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Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059798/sporadic-cases-with-novel-mutations-and-pedigree-in-hereditary-leukoencephalopathy-with-axonal-spheroids
#1
Liyong Wu, Jia Liu, Longze Sha, Xianling Wang, Jieying Li, Jing Dong, Jianping Jia
Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease, featured by cerebral white matter degeneration with demyelination and axonal spheroids. We collected three gene-confirmed HDLS cases in our neurodegenerative clinic. Two HDLS cases were sporadic with novel mutations, while another case had a family history with previously described mutations. All three cases suffered memory problems with white matter lesions and pyramid signs. No obvious clinical differences were observed between sporadic and familial HDLS cases...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059796/a-common-variant-in-the-mc1r-gene-p-v92m-is-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease-risk
#2
Gemma Tell-Marti, Joan Anton Puig-Butille, Miriam Potrony, Estel Plana, Celia Badenas, Anna Antonell, Raquel Sanchez-Valle, José L Molinuevo, Alberto Lleó, Daniel Alcolea, Juan Fortea, Ruben Fernandez-Santiago, Jordi Clarimón, Albert Lladó, Susana Puig
Despite the recent identification of some novel risk genes for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the genetic etiology of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) remains largely unknown. The inclusion of these novel risk genes to the risk attributable to the APOE gene accounts for roughly half of the total genetic variance in LOAD. The evidence indicates that undiscovered genetic factors may contribute to AD susceptibility. In the present study, we sequenced the MC1R gene in 525 Spanish LOAD patients and in 160 controls...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059795/evidence-of-a-cardiovascular-function-for-microtubule-associated-protein-tau
#3
Ashenafi H Betrie, Scott Ayton, Ashley I Bush, James A Angus, Peng Lei, Christine E Wright
Aggregation of tau protein into intracellular deposits is a pathognomonic feature of tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and lowering tau is a prominent therapeutic strategy under development. However, the physiological function of tau protein is not well known, particularly in the periphery. Lowering tau protein risks disrupting its physiological role leading to unwanted effects. In this study, the presence of tau protein in cardiac tissue is confirmed and the functional role in the cardiovascular system and the consequences of its loss were explored...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059794/oxidative-stress-synaptic-dysfunction-and%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Eric Tönnies, Eugenia Trushina
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder without a cure. Most AD cases are sporadic where age represents the greatest risk factor. Lack of understanding of the disease mechanism hinders the development of efficacious therapeutic approaches. The loss of synapses in the affected brain regions correlates best with cognitive impairment in AD patients and has been considered as the early mechanism that precedes neuronal loss. Oxidative stress has been recognized as a contributing factor in aging and in the progression of multiple neurodegenerative diseases including AD...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059793/resveratrol-intervenes-in-the-cholesterol-and-isoprenoid-mediated-amyloidogenic-processing-of-a%C3%AE-pp-in-familial-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Mohan Sathya, Ponnusamy Moorthi, Palanisamy Premkumar, Mahesh Kandasamy, Kesavan Swaminathan Jayachandran, Muthuswamy Anusuyadevi
Deterioration of cholesterol metabolism has recently been a frontier subject of investigation in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Though amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) primes the pathological cascade, changes in cholesterol levels and its intermediates, geranyl geranyl pyrophosphate and farnesyl pyrophosphate, is expected to have a different consequence on AβPP processing and amyloid-β (Aβ) generation. However, the use of statins (HMG-COA reductase inhibitor) has been widely implicated in slowing down the pathogenic progression of AD, while the epidemiological reports on its biological effect remains controversial...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059791/mitochondrial-repair-effects-of-oxygen-treatment-on-alzheimer-s-disease-model-mice-revealed-by-quantitative-proteomics
#6
Hao Wang, Xiaoyu Hong, Yong Wang
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a pivotal role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), even before signs of AD pathology are evident. Our previous research has shown that oxygen treatment can improve cognitive function in AD model mice. To address whether oxygen treatment is beneficial to mitochondrial biology, we analyzed differential expressions of hippocampal mitochondrial proteins in AD model mice given supplementary oxygen. Numerous respiratory chain, Kreb's cycle, and glycolysis proteins were upregulated significantly after oxygen treatment, suggesting that oxygen therapy can alleviate mitochondrial damage...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059788/silicic-acid-and-beer-consumption-reverses-the-metal-imbalance-and%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-prooxidant-status-induced-by%C3%A2-aluminum-nitrate-in-mouse-brain
#7
María José González-Muñoz, Alba Garcimartán, Isabel Meseguer, Carmen José Mateos-Vega, José María Orellana, Antonio Peña-Fernández, Juana Benedí, Francisco J Sánchez-Muniz
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that by affecting mineral balance, aluminum (Al) may enhance some events associated with neurodegenerative diseases. AIM: To examine the effect of Al(NO3)3 exposure on brain Al, cooper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), silicon (Si), and zinc (Zn) levels, and the metal-change implication in brain oxidant and inflammatory status. METHODS: Four groups of six-week-old male NMRI mice were treated for three months: i) controls, administrated with deionized water; ii) Al, which received Al(NO3)3; iii) Al+silicic acid, which were given Al(NO3)3 plus silicic acid; and iv) Al+beer, which received Al(NO3)3 plus beer...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059786/death-of-dementia-patients-in-psychiatric-hospitals-and-regional-supply-of-psychiatric-services-study-of-the-national-data-from-1996-to-2014-in-japan
#8
Miharu Nakanishi, Junko Niimura, Syudo Yamasaki, Atsushi Nishida
BACKGROUND: Japan designates psychiatric inpatient care for behavior management of individuals with dementia and for helping dementia patients discharge to home. However, there has been no examination of the effectiveness of this strategy. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the association between dementia and the discharge destination of patients in psychiatric hospitals. METHODS: Data from the National Patient Survey, which is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of inpatient care, were used...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059783/improved-cerebrospinal-fluid-based-discrimination-between-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-and-controls-after-correction-for-ventricular-volumes
#9
Linda J C van Waalwijk van Doorn, Juan D Gispert, H Bea Kuiperij, Jurgen A H R Claassen, Andrea Arighi, Inês Baldeiras, Kaj Blennow, Marco Bozzali, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Enrica Cavedo, Derya D Emek-Savaş, Erden Eren, Paolo Eusebi, Lucia Farotti, Chiara Fenoglio, Juan Fortea Ormaechea, Yvonne Freund-Levi, Giovanni B Frisoni, Daniela Galimberti, Sermin Genc, Viviana Greco, Harald Hampel, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Yawu Liu, Albert Lladó, Alberto Lleó, Flavio M Nobili, Kader K Oguz, Lucilla Parnetti, João Pereira, Agnese Picco, Maria Pikkarainen, Catarina Resende de Oliveira, Esen Saka, Nicola Salvadori, Raquel Sanchez-Valle, Isabel Santana, Elio Scarpini, Philip Scheltens, Hilkka Soininen, Roberto Tarducci, Charlotte Teunissen, Magda Tsolaki, Andrea Urbani, Eduard Vilaplana Martinez, Pieter Jelle Visser, Asa K Wallin, Görsev Yener, José L Molinuevo, Olga Meulenbroek, Marcel M Verbeek
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers may support the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We studied if the diagnostic power of AD CSF biomarker concentrations, i.e., Aβ42, total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau), is affected by differences in lateral ventricular volume (VV), using CSF biomarker data and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 730 subjects, from 13 European Memory Clinics. We developed a Matlab-algorithm for standardized automated segmentation analysis of T1 weighted MRI scans in SPM8 for determining VV, and computed its ratio with total intracranial volume (TIV) as proxy for total CSF volume...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059782/differential-hemispheric-predilection-of%C3%A2-microstructural-white-matter-and%C3%A2-functional-connectivity-abnormalities-between-respectively-semantic-and%C3%A2-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#10
Rozanna Meijboom, Rebecca M E Steketee, Leontine S Ham, Aad van der Lugt, John C van Swieten, Marion Smits
Semantic dementia (SD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), subtypes of frontotemporal dementia, are characterized by distinct clinical symptoms and neuroimaging features, with predominant left temporal grey matter (GM) atrophy in SD and bilateral or right frontal GM atrophy in bvFTD. Such differential hemispheric predilection may also be reflected by other neuroimaging features, such as brain connectivity. This study investigated white matter (WM) microstructure and functional connectivity differences between SD and bvFTD, focusing on the hemispheric predilection of these differences...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409748/a-critical-assessment-of-research-on-neurotransmitters-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
P Hemachandra Reddy
The purpose of this mini-forum, "Neurotransmitters and Alzheimer's Disease", is to critically assess the current status of neurotransmitters in Alzheimer's disease. Neurotransmitters are essential neurochemicals that maintain synaptic and cognitive functions in mammals, including humans, by sending signals across pre- to post-synaptic neurons. Authorities in the fields of synapses and neurotransmitters of Alzheimer's disease summarize the current status of basic biology of synapses and neurotransmitters, and also update the current status of clinical trials of neurotransmitters in Alzheimer's disease...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409747/the-importance-of-identifying-early-changes-in-cardiac-structure-and-function-for-the-prevention-of-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#12
Jodi D Edwards
Multiple cardiac pathologies have been shown to contribute to progressive cognitive decline and dementia in elderly populations, including left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), a marker of prolonged exposure to hypertension. Although associations between chronic hypertension and cognitive function are thought to be mediated primarily by these end organ effects, there is increasing evidence that early changes in cardiac structure and function, such as LVH, may independently contribute to cognitive decline and impairment...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409746/the-role-of-adam10-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Xiang-Zhen Yuan, Sen Sun, Chen-Chen Tan, Jin-Tai Yu, Lan Tan
As a member of the A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase (ADAM) family, ADAM10 has been identified as the constitutive α-secretase in the process of amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) cleavage and plays a critical role in reducing the generation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Recent studies have demonstrated its beneficial role in alleviating the pathologic impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD) both in vitro and in vivo. However, the role of ADAM10 in AD and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not well established...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409745/mitochondria-division-inhibitor-1-protects-against-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-mitochondrial-fragmentation-and-synaptic-damage-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
P Hemachandra Reddy, Maria Manczak, XiangLing Yin
The purpose our study was to determine the protective effects of mitochondria division inhibitor 1 (Mdivi1) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mdivi1 is hypothesized to reduce excessive fragmentation of mitochondria and mitochondrial dysfunction in AD neurons. Very little is known about whether Mdivi1 can confer protective effects in AD. In the present study, we sought to determine the protective effects of Mdivi1 against amyloid-β (Aβ)- and mitochondrial fission protein, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-induced excessive fragmentation of mitochondria in AD progression...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409744/long-term-maintenance-of-executive-related-oculomotor-improvements-in-older-adults-with-self-reported-cognitive-complaints-following-a-24-week-multiple-modality-exercise-program
#15
Erin M Shellington, Matthew Heath, Dawn P Gill, Robert J Petrella
Adults (≥55 years) with self-reported cognitive complaints (sCC) were randomized to: multiple-modality exercise (M2), or multiple-modality plus mind-motor exercise (M4), for 24-weeks. Participants (n = 58) were assessed on antisaccade reaction time (RT) to examine executive-related oculomotor control and self-reported physical activity (PA) at pre-intervention (V0), post-intervention (V1), and 52-weeks follow-up (V2). We previously reported significant improvements in antisaccade RT of 23 ms at V1, in both groups...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387680/the-relationship-of-bilingualism-compared-to-monolingualism-to-the-risk-of-cognitive-decline-or-dementia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Naaheed Mukadam, Andrew Sommerlad, Gill Livingston
BACKGROUND: Bilingualism may contribute to cognitive reserve, protect against cognitive decline, and delay the onset of dementia. OBJECTIVE: We systematically reviewed evidence about the effect of bilingualism on subsequent cognitive decline or dementia. METHODS: We searched electronic databases and references for longitudinal studies comparing cognitive decline in people who were bilingual with those who were monolingual and evaluated study quality...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387679/orexin-impairs-the-phagocytosis-and-degradation-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-fibrils-by-microglial-cells
#17
Hoyoung An, Mi-Hyang Cho, Dong-Hou Kim, Seockhoon Chung, Seung-Yong Yoon
BACKGROUND: Intracranial accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) is a characteristic finding of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is thought to be the result of Aβ overproduction by neurons and impaired clearance by several systems, including degradation by microglia. Sleep disturbance is now considered a risk factor for AD, but studies focusing on how sleep modulates microglial handling of Aβ have been scarce. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether phagocytosis and degradation of extracellular Aβ fibrils by BV2 microglial cells were impaired by treatment with orexin-A/B, a major modulator of the sleep-wake cycle, which may mimic sleep deprivation conditions...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387678/memory-is-not-enough-the-neurobiological-substrates-of-dynamic-cognitive-reserve
#18
Laura Serra, Michela Bruschini, Carlotta Di Domenico, Giulia Bechi Gabrielli, Camillo Marra, Carlo Caltagirone, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali
Changes in the residual memory variance are considered as a dynamic aspect of cognitive reserve (d-CR). We aimed to investigate for the first time the neural substrate associated with changes in the residual memory variance overtime in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Thirty-four aMCI patients followed-up for 36 months and 48 healthy elderly individuals (HE) were recruited. All participants underwent 3T MRI, collecting T1-weighted images for voxel-based morphometry (VBM). They underwent an extensive neuropsychological battery, including six episodic memory tests...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387677/prevention-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-tau-pathologies-associated-neurodegeneration-and-cognitive-deficit-by-early-treatment-with-a-neurotrophic-compound
#19
Narjes Baazaoui, Khalid Iqbal
To date, neither any effective treatment nor prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a major dementia causing disorder, are available. Herein, we investigated the secondary prevention of neurodegeneration, amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau pathologies with a neurotrophic compound P021 in 3xTg-AD mice. Previous work found that P021 can rescue at mild to moderate stages Aβ and tau pathologies in 3xTg-AD mice. To determine its potential clinical application, we sought to test the preventive effect of P021 on Aβ and tau pathologies by starting the treatment during the period of synaptic compensation several months before the appearance of any overt pathology in 3xTg-AD mice...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387676/identification-of-fungal-species-in-brain-tissue-from-alzheimer-s-disease-by-next-generation-sequencing
#20
Ruth Alonso, Diana Pisa, Begoña Aguado, Luis Carrasco
The possibility that patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have disseminated fungal infection has been recently advanced by the demonstration of fungal proteins and DNA in nervous tissue from AD patients. In the present study, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to identify fungal species present in the central nervous system (CNS) of AD patients. Initially, DNA was extracted from frozen tissue from four different CNS regions of one AD patient and the fungi in each region were identified by NGS...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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