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Developmental Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326654/the-development-of-bodily-self-consciousness-changing-responses-to-the-full-body-illusion-in-childhood
#1
Dorothy Cowie, Aisling McKenna, Andrew J Bremner, Jane E Aspell
The present work investigates the development of bodily self-consciousness and its relation to multisensory bodily information, by measuring for the first time the development of responses to the full body illusion in childhood. We tested three age groups of children: 6- to 7-year-olds (n = 28); 8- to 9-year-olds (n = 21); 10- to 11-year-olds (n = 19), and a group of adults (n = 31). Each participant wore a head-mounted display (HMD) which displayed a view from a video camera positioned 2 metres behind their own back...
March 22, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295917/gaze-based-rehearsal-in-children-under-7-a-developmental-investigation-of-eye-movements-during-a-serial-spatial-memory-task
#2
Candice C Morey, Silvana Mareva, Jaroslaw R Lelonkiewicz, Nicolas Chevalier
The emergence of strategic verbal rehearsal at around 7 years of age is widely considered a major milestone in descriptions of the development of short-term memory across childhood. Likewise, rehearsal is believed by many to be a crucial factor in explaining why memory improves with age. This apparent qualitative shift in mnemonic processes has also been characterized as a shift from passive visual to more active verbal mnemonic strategy use, but no investigation of the development of overt spatial rehearsal has informed this explanation...
March 12, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295877/neuroscientific-insights-into-the-development-of-analogical-reasoning
#3
Kirstie J Whitaker, Michael S Vendetti, Carter Wendelken, Silvia A Bunge
Analogical reasoning, or the ability to find correspondences between entities based on shared relationships, supports knowledge acquisition. As such, the development of this ability during childhood is thought to promote learning. Here, we sought to better understand the mechanisms by which analogical reasoning about semantic relations improves over childhood and adolescence (e.g. chalk is to chalkboard as pen is to…?). We hypothesized that age-related differences would manifest as differences in the brain regions associated with one or more of the following cognitive functions: (1) controlled semantic retrieval, or the ability to retrieve task-relevant semantic associations; (2) response control, or the ability to override the tendency to respond to a salient distractor; and/or (3) relational integration, or the ability to consider jointly two mental relations...
March 12, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295866/mapping-language-to-the-world-the-role-of-iconicity-in-the-sign-language-input
#4
Pamela Perniss, Jenny C Lu, Gary Morgan, Gabriella Vigliocco
Most research on the mechanisms underlying referential mapping has assumed that learning occurs in ostensive contexts, where label and referent co-occur, and that form and meaning are linked by arbitrary convention alone. In the present study, we focus on iconicity in language, that is, resemblance relationships between form and meaning, and on non-ostensive contexts, where label and referent do not co-occur. We approach the question of language learning from the perspective of the language input. Specifically, we look at child-directed language (CDL) in British Sign Language (BSL), a language rich in iconicity due to the affordances of the visual modality...
March 12, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256036/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-performance-in-a-state-wide-test-of-math-achievement
#5
Eric D Wilkey, Laurie E Cutting, Gavin R Price
The development of math skills is a critical component of early education and a strong indicator of later school and economic success. Recent research utilizing population-normed, standardized measures of math achievement suggest that structural and functional integrity of parietal regions, especially the intraparietal sulcus, are closely related to the development of math skills. However, it is unknown how these findings relate to in-school math learning. The present study is the first to address this issue by investigating the relationship between regional differences in grey matter (GM) volume and performance in grade-level mathematics as measured by a state-wide, school-based test of math achievement (TCAP math) in children from 3rd to 8th grade...
March 3, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256107/peripheral-and-central-contribution-to-the-difficulty-of-speech-in-noise-perception-in-dyslexic-children
#6
Axelle Calcus, Paul Deltenre, Cécile Colin, Régine Kolinsky
Noise typically induces both peripheral and central masking of an auditory target. Whereas the idea that a deficit of speech in noise perception is inherent to dyslexia is still debated, most studies have actually focused on the peripheral contribution to the dyslexics' difficulties of perceiving speech in noise. Here, we investigated the respective contribution of both peripheral and central noise in three groups of children: dyslexic, chronological age matched controls (CA), and reading-level matched controls (RL)...
March 2, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256101/the-procedural-learning-deficit-hypothesis-of-language-learning-disorders-we-see-some-problems
#7
Gillian West, Miguel A Vadillo, David R Shanks, Charles Hulme
Impaired procedural learning has been suggested as a possible cause of developmental dyslexia (DD) and specific language impairment (SLI). This study examined the relationship between measures of verbal and non-verbal implicit and explicit learning and measures of language, literacy and arithmetic attainment in a large sample of 7 to 8-year-old children. Measures of verbal explicit learning were correlated with measures of attainment. In contrast, no relationships between measures of implicit learning and attainment were found...
March 2, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256097/the-ontogeny-of-relational-memory-and-pattern-separation
#8
Chi T Ngo, Nora S Newcombe, Ingrid R Olson
Episodic memory relies on memory for the relations among multiple elements of an event and the ability to discriminate among similar elements of episodes. The latter phenomenon, termed pattern separation, has been studied mainly in young and older adults with relatively little research on children. Building on prior work with young children, we created an engaging computer-administered relational memory task assessing what-where relations. We also modified the Mnemonic Similarity Task used to assess pattern discrimination in young and older adults for use with preschool children...
March 2, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256035/tracking-independence-and-merging-of-prosodic-and-phonemic-processing-across-infancy
#9
Angelika Becker, Ulrike Schild, Claudia K Friedrich
Recent evidence suggests division of labor in phonological analysis underlying speech recognition. Adults and children appear to decompose the speech stream into phoneme-relevant information and into syllable stress. Here we investigate whether both speech processing streams develop from a common path in infancy, or whether there are two separate streams from early on. We presented stressed and unstressed syllables (spoken primes) followed by initially stressed early learned disyllabic German words (spoken targets)...
March 2, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256029/auditory-motor-adaptation-is-reduced-in-adults-who-stutter-but-not-in-children-who-stutter
#10
Ayoub Daliri, Elizabeth A Wieland, Shanqing Cai, Frank H Guenther, Soo-Eun Chang
Previous studies have shown that adults who stutter produce smaller corrective motor responses to compensate for unexpected auditory perturbations in comparison to adults who do not stutter, suggesting that stuttering may be associated with deficits in integration of auditory feedback for online speech monitoring. In this study, we examined whether stuttering is also associated with deficiencies in integrating and using discrepancies between expected and received auditory feedback to adaptively update motor programs for accurate speech production...
March 2, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256025/development-of-allocentric-spatial-recall-from-new-viewpoints-in-virtual-reality
#11
James Negen, Edward Heywood-Everett, Hannah E Roome, Marko Nardini
Using landmarks and other scene features to recall locations from new viewpoints is a critical skill in spatial cognition. In an immersive virtual reality task, we asked children 3.5-4.5 years old to remember the location of a target using various cues. On some trials they could use information from their own self-motion. On some trials they could use a view match. In the very hardest kind of trial, they were 'teleported' to a new viewpoint and could only use an allocentric spatial representation. This approach provides a strict test for allocentric coding (without either a matching viewpoint or self-motion information) while avoiding additional task demands in previous studies (it does not require them to deal with a small table-top environment or to manage stronger cue conflicts)...
March 2, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239921/it-s-about-time-revisiting-temporal-processing-deficits-in-dyslexia
#12
Laurence Casini, Catherine Pech-Georgel, Johannes C Ziegler
Temporal processing in French children with dyslexia was evaluated in three tasks: a word identification task requiring implicit temporal processing, and two explicit temporal bisection tasks, one in the auditory and one in the visual modality. Normally developing children matched on chronological age and reading level served as a control group. Children with dyslexia exhibited robust deficits in temporal tasks whether they were explicit or implicit and whether they involved the auditory or the visual modality...
February 27, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233397/reach-tracking-reveals-dissociable-processes-underlying-inhibitory-control-in-5-to-10-year-olds-and-adults
#13
Christopher D Erb, Jeff Moher, Joo-Hyun Song, David M Sobel
Researchers have proposed that two processes featuring distinct types of inhibition support inhibitory control: a response threshold adjustment process involving the global inhibition of motor output and a conflict resolution process involving competitive inhibition among co-active response alternatives. To target the development of these processes, we measured the reaching behavior of 5- to 10-year-olds (Experiment 1) and adults (Experiment 2) as they performed an Eriksen flanker task. This method provided two key measures: initiation time (the time elapsed between stimulus onset and movement onset) and reach curvature (the degree to which a movement deviates from a direct path to the selected target)...
February 24, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229563/how-does-social-essentialism-affect-the-development-of-inter-group-relations
#14
Marjorie Rhodes, Sarah-Jane Leslie, Katya Saunders, Yarrow Dunham, Andrei Cimpian
Psychological essentialism is a pervasive conceptual bias to view categories as reflecting something deep, stable, and informative about their members. Scholars from diverse disciplines have long theorized that psychological essentialism has negative ramifications for inter-group relations, yet little previous empirical work has experimentally tested the social implications of essentialist beliefs. Three studies (N = 127, ages 4.5-6) found that experimentally inducing essentialist beliefs about a novel social category led children to share fewer resources with category members, but did not lead to the out-group dislike that defines social prejudice...
February 22, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229561/children-s-selective-trust-decisions-rational-competence-and-limiting-performance-factors
#15
Jonas Hermes, Tanya Behne, Anna Elisa Bich, Christa Thielert, Hannes Rakoczy
Recent research has amply documented that even preschoolers learn selectively from others, preferring, for example, reliable over unreliable and competent over incompetent models. It remains unclear, however, what the cognitive foundations of such selective learning are, in particular, whether it builds on rational inferences or on less sophisticated processes. The current study, therefore, was designed to test directly the possibility that children are in principle capable of selective learning based on rational inference, yet revert to simpler strategies such as global impression formation under certain circumstances...
February 22, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229555/developmental-changes-in-the-whole-number-bias
#16
David W Braithwaite, Robert S Siegler
Many students' knowledge of fractions is adversely affected by whole number bias, the tendency to focus on the separate whole number components (numerator and denominator) of a fraction rather than on the fraction's magnitude (ratio of numerator to denominator). Although whole number bias appears early in the fraction learning process and under speeded conditions persists into adulthood, even among mathematicians, little is known about its development. Performance with equivalent fractions indicated that between fourth and eighth grade, whole number bias decreased, and reliance on fraction magnitudes increased...
February 22, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229518/transition-to-success-on-the-model-room-task-the-importance-of-improvements-in-working-memory
#17
Lauren E Hartstein, Neil E Berthier
Previous work has shown that children under age 3 often perform very poorly on the model room task, in which they are asked to find a hidden toy based on its location in a scale model. One prominent theory for their failure is that they lack the ability to understand the model as both a physical object and as a symbolic representation of the larger room. A hypothesized additional component is that they need to overcome weak, competing representations of where the object was on a previous trial, and where it is in the present trial, in order to succeed in their search...
February 22, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229511/what-explains-the-correlation-between-growth-in-vocabulary-and-grammar-new-evidence-from-latent-change-score-analyses-of-simultaneous-bilingual-development
#18
Erika Hoff, Jamie M Quinn, David Giguere
A close relationship between children's vocabulary size and the grammatical complexity of their speech is well attested but not well understood. The present study used latent change score modeling to examine the dynamic relationships between vocabulary and grammar growth within and across languages in longitudinal data from 90 simultaneous Spanish-English bilingual children who were assessed at 6-month intervals between 30 and 48 months. Slopes of vocabulary and grammar growth were strongly correlated within each language and showed moderate or nonsignificant relationships across languages...
February 22, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229502/shared-musical-knowledge-in-11-month-old-infants
#19
Samuel A Mehr, Elizabeth S Spelke
Five-month-old infants selectively attend to novel people who sing melodies originally learned from a parent, but not melodies learned from a musical toy or from an unfamiliar singing adult, suggesting that music conveys social information to infant listeners. Here, we test this interpretation further in older infants with a more direct measure of social preferences. We randomly assigned 64 11-month-old infants to 1-2 weeks' exposure to one of two novel play songs that a parent either sang or produced by activating a recording inside a toy...
February 22, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224689/acquisition-of-abstract-concepts-is-influenced-by-emotional-valence
#20
Marta Ponari, Courtenay Frazier Norbury, Gabriella Vigliocco
There is considerable lack of evidence concerning the linguistic and cognitive skills underpinning abstract vocabulary acquisition. The present study considers the role of emotional valence in providing an embodied learning experience in which to anchor abstract meanings. First, analyses of adult ratings of age-of-acquisition, concreteness and valence demonstrate that abstract words acquired early tend to be emotionally valenced. Second, auditory Lexical Decision accuracies of children aged 6-7, 8-9, and 10-11 years (n = 20 per group) complement these analyses, demonstrating that emotional valence facilitates processing of abstract words, but not concrete...
February 21, 2017: Developmental Science
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