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Developmental Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024328/the-development-of-morphological-representations-in-young-readers-a-cross-modal-priming-study
#1
Pauline Quémart, Laura M Gonnerman, Jennifer Downing, S Hélène Deacon
The way children organize words in their memory has intrigued many researchers in the past 20 years. Given the large number of morphologically complex words in many languages, the influence of morphemes on this organization is being increasingly examined. The aim of this study was to understand how morphemic information influences English-speaking children's word recognition. Children in grades 3 and 5 were asked to complete a lexical decision priming task. Prime-target pairs varied in semantic similarity, with low (e...
October 12, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975678/family-conflict-shapes-how-adolescents-take-risks-when-their-family-is-affected
#2
João F Guassi Moreira, Eva H Telzer
Numerous studies have established that the social context greatly affects adolescent risk taking. However, it remains unexplored whether adolescents' decision-making behaviors change when they take risks that affect other individuals such as a parent. In the current study, we sought to investigate how the social context influences risky decisions when adolescents' behavior affects their family using a formalized risk-taking model. Sixty-three early adolescents (Mage = 13.3 years; 51% female) played a risk-taking task twice, once during which they could make risky choices that only affected themselves and another during which their risky choices only affected their parent...
October 4, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952202/re-examination-of-oostenbroek-et%C3%A2-al-2016-evidence-for-neonatal-imitation-of-tongue-protrusion
#3
Andrew N Meltzoff, Lynne Murray, Elizabeth Simpson, Mikael Heimann, Emese Nagy, Jacqueline Nadel, Eric J Pedersen, Rechele Brooks, Daniel S Messinger, Leonardo De Pascalis, Francys Subiaul, Annika Paukner, Pier F Ferrari
The meaning, mechanism, and function of imitation in early infancy have been actively discussed since Meltzoff and Moore's (1977) report of facial and manual imitation by human neonates. Oostenbroek et al. (2016) claim to challenge the existence of early imitation and to counter all interpretations so far offered. Such claims, if true, would have implications for theories of social-cognitive development. Here we identify 11 flaws in Oostenbroek et al.'s experimental design that biased the results toward null effects...
September 27, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952183/children-show-limited-movement-repertoire-when-learning-a-novel-motor-skill
#4
Mei-Hua Lee, Ali Farshchiansadegh, Rajiv Ranganathan
Examining age differences in motor learning using real-world tasks is often problematic due to task novelty and biomechanical confounds. Here, we investigated how children and adults acquire a novel motor skill in a virtual environment. Participants of three different age groups (9-year-olds, 12-year-olds, and adults) learned to use their upper body movements to control a cursor on a computer screen. Results showed that 9-year-old and 12-year-old children showed poorer ability to control the cursor at the end of practice...
September 27, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952180/probing-the-depth-of-infants-theory-of-mind-disunity-in-performance-across-paradigms
#5
Diane Poulin-Dubois, Jessica Yott
There is currently a hot debate in the literature regarding whether or not infants have a true theory of mind (ToM) understanding. According to the mentalistic view, infants possess the same false belief understanding that older children have but their competence is masked by task demands. On the other hand, others have proposed that preverbal infants are incapable of mental state attribution and simply respond to superficial features of the events in spontaneous-responses tasks. In the current study, we aimed to clarify the nature of infants' performance in tasks designed to assess implicit theory of mind (ToM) by adopting a within-subject design that involved testing 18-month-old infants on two batteries of tasks measuring the same four ToM constructs (intention, desire, true belief, and false belief)...
September 27, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944614/developmental-associations-between-bilingual-experience-and-inhibitory-control-trajectories-in-head-start-children
#6
Jimena Santillán, Atika Khurana
Children from lower socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds tend to be at-risk for executive function (EF) impairments by the time they are in preschool, placing them at an early disadvantage for academic success. The present study examined the potentially protective role of bilingual experience on the development of inhibitory control (IC) in 1146 Head Start preschoolers who were followed for an 18-month period during the transition to kindergarten as part of the longitudinal Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2009 study...
September 24, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944612/using-individual-functional-channels-of-interest-to-study-cortical-development-with-fnirs
#7
Lindsey J Powell, Ben Deen, Rebecca Saxe
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a noninvasive neuroimaging technique that could be uniquely effective for investigating cortical function in human infants. However, prior efforts have been hampered by the difficulty of aligning arrays of fNIRS optodes placed on the scalp to anatomical or functional regions of underlying cortex. This challenge can be addressed by identifying channels of interest in individual participants, and then testing the reliability of those channels' response profiles in independent data...
September 24, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944600/digital-disruption-maternal-mobile-device-use-is-related-to-infant-social-emotional-functioning
#8
Sarah Myruski, Olga Gulyayeva, Samantha Birk, Koraly Pérez-Edgar, Kristin A Buss, Tracy A Dennis-Tiwary
Mobile device use has become increasingly prevalent, yet its impact on infant development remains largely unknown. When parents use mobile devices in front of infants, the parent is physically present but most likely distracted and unresponsive. Research using the classic Still Face Paradigm (SFP) suggests that parental withdrawal and unresponsiveness may have negative consequences for children's social-emotional development. In the present study, 50 infants aged 7.20 to 23.60 months (M = 15.40, SD = 4.74) and their mothers completed a modified SFP...
September 24, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944541/overcoming-the-other-race-effect-in-infancy-with-multisensory-redundancy-10-12-month-olds-discriminate-dynamic-other-race-faces-producing-speech
#9
Nicholas J Minar, David J Lewkowicz
We tested 4-6- and 10-12-month-old infants to investigate whether the often-reported decline in infant sensitivity to other-race faces may reflect responsiveness to static or dynamic/silent faces rather than a general process of perceptual narrowing. Across three experiments, we tested discrimination of either dynamic own-race or other-race faces which were either accompanied by a speech syllable, no sound, or a non-speech sound. Results indicated that 4-6- and 10-12-month-old infants discriminated own-race as well as other-race faces accompanied by a speech syllable, that only the 10-12-month-olds discriminated silent own-race faces, and that 4-6-month-old infants discriminated own-race and other-race faces accompanied by a non-speech sound but that 10-12-month-old infants only discriminated own-race faces accompanied by a non-speech sound...
September 24, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913950/do-transgender-children-gender-stereotype-less-than-their-peers-and-siblings
#10
Kristina R Olson, Elizabeth A Enright
In the present work, we ask whether socially transitioned, transgender children differ from other children in their endorsement of gender stereotypes and response to others' gender nonconformity. We compare transgender children (N = 56) to a group of siblings of transgender children (N = 37), and a group of unrelated control participants (N = 56) during middle childhood (ages 6-8 years old). Our results indicate that transgender children and the siblings of transgender children endorse gender stereotypes less than the control group...
September 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913920/dramatic-pretend-play-games-uniquely-improve-emotional-control-in-young-children
#11
Thalia R Goldstein, Matthew D Lerner
Pretense is a naturally occurring, apparently universal activity for typically developing children. Yet its function and effects remain unclear. One theorized possibility is that pretense activities, such as dramatic pretend play games, are a possible causal path to improve children's emotional development. Social and emotional skills, particularly emotional control, are critically important for social development, as well as academic performance and later life success. However, the study of such approaches has been criticized for potential bias and lack of rigor, precluding the ability to make strong causal claims...
September 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913886/what-s-parenting-got-to-do-with-it-emotional-autonomy-and-brain-and-behavioral-responses-to-emotional-conflict-in-children-and-adolescents
#12
Hilary A Marusak, Moriah E Thomason, Kelsey Sala-Hamrick, Laura Crespo, Christine A Rabinak
Healthy parenting may be protective against the development of emotional psychopathology, particularly for children reared in stressful environments. Little is known, however, about the brain and behavioral mechanisms underlying this association, particularly during childhood and adolescence, when emotional disorders frequently emerge. Here, we demonstrate that psychological control, a parenting strategy known to limit socioemotional development in children, is associated with altered brain and behavioral responses to emotional conflict in 27 at-risk (urban, lower income) youth, ages 9-16...
September 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913859/changes-in-frontal-and-posterior-cortical-activity-underlie-the-early-emergence-of-executive-function
#13
Aaron T Buss, John P Spencer
Executive function (EF) is a key cognitive process that emerges in early childhood and facilitates children's ability to control their own behavior. Individual differences in EF skills early in life are predictive of quality-of-life outcomes 30 years later (Moffitt et al., 2011). What changes in the brain give rise to this critical cognitive ability? Traditionally, frontal cortex growth is thought to underlie changes in cognitive control (Bunge & Zelazo, 2006; Moriguchi & Hiraki, 2009). However, more recent data highlight the importance of long-range cortical interactions between frontal and posterior brain regions...
September 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901050/do-children-understand-fraction-addition
#14
David W Braithwaite, Jing Tian, Robert S Siegler
Many children fail to master fraction arithmetic even after years of instruction. A recent theory of fraction arithmetic (Braithwaite, Pyke, & Siegler, 2017) hypothesized that this poor learning of fraction arithmetic procedures reflects poor conceptual understanding of them. To test this hypothesis, we performed three experiments examining fourth to eighth graders' estimates of fraction sums. We found that roughly half of estimates of sums were smaller than the same child's estimate of one of the two addends in the problem...
September 12, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901038/the-developmental-trajectory-of-children-s-auditory-and-visual-statistical-learning-abilities-modality-based-differences-in-the-effect-of-age
#15
Limor Raviv, Inbal Arnon
Infants, children and adults are capable of extracting recurring patterns from their environment through statistical learning (SL), an implicit learning mechanism that is considered to have an important role in language acquisition. Research over the past 20 years has shown that SL is present from very early infancy and found in a variety of tasks and across modalities (e.g., auditory, visual), raising questions on the domain generality of SL. However, while SL is well established for infants and adults, only little is known about its developmental trajectory during childhood, leaving two important questions unanswered: (1) Is SL an early-maturing capacity that is fully developed in infancy, or does it improve with age like other cognitive capacities (e...
September 12, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891220/the-missing-explanation-of-the-false-belief-advantage-in-bilingual-children-a-longitudinal-study
#16
Vanessa Diaz, M Jeffrey Farrar
Bilingual preschoolers often perform better than monolingual children on false-belief understanding. It has been hypothesized that this is due to their enhanced executive function skills, although this relationship has rarely been tested or supported. The current longitudinal study tested whether metalinguistic awareness was responsible for this advantage. Further, we examined the contributions of both executive functioning and language ability to false-belief understanding by including multiple measures of both...
September 10, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880496/sensitivity-to-auditory-tactile-colocation-in-early-infancy
#17
Rhiannon L Thomas, Reeva Misra, Emine Akkunt, Cristy Ho, Charles Spence, Andrew J Bremner
An ability to detect the common location of multisensory stimulation is essential for us to perceive a coherent environment, to represent the interface between the body and the external world, and to act on sensory information. Regarding the tactile environment "at hand", we need to represent somatosensory stimuli impinging on the skin surface in the same spatial reference frame as distal stimuli, such as those transduced by vision and audition. Across two experiments we investigated whether 6- (n = 14; Experiment 1) and 4-month-old (n = 14; Experiment 2) infants were sensitive to the colocation of tactile and auditory signals delivered to the hands...
September 7, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880490/not-all-phonological-awareness-deficits-are-created-equal-evidence-from-a-comparison-between-children-with-otitis-media-and-poor-readers
#18
Julia M Carroll, Helen L Breadmore
Children with reading difficulties and children with a history of repeated ear infections (Otitis Media, OM) are both thought to have phonological impairments, but for quite different reasons. This paper examines the profile of phonological and morphological awareness in poor readers and children with OM. Thirty-three poor readers were compared to individually matched chronological age and reading age controls. Their phonological awareness and morphological awareness skills were consistently at the level of reading age matched controls...
September 7, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856760/selective-social-learning-in-infancy-looking-for-mechanisms
#19
Cristina Crivello, Sara Phillips, Diane Poulin-Dubois
Although there is mounting evidence that selective social learning begins in infancy, the psychological mechanisms underlying this ability are currently a controversial issue. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether theory of mind abilities and statistical learning skills are related to infants' selective social learning. Seventy-seven 18-month-olds were first exposed to a reliable or an unreliable speaker and then completed a word learning task, two theory of mind tasks, and a statistical learning task...
August 30, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812318/the-development-and-flexibility-of-gaze-alternations-in-bonobos-and-chimpanzees
#20
Kelsey Lucca, Evan L MacLean, Brian Hare
Infants' early gaze alternations are one of their first steps towards a sophisticated understanding of the social world. This ability, to gaze alternate between an object of interest and another individual also attending to that object, has been considered foundational to the development of many complex social-cognitive abilities, such as theory of mind and language. However, to understand the evolution of these abilities, it is important to identify whether and how gaze alternations are used and develop in our closest living relatives, bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)...
August 15, 2017: Developmental Science
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