journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Developmental Science

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722292/investigating-the-origins-of-political-views-biases-in-explanation-predict-conservative-attitudes-in-children-and-adults
#1
Larisa J Hussak, Andrei Cimpian
We tested the hypothesis that political attitudes are influenced by an information-processing factor - namely, a bias in the content of everyday explanations. Because many societal phenomena are enormously complex, people's understanding of them often relies on heuristic shortcuts. For instance, when generating explanations for such phenomena (e.g., why does this group have low status?), people often rely on facts that they can retrieve easily from memory - facts that are skewed toward inherent or intrinsic features (e...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722249/memory-in-3-month-old-infants-benefits-from-a-short-nap
#2
Klára Horváth, Benjamin Hannon, Peter P Ujma, Ferenc Gombos, Kim Plunkett
A broad range of studies demonstrate that sleep has a facilitating role in memory consolidation (see Rasch & Born, ). Whether sleep-dependent memory consolidation is also apparent in infants in their first few months of life has not been investigated. We demonstrate that 3-month-old infants only remember a cartoon face approximately 1.5-2 hours after its first presentation when a period of sleep followed learning. Furthermore, habituation time, that is, the time to become bored with a stimulus shown repetitively, correlated negatively with the density of infant sleep spindles, implying that processing speed is linked to specific electroencephalographic components of sleep...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703876/foundations-of-infants-social-group-evaluations
#3
Anthea Pun, Matar Ferera, Gil Diesendruck, J Kiley Hamlin, Andrew Scott Baron
Previous research has suggested that infants exhibit a preference for familiar over unfamiliar social groups (e.g., preferring individuals from their own language group over individuals from a foreign language group). However, because past studies often employ forced-choice procedures, it is not clear whether infants' intergroup preferences are driven by positivity toward members of familiar groups, negativity toward members of unfamiliar groups, or both. Across six experiments, we implemented a habituation procedure to independently measure infants' positive and negative evaluations of speakers of familiar and unfamiliar languages...
July 13, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701027/children-reading-spoken-words-interactions-between-vocabulary-and-orthographic-expectancy
#4
Signy Wegener, Hua-Chen Wang, Peter de Lissa, Serje Robidoux, Kate Nation, Anne Castles
There is an established association between children's oral vocabulary and their word reading but its basis is not well understood. Here, we present evidence from eye movements for a novel mechanism underlying this association. Two groups of 18 Grade 4 children received oral vocabulary training on one set of 16 novel words (e.g., 'nesh', 'coib'), but no training on another set. The words were assigned spellings that were either predictable from phonology (e.g., nesh) or unpredictable (e.g., koyb). These were subsequently shown in print, embedded in sentences...
July 12, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681391/developmental-trajectory-of-neural-specialization-for-letter-and-number-visual-processing
#5
Joonkoo Park, Berry van den Berg, Crystal Chiang, Marty G Woldorff, Elizabeth M Brannon
Adult neuroimaging studies have demonstrated dissociable neural activation patterns in the visual cortex in response to letters (Latin alphabet) and numbers (Arabic numerals), which suggest a strong experiential influence of reading and mathematics on the human visual system. Here, developmental trajectories in the event-related potential (ERP) patterns evoked by visual processing of letters, numbers, and false fonts were examined in four different age groups (7-, 10-, 15-year-olds, and young adults). The 15-year-olds and adults showed greater neural sensitivity to letters over numbers in the left visual cortex and the reverse pattern in the right visual cortex, extending previous findings in adults to teenagers...
July 5, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677331/age-related-differences-in-subjective-recollection-erp-studies-of-encoding-and-retrieval
#6
Leslie Rollins, Tracy Riggins
The ability to mentally re-experience past events improves significantly from childhood to young adulthood; however, the mechanisms underlying this ability remain poorly understood, partially because different tasks are used across the lifespan. This study was designed to address this gap by assessing the development of event-related potential (ERP) correlates associated with subjective indices of recollection. Children, adolescents, and adults performed Tulving's () remember/know paradigm while ERPs were recorded during memory encoding (Experiment 1) and retrieval (Experiment 2)...
July 4, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675671/accent-detection-and-social-cognition-evidence-of-protracted-learning
#7
Sarah C Creel
How and when do children become aware that speakers have different accents? While adults readily make a variety of subtle social inferences based on speakers' accents, findings from children are more mixed: while one line of research suggests that even infants may be acutely sensitive to accent unfamiliarity, other studies suggest that 5-year-olds have difficulty identifying accents as different from their own. In an attempt to resolve this paradox, the current study assesses American children's sensitivity to American vs...
July 3, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639383/longitudinal-associations-between-low-morning-cortisol-in-infancy-and-anger-dysregulation-in-early-childhood-in-a-cps-referred-sample
#8
Allison Frost, Caitlin Jelinek, Kristin Bernard, Teresa Lind, Mary Dozier
Children who experience early adversity are at increased risk for developing psychopathology, and dysfunction of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is a possible mechanism conferring this risk. This study sought to characterize the association between morning cortisol during different developmental periods and deficits in children's emotion regulation, a core feature of many psychological disorders. Morning cortisol was collected at two time points (i.e., during infancy, M = 13.0 months old, and during early childhood, M = 36...
June 21, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635049/a-neural-network-model-for-development-of-reaching-and-pointing-based-on-the-interaction-of-forward-and-inverse-transformations
#9
Naohiro Takemura, Toshio Inui, Takao Fukui
Pointing is one of the communicative actions that infants acquire during their first year of life. Based on a hypothesis that early pointing is triggered by emergent reaching behavior toward objects placed at out-of-reach distances, we proposed a neural network model that acquires reaching without explicit representation of 'targets'. The proposed model controls a two-joint arm in a horizontal plane, and it learns a loop of internal forward and inverse transformations; the former predicts the visual feedback of hand position and the latter generates motor commands from the visual input through random generation of the motor commands...
June 20, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631413/young-children-seek-out-biased-information-about-social-groups
#10
Harriet Over, Adam Eggleston, Jenny Bell, Yarrow Dunham
Understanding the origins of prejudice necessitates exploring the ways in which children participate in the construction of biased representations of social groups. We investigate whether young children actively seek out information that supports and extends their initial intergroup biases. In Studies 1 and 2, we show that children choose to hear a story that contains positive information about their own group and negative information about another group rather than a story that contains negative information about their own group and positive information about the other group...
June 20, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620940/young-children-discover-how-to-deceive-in-10%C3%A2-days-a-microgenetic-study
#11
Xiao Pan Ding, Gail D Heyman, Genyue Fu, Bo Zhu, Kang Lee
We investigated how the ability to deceive emerges in early childhood among a sample of young preschoolers (Mean age = 34.7 months). We did this via a 10-session microgenetic method that took place over a 10-day period. In each session, children played a zero-sum game against an adult to win treats. In the game, children hid the treats and had opportunities (10 trials) to win them by providing deceptive information about their whereabouts to the adult. Although children initially showed little or no ability to deceive, most spontaneously discovered deception and systematically used it to win the game by the tenth day...
June 16, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597549/lexical-processing-efficiency-leverages-novel-word-learning-in-infants-and-toddlers
#12
Jill Lany
Children who rapidly recognize and interpret familiar words typically have accelerated lexical growth, providing indirect evidence that lexical processing efficiency (LPE) is related to word-learning ability. Here we directly tested whether children with better LPE are better able to learn novel words. In Experiment 1, 17- and 30-month-olds were tested on an LPE task and on a simple word-learning task. The 17-month-olds' LPE scores predicted word learning in a regression model, and only those with relatively good LPE showed evidence of learning...
June 9, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585226/transient-sex-differences-during-adolescence-on-auditory-perceptual-tasks
#13
Julia Jones Huyck, Beverly A Wright
Many perceptual abilities differ between the sexes. Because these sex differences have been documented almost exclusively in adults, they have been attributed to sex-specific neural circuitry that emerges during development and is maintained in the mature perceptual system. To investigate whether behavioral sex differences in perception can also have other origins, we compared performance between males and females ranging in age from 8 to 30 years on auditory temporal-interval discrimination and tone-in-noise detection tasks on which there are no sex differences in adults...
June 5, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557315/salience-network-response-to-changes-in-emotional-expressions-of-others-is-heightened-during-early-adolescence-relevance-for-social-functioning
#14
Maya L Rosen, Margaret A Sheridan, Kelly A Sambrook, Meg J Dennison, Jessica L Jenness, Mary K Askren, Andrew N Meltzoff, Katie A McLaughlin
Adolescence is a unique developmental period when the salience of social and emotional information becomes particularly pronounced. Although this increased sensitivity to social and emotional information has frequently been considered with respect to risk behaviors and psychopathology, evidence suggests that increased adolescent sensitivity to social and emotional cues may confer advantages. For example, greater sensitivity to shifts in the emotions of others is likely to promote flexible and adaptive social behavior...
May 30, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557278/auditory-access-language-access-and-implicit-sequence-learning-in-deaf-children
#15
Matthew L Hall, Inge-Marie Eigsti, Heather Bortfeld, Diane Lillo-Martin
Developmental psychology plays a central role in shaping evidence-based best practices for prelingually deaf children. The Auditory Scaffolding Hypothesis (Conway et al., 2009) asserts that a lack of auditory stimulation in deaf children leads to impoverished implicit sequence learning abilities, measured via an artificial grammar learning (AGL) task. However, prior research is confounded by a lack of both auditory and language input. The current study examines implicit learning in deaf children who were (Deaf native signers) or were not (oral cochlear implant users) exposed to language from birth, and in hearing children, using both AGL and Serial Reaction Time (SRT) tasks...
May 30, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557196/the-influence-of-pubertal-maturation-on-antisaccade-performance
#16
Sarah J Ordaz, Barbara L Fritz, Erika E Forbes, Beatriz Luna
Adolescence is a period characterized by continued improvements in inhibitory control, and this persisting immaturity is believed to interact with affective/motivational behavior to generate the impulsive and risk-taking behavior evidenced at this time. Puberty is a central event of adolescence that has been shown to influence affective/motivational behavior. However, despite plausible mechanisms by which puberty might influence inhibitory control, researchers have yet to test this possibility rigorously. Thus, we designed a study to examine the unique role of pubertal maturation, independent of age, in the development of inhibitory control...
May 30, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557154/a-meta-analysis-of-the-relationship-between-socioeconomic-status-and-executive-function-performance-among-children
#17
Gwendolyn M Lawson, Cayce J Hook, Martha J Farah
The relationship between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and executive function (EF) has recently attracted attention within psychology, following reports of substantial SES disparities in children's EF. Adding to the importance of this relationship, EF has been proposed as a mediator of socioeconomic disparities in lifelong achievement and health. However, evidence about the relationship between childhood SES and EF is mixed, and there has been no systematic attempt to evaluate this relationship across studies...
May 30, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544105/ensemble-coding-of-faces-occurs-in-children-and-develops-dissociably-from-coding-of-individual-faces
#18
Gillian Rhodes, Markus Neumann, Louise Ewing, Samantha Bank, Ainsley Read, Laura M Engfors, Rachel Emiechel, Romina Palermo
Ensemble coding allows adults to access useful information about average properties of groups, sometimes even in the absence of detailed representations of individual group members. This form of coding may emerge early in development with initial reports of ensemble coding for simple properties (size, numerosity) in young children and even infants. Here we demonstrate that ensemble coding of faces, which provides information about average properties of social groups, is already present in 6-8-year-old children...
May 21, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523758/iconicity-in-the-speech-of-children-and-adults
#19
Lynn K Perry, Marcus Perlman, Bodo Winter, Dominic W Massaro, Gary Lupyan
Iconicity - the correspondence between form and meaning - may help young children learn to use new words. Early-learned words are higher in iconicity than later learned words. However, it remains unclear what role iconicity may play in actual language use. Here, we ask whether iconicity relates not just to the age at which words are acquired, but also to how frequently children and adults use the words in their speech. If iconicity serves to bootstrap word learning, then we would expect that children should say highly iconic words more frequently than less iconic words, especially early in development...
May 18, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523733/the-development-of-cognitive-empathy-and-concern-in-preschool-children-a-behavioral-neuroscience-investigation
#20
Jean Decety, Kimberly L Meidenbauer, Jason M Cowell
This developmental neuroscience study examined the electrophysiological responses (EEG and ERPs) associated with perspective taking and empathic concern in preschool children, as well as their relation to parental empathy dispositions and children's own prosocial behavior. Consistent with a body of previous studies using stimuli depicting somatic pain in both children and adults, larger early (~200 ms) ERPs were identified when perceiving painful versus neutral stimuli. In the slow wave window (~800 ms), a significant interaction of empathy condition and stimulus type was driven by a greater difference between painful and neutral images in the empathic concern condition...
May 18, 2017: Developmental Science
journal
journal
33077
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"