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Pituitary

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468382/immunohistochemistry-for-transcription-factor-t-pit-as-a-tool-in-diagnostics-of-corticotroph-pituitary-tumours
#1
LETTER
Olivera Casar-Borota, Jens Bollerslev, Fredrik Pontén
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460202/clinicopathological-significance-of-baseline-t2-weighted-signal-intensity-in-functional-pituitary-adenomas
#2
Sema Ciftci Dogansen, Gulsah Yenidunya Yalin, Seher Tanrikulu, Sakin Tekin, Nihan Nizam, Bilge Bilgic, Serra Sencer, Sema Yarman
PURPOSE: To assess baseline T2-weighted signal intensity (T2-WSI) of functional pituitary adenomas (FPA), and to investigate the relationship of baseline T2-WSI with clinical features, histopathological granulation patterns, and response to treatment in patients with acromegaly, prolactinoma and Cushing's disease (CD). METHODS: Somatotroph adenomas (n = 87), prolactinomas (n = 78) and corticotroph adenomas (n = 29) were included in the study. Baseline T2-WSI findings (grouped as hypo-, iso- and hyperintense) were compared with hormone levels, tumor diameter, granulation patterns and response to treatment...
February 19, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455389/germline-mutations-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-interacting-protein-aip-gene-and-somatostatin-receptor-1-5-and-aip-immunostaining-in-patients-with-sporadic-acromegaly-with-poor-versus-good-response-to-somatostatin-analogues
#3
Hande Mefkure Ozkaya, Nil Comunoglu, Muge Sayitoglu, Fatma Ela Keskin, Sinem Firtina, Khusan Khodzhaev, Tugce Apaydin, Nurperi Gazioglu, Necmettin Tanriover, Buge Oz, Pinar Kadioglu
OBJECTIVE: To determine aryl hydrocarbon interacting protein (AIP) gene variations and AIP and somatostatin receptor (SSTR) 1-5 immunostaining in patients with apparently sporadic acromegaly with poor versus good response to somatostatin analogues (SRLs). METHODS: A total of 94 patients (66 with poor and 28 with good response to SRLs) were screened for the AIP gene variations using Sanger sequencing. Immunostaining was performed in 60 tumors. RESULTS: Several variations, albeit some with undetermined significance, were detected, especially in poor responder patients...
February 17, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441449/non-functioning-pituitary-adenomas-not-all-the-same-and-certainly-not-boring
#4
EDITORIAL
Maria Fleseriu, Niki Karavitaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404894/corticotrophic-pituitary-carcinoma-with-cervical-metastases-case-series-and-literature-review
#5
REVIEW
Frederick Yoo, Edward C Kuan, Anthony P Heaney, Marvin Bergsneider, Marilene B Wang
PURPOSE: Pituitary tumors are the second most common intracranial tumors, however, pituitary carcinoma is a rare clinical entity which represents only 0.1-0.2% of all pituitary tumors. Diagnosis of pituitary carcinoma requires the presence of metastasis. Early identification of pituitary carcinoma is difficult, and only recently have guidelines been published for the treatment of aggressive pituitary tumors. We present two cases from our institution, with a review of other cases available in literature in order to better characterize this rare disease...
February 5, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404893/pathogenesis-of-non-functioning-pituitary-adenomas
#6
REVIEW
Maria Chiara Zatelli
The pathogenesis of non functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) is a complex process involving several factors, from molecular to genetic and epigenetic modifications, where tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, cell cycle derangements have been demonstrated to play an important role. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have also been identified as possible players in NFPA tumorigenesis and pituitary stem cells have been investigated for their potential role in pituitary tumor initiation. However, a critical role for paracrine signalling has also been highlighted...
February 5, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397538/effects-of-pegvisomant-and-somatostatin-receptor-ligands-on-incidence-of-vertebral-fractures-in-patients-with-acromegaly
#7
Sabrina Chiloiro, Gherardo Mazziotti, Antonella Giampietro, Antonio Bianchi, Stefano Frara, Marilda Mormando, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Andrea Giustina, Laura De Marinis
PURPOSE: Acromegalic osteopathy is an emerging complication of acromegaly characterized by increase in bone turnover, deterioration in bone microarchitecture and high risk of vertebral fractures (VFs). Somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs) and pegvisomant (PegV) are used for treatment of acromegaly and there is evidence that both drugs may exert direct effects on peripheral targets regardless of biochemical control of disease. However, whether or not SRLs and PegV may directly influence skeletal health its is unknown...
February 3, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392514/letter-to-the-editor
#8
LETTER
Andrew S Little, Kevin Yuen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383476/apoplexy-in-nonfunctioning-pituitary-adenomas
#9
REVIEW
Luiz Eduardo Wildemberg, Andrea Glezer, Marcello D Bronstein, Mônica R Gadelha
Pituitary apoplexy is an uncommon event, occurring due to the infarction and/or haemorrhage usually of a previously unknown pituitary adenoma. It can occur in all adenoma subtypes but is more common in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. The physiopathology is not completely clear, and precipitating factors, such as major surgeries, anticoagulant use or pituitary dynamic tests, can be found in up to 40% of patients. The clinical presentation is characterized by a rapid onset with a headache as the main symptom, but visual disturbances can also be present as well as meningism and intracranial hypertension...
January 31, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380110/fall-in-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-tsh-may-be-an-early-marker-of-ipilimumab-induced-hypophysitis
#10
Sunita M C De Sousa, Nisa Sheriff, Chau H Tran, Alexander M Menzies, Venessa H M Tsang, Georgina V Long, Katherine T T Tonks
PURPOSE: Hypophysitis develops in up to 19% of melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab, a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibody. Early detection may avert life-threatening hypopituitarism. We aimed to assess the incidence of ipilimumab-induced hypophysitis (IH) at a quaternary melanoma referral centre, and to determine whether cortisol or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) monitoring could predict IH onset. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of ipilimumab-treated patients at a quaternary melanoma referral centre in Australia...
January 29, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372392/management-of-nonfunctioning-pituitary-tumors-radiotherapy
#11
REVIEW
Giuseppe Minniti, John Flickinger, Barbara Tolu, Sergio Paolini
External beam radiotherapy (RT) is an essential part of the management of intracranial tumors and has been used in treating pituitary adenomas for more than five decades. It has been demonstrated that conventional RT for postoperative residual or progressive nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFAs) present an excellent long-term local tumor control, although its use has been limited because of the potential late toxicity related to radiation treatments. Recent advances in radiation techniques have led to more accurate treatments, rendering obsolete many commonly held views of the "old" radiotherapy...
January 25, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368293/epidemiology-clinical-presentation-and-diagnosis-of-non-functioning-pituitary-adenomas
#12
REVIEW
Georgia Ntali, John A Wass
PURPOSE: Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are benign pituitary neoplasms that do not cause a hormonal hypersecretory syndrome. An improved understanding of their epidemiology, clinical presentation and diagnosis is needed. METHOD: A literature review was performed using Pubmed to identify research reports and clinical case series on NFPAs. RESULTS: They account for 14-54% of pituitary adenomas and have a prevalence of 7-41.3/100,000 population...
January 24, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363000/pituitary-xanthogranulomas-clinical-features-radiological-appearances-and-post-operative-outcomes
#13
R Ved, N Logier, P Leach, J S Davies, C Hayhurst
BACKGROUND: Xanthogranulomas are inflammatory masses most commonly found at peripheral sites such as the skin. Sellar and parasellar xanthogranulomas are rare and present a diagnostic challenge as they are difficult to differentiate from other sellar lesions such as craniopharyngiomas and Rathke's cleft cysts pre-operatively. Their radiological imaging features are yet to be clearly defined, and clinical outcomes after surgery are also uncertain. This study reviews clinical presentation, radiological appearances, and clinical outcomes in a cohort of patients with pituitary xanthogranulomas...
January 23, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357081/biochemical-efficacy-of-long-acting-lanreotide-depot-autogel-in-patients-with-acromegaly-na%C3%A3-ve-to-somatostatin-receptor-ligands-analysis-of-three-multicenter-clinical-trials
#14
Hussain Alquraini, Maria Del Pilar Schneider, Beloo Mirakhur, Ariel Barkan
PURPOSE: In clinical research involving acromegalic patients naïve to somatostatin-receptor ligands (SRLs), 19 and 31% of those receiving the SRLs octreotide LAR and pasireotide LAR, respectively, achieved GH < 2.5 ng/mL + normalized IGF-1 concentrations. The proportions achieving control appeared higher in the post-surgery compared with the de-novo setting with pasireotide, but more similar with octreotide. Using pooled data from multicenter clinical trials, we examined the biochemical efficacy of lanreotide depot/Autogel in similar settings...
January 22, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344907/silent-corticotroph-adenomas
#15
REVIEW
Anat Ben-Shlomo, Odelia Cooper
PURPOSE: Silent corticotroph adenomas (SCAs) present clinically as non-functioning adenomas (NFAs) but are immunopositive for adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) without biochemical and clinical manifestation of hypercortisolism. Pathologic examination of resected NFAs that demonstrate positive ACTH and/or TPIT expression confirms its corticotroph lineage. SCAs comprise up to 20% of NFAs and exhibit a higher rate of recurrence. Studies of molecular mechanisms have generated multiple hypotheses on SCA tumorigenesis, pathophysiology, and growth that as yet remain to be proven...
January 17, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344906/mortality-in-patients-with-non-functioning-pituitary-adenoma
#16
REVIEW
Metaxia Tampourlou, Athanasios Fountas, Georgia Ntali, Niki Karavitaki
Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFA) are benign pituitary neoplasms not associated with clinical evidence of hormonal hypersecretion. A substantial number of patients with NFA have morbidities related to the tumor and possible recurrence(s), as well as to the treatments offered. Studies assessing the long-term mortality of patients with NFA are limited. Based on the published literature of the last two decades, overall, the standardized mortality ratios in this group suggest mortality higher than that of the general population with deaths attributed mainly to circulatory, respiratory and infectious causes...
January 17, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344905/management-of-nfas-medical-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Naomi Even-Zohar, Yona Greenman
INTRODUCTION: Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are in general large tumors that present with symptoms secondary to local pressure on adjacent structures. Transsphenoidal surgery is the first line of treatment but residual tumor mass is often detected post-operatively. Medical therapy, in any stage of tumor management, is not well established. METHODS: A literature search was performed to review the available data on medical treatment of NFPAs. RESULTS: Medications investigated for the treatment of NFPAs include dopamine receptor agonists (DA) and somatostatin receptor ligands...
January 17, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344904/mgmt-assessment-in-pituitary-adenomas-comparison-of-different-immunohistochemistry-fixation-chemicals
#18
Alexander S G Micko, Romana Höftberger, Adelheid Wöhrer, Matthias Millesi, Engelbert Knosp, Stefan Wolfsberger
PURPOSE: Despite the established role of O6-methyl-guanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) as a marker for temozolomide response, consensus of the most reliable method to assess MGMT expression in pituitary adenomas is still missing. Currently, immunohistochemistry (IHC) assessment of formaldehyde fixed tissue samples is most widely used in a semiquantitative description. As formaldehyde fails to completely preserve nucleic acids, RCL2, an alcohol-based formaldehyde-free fixative, has been proposed as a more reliable alternative in terms of cell stability...
January 17, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313180/a-prospective-longitudinal-study-of-pasireotide-in-nelson-s-syndrome
#19
Eleni Daniel, Miguel Debono, Sharon Caunt, Constantine Girio-Fragkoulakis, Stephen J Walters, Scott A Akker, Ashley B Grossman, Peter J Trainer, John Newell-Price
PURPOSE: Nelson's syndrome is a challenging condition that can develop following bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease, with high circulating ACTH levels, pigmentation and an invasive pituitary tumor. There is no established medical therapy. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of pasireotide on plasma ACTH and tumor volume in Nelson's syndrome. METHODS: Open labeled multicenter longitudinal trial in three steps: (1) a placebo-controlled acute response test; (2) 1 month pasireotide 300-600 μg s...
January 8, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305680/silent-somatotroph-pituitary-adenomas-an-update
#20
REVIEW
Fabienne Langlois, Randall Woltjer, Justin S Cetas, Maria Fleseriu
Silent growth hormone adenomas (SGHA) are a rare entity of non-functioning pituitary neuroendocrine tumors. Diagnosis is invariably made post-operatively of a tumor immunopositive for GH (and Pit-1 in selected cases) but without clinical acromegaly. Mainly young females are affected, and tumors are often uncovered by investigation for headaches or oligoamenorrhea. Integration of clinical, pathological and biochemical data is required for proper diagnosis. Beside normal IGF-1 levels, a third of SGHAs displays elevated GH levels and some will eventually progress to acromegaly...
January 5, 2018: Pituitary
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