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Animal Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914387/joint-stimulus-control-in-a-temporal-discrimination-task
#1
Carlos Pinto, Inês Fortes, Armando Machado
The ability to identify stimuli that signal important events is fundamental for an organism to adapt to its environment. In the present paper, we investigated how more than one stimulus could be used jointly to learn a temporal discrimination task. Ten pigeons were exposed to a symbolic matching-to-sample procedure with three durations as samples (2, 6, and 18 s of keylight) and two colors as comparisons (red and green hues). A 30-s intertrial interval (ITI), illuminated with a houselight, separated the trials...
September 15, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887811/great-ape-gestures-intentional-communication-with-a-rich-set-of-innate-signals
#2
EDITORIAL
R W Byrne, E Cartmill, E Genty, K E Graham, C Hobaiter, J Tanner
Great apes give gestures deliberately and voluntarily, in order to influence particular target audiences, whose direction of attention they take into account when choosing which type of gesture to use. These facts make the study of ape gesture directly relevant to understanding the evolutionary precursors of human language; here we present an assessment of ape gesture from that perspective, focusing on the work of the "St Andrews Group" of researchers. Intended meanings of ape gestures are relatively few and simple...
September 8, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856458/floral-guidance-of-learning-a-preference-for-symmetry-by-bumblebees
#3
Catherine M S Plowright, Jeremy J M Bridger, Vicki Xu, Racheal A Herlehy, Charles A Collin
This study examines the mechanism underlying one way in which bumblebees are known to develop a preference for symmetric patterns: through prior non-differential reinforcement on simple patterns (black discs and white discs). In three experiments, bees were given a choice among symmetric and asymmetric black-and-white non-rewarding patterns presented at the ends of corridors in a radial maze. Experimental groups had prior rewarded non-discrimination training on white patterns and black patterns, while control groups had no pre-test experience outside the colony...
August 30, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840405/cooperative-problem-solving-in-giant-otters-pteronura-brasiliensis-and-asian-small-clawed-otters-aonyx-cinerea
#4
Martin Schmelz, Shona Duguid, Manuel Bohn, Christoph J Völter
Cooperative problem solving has gained a lot of attention over the past two decades, but the range of species studied is still small. This limits the possibility of understanding the evolution of the socio-cognitive underpinnings of cooperation. Lutrinae show significant variations in socio-ecology, but their cognitive abilities are not well studied. In the first experimental study of otter social cognition, we presented two species-giant otters and Asian small-clawed otters-with a cooperative problem-solving task...
August 24, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831579/social-makes-smart-rearing-conditions-affect-learning-and-social-behaviour-in-jumping-spiders
#5
J Liedtke, J M Schneider
There is a long-standing debate as to whether social or physical environmental aspects drive the evolution and development of cognitive abilities. Surprisingly few studies make use of developmental plasticity to compare the effects of these two domains during development on behaviour later in life. Here, we present rearing effects on the development of learning abilities and social behaviour in the jumping spider Marpissa muscosa. These spiders are ideally suited for this purpose because they possess the ability to learn and can be reared in groups but also in isolation without added stress...
August 22, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795236/a-novel-continuous-inhibitory-control-task-variation-in-individual-performance-by-young-pheasants-phasianus-colchicus
#6
Christina Meier, Sara Raj Pant, Jayden O van Horik, Philippa R Laker, Ellis J G Langley, Mark A Whiteside, Frederick Verbruggen, Joah R Madden
Inhibitory control enables subjects to quickly react to unexpectedly changing external demands. We assessed the ability of young (8 weeks old) pheasants Phasianus colchicus to exert inhibitory control in a novel response-inhibition task that required subjects to adjust their movement in space in pursuit of a reward across changing target locations. The difference in latencies between trials in which the target location did and did not change, the distance travelled towards the initially indicated location after a change occurred, and the change-signal reaction time provided a consistent measure that could be indicative of a pheasant's inhibitory control...
August 9, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791553/sex-differences-in-discrimination-reversal-learning-in-the-guppy
#7
Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini, Angelo Bisazza, Christian Agrillo, Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato
In several mammalian and avian species, females show a higher performance than males in tasks requiring cognitive flexibility such as the discrimination reversal learning. A recent study showed that female guppies are twice as efficient as males in a reversal learning task involving yellow-red discrimination, suggesting a higher cognitive flexibility in female guppies. However, the possibility exists that the superior performance exhibited by females does not reflect a general sex difference in cognitive abilities, but instead, is confined to colour discrimination tasks...
August 8, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791513/what-s-in-a-voice-dolphins-do-not-use-voice-cues-for-individual-recognition
#8
Laela S Sayigh, Randall S Wells, Vincent M Janik
Most mammals can accomplish acoustic recognition of other individuals by means of "voice cues," whereby characteristics of the vocal tract render vocalizations of an individual uniquely identifiable. However, sound production in dolphins takes place in gas-filled nasal sacs that are affected by pressure changes, potentially resulting in a lack of reliable voice cues. It is well known that bottlenose dolphins learn to produce individually distinctive signature whistles for individual recognition, but it is not known whether they may also use voice cues...
August 8, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779278/the-mismeasure-of-ape-social-cognition
#9
David A Leavens, Kim A Bard, William D Hopkins
In his classic analysis, Gould (The mismeasure of man, WW Norton, New York, 1981) demolished the idea that intelligence was an inherent, genetic trait of different human groups by emphasizing, among other things, (a) its sensitivity to environmental input, (b) the incommensurate pre-test preparation of different human groups, and (c) the inadequacy of the testing contexts, in many cases. According to Gould, the root cause of these oversights was confirmation bias by psychometricians, an unwarranted commitment to the idea that intelligence was a fixed, immutable quality of people...
August 4, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766161/meerkats-suricata-suricatta-fail-to-prosocially-donate-food-in-an-experimental-set-up
#10
Federica Amici, Montserrat Colell Mimó, Christoph von Borell, Nereida Bueno-Guerra
Although humans are usually believed to be prosocial, the evolutionary origins of prosociality are largely debated. One hypothesis is that cooperative breeding has been one major precursor to the emergence of prosociality. In vertebrates, however, experimental evidence of prosociality has been mainly gathered in non-human primates. In this study, we tested the cooperative breeding hypothesis in cooperative breeding meerkats (Suricata suricatta). In particular, we tested whether meerkats take into account partners' benefits when distributing food rewards...
August 1, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762195/no-evidence-for-self-recognition-in-a-small-passerine-the-great-tit-parus-major-judged-from-the-mark-mirror-test
#11
Fanny-Linn Kraft, Tereza Forštová, A Utku Urhan, Alice Exnerová, Anders Brodin
Self-recognition is a trait presumed to be associated with high levels of cognition and something previously considered to be exclusive to humans and possibly apes. The most common test of self-recognition is the mark/mirror test of whether an animal can understand that it sees its own reflection in a mirror. The usual design is that an animal is marked with a colour spot somewhere on the body where the spot can only be seen by the animal by using a mirror. Very few species have passed this test, and among birds, only magpies have been affirmatively demonstrated to pass it...
July 31, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755139/within-session-reversal-learning-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#12
Rebecca M Rayburn-Reeves, Brielle T James, Michael J Beran
In a midsession reversal (MSR) task, animals are typically presented with a simple, simultaneous discrimination (S1+, S2-) where contingencies are reversed (S1-, S2+) half-way through each session. This paradigm creates multiple, relevant cues that can aid in maximizing overall reinforcement. Recent research has shown that pigeons show systematic anticipatory and perseverative errors across the session, which increase as a function of proximity to the reversal trial. This behavior has been theorized to indicate primary control by temporal cues across the session, instead of the cues provided by recent reinforcement history that appear to control behavior shown by humans...
July 28, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741081/capuchin-monkeys-use-of-human-and-conspecific-cues-to-solve-a-hidden-object-choice-task
#13
Jennifer L Essler, Lindsay P Schwartz, Mattea S Rossettie, Peter G Judge
Learning by watching others can provide valuable information with adaptive consequences, such as identifying the presence of a predator or locating a food source. The extent to which nonhuman animals can gain information by reading the cues of others is often tested by evaluating responses to human gestures, such as a point, and less often evaluated by examining responses to conspecific cues. We tested whether ten brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus [Sapajus] apella) were able to use cues from monkeys and a pointing cue from a human to obtain hidden rewards...
July 24, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730513/element-repetition-rates-encode-functionally-distinct-information-in-pied-babbler-clucks-and-purrs
#14
Sabrina Engesser, Amanda R Ridley, Simon W Townsend
Human language is a recombinant system that achieves its productivity through the combination of a limited set of sounds. Research investigating the evolutionary origin of this generative capacity has generally focused on the capacity of non-human animals to combine different types of discrete sounds to encode new meaning, with less emphasis on meaning-differentiating mechanisms achieved through potentially simpler temporal modifications within a sequence of repeated sounds. Here we show that pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor) generate two functionally distinct vocalisations composed of the same sound type, which can only be distinguished by the number of repeated elements...
July 20, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721574/operant-discrimination-of-relative-frequency-ratios-in-black-capped-chickadee-song
#15
Sean P Roach, Daniel J Mennill, Leslie S Phillmore
The two-note fee bee song of the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) is sung at many different absolute frequencies, but the relative frequencies, or "pitch ratios", between the start and end of the fee note (glissando) and the fee and the bee notes (inter-note interval) are preserved with each pitch-shift. Ability to perceive these ratios and their relative salience varies with sex of the bird and setting: while both sexes appear to perceive changes in the inter-note interval, males appear to attend to the glissando in the field, and females appear to attend to both ratios...
July 18, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707141/do-literate-pigeons-columba-livia-show-mirror-word-generalization
#16
Damian Scarf, Michael C Corballis, Onur Güntürkün, Michael Colombo
Many children pass through a mirror stage in reading, where they write individual letters or digits in mirror and find it difficult to correctly utilize letters that are mirror images of one another (e.g., b and d). This phenomenon is thought to reflect the fact that the brain does not naturally discriminate left from right. Indeed, it has been argued that reading acquisition involves the inhibition of this default process. In the current study, we tested the ability of literate pigeons, which had learned to discriminate between 30 and 62 words from 7832 nonwords, to discriminate between words and their mirror counterparts...
July 13, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698931/how-to-stay-perfect-the-role-of-memory-and-behavioural-traits-in-an-experienced-problem-and-a-similar-problem
#17
Pizza Ka Yee Chow, Stephen E G Lea, Natalie Hempel de Ibarra, Théo Robert
When animals encounter a task they have solved previously, or the same problem appears in a different apparatus, how does memory, alongside behavioural traits such as persistence, selectivity and flexibility, enhance problem-solving efficiency? We examined this question by first presenting grey squirrels with a puzzle 22 months after their last experience of it (the recall task). Squirrels were then given the same problem presented in a physically different apparatus (the generalisation task) to test whether they would apply the previously learnt tactics to solve the same problem but in a different apparatus...
July 11, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695349/temperament-and-problem-solving-in-a-population-of-adolescent-guide-dogs
#18
Emily E Bray, Mary D Sammel, Robert M Seyfarth, James A Serpell, Dorothy L Cheney
It is often assumed that measures of temperament within individuals are more correlated to one another than to measures of problem solving. However, the exact relationship between temperament and problem-solving tasks remains unclear because large-scale studies have typically focused on each independently. To explore this relationship, we tested 119 prospective adolescent guide dogs on a battery of 11 temperament and problem-solving tasks. We then summarized the data using both confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory principal components analysis...
July 10, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695348/acquisition-of-joint-attention-by-olive-baboons-gesturing-toward-humans
#19
Augustine Lamaury, Hélène Cochet, Marie Bourjade
Joint attention is a core ability of human social cognition which broadly refers to the coordination of attention with both the presence and activity of social partners. In both human and non-human primates, joint attention can be assessed from behaviour; gestures and gaze alternation between the partner and a distal object are standard behavioural manifestations of joint attention. Here we examined the acquisition of joint attention in olive baboons as a function of their individual experience of a human partner's attentional states during training regimes...
July 10, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681226/post-weaning-social-and-cognitive-performance-of-piglets-raised-pre-weaning-either-in-a-complex-multi-suckling-group-housing-system-or-in-a-conventional-system-with-a-crated-sow
#20
S E van Nieuwamerongen, M Mendl, S Held, N M Soede, J E Bolhuis
We studied the social and cognitive performance of piglets raised pre-weaning either in a conventional system with a sow in a farrowing crate (FC) or in a multi-suckling (MS) system in which 5 sows and their piglets could interact in a more physically enriched and spacious environment. After weaning at 4 weeks of age, 8 groups of 4 litter-mates per pre-weaning housing treatment were studied under equal and enriched post-weaning housing conditions. From each pen, one pair consisting of a dominant and a submissive pig was selected, based on a feed competition test (FCT) 2 weeks post-weaning...
July 5, 2017: Animal Cognition
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