Meco, Jian-Guo Li, Domenico Praticò
Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects over 40 million patients around the world and poses a huge economic burden on society since no effective therapy is available yet. While the cause(s) for the most common sporadic form of the disease are still obscure, lifestyle and different environmental factors have emerged as modulators of AD susceptibility. Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHCY), a condition of high circulating levels of homocysteine, is an independent but modifiable risk factor for AD. Studies in AD mouse models have linked HHCY with memory impairment, amyloidosis, tau pathology, synaptic dysfunction, and neuroinflammation...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Rebekah M Ahmed, Elizabeth Highton-Williamson, Jashelle Caga, Nicolette Thornton, Eleanor Ramsey, Margaret Zoing, Woojin Scott Kim, Glenda M Halliday, Olivier Piguet, John R Hodges, I Sadaf Farooqi, Matthew C Kiernan
BACKGROUND: Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) exhibit changes in eating behavior that could potentially affect lipid levels. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to document changes in lipid metabolism across the ALS-FTD spectrum to identify potential relationships to eating behavior (including fat intake), cognitive change, body mass index (BMI), and effect on survival. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-eight participants were recruited: 37 ALS patients, 15 ALS patients with cognitive and behavioral change (ALS-Plus), 13 ALS-FTD, 31 behavioral variant FTD, and 32 healthy controls...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Alessandra Dodich, Chiara Cerami, Stefano F Cappa, Alessandra Marcone, Valeria Golzi, Michele Zamboni, Maria Cristina Giusti, Sandro Iannaccone
BACKGROUND: Current diagnostic criteria for behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and typical Alzheimer's disease (AD) include a differential pattern of neuropsychological impairments (episodic memory deficit in typical AD and dysexecutive syndrome in bvFTD). There is, however, large evidence of a frequent overlap in neuropsychological features, making the differential diagnosis extremely difficult. OBJECTIVES: In this retrospective study, we evaluated the diagnostic value of different cognitive and neurobehavioral markers in bvFTD and AD patient groups...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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