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Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD

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August 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Anne-Marie Miller, Mircea Balasa, Kaj Blennow, Mary Gardiner, Aleksandra Rutkowska, Philip Scheltens, Charlotte E Teunissen, Pieter Jelle Visser, Bengt Winblad, Gunhild Waldemar, Brian Lawlor
BACKGROUND: BIOMARKAPD seeks to diminish the barriers associated with the clinical use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker analysis by reducing variation in CSF laboratory methodologies and generating consensus recommendations on their clinical interpretation and application for dementia diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To examine the disparity in practitioner attitudes and clinical practice relating to the use of CSF biomarkers for dementia diagnosis across Europe. METHODS: Clinical dementia experts were surveyed on the prevalence of national consensus guidelines and analytical reimbursement across Europe; their biomarker platform preferences, lumbar puncture methodologies, and application of reference values and cut-offs for CSF analysis...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Hubert Basselerie, Luc Bracoud, Eva Zeestraten, Eva Bouguen, Vera Kiyasova, Maria Pueyo, Christophe Cognard, Hervé Dumas, Raluca Gramada, Pierre Jean Ousset, Bruno Vellas, Fabrice Bonneville
BACKGROUND: The relationship between cerebral microbleeds (CMB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not yet been clearly determined, particularly with susceptibility weight-imaging (SWI). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the SWI sequence using 3T MRI for the detection of CMB, and its ability to differentiate elderly control subjects (CS), stable mild cognitive impairment patients (MCI-s), MCI patients progressing to AD (MCI-p), and AD patients. METHODS: It was a prospective, monocentric, observational study that took place Toulouse, France...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Chih-Ping Chung, Hsiang-Ying Lee, Po-Chen Lin, Pei-Ning Wang
The concept that excess pulsation in cerebral arteries might be involved at the early stage of dementia is based on the results of studies on aorta stiffness. In these studies, aorta stiffness is cross-sectionally associated with cognitive impairment and longitudinally related to cognitive decline in non-demented subjects. However, a direct measure of cerebral artery pulsatility is absent in the literature. We aimed to investigate the associations between cerebral artery pulsatility and (1) different cognitive-domains and (2) conversion to dementia in non-demented individuals at the prodromal-stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Elisabeth Nikitidou, Payam Emami Khoonsari, Ganna Shevchenko, Martin Ingelsson, Kim Kultima, Anna Erlandsson
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and larger microvesicles, have been implicated to play a role in several conditions, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since the EV content mirrors the intracellular environment, it could contribute with important information about ongoing pathological processes and may be a useful source for biomarkers, reflecting the disease progression. The aim of the present study was to analyze the protein content of EVs specifically released from a mixed co-culture of primary astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes treated with synthetic amyloid-β (Aβ42) protofibrils...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Evi Paouri, Ourania Tzara, Sofia Zenelak, Spiros Georgopoulos
Increasing evidence suggests that neuroinflammation comprises a major characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in neurodegenerative diseases including AD, and has been proposed as a potent therapeutic target for AD. Although a number of studies focusing on pharmacological or genetic manipulation of TNF-α and its receptors in AD mice have provided significant knowledge regarding the role of TNF-α signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of AD, the consequences of TNF-α genetic deletion have not been thoroughly examined...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Alexander J Beagle, Sonja M Darwish, Kamalini G Ranasinghe, Alice L La, Elissaios Karageorgiou, Keith A Vossel
BACKGROUND: Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are more prone to seizures and myoclonus, but relative risk of these symptoms among other dementia types is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence of seizures and myoclonus in the three most common neurodegenerative dementias: AD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). METHODS: Our institution's medical records were reviewed for new-onset unprovoked seizures and myoclonus in patients meeting criteria for AD (n = 1,320), DLB (n = 178), and FTD (n = 348)...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Sara E Berman, Lindsay R Clark, Leonardo A Rivera-Rivera, Derek Norton, Annie M Racine, Howard A Rowley, Barbara B Bendlin, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Cynthia M Carlsson, Sanjay Asthana, Patrick Turski, Oliver Wieben, Sterling C Johnson
It is becoming increasingly recognized that cerebrovascular disease is a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A unique 4D-Flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, phase contrast vastly undersampled isotropic projection imaging (PC VIPR), enables examination of angiographic and quantitative metrics of blood flow in the arteries of the Circle of Willis within a single MRI acquisition. Thirty-eight participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) underwent a comprehensive neuroimaging protocol (including 4D-Flow imaging) and a standard neuropsychological battery...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Adam Gerstenecker, David A Hoagey, Daniel C Marson, Kristen M Kennedy
Financial capacity (FC) is a cognitively complex activity of daily living that declines in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), limiting an individual's ability to manage one's finances and function independently. The neural underpinnings of this decline in function are poorly understood but likely involve age-related and disease-related degradation across structural networks. The purpose of the current study was to determine if altered white matter integrity is associated with declining FC in persons with MCI and AD compared to older controls...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Aikaterini Oikonomidi, Domilė Tautvydaitė, Mehdi M Gholamrezaee, Hugues Henry, Michael Bacher, Julius Popp
BACKGROUND: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory protein playing a regulatory role in the immune response. First evidence from in vitro and animal studies suggests that MIF may be involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. OBJECTIVE: To address in older subjects (i) the relationships between AD pathology and MIF plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels; and (ii) to investigate whether increased MIF-related systemic and CNS inflammation is associated with clinical disease progression...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Taiki Sugimoto, Akinori Nakamura, Takashi Kato, Kaori Iwata, Naoki Saji, Yutaka Arahata, Hideyuki Hattori, Masahiko Bundo, Kengo Ito, Shumpei Niida, Takashi Sakurai
BACKGROUND: Weight loss is frequently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. OBJECTS: To clarify the associations between nutritional status and AD-related brain changes using Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB)-PET, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, and structural MRI. METHODS: The subjects were 34 amyloid-β (Aβ)-positive individuals with mild cognitive impairment or early AD (prodromal/early AD), and 55 Aβ-negative cognitively normal (CN) subjects who attended the Multimodal Neuroimaging for AD Diagnosis (MULNIAD) study...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Tormod Fladby, Lene Pålhaugen, Per Selnes, Knut Waterloo, Geir Bråthen, Erik Hessen, Ina Selseth Almdahl, Kjell-Arne Arntzen, Eirik Auning, Carl Fredrik Eliassen, Ragna Espenes, Ramune Grambaite, Gøril Rolfseng Grøntvedt, Krisztina Kunszt Johansen, Stein Harald Johnsen, Lisa Flem Kalheim, Bjørn-Eivind Kirsebom, Kai Ivar Müller, Arne Exner Nakling, Arvid Rongve, Sigrid Botne Sando, Nikias Siafarikas, Ane Løvli Stav, Sandra Tecelao, Santiago Timon, Svein Ivar Bekkelund, Dag Aarsland
While APOEɛ4 is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid dysmetabolism is an initial or early event predicting clinical disease and is an important focus for secondary intervention trials. To improve identification of cases with increased AD risk, we evaluated recruitment procedures using pathological CSF concentrations of Aβ42 (pAβ) and APOEɛ4 as risk markers in a multi-center study in Norway. In total, 490 subjects aged 40-80 y were included after response to advertisements and media coverage or memory clinics' referrals...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Roberto Santangelo, Giordano Cecchetti, Maria Paola Bernasconi, Rosalinda Cardamone, Alessandra Barbieri, Patrizia Pinto, Gabriella Passerini, Francesco Scomazzoni, Giancarlo Comi, Giuseppe Magnani
Co-existence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a frequent finding, thus a common pathophysiological basis between AD and NPH has been postulated. We measured CSF amyloid-β 42 (Aβ42), total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) concentrations in a sample of 294 patients with different types of dementia and 32 subjects without dementia. We then compared scores on neuropsychological tests of NPH patients with pathological and normal CSF Aβ42 values. Aβ42 levels were significantly lower in NPH than in control patients, with no significant differences between AD and NPH...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Anne Suzanne Bertens, Behnam Sabayan, Anton J M de Craen, Roos C Van der Mast, Jacobijn Gussekloo
BACKGROUND: Impaired cardiac function has been related to accelerated cognitive decline in late-life. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether higher levels of high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), a sensitive marker for myocardial injury, are associated with worse cognitive function in the oldest old. METHODS: In 455 participants of the population-based Leiden 85-plus Study, hs-cTnT was measured at 86 years. Cognitive function was measured annually during four years with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Jun Ku Chung, Eric Plitman, Shinichiro Nakajima, Fernando Caravaggio, Shunichiro Shinagawa, Yusuke Iwata, Philip Gerretsen, Julia Kim, Hiroyoshi Takeuchi, Raihaan Patel, M Mallar Chakravarty, Antonio Strafella, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
The clinical and structural trajectories of suspected non-Alzheimer' pathology (SNAP) remain elusive due to its heterogeneous etiology. Baseline and longitudinal clinical (global cognition, daily functioning, symptoms of dementia, and learning memory) and hippocampal volume trajectories over two years were compared between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) with SNAP with reduced hippocampal volumes (SNAP+HIPPO) and aMCI patients with SNAP without reduced hippocampal volumes. SNAP+HIPPO showed overall worse baseline cognitive functions...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Anantha Ram Nookala, Joy Mitra, Nitish S Chaudhari, Muralidhar L Hegde, Anil Kumar
With increasing survival of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the manifestation of heterogeneous neurological complications is also increasing alarmingly in these patients. Currently, more than 30% of about 40 million HIV-1 infected people worldwide develop central nervous system (CNS)-associated dysfunction, including dementia, sensory, and motor neuropathy. Furthermore, the highly effective antiretroviral therapy has been shown to increase the prevalence of mild cognitive functions while reducing other HIV-1-associated neurological complications...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Tomoyuki Nagata, Shinichiro Nakajima, Shunichiro Shinagawa, Eric Plitman, Kazuhiko Nakayama, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Masaru Mimura
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate predictors of atypical antipsychotic (AAP) treatment continuation and response by week 8 in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) who have psychotic/aggressive symptoms using the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness-Alzheimer's Disease (CATIE-AD) dataset. METHODS: Clinical data was utilized from 421 AD outpatients with psychotic/aggressive symptoms who needed interventional treatment...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Mustafa Atee, Kreshnik Hoti, Richard Parsons, Jeffery D Hughes
Pain is common among people with moderate to severe dementia, but inability of patients to self-report means it often goes undetected and untreated. We developed the electronic Pain Assessment Tool (ePAT) to address this issue. A point-of-care App, it utilizes facial recognition technology to detect facial micro-expressions indicative of pain. ePAT also records the presence of pain-related behaviors under five additional domains (Voice, Movement, Behavior, Activity, and Body). In this observational study, we assessed the psychometric properties of ePAT compared to the Abbey Pain Scale (APS)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Farheen Rokad, Ryan Moseley, Rowan S Hardy, Sasanka Chukkapalli, StJohn Crean, Lakshmyya Kesavalu, Sim K Singhrao
The polymicrobial dysbiotic subgingival biofilm microbes associated with periodontal disease appear to contribute to developing pathologies in distal body sites, including the brain. This study examined oxidative stress, in the form of increased protein carbonylation and oxidative protein damage, in the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) transgenic mouse that models inflammatory TNF-α excess during bacterial infection; and in the apolipoprotein knockout (ApoE-/-) mouse brains, following Porphyromonas gingivalis gingival monoinfection...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Sherilyn Thibeau, G Peggy McFall, Richard Camicioli, Roger A Dixon
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk-reduction strategies (e.g., increasing physical activity, improving mobility) have garnered increasing attention in the literature. However, the effect of such modifiable factors on the preclinical trajectories of brain and cognitive health may be moderated by non-modifiable biomarkers associated with AD. OBJECTIVE: In a longitudinal sample of non-demented older adults, we examine the independent predictors everyday physical activity (EPA) and mobility on executive function (EF) performance and change...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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