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Developmental Science

Naja Ferjan Ramírez, Sarah Roseberry Lytle, Melanie Fish, Patricia K Kuhl
Previous studies reveal an association between particular features of parental language input and advances in children's language learning. However, it is not known whether parent coaching aimed to enhance specific input components would (i) successfully increase these components in parents' language input, and (ii) result in concurrent increases in children's language development. The present randomized controlled trial assigned families of typically developing 6-month-old infants to Intervention (parent coaching) and Control (no coaching) groups...
October 15, 2018: Developmental Science
Hannah C M Niermann, Anna Tyborowska, Antonius H N Cillessen, Marjolein M van Donkelaar, Femke Lammertink, Megan R Gunnar, Barbara Franke, Bernd Figner, Karin Roelofs
Given the long-lasting detrimental effects of internalizing symptoms, there is great need for detecting early risk markers. One promising marker is freezing behavior. Whereas initial freezing reactions are essential for coping with threat, prolonged freezing has been associated with internalizing psychopathology. However, it remains unknown whether early life alterations in freezing reactions predict changes in internalizing symptoms during adolescent development. In a longitudinal study (N = 116), we tested prospectively whether observed freezing in infancy predicted the development of internalizing symptoms from childhood through late adolescence (until age 17)...
October 15, 2018: Developmental Science
Juha Pyykkö, Linda Forssman, Kenneth Maleta, Per Ashorn, Ulla Ashorn, Jukka M Leppänen
Eye tracking research has shown that infants develop a repertoire of attentional capacities during the first year. The majority of studies examining the early development of attention comes from Western, high-resource countries. We examined visual attention in a heterogeneous sample of infants in rural Malawi (N = 312-376, depending on analysis). Infants were assessed with eye-tracking-based tests that targeted visual orienting, anticipatory looking, and attention to faces at 7 and 9 months. Consistent with prior research, infants exhibited active visual search for salient visual targets, anticipatory saccades to predictable events, and a robust attentional bias for happy and fearful faces...
October 13, 2018: Developmental Science
Marina Proft, Hannes Rakoczy
When evaluating norm transgressions, children begin to show some sensitivity to the agent's intentionality around preschool age. However, the specific developmental trajectories of different forms of such intent-based judgments and their cognitive underpinnings are still largely unclear. The current studies, therefore, systematically investigated the development of intent-based normative judgments as a function of two crucial factors: (a) the type of the agent's mental state underlying a normative transgression, and (b) the type of norm transgressed (moral versus conventional)...
October 2, 2018: Developmental Science
Wanze Xie, Sarah A McCormick, Alissa Westerlund, Lindsay C Bowman, Charles A Nelson
In the present study we examined the neural correlates of facial emotion processing in the first year of life using ERP measures and cortical source analysis. EEG data were collected cross-sectionally from 5- (N = 49), 7- (N = 50), and 12-month-old (N = 51) infants while they were viewing images of angry, fearful, and happy faces. The N290 component was found to be larger in amplitude in response to fearful and happy than angry faces in all posterior clusters and showed largest response to fear than the other two emotions only over the right occipital area...
October 1, 2018: Developmental Science
Manuel Bohn, Josep Call, Michael Tomasello
The recognition of iconic correspondence between signal and referent has been argued to bootstrap the acquisition and emergence of language. Here we study the ontogeny, and to some extent the phylogeny, of the ability to spontaneously relate iconic signals, gestures and/or vocalizations, to previous experience. Children at 18, 24, and 36 months of age (N = 216) and great apes (N = 13) interacted with two apparatuses, each comprising a distinct action and sound. Subsequently, an experimenter mimicked either the action, the sound, or both in combination to refer to one of the apparatuses...
September 29, 2018: Developmental Science
J Paul Pozuelos, Lina M Combita, Alicia Abundis, Pedro M Paz-Alonso, Ángela Conejero, Sonia Guerra, M Rosario Rueda
Interventions including social scaffolding and metacognitive strategies have been used in educational settings to promote cognition. In addition, increasing evidence shows that computerized process-based training enhances cognitive skills. However, no prior studies have examined the effect of combining these two training strategies. The goal of this study was to test the combined effect of metacognitive scaffolding and computer-based training of executive attention in a sample of typically developing preschoolers at the cognitive and brain levels...
September 26, 2018: Developmental Science
Chen Yu, Sumarga H Suanda, Linda B Smith
Vocabulary differences early in development are highly predictive of later language learning as well as achievement in school. Early word learning emerges in the context of tightly coupled social interactions between the early learner and a mature partner. In the present study, we develop and apply a novel paradigm-dual head-mounted eye tracking-to record momentary gaze data from both parents and infants during free-flowing toy-play contexts. With fine-grained sequential patterns extracted from continuous gaze streams, we objectively measure both joint attention and sustained attention as parents and 9-month-old infants played with objects and as parents named objects during play...
September 26, 2018: Developmental Science
Joan Birules, Laura Bosch, Ricarda Brieke, Ferran Pons, David J Lewkowicz
Previous findings indicate that bilingual Catalan/Spanish-learning infants attend more to the highly salient audiovisual redundancy cues normally available in a talker's mouth than do monolingual infants. Presumably, greater attention to such cues renders the challenge of learning two languages easier. Spanish and Catalan are, however, rhythmically and phonologically close languages. This raises the possibility that bilinguals only rely on redundant audiovisual cues when their languages are close. To test this possibility, we exposed 15-month-old and 4- to 6-year-old close-language bilinguals (Spanish/Catalan) and distant-language bilinguals (Spanish/"other") to videos of a talker uttering Spanish or Catalan (native) and English (non-native) monologues and recorded eye-gaze to the talker's eyes and mouth...
September 25, 2018: Developmental Science
Janette Chow, Anne M Aimola Davies, Luis J Fuentes, Kim Plunkett
The current study examines the relationship between 18-month-old toddlers' vocabulary size and their ability to inhibit attention to no-longer relevant information using the backward semantic inhibition (BSI) paradigm. When adults switch attention from one semantic category to another, the former and no-longer-relevant semantic category becomes inhibited, and subsequent attention to an item that belongs to the inhibited semantic category is impaired. Here we demonstrate that 18-month-olds can inhibit attention to no-longer relevant semantic categories, but only if they have a relatively large vocabulary...
September 24, 2018: Developmental Science
Daniel J Plebanek, Vladimir M Sloutsky
Selective attention is fundamental for learning across many situations, yet it exhibits protracted development, with young children often failing to filter out distractors. In this research, we examine links between selective attention and working memory (WM) capacity across development. One possibility is that WM is resource-limited, with development resulting in an increase in the amount of resources available for processing information. However, it is also possible that development results in greater efficiency of using available resources...
September 24, 2018: Developmental Science
Kenneth Lee Raby, Emily Freedman, Heather A Yarger, Teresa Lind, Mary Dozier
Young children in foster care are at increased risk for problematic language development, making early intervention a critical tool in enhancing these children's foundational language abilities. This study examined the efficacy of an early preventative intervention, Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up for Toddlers (ABC-T), in improving the receptive vocabulary abilities of toddlers placed in foster care. All the children had been removed from their biological parents' care and placed into foster care. When children were between 24 and 36 months old, foster parents were contacted by research staff and consented to participate...
September 19, 2018: Developmental Science
Katie Wagner, Junyi Chu, David Barner
How do children acquire exact meanings for number words like three or forty-seven? In recent years, a lively debate has probed the cognitive systems that support learning, with some arguing that an evolutionarily ancient "approximate number system" drives early number word meanings, and others arguing that learning is supported chiefly by representations of small sets of discrete individuals. This debate has centered around the findings generated by Wynn's (, ) Give-a-Number task, which she used to categorize children into discrete "knower level" stages...
September 19, 2018: Developmental Science
Margaret J Snowling, Arne Lervåg, Hannah M Nash, Charles Hulme
Speech perception deficits are commonly reported in dyslexia but longitudinal evidence that poor speech perception compromises learning to read is scant. We assessed the hypothesis that phonological skills, specifically phoneme awareness and RAN, mediate the relationship between speech perception and reading. We assessed longitudinal predictive relationships between categorical speech perception, phoneme awareness, RAN, language, attention and reading at ages 5½ and 6½ years in 237 children many of whom were at high risk of reading difficulties...
September 12, 2018: Developmental Science
Elizabeth Huppert, Jason M Cowell, Yawei Cheng, Carlos Contreras-Ibáñez, Natalia Gomez-Sicard, Luz Maria Gonzalez-Gaeda, David Huepe, Agustin Ibanez, Kang Lee, Randa Mahasneh, Susan Malcolm-Smith, Natalia Salas, Bilge Selcuk, Bertil Tungodden, Alina Wong, Xinyue Zhou, Jean Decety
A concern for fairness is a fundamental and universal element of morality. To examine the extent to which cultural norms are integrated into fairness cognitions and influence social preferences regarding equality and equity, a large sample of children (N 2,163) aged 4-11 were tested in 13 diverse countries. Children participated in three versions of a third-party, contextualized distributive justice game between two hypothetical recipients differing in terms of wealth, merit, and empathy. Social decision-making in these games revealed universal age-related shifts from equality-based to equity-based distribution motivations across cultures...
September 12, 2018: Developmental Science
Kirsty S Lee, Tracy Vaillancourt
Numerous studies have reported that children and adolescents who are overweight are more likely to get bullied, yet the literature is replete with methodological limitations. We examined the transactional associations between peer victimization and body mass index (BMI), considering potential mediating (body dissatisfaction) and moderating (biological sex) factors. Participants (n = 631) came from the McMaster Teen Study, where students were assessed annually between Grades 5-11, approximately half were girls (53...
September 7, 2018: Developmental Science
Andrew N Meltzoff, Lynne Murray, Elizabeth Simpson, Mikael Heimann, Emese Nagy, Jacqueline Nadel, Eric J Pedersen, Rechele Brooks, Daniel S Messinger, Leonardo De Pascalis, Francys Subiaul, Annika Paukner, Pier F Ferrari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2018: Developmental Science
Michael Hahn, Ann-Kathrin Joechner, Judith Roell, Manuel Schabus, Dominik Pj Heib, Georg Gruber, Philippe Peigneux, Kerstin Hoedlmoser
Sleep spindles are related to sleep-dependent memory consolidation and general cognitive abilities. However, they undergo drastic maturational changes during adolescence. Here we used a longitudinal approach (across 7 years) to explore whether developmental changes in sleep spindle density can explain individual differences in sleep-dependent memory consolidation and general cognitive abilities. Ambulatory polysomnography was recorded during four nights in 34 healthy subjects (24 female) with two nights (baseline and experimental) at initial recording (age range 8-11 years) and two nights at follow-up recording (age range 14-18 years)...
September 5, 2018: Developmental Science
Bálint Forgács, Eugenio Parise, Gergely Csibra, György Gergely, Lisa Jacquey, Judit Gervain
Infants employ sophisticated mechanisms to acquire their first language, including some that rely on taking the perspective of adults as speakers or listeners. When do infants first show awareness of what other people understand? We tested 14-month-old infants in two experiments measuring event-related potentials. In Experiment 1, we established that infants produce the N400 effect, a brain signature of semantic violations, in a live object naming paradigm in the presence of an adult observer. In Experiment 2, we induced false beliefs about the labelled objects in the adult observer to test whether infants keep track of the other person's comprehension...
September 5, 2018: Developmental Science
Hannah J Broadbent, Tamsin Osborne, Denis Mareschal, Natasha Z Kirkham
Multisensory tools are commonly employed within educational settings (e.g. Carter & Stephenson, ), and there is a growing body of literature advocating the benefits of presenting children with multisensory information over unisensory cues for learning (Baker & Jordan, ; Jordan & Baker, ). This is even the case when the informative cues are only arbitrarily related (Broadbent, White, Mareschal, & Kirkham, ). However, the delayed retention of learning following exposure to multisensory compared to unisensory cues has not been evaluated, and has important implications for the utility of multisensory educational tools...
September 5, 2018: Developmental Science
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