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Animal Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540504/can-but-don-t-olfactory-discrimination-between-own-and-alien-offspring-in-the-domestic-cat
#1
Oxána Bánszegi, Elisa Jacinto, Andrea Urrutia, Péter Szenczi, Robyn Hudson
Mammalian maternal care usually comes at a large energetic cost. To maximize their fitness, mothers should preferentially care for their own offspring. However, the majority of studies of mother-offspring recognition have focused on herd- or colony-living species and there is little information on maternal discrimination in more solitary-living species. Olfaction has been found to play a major role in mother-offspring recognition across various taxa. Therefore, our aim was to study this in a species evolved from a solitary-living ancestor, the domestic cat...
May 24, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536954/sex-differences-in-dogs-social-learning-of-spatial-information
#2
Claudia Fugazza, Paolo Mongillo, Lieta Marinelli
We used a modified version of the Do as I Do paradigm to investigate dogs' preference and flexibility in the acquisition of different types of spatial information in social learning situations. When required to match the location of the demonstration, dogs (N = 16) preferentially relied on allocentric information, i.e., the relationship between the location of the demonstration and the various objects surrounding it. However, when allocentric cues were inadequate to solve the task, dogs learned to rely on egocentric information, i...
May 23, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508126/what-s-the-point-golden-and-labrador-retrievers-living-in-kennels-do-not-understand-human-pointing-gestures
#3
Biagio D'Aniello, Alessandra Alterisio, Anna Scandurra, Emanuele Petremolo, Maria Rosaria Iommelli, Massimo Aria
In many studies that have investigated whether dogs' capacities to understand human pointing gestures are aspects of evolutionary or developmental social competences, family-owned dogs have been compared to shelter dogs. However, for most of these studies, the origins of shelter dogs were unknown. Some shelter dogs may have lived with families before entering shelters, and from these past experiences, they may have learned to understand human gestures. Furthermore, there is substantial variation in the methodology and analytic approaches used in such studies (e...
May 15, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508125/judgement-bias-in-pigs-is-independent-of-performance-in-a-spatial-holeboard-task-and-conditional-discrimination-learning
#4
Sanne Roelofs, Eimear Murphy, Haifang Ni, Elise Gieling, Rebecca E Nordquist, F Josef van der Staay
Biases in judgement of ambiguous stimuli, as measured in a judgement bias task, have been proposed as a measure of the valence of affective states in animals. We recently suggested a list of criteria for behavioural tests of emotion, one of them stating that responses on the task used to assess emotionality should not be confounded by, among others, differences in learning capacity, i.e. must not simply reflect the cognitive capacity of an animal. We performed three independent studies in which pigs acquired a spatial holeboard task, a free choice maze which simultaneously assesses working memory and reference memory...
May 15, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502063/great-ape-gestures-intentional-communication-with-a-rich-set-of-innate-signals
#5
R W Byrne, E Cartmill, E Genty, K E Graham, C Hobaiter, J Tanner
Great apes give gestures deliberately and voluntarily, in order to influence particular target audiences, whose direction of attention they take into account when choosing which type of gesture to use. These facts make the study of ape gesture directly relevant to understanding the evolutionary precursors of human language; here we present an assessment of ape gesture from that perspective, focusing on the work of the "St Andrews Group" of researchers. Intended meanings of ape gestures are relatively few and simple...
May 13, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492975/practice-makes-perfect-familiarity-of-task-determines-success-in-solvable-tasks-for-free-ranging-dogs-canis-lupus-familiaris
#6
Debottam Bhattacharjee, Sandipan Dasgupta, Arpita Biswas, Jayshree Deheria, Shreya Gupta, N Nikhil Dev, Monique Udell, Anindita Bhadra
Domestic dogs' (Canis lupus familiaris) socio-cognitive faculties have made them highly sensitive to human social cues. While dogs often excel at understanding human communicative gestures, they perform comparatively poorly in problem-solving and physical reasoning tasks. This difference in their behaviour could be due to the lifestyle and intense socialization, where problem solving and physical cognition are less important than social cognition. Free-ranging dogs live in human-dominated environments, not under human supervision and are less socialized...
May 10, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432495/investigating-emotional-contagion-in-dogs-canis-familiaris-to-emotional-sounds-of-humans-and-conspecifics
#7
Annika Huber, Anjuli L A Barber, Tamás Faragó, Corsin A Müller, Ludwig Huber
Emotional contagion, a basic component of empathy defined as emotional state-matching between individuals, has previously been shown in dogs even upon solely hearing negative emotional sounds of humans or conspecifics. The current investigation further sheds light on this phenomenon by directly contrasting emotional sounds of both species (humans and dogs) as well as opposed valences (positive and negative) to gain insights into intra- and interspecies empathy as well as differences between positively and negatively valenced sounds...
April 21, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429096/differences-in-problem-solving-between-canid-populations-do-domestication-and-lifetime-experience-affect-persistence
#8
Lauren Brubaker, Sandipan Dasgupta, Debottam Bhattacharjee, Anindita Bhadra, Monique A R Udell
Past research has suggested that a variety of factors, phylogenetic and ontogenetic, play a role in how canines behave during problem-solving tasks and the degree to which the presence of a human influences their problem-solving behaviour. While comparisons between socialized wolves and domestic dogs have commonly been used to tease apart these predictive factors, in many cases a single dog population, often pets, have been used for these comparisons. Less is understood about how different populations of dogs may behave when compared with wolves, or with each other, during an independent problem-solving task...
April 20, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429095/pigeons-columba-livia-show-change-blindness-in-a-color-change-detection-task
#9
Walter T Herbranson, Jacob S Jeffers
Change blindness is a phenomenon whereby changes to a stimulus are more likely go unnoticed under certain circumstances. Pigeons learned a change detection task, in which they observed sequential stimulus displays consisting of individual colors back-projected onto three response keys. The color of one response key changed during each sequence and pecks to the key that displayed the change were reinforced. Pigeons showed a change blindness effect, in that change detection accuracy was worse when there was an inter-stimulus interval interrupting the transition between consecutive stimulus displays...
April 20, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421298/dog-rivalry-impacts-following-behavior-in-a-decision-making-task-involving-food
#10
Christy L Hoffman, Malini Suchak
Dogs learn a great deal from humans and other dogs. Previous studies of socially influenced learning between dogs have typically used a highly trained demonstrator dog who is unfamiliar to the observer. Because of this, it is unknown how dynamics between familiar dogs may influence their likelihood of learning from each other. In this study, we tested dogs living together in two-dog households on whether individual dogs' rivalry scores were associated with performance on a local enhancement task. Specifically, we wanted to know whether dog rivalry impacted whether an observer dog would approach a plate from which a demonstrator dog had eaten all available food, or whether the observer dog would approach the adjacent plate that still contained food...
April 18, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397005/sneaking-a-peek-pigeons-use-peripheral-vision-not-mirrors-to-find-hidden-food
#11
Emre Ünver, Alexis Garland, Sepideh Tabrik, Onur Güntürkün
A small number of species are capable of recognizing themselves in the mirror when tested with the mark-and-mirror test. This ability is often seen as evidence of self-recognition and possibly even self-awareness. Strangely, a number of species, for example monkeys, pigs and dogs, are unable to pass the mark test but can locate rewarding objects by using the reflective properties of a mirror. Thus, these species seem to understand how a visual reflection functions but cannot apply it to their own image. We tested this discrepancy in pigeons-a species that does not spontaneously pass the mark test...
April 10, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393311/discrimination-of-acoustically-similar-conspecific-and-heterospecific-vocalizations-by-black-capped-chickadees-poecile-atricapillus
#12
Allison H Hahn, Kimberley A Campbell, Jenna V Congdon, John Hoang, Neil McMillan, Erin N Scully, Joshua J H Yong, Julie E Elie, Christopher B Sturdy
Chickadees produce a multi-note chick-a-dee call in multiple socially relevant contexts. One component of this call is the D note, which is a low-frequency and acoustically complex note with a harmonic-like structure. In the current study, we tested black-capped chickadees on a between-category operant discrimination task using vocalizations with acoustic structures similar to black-capped chickadee D notes, but produced by various songbird species, in order to examine the role that phylogenetic distance plays in acoustic perception of vocal signals...
April 9, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391488/selective-auditory-grouping-by-zebra-finches-testing-the-iambic-trochaic-law
#13
Michelle Spierings, Jeroen Hubert, Carel Ten Cate
Humans have a strong tendency to spontaneously group visual or auditory stimuli together in larger patterns. One of these perceptual grouping biases is formulated as the iambic/trochaic law, where humans group successive tones alternating in pitch and intensity as trochees (high-low and loud-soft) and alternating in duration as iambs (short-long). The grouping of alternations in pitch and intensity into trochees is a human universal and is also present in one non-human animal species, rats. The perceptual grouping of sounds alternating in duration seems to be affected by native language in humans and has so far not been found among animals...
April 8, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389761/a-stop-signal-task-for-sheep-introduction-and-validation-of-a-direct-measure-for-the-stop-signal-reaction-time
#14
Franziska Knolle, Sebastian D McBride, James E Stewart, Rita P Goncalves, A Jennifer Morton
Huntington's disease (HD) patients show reduced flexibility in inhibiting an already-started response. This can be quantified by the stop-signal task. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a sheep version of the stop-signal task that would be suitable for monitoring the progression of cognitive decline in a transgenic sheep model of HD. Using a semi-automated operant system, sheep were trained to perform in a two-choice discrimination task. In 22% of the trials, a stop-signal was presented. Upon the stop-signal presentation, the sheep had to inhibit their already-started response...
April 7, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382429/chickadees-discriminate-contingency-reversals-presented-consistently-but-not-frequently
#15
Neil McMillan, Allison H Hahn, Jenna V Congdon, Kimberley A Campbell, John Hoang, Erin N Scully, Marcia L Spetch, Christopher B Sturdy
Chickadees are high-metabolism, non-migratory birds, and thus an especially interesting model for studying how animals follow patterns of food availability over time. Here, we studied whether black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) could learn to reverse their behavior and/or to anticipate changes in reinforcement when the reinforcer contingencies for each stimulus were not stably fixed in time. In Experiment 1, we examined the responses of chickadees on an auditory go/no-go task, with constant reversals in reinforcement contingencies every 120 trials across daily testing intervals...
April 5, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374206/free-flying-honeybees-extrapolate-relational-size-rules-to-sort-successively-visited-artificial-flowers-in-a-realistic-foraging-situation
#16
Scarlett R Howard, Aurore Avarguès-Weber, Jair Garcia, Adrian G Dyer
Learning and applying relational concepts to solve novel tasks is considered an indicator of cognitive-like ability. It requires the abstraction of relational concepts to different objects independent to the physical nature of the individual objects. Recent research has revealed the honeybee's ability to rapidly learn and manipulate relations between visual stimuli such as 'same/different', 'above/below', or 'larger/smaller' despite having a miniature-sized brain. While honeybees can solve problems using rule-based relative size comparison, it remains unresolved as to whether bees can apply size rules when stimuli are encountered successively, which requires reliance on working memory for stimuli comparison...
April 3, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343270/magnetic-field-discrimination-learning-and-memory-in-the-yellow-stingray-urobatis-jamaicensis
#17
Kyle C Newton, Stephen M Kajiura
Elasmobranch fishes (sharks, skates, and rays) have been hypothesized to use the geomagnetic field as a cue for orienting and navigating across a wide range of spatial scales. Magnetoreception has been demonstrated in many invertebrate and vertebrate taxa, including elasmobranchs, but this sensory modality and the cognitive abilities of cartilaginous fishes are poorly studied. Wild caught yellow stingrays, Urobatis jamaicensis (N = 8), underwent conditioning to associate a magnetic stimulus with a food reward in order to elicit foraging behaviors...
March 25, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343269/neophobia-is-negatively-related-to-reversal-learning-ability-in-females-of-a-generalist-bird-of-prey-the-chimango-caracara-milvago-chimango
#18
Jorgelina María Guido, Laura Marina Biondi, Aldo Ivan Vasallo, Rubén Nestor Muzio
In an ever-changing environment, the ability to adapt choices to new conditions is essential for daily living and ultimately, for survival. Behavioural flexibility allows animals to maximise survival and reproduction in novel settings by adjusting their behaviour based on specific information and feedback acquired in their current environments. However, a growing body of evidence indicates that an individual's personality type can limit the extent to which the individual might behave flexibly, by influencing the way an individual pays attention to novelty and how much information it collects and stores, which in turn affects the individual's decision-making and learning process...
March 25, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342160/dogs-demonstrate-perspective-taking-based-on-geometrical-gaze-following-in-a-guesser-knower-task
#19
Amélie Catala, Britta Mang, Lisa Wallis, Ludwig Huber
Currently, there is still no consensus about whether animals can ascribe mental states (Theory of Mind) to themselves and others. Showing animals can respond to cues that indicate whether another has visual access to a target or not, and that they are able to use this information as a basis for whom to rely on as an informant, is an important step forward in this direction. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) with human informants are an ideal model, because they show high sensitivity towards human eye contact, they have proven able to assess the attentional state of humans in food-stealing or food-begging contexts, and they follow human gaze behind a barrier when searching for food...
March 24, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324234/damage-induced-alarm-cues-influence-lateralized-behaviour-but-not-the-relationship-between-behavioural-and-habenular-asymmetry-in-convict-cichlids-amatitlania-nigrofasciata
#20
Michele K Moscicki, Peter L Hurd
Cerebral lateralization, the partitioning of functions into a certain hemisphere of the brain, is ubiquitous among vertebrates. Evidence suggests that the cognitive processing of a stimulus is performed with a specific hemisphere depending in part upon the emotional valence of the stimulus (i.e. whether it is appetitive or aversive). Recent work has implicated a predominance of right-hemisphere processing for aversive stimuli. In fish with laterally placed eyes, the preference to view an object with a specific eye has been used as a proxy for assessing cerebral lateralization...
March 21, 2017: Animal Cognition
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