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Developmental Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639383/longitudinal-associations-between-low-morning-cortisol-in-infancy-and-anger-dysregulation-in-early-childhood-in-a-cps-referred-sample
#1
Allison Frost, Caitlin Jelinek, Kristin Bernard, Teresa Lind, Mary Dozier
Children who experience early adversity are at increased risk for developing psychopathology, and dysfunction of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is a possible mechanism conferring this risk. This study sought to characterize the association between morning cortisol during different developmental periods and deficits in children's emotion regulation, a core feature of many psychological disorders. Morning cortisol was collected at two time points (i.e., during infancy, M = 13.0 months old, and during early childhood, M = 36...
June 21, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631413/young-children-seek-out-biased-information-about-social-groups
#2
Harriet Over, Adam Eggleston, Jenny Bell, Yarrow Dunham
Understanding the origins of prejudice necessitates exploring the ways in which children participate in the construction of biased representations of social groups. We investigate whether young children actively seek out information that supports and extends their initial intergroup biases. In Studies 1 and 2, we show that children choose to hear a story that contains positive information about their own group and negative information about another group rather than a story that contains negative information about their own group and positive information about the other group...
June 20, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620940/young-children-discover-how-to-deceive-in-10%C3%A2-days-a-microgenetic-study
#3
Xiao Pan Ding, Gail D Heyman, Genyue Fu, Bo Zhu, Kang Lee
We investigated how the ability to deceive emerges in early childhood among a sample of young preschoolers (Mean age = 34.7 months). We did this via a 10-session microgenetic method that took place over a 10-day period. In each session, children played a zero-sum game against an adult to win treats. In the game, children hid the treats and had opportunities (10 trials) to win them by providing deceptive information about their whereabouts to the adult. Although children initially showed little or no ability to deceive, most spontaneously discovered deception and systematically used it to win the game by the tenth day...
June 16, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597549/lexical-processing-efficiency-leverages-novel-word-learning-in-infants-and-toddlers
#4
Jill Lany
Children who rapidly recognize and interpret familiar words typically have accelerated lexical growth, providing indirect evidence that lexical processing efficiency (LPE) is related to word-learning ability. Here we directly tested whether children with better LPE are better able to learn novel words. In Experiment 1, 17- and 30-month-olds were tested on an LPE task and on a simple word-learning task. The 17-month-olds' LPE scores predicted word learning in a regression model, and only those with relatively good LPE showed evidence of learning...
June 9, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585226/transient-sex-differences-during-adolescence-on-auditory-perceptual-tasks
#5
Julia Jones Huyck, Beverly A Wright
Many perceptual abilities differ between the sexes. Because these sex differences have been documented almost exclusively in adults, they have been attributed to sex-specific neural circuitry that emerges during development and is maintained in the mature perceptual system. To investigate whether behavioral sex differences in perception can also have other origins, we compared performance between males and females ranging in age from 8 to 30 years on auditory temporal-interval discrimination and tone-in-noise detection tasks on which there are no sex differences in adults...
June 5, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557315/salience-network-response-to-changes-in-emotional-expressions-of-others-is-heightened-during-early-adolescence-relevance-for-social-functioning
#6
Maya L Rosen, Margaret A Sheridan, Kelly A Sambrook, Meg J Dennison, Jessica L Jenness, Mary K Askren, Andrew N Meltzoff, Katie A McLaughlin
Adolescence is a unique developmental period when the salience of social and emotional information becomes particularly pronounced. Although this increased sensitivity to social and emotional information has frequently been considered with respect to risk behaviors and psychopathology, evidence suggests that increased adolescent sensitivity to social and emotional cues may confer advantages. For example, greater sensitivity to shifts in the emotions of others is likely to promote flexible and adaptive social behavior...
May 30, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557278/auditory-access-language-access-and-implicit-sequence-learning-in-deaf-children
#7
Matthew L Hall, Inge-Marie Eigsti, Heather Bortfeld, Diane Lillo-Martin
Developmental psychology plays a central role in shaping evidence-based best practices for prelingually deaf children. The Auditory Scaffolding Hypothesis (Conway et al., 2009) asserts that a lack of auditory stimulation in deaf children leads to impoverished implicit sequence learning abilities, measured via an artificial grammar learning (AGL) task. However, prior research is confounded by a lack of both auditory and language input. The current study examines implicit learning in deaf children who were (Deaf native signers) or were not (oral cochlear implant users) exposed to language from birth, and in hearing children, using both AGL and Serial Reaction Time (SRT) tasks...
May 30, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557196/the-influence-of-pubertal-maturation-on-antisaccade-performance
#8
Sarah J Ordaz, Barbara L Fritz, Erika E Forbes, Beatriz Luna
Adolescence is a period characterized by continued improvements in inhibitory control, and this persisting immaturity is believed to interact with affective/motivational behavior to generate the impulsive and risk-taking behavior evidenced at this time. Puberty is a central event of adolescence that has been shown to influence affective/motivational behavior. However, despite plausible mechanisms by which puberty might influence inhibitory control, researchers have yet to test this possibility rigorously. Thus, we designed a study to examine the unique role of pubertal maturation, independent of age, in the development of inhibitory control...
May 30, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557154/a-meta-analysis-of-the-relationship-between-socioeconomic-status-and-executive-function-performance-among-children
#9
Gwendolyn M Lawson, Cayce J Hook, Martha J Farah
The relationship between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and executive function (EF) has recently attracted attention within psychology, following reports of substantial SES disparities in children's EF. Adding to the importance of this relationship, EF has been proposed as a mediator of socioeconomic disparities in lifelong achievement and health. However, evidence about the relationship between childhood SES and EF is mixed, and there has been no systematic attempt to evaluate this relationship across studies...
May 30, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544105/ensemble-coding-of-faces-occurs-in-children-and-develops-dissociably-from-coding-of-individual-faces
#10
Gillian Rhodes, Markus Neumann, Louise Ewing, Samantha Bank, Ainsley Read, Laura M Engfors, Rachel Emiechel, Romina Palermo
Ensemble coding allows adults to access useful information about average properties of groups, sometimes even in the absence of detailed representations of individual group members. This form of coding may emerge early in development with initial reports of ensemble coding for simple properties (size, numerosity) in young children and even infants. Here we demonstrate that ensemble coding of faces, which provides information about average properties of social groups, is already present in 6-8-year-old children...
May 21, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523758/iconicity-in-the-speech-of-children-and-adults
#11
Lynn K Perry, Marcus Perlman, Bodo Winter, Dominic W Massaro, Gary Lupyan
Iconicity - the correspondence between form and meaning - may help young children learn to use new words. Early-learned words are higher in iconicity than later learned words. However, it remains unclear what role iconicity may play in actual language use. Here, we ask whether iconicity relates not just to the age at which words are acquired, but also to how frequently children and adults use the words in their speech. If iconicity serves to bootstrap word learning, then we would expect that children should say highly iconic words more frequently than less iconic words, especially early in development...
May 18, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523733/the-development-of-cognitive-empathy-and-concern-in-preschool-children-a-behavioral-neuroscience-investigation
#12
Jean Decety, Kimberly L Meidenbauer, Jason M Cowell
This developmental neuroscience study examined the electrophysiological responses (EEG and ERPs) associated with perspective taking and empathic concern in preschool children, as well as their relation to parental empathy dispositions and children's own prosocial behavior. Consistent with a body of previous studies using stimuli depicting somatic pain in both children and adults, larger early (~200 ms) ERPs were identified when perceiving painful versus neutral stimuli. In the slow wave window (~800 ms), a significant interaction of empathy condition and stimulus type was driven by a greater difference between painful and neutral images in the empathic concern condition...
May 18, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503845/the-specificity-of-the-neural-response-to-speech-at-birth
#13
Lillian May, Judit Gervain, Manuel Carreiras, Janet F Werker
In this work we ask whether at birth, the human brain responds uniquely to speech, or if similar activation also occurs to a non-speech surrogate 'language'. We compare neural activation in newborn infants to the language heard in utero (English), to an unfamiliar language (Spanish), and to a whistled surrogate language (Silbo Gomero) that, while used by humans to communicate, is not speech. Anterior temporal areas of the neonate cortex are activated in response to both familiar and unfamiliar spoken language, but these classic language areas are not activated to the whistled surrogate form...
May 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497524/changing-minds-children-s-inferences-about-third-party-belief-revision
#14
Rachel W Magid, Phyllis Yan, Max H Siegel, Joshua B Tenenbaum, Laura E Schulz
By the age of 5, children explicitly represent that agents can have both true and false beliefs based on epistemic access to information (e.g., Wellman, Cross, & Watson, 2001). Children also begin to understand that agents can view identical evidence and draw different inferences from it (e.g., Carpendale & Chandler, 1996). However, much less is known about when, and under what conditions, children expect other agents to change their minds. Here, inspired by formal ideal observer models of learning, we investigate children's expectations of the dynamics that underlie third parties' belief revision...
May 12, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497512/children-s-intuitive-sense-of-number-develops-independently-of-their-perception-of-area-density-length-and-time
#15
Darko Odic
Young children can quickly and intuitively represent the number of objects in a visual scene through the Approximate Number System (ANS). The precision of the ANS - indexed as the most difficult ratio of two numbers that children can reliably discriminate - is well known to improve with development: whereas infants require relatively large ratios to discriminate number, children can discriminate finer and finer changes in number between toddlerhood and early adulthood. Which factors drive the developmental improvements in ANS precision? Here, we investigate the influence of four non-numeric dimensions - area, density, line length, and time - on ANS development, exploring the degree to which the ANS develops independently from these other dimensions, from inhibitory control, and from domain-general factors such as attention and working memory that are shared between these tasks...
May 12, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470820/semantic-richness-and-word-learning-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Allison Gladfelter, Lisa Goffman
Semantically rich learning contexts facilitate semantic, phonological, and articulatory aspects of word learning in children with typical development (TD). However, because children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show differences at each of these processing levels, it is unclear whether they will benefit from semantic cues in the same manner as their typical peers. The goal of this study was to track how the inclusion of rich, sparse, or no semantic cues influences semantic, phonological, and articulatory aspects of word learning in children with ASD and TD over time...
May 4, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464437/relationship-between-sports-experience-and-executive-function-in-6-12-year-old-children-independence-from-physical-fitness-and-moderation-by-gender
#17
Toru Ishihara, Shigemi Sugasawa, Yusuke Matsuda, Masao Mizuno
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sports experience (i.e., tennis experience) and executive function in children while controlling for physical activity and physical fitness. Sixty-eight participants (6-12 years old, 34 males and 34 females) were enrolled in regular tennis lessons (mean = 2.4 years, range = 0.1-7.3 years) prior to the study. Executive functions, including inhibitory control (the Stroop Color-Word Test), working memory (the 2-back Task), and cognitive flexibility (the Local-global Task) were evaluated...
May 2, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464381/socioeconomic-status-and-hippocampal-volume-in-children-and-young-adults
#18
Qijing Yu, Ana M Daugherty, Dana M Anderson, Mayu Nishimura, David Brush, Amanda Hardwick, William Lacey, Sarah Raz, Noa Ofen
An individual's socioeconomic status (SES) is often viewed as a proxy for a host of environmental influences. SES disparities have been linked to variance in brain structures particularly the hippocampus, a neural substrate of learning and memory. However, it is unclear whether the association between SES and hippocampal volume is similar in children and adults. We investigated the relationship between hippocampal volume and SES in a group of children (n = 31, age 8-12 years) and a group of young adults (n = 32, age 18-25 years)...
May 2, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447388/incidental-learning-in-a-multisensory-environment-across-childhood
#19
Hannah J Broadbent, Hayley White, Denis Mareschal, Natasha Z Kirkham
Multisensory information has been shown to modulate attention in infants and facilitate learning in adults, by enhancing the amodal properties of a stimulus. However, it remains unclear whether this translates to learning in a multisensory environment across middle childhood, and particularly in the case of incidental learning. One hundred and eighty-one children aged between 6 and 10 years participated in this study using a novel Multisensory Attention Learning Task (MALT). Participants were asked to respond to the presence of a target stimulus whilst ignoring distractors...
April 26, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440058/atypical-inter-hemispheric-communication-correlates-with-altered-motor-inhibition-during-learning-of-a-new-bimanual-coordination-pattern-in-developmental-coordination-disorder
#20
Mélody Blais, David Amarantini, Jean-Michel Albaret, Yves Chaix, Jessica Tallet
Impairment of motor learning skills in developmental coordination disorder (DCD) has been reported in several studies. Some hypotheses on neural mechanisms of motor learning deficits in DCD have emerged but, to date, brain-imaging investigations are scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess possible changes in communication between brain areas during practice of a new bimanual coordination task in teenagers with DCD (n = 10) compared to matched controls (n = 10). Accuracy, stability and number of mirror movements were computed as behavioural variables...
April 25, 2017: Developmental Science
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