journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Developmental Science

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921356/time-processing-impairments-in-preschoolers-at-risk-of-developing-difficulties-in-mathematics
#1
Valentina Tobia, Luca Rinaldi, Gian Marco Marzocchi
The occurrence of time processing problems in individuals with Development Dyscalculia (DD) has favored the view of a general magnitude system devoted to both numerical and temporal information. Yet, this scenario has been partially challenged by studies indicating that time difficulties can be attributed to poor calculation or counting skills, which can support reasoning on time in school-aged children and adults. Here, we tackle this debate by exploring the performance of young children before they fully develop the symbolic number system...
December 5, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921339/perceptual-narrowing-towards-adult-faces-is-a-cross-cultural-phenomenon-in-infancy-a-behavioral-and-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study-with-japanese-infants
#2
Megumi Kobayashi, Viola Macchi Cassia, So Kanazawa, Masami K Yamaguchi, Ryusuke Kakigi
Recent data showed that, in Caucasian infants, perceptual narrowing occurs for own-race adult faces between 3 and 9 months of age, possibly as a consequence of the extensive amount of social and perceptual experience accumulated with caregivers and/or other adult individuals of the same race of the caregiver. The neural correlates of this developmental process remain unexplored, and it is currently unknown whether perceptual tuning towards adult faces can be extended to other cultures. To this end, in the current study we tested the ability of 3- and 9-month-old Japanese infants to discriminate among adult and infant Asian faces in a visual familiarization task (Experiment 1), and compared 9-month-olds' cerebral hemodynamic responses to adult and infant faces as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) (Experiment 2)...
December 5, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882635/a-bilingual-advantage-in-54-month-olds-use-of-referential-cues-in-fast-mapping
#3
W Quin Yow, Xiaoqian Li, Sarah Lam, Teodora Gliga, Yap Seng Chong, Kenneth Kwek, Birit F P Broekman
Research has demonstrated a bilingual advantage in how young children use referential cues such as eye gaze and pointing gesture to locate an object or to categorize objects. This study investigated the use of referential cues (i.e. eye gaze) in fast mapping in three groups of children that differed in their language exposure. One hundred and seven 54-month-old children who were English monolinguals (n = 28), English-Mandarin bilinguals (n = 48), and English-Mandarin bilinguals with exposure to a third language (i...
November 23, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882631/adolescents-inhibitory-control-keep-it-cool-or-lose-control
#4
Ania Aïte, Mathieu Cassotti, Adriano Linzarini, Anaïs Osmont, Olivier Houdé, Grégoire Borst
Inhibitory control (i.e., the ability to resist automatisms, temptations, distractions, or interference and to adapt to conflicting situations) is a determinant of cognitive and socio-emotional development. In light of the discrepancies of previous findings on the development of inhibitory control in affectively charged contexts, two important issues need to be addressed. We need to determine (a) whether cool inhibitory control (in affectively neutral contexts) and hot inhibitory control (in affectively charged contexts) follow the same developmental pattern and (b) the degree of specificity of these two types of inhibitory control at different ages...
November 23, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873433/blindness-to-background-an-inbuilt-bias-for-visual-objects
#5
Catherine G O'Hanlon, Jenny C A Read
Sixty-eight 2- to 12-year-olds and 30 adults were shown colorful displays on a touchscreen monitor and trained to point to the location of a named color. Participants located targets near-perfectly when presented with four abutting colored patches. When presented with three colored patches on a colored background, toddlers failed to locate targets in the background. Eye tracking demonstrated that the effect was partially mediated by a tendency not to fixate the background. However, the effect was abolished when the targets were named as nouns, whilst the change to nouns had little impact on eye movement patterns...
November 22, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873384/attention-allocation-towards-own-face-is-pronounced-during-middle-adolescence-an-eye-tracking-study
#6
Hirokazu Doi, Kazuyuki Shinohara
Increased interest in the self has long been deemed to be one of the most peculiar characteristics of adolescence. On the basis of this, we conjectured that attentiveness towards self-relevant information, especially one's own face, becomes more pronounced during the middle adolescence. The present study tested this hypothesis by comparing the pattern of visuospatial attention allocation to their own face among early, middle and late adolescent males using an eye-tracking methodology. The results have shown a clear pattern of increased attention allocation towards their own face over a close friend's and a stranger's face in middle adolescents, but fixation durations on their own and a friend's face did not differ from each other in early and late adolescents...
November 22, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866378/four-month-old-infants-individuate-and-track-simple-tools-following-functional-demonstrations
#7
Maayan Stavans, Renée Baillargeon
Two experiments examined whether 4-month-olds (n = 120) who were induced to assign two objects to different categories would then be able to take advantage of these contrastive categorical encodings to individuate and track the objects. In each experiment, infants first watched functional demonstrations of two tools, a masher and tongs (Experiment 1) or a marker and a knife (Experiment 2). Next, half the infants saw the two tools brought out alternately from behind a screen, which was then lowered to reveal only one of the tools (different-objects condition); the other infants saw similar events except that the same tool was shown on either side of the screen (same-object condition)...
November 20, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859959/when-preschoolers-follow-their-eyes-and-older-children-follow-their-noses-visuo-olfactory-social-affective-matching-in%C3%A2-childhood
#8
Annachiara Cavazzana, Christiane Wesarg, Julia Parish-Morris, Johan N Lundström, Valentina Parma
Recognition of emotional facial expressions is a crucial skill for adaptive behavior that most often occurs in a multi-sensory context. Affective matching tasks have been used across development to investigate how people integrate facial information with other senses. Given the relative affective strength of olfaction and its relevance in mediating social information since birth, we assessed olfactory-visual matching abilities in a group of 140 children between the ages of 3 and 11 years old. We presented one of three odor primes (rose, fish and no-odor, rated as pleasant or unpleasant by individual children) before a facial choice task (happy vs...
November 17, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860099/bilingualism-affects-9-month-old-infants-expectations-about-how-words-refer-to-kinds
#9
Krista Byers-Heinlein
Infants are precocious word learners, and seem to possess systematic expectations about how words refer to object kinds. For example, while monolingual infants show a one-to-one mapping bias (e.g. mutual exclusivity), expecting each object to have only one basic level label, previous research has shown that this is less robust in bi- and multilinguals aged 1.5 years and older. This study examined the early origins of such one-to-one mapping biases by comparing monolingual and bilingual 9-10-month-olds' expectations about the relationship between labels and object kinds...
November 9, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785865/mothers-speak-differently-to-infants-at-risk-for-dyslexia
#10
Marina Kalashnikova, Usha Goswami, Denis Burnham
Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifested in deficits in reading and spelling skills that is consistently associated with difficulties in phonological processing. Dyslexia is genetically transmitted, but its manifestation in a particular individual is thought to depend on the interaction of epigenetic and environmental factors. We adopt a novel interactional perspective on early linguistic environment and dyslexia by simultaneously studying two pre-existing factors, one maternal and one infant, that may contribute to these interactions; and two behaviours, one maternal and one infant, to index the effect of these factors...
October 27, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785857/malleability-of-implicit-associations-across-development
#11
Antonya Marie Gonzalez, William L Dunlop, Andrew Scott Baron
The prevalence of implicit intergroup bias in adults underscores the importance of knowing when during development such biases are most amenable to change. Although research suggests that implicit intergroup bias undergoes little change across development, no studies have directly examined whether developmental differences exist in the capacity for novel implicit associations to form or change. The present study examined this issue among children ages 5-12. Results from over 800 children provided evidence that novel implicit associations formed quickly, regardless of child age, association type (evaluative or non-evaluative) or the target of the association (social or non-social)...
October 27, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781330/investigating-looking-and-social-looking-measures-as-an-index-of-infant-violation-of-expectation
#12
Kirsty Dunn, J Gavin Bremner
Accumulated looking time has been widely used to index violation of expectation (VoE) response in young infants. But there is controversy concerning the validity of this measure, with some interpreting infant looking behaviour in terms of perceptual preferences (Cohen & Marks, ; Haith, ). The current study aimed to compare the use of looking time with a recently used measure of social looking (Walden et al., ) in distinguishing between 6-month-old infants' response to novelty/familiarity and a condition in which the object was covertly switched for a different object...
October 26, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781324/tracing-trajectories-of-audio-visual-learning-in-the-infant-brain
#13
Alyssa J Kersey, Lauren L Emberson
Although infants begin learning about their environment before they are born, little is known about how the infant brain changes during learning. Here, we take the initial steps in documenting how the neural responses in the brain change as infants learn to associate audio and visual stimuli. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNRIS) to record hemodynamic responses in the infant cortex (temporal, occipital, and frontal cortex), we find that across the infant brain, learning is characterized by an increase in activation followed by a decrease...
October 26, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774764/amygdala-orbitofrontal-connectivity-predicts-alcohol-use-two-years-later-a-longitudinal-neuroimaging-study-on-alcohol-use-in-adolescence
#14
Sabine Peters, Jiska S Peper, Anna C K Van Duijvenvoorde, Barbara R Braams, Eveline A Crone
This study tested the relation between cortical-subcortical functional connectivity and alcohol consumption in adolescents using an accelerated longitudinal design, as well as normative developmental patterns for these measures. Participants between ages 8 and 27 completed resting-state neuroimaging scans at two time points separated by two years (N = 274 at T1, N = 231 at T2). In addition, participants between ages 12 and 27 reported on recent and lifetime alcohol use (N = 193 at T1, N = 244 at T2)...
October 23, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774757/the-influences-and-outcomes-of-phonological-awareness-a-study-of-ma-pa-and-auditory-processing-in-pre-readers-with-a-family-risk-of-dyslexia
#15
Jeremy M Law, Jan Wouters, Pol Ghesquière
The direct influence of phonological awareness (PA) on reading outcomes has been widely demonstrated, yet PA may also exert indirect influence on reading outcomes through other cognitive variables such as morphological awareness (MA). However, PA's own development is dependent and influenced by many extraneous variables such as auditory processing, which could ultimately impact reading outcomes. In a group of pre-reading children with a family risk of dyslexia and low-risk controls, this study sets out to answer questions surrounding PA's relationship at various grain sizes (syllable, onset/rime and phoneme) with measures of auditory processing (frequency modulation (FM) and an amplitude rise-time task (RT)) and MA, independent of reading experience...
October 23, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774743/executive-functioning-in-spanish-and-english-speaking-head-start-preschoolers
#16
Lisa J White, Daryl B Greenfield
A growing percentage of low-income children in the United States come from Spanish-speaking homes and are dual language learners (DLLs). Recent research shows that bilingual children, compared to monolinguals, have enhanced executive functioning (EF), a set of foundational cognitive skills that predict higher social-emotional competence and academic achievement in preschool and beyond. Although this association has been found among children of different backgrounds, no study to date has assessed whether bilingual Latino preschoolers from low-income backgrounds have higher EF than their monolingual peers and their emerging bilingual peers, respectively...
October 23, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774733/maternal-and-infant-affect-at-4%C3%A2-months-predicts-performance-and-verbal-iq-at-4-and-7%C3%A2-years-in-a-diverse-population
#17
Stephen J Sheinkopf, Elena J Tenenbaum, Daniel S Messinger, Cynthia L Miller-Loncar, Ed Tronick, Linda L Lagasse, Seetha Shankaran, Henrietta Bada, Charles Bauer, Toni Whitaker, Jane Hammond, Barry M Lester
Using existing longitudinal data from 570 infants in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, we explored the predictive value of maternal and infant affect and maternal vocalizations during 2 minutes of face-to-face interactions at 4 months on IQ scores at 4.5 and 7 years. After controlling for demographic factors, maternal depression, and prenatal drug exposure, maternal positive affect and maternal positive vocalizations emerged as predictors of both verbal and performance IQ at 4.5 and 7 years. Although infant positive affect during the interaction with the mother was not predictive of these outcome measures, infant positive affect towards an examiner predicted verbal but not performance IQ at 4...
October 23, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753223/oculomotor-atypicalities-in-developmental-coordination-disorder
#18
Emma Sumner, Samuel B Hutton, Gustav Kuhn, Elisabeth L Hill
Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) fail to acquire adequate motor skill, yet surprisingly little is known about the oculomotor system in DCD. Successful completion of motor tasks is supported by accurate visual feedback. The purpose of this study was to determine whether any oculomotor differences can distinguish between children with and without a motor impairment. Using eye tracking technology, visual fixation, smooth pursuit, and pro- and anti-saccade performance were assessed in 77 children that formed three groups: children with DCD (aged 7-10), chronologically age (CA) matched peers, and a motor-match (MM) group (aged 4-7)...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753220/longitudinal-links-between-childhood-peer-acceptance-and-the-neural-correlates-of-sharing
#19
Geert-Jan Will, Eveline A Crone, Pol A C van Lier, Berna Güroğlu
Childhood peer acceptance is associated with high levels of prosocial behavior and advanced perspective taking skills. Yet, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these associations have not been studied. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural correlates of sharing decisions in a group of adolescents who had a stable accepted status (n = 27) and a group who had a chronic rejected status (n = 19) across six elementary school grades. Both groups of adolescents played three allocation games in which they could share money with strangers with varying costs and profits to them and the other person...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750405/little-bayesians-or-little-einsteins-probability-and-explanatory-virtue-in-children-s-inferences
#20
Angie M Johnston, Samuel G B Johnson, Marissa L Koven, Frank C Keil
Like scientists, children seek ways to explain causal systems in the world. But are children scientists in the strict Bayesian tradition of maximizing posterior probability? Or do they attend to other explanatory considerations, as laypeople and scientists - such as Einstein - do? Four experiments support the latter possibility. In particular, we demonstrate in four experiments that 4- to 8-year-old children, like adults, have a robust latent scope bias that leads to inferences that do not maximize posterior probability...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
journal
journal
33077
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"