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Developmental Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30549386/communicative-hand-waving-gestures-facilitate-object-learning-in-preverbal-infants
#1
Masahiro Hirai, Yasuhiro Kanakogi
The theory of natural pedagogy has proposed that infants can use ostensive signals, including eye contact, infant-directed speech, and contingency to learn from others. However, the role of bodily gestures, such as hand-waving, in social learning has been largely ignored. To address this gap in the literature, this study sought to determine whether 4-month-old infants exhibited a preference for horizontal or vertical (control) hand-waving gestures. We also examined whether horizontal hand-waving gestures followed by pointing facilitated the process of object learning in 9-month-old infants...
December 14, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30548725/the-developmental-relations-between-spatial-cognition-and-mathematics-in-primary-school-children
#2
Katie A Gilligan, Alex Hodgkiss, Michael S C Thomas, Emily K Farran
Spatial thinking is an important predictor of mathematics. However, existing data do not determine whether all spatial sub-domains are equally important for mathematics outcomes nor whether mathematics-spatial associations vary through development. This study addresses these questions by exploring the developmental relations between mathematics and spatial skills in children aged 6 -10 years (N = 155). We extend previous findings by assessing and comparing performance across Uttal et al.'s (2013), four spatial sub-domains...
December 13, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30525288/developmental-differences-in-the-neural-correlates-supporting-semantics-and-syntax-during-sentence-processing
#3
Julie M Schneider, Mandy J Maguire
School-aged and adolescent children continue to demonstrate improvements in how they integrate and comprehend real-time, auditory language over this developmental time period, which can have important implications for academic and social success. To better understand developmental changes in the neural processes engaged during language comprehension in this age group, we use electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate how 8-9 year old, 12-13 year olds, and adults process semantics and syntax in naturally-paced, auditory sentences...
December 7, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516316/how-many-fingers-am-i-holding-up-the-answer-depends-on-children-s-language-background
#4
Elena Nicoladis, Paula Marentette, Simone Pika
Monolingual English-speaking preschool children tend to process number gestures as unanalyzed wholes rather than use the one-to-one (finger-to-quantity) correspondence. By school age, however, children can use the one-to-one correspondence. The purpose of the present studies was to test whether children learn one-to-one correspondence through exposure to a variety of finger configurations to convey a single quantity. In Study 1, we compared children with exposure to multiple one-to-one configurations, that is, French-English and German-English bilingual children, to English monolingual children who see consistent representations...
December 5, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516315/learning-to-read-facilitates-the-retrieval-of-phonological-representations-in-rapid-automatized-naming-evidence-from-unschooled-illiterate-ex-illiterate-and-schooled-literate-adults
#5
Susana Araújo, Tânia Fernandes, Falk Huettig
Rapid automatized naming (RAN) of visual items is a powerful predictor of reading skills. However, the direction and locus of the association between RAN and reading is still largely unclear. Here we investigated whether literacy acquisition directly bolsters RAN efficiency for objects, adopting a strong methodological design, by testing three groups of adults matched in age and socioeconomic variables, who differed only in literacy/schooling: unschooled illiterate and ex-illiterate, and schooled literate adults...
December 5, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30506618/prediction-in-infants-and-adults-a-pupillometry-study
#6
Felicia Zhang, Sagi Jaffe-Dax, Robert Wilson, Lauren Emberson
Adults use both bottom-up sensory inputs and top-down signals to generate predictions about future sensory inputs. Infants have also been shown to make predictions with simple stimuli and recent work has suggested top-down processing is available early in infancy. However, it is unknown whether this indicates that top-down prediction is an ability that is continuous across the lifespan or whether an infant's ability to predict is different from an adult's, qualitatively or quantitatively. We employed pupillometry to provide a direct comparison of prediction abilities across these disparate age groups...
December 1, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30506550/infant-gaze-following-depends-on-communicative-signals-an-eye-tracking-study-of-5-to-7-month-olds-in-vanuatu
#7
Mikołaj Hernik, Tanya Broesch
Gaze is considered a crucial component of early communication between an infant and her caregiver. When communicatively addressed infants respond aptly to others' gaze by following its direction. However, experience with face-to-face contact varies across cultures, begging the question whether infants' competencies in receiving others' communicative gaze-signals are universal or culturally specific. We used eye-tracking to assess gaze-following responses of 5- to 7-month olds in Vanuatu, where face-to-face parent-infant interactions are less prevalent than in Western populations...
November 30, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30485599/bilingual-infants-excel-at-foreign-language-talker-recognition
#8
Natalie Fecher, Elizabeth K Johnson
Bilingual and monolingual infants differ in how they process linguistic aspects of the speech signal. But do they also differ in how they process non-linguistic aspects of speech, such as who is talking? Here, we addressed this question by testing Canadian monolingual and bilingual 9-month-olds on their ability to learn to identify Spanish talkers in a face-voice matching task. Importantly, neither group was familiar with Spanish prior to participating in the study. In line with our predictions, bilinguals succeeded in learning the face-voice pairings, whereas monolinguals did not...
November 28, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30478928/children-s-scale-errors-are-a-natural-consequence-of-learning-to-associate-objects-with-actions-a-computational-model
#9
Beata J Grzyb, Yukie Nagai, Minoru Asada, Allegra Cattani, Caroline Floccia, Angelo Cangelosi
Young children sometimes attempt an action on an object, which is inappropriate because of the object size - they make scale errors. Existing theories suggest that scale errors may result from immaturities in children's action planning system, which might be overpowered by increased complexity of object representations or developing teleofunctional bias. We used computational modelling to emulate children's learning to associate objects with actions and to select appropriate actions, given object shape and size...
November 26, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30471167/evidence-for-a-sensitive-period-in-the-effects-of-early-life-stress-on-hippocampal-volume
#10
Kathryn L Humphreys, Lucy S King, Matthew D Sacchet, Catalina Camacho, Natalie L Colich, Sarah J Ordaz, Tiffany C Ho, Ian H Gotlib
Exposure to stress has been causally linked to changes in hippocampal volume (HV). Given that the hippocampus undergoes rapid changes in the first years of life, stressful experiences during this period may be particularly important in understanding individual differences in the development of the hippocampus. One hundred seventy-eight early adolescents (ages 9-13 years; 43% male) were interviewed regarding exposure to and age of onset of experiences of stress; the severity of each stressful event was rated by an objective panel...
November 24, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30471161/offline-consolidation-supersedes-prior-knowledge-benefits-in-children-s-but-not-adults-word-learning
#11
Emma James, M Gareth Gaskell, Lisa M Henderson
Prior linguistic knowledge is proposed to support the acquisition and consolidation of new words. Adults typically have larger vocabularies to support word learning than children, but the developing brain shows enhanced neural processes that are associated with offline memory consolidation. This study investigated contributions of prior knowledge to initial word acquisition and consolidation at different points in development, by teaching children and adults novel words (e.g., ballow) that varied in the number of English word-form "neighbours" (e...
November 24, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30451337/encouraging-children-to-mentalise-about-a-perceived-outgroup-increases-prosocial-behaviour-towards-outgroup-members
#12
Niamh McLoughlin, Harriet Over
We investigated whether encouraging young children to discuss the mental states of an immigrant group would elicit more prosocial behaviour towards them and impact on their perception of a group member's emotional experience. Five- and 6-year-old children were either prompted to talk about the thoughts and feelings of this social group or to talk about their actions. Across two studies, we found that this manipulation increased the extent to which children shared with a novel member of the immigrant group who was the victim of a minor transgression...
November 19, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30449054/language-counts-early-language-mediates-the-relationship-between-parent-education-and-children-s-math-ability
#13
Emily Slusser, Andrew Ribner, Anna Shusterman
Children's early math skills have been hailed as a powerful predictor of academic success. Disparities in socioeconomic context, however, also have dramatic consequences on children's learning. It is therefore critical to investigate both of these distinct contributors in order to better understand the early foundations of children's academic outcomes. The current study tests an integrated model of children's developing math ability so as to 1) identify the specific skills and abilities most clearly linked to early math achievement and 2) measure the influence of children's socioeconomic context on each of these skills...
November 17, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30428152/intergenerational-transmission-of-attentional-bias-and-anxiety
#14
Evin Aktar, Bram Van Bockstaele, Koraly Perez-Edgar, Reinout W Wiers, Susan M Bögels
Earlier evidence has revealed a bi-directional causal relationship between anxiety and attention biases in adults and children. This study investigated the prospective and concurrent relations between anxiety and attentional bias in a sample of 89 families (mothers, fathers, and first-born children). Parents' and children's attentional bias was measured when children were 7.5 years old, using both a visual probe task and visual search task with angry vs. happy facial expressions. Generalized and social anxiety symptoms in parents and children were measured when children were 4...
November 14, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415485/the-role-of-sensorimotor-experience-in-the-development-of-mimicry-in-infancy
#15
Carina C J M de Klerk, Iona Lamy-Yang, Victoria Southgate
During social interactions we often have an automatic and unconscious tendency to copy or 'mimic' others' actions. The dominant view on the neural basis of mimicry appeals to an automatic coupling between perception and action. It has been suggested that this coupling is formed through associative learning during correlated sensorimotor experience. Although studies with adult participants have provided support for this hypothesis, little is known about the role of sensorimotor experience in supporting the development of perceptual-motor couplings, and consequently mimicry behaviour, in infancy...
November 10, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414236/when-causality-shapes-the-experience-of-time-evidence-for-temporal-binding-in-young-children
#16
Emma Blakey, Emma C Tecwyn, Teresa McCormack, David A Lagnado, Christoph Hoerl, Sara Lorimer, Marc J Buehner
It is well-established that the temporal proximity of two events is a fundamental cue to causality. Recent research with adults has shown that this relation is bidirectional: events that are believed to be causally related are perceived as occurring closer together in time-the so-called temporal binding effect. Here we examined the developmental origins of temporal binding. Participants predicted when an event that was either caused by a button press, or preceded by a non-causal signal, would occur. We demonstrate for the first time that children as young as four years are susceptible to temporal binding...
November 10, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414222/maternal-discourse-continuity-and-infants-actions-organize-12-month-olds-language-exposure-during-object-play
#17
Lucas M Chang, Gedeon O Deák
Infant language learning depends on the distribution of co-occurrences within language- between words and other words-and between language content and events in the world. Yet infant-directed speech (IDS) is not limited to words that refer to perceivable objects and actions. Rather, caregivers' utterances contain a range of syntactic forms and expressions with diverse attentional, regulatory, social, and referential functions. We conducted a distributional analysis of linguistic content types at the utterance level, and demonstrate that a wide range of content types in maternal speech can be distinguished by their distributions in sequences of utterances and by their patterns of co-occurrence with infants' actions...
November 10, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30372577/altered-lateralization-of-dorsal-language-tracts-in-6-week-old-infants-at-risk-for-autism
#18
Janelle Liu, Tawny Tsang, Lisa Jackson, Carolyn Ponting, Shafali S Jeste, Susan Y Bookheimer, Mirella Dapretto
Altered structural connectivity has been identified as a possible biomarker of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in the developing brain. Core features of ASD include impaired social communication and early language delay. Thus, examining white matter tracts associated with language may lend further insight into early signs of ASD risk and the mechanisms that underlie language impairments associated with the disorder. Evidence of altered structural connectivity has previously been detected in 6-month-old infants at high familial risk for developing ASD...
October 29, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30350906/word-comprehension-mediates-the-link-between-gesture-and-word-production-examining-language-development-in-infant-siblings-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Emily J Roemer, Kelsey L West, Jessie B Northrup, Jana M Iverson
Children's gesture production precedes and predicts language development, but the pathways linking these domains are unclear. It is possible that gesture production assists in children's developing word comprehension, which in turn supports expressive vocabulary acquisition. The present study examines this mediation pathway in a population with variability in early communicative abilities - the younger siblings of children with ASD (High Risk infants; HR). Participants included 92 HR infants and 28 infants at low risk (LR) for ASD...
October 23, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339317/from-negative-reactivity-to-empathic-responding-infants-high-in-negative-reactivity-express-more-empathy-later-in-development-with-the-help-of-regulation
#20
Lior Abramson, Yael Paz, Ariel Knafo-Noam
Empathy has great effect on human well-being, promoting healthy relationships and social competence. Although it is increasingly acknowledged that infants show empathy toward others, individual differences in infants' empathy from the first year of life have rarely been investigated longitudinally. Here we examined how negative reactivity and regulation, two temperament traits that predict empathic responses in older children and adults, relate to infants' empathy. Infants were studied at the ages of nine (N=275) and 18 (N=301) months (194 infants were studied at both ages)...
October 19, 2018: Developmental Science
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