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Growth Hormone & IGF Research

Silvana Duran-Ortiz, Stephen Bell, John J Kopchick
OBJECTIVE: Mice and humans with reduced growth hormone (GH) action before birth are conferred positive health- and life-span advantages. However, little work has been performed to study the effect of conditional disruption of GH action in adult life. With this as our objective, we sought to elucidate a reproducible protocol that allows generation of adult mice with a global disruption of the GH receptor (Ghr) gene, using the tamoxifen (TAM)-inducible Cre-lox system, driven by the ROSA26 enhancer/promoter...
August 29, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Caroline N Nelson, Edward O List, Makerita Ieremia, Lena Constantin, Yash Chhabra, John J Kopchick, Michael J Waters
OBJECTIVE: The anti-obesity actions of growth hormone (GH) led us to investigate if GH signaling is able to regulate beige/brite fat development of white adipose tissue (WAT). METHODS: We studied WAT in GHR-391 mice engineered to be unable to activate STAT5 in response to GH, in mice with adipose specific deletion of GHR, in GHR-/- mice and in bGH transgenic mice. QPCR, immunoblots and immunohistochemistry were used to characterize WAT. The in vivo effects of β-3 adrenergic activation with CL-316,243 and that of FGF21 infusion were also studied...
August 29, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Hannah Loher, Stefan Jenni, Julie Bucher, Marion Krüsi, Roland Kreis, Chris Boesch, Emanuel Christ
BACKGROUND: Ectopic lipids such as intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) are depleted by exercise and repleted by diet, whereas intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL) are increased immediately after exercise. So far, it is unclear how ectopic lipids behave 24 h after exercise and whether the lack of growth hormone (GH) significantly affects ectopic lipids 24 h after exercise. METHODS: Seven male patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and seven sedentary male control subjects (CS) were included...
August 17, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Annalaura Mastrangelo, Gabriel Á Martos-Moreno, Francisco J Rupérez, Julie A Chowen, Coral Barbas, Jesús Argente
OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPP-A2) gene have recently been shown to cause postnatal growth failure in two prepubertal patients from a non-consanguineous Spanish family due to the resulting decrease in IGF1 bioavailability. Although a specific pharmacological treatment of this entity is yet to be established, both children received progressive subcutaneous doses (40 to 120 μg/kg) of rhIGF1 twice daily for 2 years. The improvements in growth, hyperinsulinemia and bone mineral density have been previously reported...
August 12, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Hasanain Al-Khafaji, Pernille R Noer, Hanna Alkharobi, Aishah Alhodhodi, Josephine Meade, Reem El-Gendy, Claus Oxvig, James Beattie
The IGF axis is represented by two growth factors (IGF1 and IGF2), two cognate cell surface receptors (IGF1R and IGF2R), six soluble high affinity IGF binding proteins (IGFBP1-6) and several IGFBP proteases. IGF1 and IGF2 are present at high concentrations in bone and play a crucial role in the maintenance and differentiation of both foetal and adult skeleton. In order to understand the role of the IGF axis in bone and other tissues it is necessary to profile the expression and activity of all genes in the axis together with the activity of relevant ancillary proteins (including IGFBP proteases)...
July 26, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
A E Rigamonti, A De Col, S Tamini, G Tringali, R De Micheli, L Abbruzzese, C R Goncalves da Cruz, M Bernardo-Filho, S G Cella, A Sartorio
BACKGROUND: The anabolic, lipolytic and anti-inflammatory effects of exercise-stimulated GH secretion could be usefully exploited in the multidisciplinary rehabilitative programs of obese patients, who are reported to suffer from hyposomatotropism. To date, evaluation of GH responses to whole body vibration (WBV) in combination with maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) has been performed in normal-weight subjects, but not obese patients. Thus, aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of WBV and MVC, alone and combined, on GH responsiveness in obese subjects...
July 20, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Alessandro Ciresi, Giulia Piazza, Stefano Radellini, Valentina Guarnotta, Maria Grazia Mineo, Carla Giordano
OBJECTIVE: Few large-scale studies regarding the impact of GH deficiency (GHD) on hematopoiesis in children have been reported. Our aim was to investigate hematopoiesis indices in a large cohort of GHD children at diagnosis and during GH treatment (GHT) and any correlation with hormonal parameters. DESIGN: Clinical and biochemical data of children with idiopathic GHD at diagnosis and annually up to 36 months of GHT were retrospectively evaluated. Overall, 255 children reached 12 months, 140 children 24 months and 86 children 36 months of follow-up during GHT...
July 20, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Laurie K Bale, Sally A West, Cheryl A Conover
Although implicated in cardiovascular disease, little is known about the fat surrounding the heart. In humans, epicardial fat is the visceral fat depot of the heart, which directly contacts the myocardium. This strategically placed fat depot is thought to produce bioactive molecules that could affect cardiac function. A major limitation in understanding the biology of epicardial fat is its restricted access in humans and its seeming absence in commonly-used experimental animal models. Although laboratory mice do not have epicardial fat per se, they do have a fat depot around the heart...
July 11, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Kei Tanaka, Momoe Watanabe, Miho Matsushima, Yukiko Matsuzawa, Tomoko Izawa, Takashi Nagashima, Yoichi Kobayashi, Mitsutoshi Iwashita
OBJECTIVE: Trophoblast survival is regulated by cytokines and growth factors. While the pharmacological levels (10-100 ng/mL) of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α affect trophoblasts survival in vitro, the effects of the physiological levels (1-10 pg/mL) of TNF-α remain unknown. We investigated the effects of the physiological levels of TNF-α on proliferation and apoptosis of human trophoblast cells by using BeWo cells. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is also a potent regulator of trophoblast survival and has been known to exert synergistic effects with other hormones...
August 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Sunelle A Barnard, Wayne Smith, Catharina M C Mels, Shani Botha, Aletta E Schutte
INTRODUCTION: Low circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are associated with endothelial dysfunction, subsequently leading to the development of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To better understand the early phases of vascular deterioration in a young, healthy population, we investigated, cross-sectionally, whether biomarkers of endothelial function (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and von Willebrand factor antigen (vWFag )) are associated with IGF-1 in a healthy study population forming part of the larger African Prospective study on the Early Detection and Identification of Cardiovascular diseases and Hypertension (African-PREDICT)...
August 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
İsmail Akaltun, Atilla Çayır, Tayfun Kara, Hamza Ayaydın
AIM: Children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are reported to experience failure in psychological maturation, and to have a lack of self-confidence in social life, and depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between GHD and anxiety disorders and depression in children and adolescents. METHOD: 122 children and adolescents aged 7-17, 87 receiving GHD therapy and 35 before treatment, and 122 healthy volunteers were included in the study...
August 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Rikke Hjortebjerg
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4) is a modulator of the IGF system, exerting both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on IGF-induced cellular growth. IGFBP-4 is the principal substrate for the enzyme pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). Through IGF-dependent cleavage of IGFBP-4 in the vicinity of the IGF receptor, PAPP-A is able to increase IGF bioavailability and stimulate IGF-mediated growth. Recently, the stanniocalcins (STCs) were identified as novel inhibitors of PAPP-A proteolytic activity, hereby adding additional members to the seemingly endless list of proteins belonging to the IGF family...
August 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Oliver Krug, Andreas Thomas, Helle Malerød-Fjeld, Yvette Dehnes, Tim Laussmann, Ingo Feldmann, Albert Sickmann, Mario Thevis
Detecting agents allegedly or evidently promoting growth such as human growth hormone (GH) or growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP) in doping controls has represented a pressing issue for sports drug testing laboratories. While GH is a recombinant protein with a molecular weight of 22 kDa, the GHRPs are short (3-6 amino acids long) peptides with GH releasing properties. The endogenously produced GH (22 kDa isoform) consists of 191 amino acids and has a monoisotopic molecular mass of 22,124 Da. Within this study, a slightly modified form of GH was discovered consisting of 192 amino acids carrying an additional alanine at the N-terminus, leading to a monoisotopic mass of 22,195 Da...
August 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Cindi G Marinho, Lívia M Mermejo, Roberto Salvatori, João A Assirati, Carla R P Oliveira, Elenilde G Santos, Ângela C G B Leal, Cynthia S Barros-Oliveira, Nayra P Damascena, Carlos A Lima, Catarine T Farias, Ayrton C Moreira, Manuel H Aguiar-Oliveira
Growth hormone (GH) and the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) have cell proliferative and differentiation properties. Whether these hormones have a role in mutagenesis is unknown. Nevertheless, severe IGF-I deficiency seems to confer protection against the development of neoplasms. Here, we report five cases of adult patients with severe and congenital isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) due to the c.57+1G>A mutation in the GHRH receptor gene, who developed tumors. Four GH-naïve subjects presented skin tumors: a 42-year-old man with a fibroepithelial polyp, a 53-year-old woman and two men (59 and 56 years old) with epidermoid skin cancers...
August 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Roman Rotermund, Till Burkhardt, Zaina Rohani, Roman Jung, Jens Aberle, Jörg Flitsch
OBJECTIVE: There is no ideal marker to identify residual tumor tissue after surgery in patients with acromegaly. The purpose was to elucidate if early postoperative hormone testing gives reliable information regarding complete resection of a GH-producing pituitary adenoma. DESIGN: Fourty-eight patients undergoing surgery for acromegaly from 04/2013-05/2014 were prospectively examined for random GH, IGF1, and GH levels after oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) in the early postoperative phase and on follow-up...
August 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Charles Cai, Taimur Ahmad, Gloria B Valencia, Jacob V Aranda, Jiliu Xu, Kay D Beharry
OBJECTIVES: Extremely low gestational age neonates with chronic lung disease requiring oxygen therapy frequently experience fluctuations in arterial oxygen saturation or intermittent hypoxia (IH). These infants are at risk for multi-organ developmental delay, reduced growth, and short stature. The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) system, an important hormonal regulator of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, promotes neonatal growth and development. We tested the hypothesis that increasing episodes of IH delay neonatal growth by influencing the GH/IGF-I axis...
August 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Samantha N Hartin, Waheeda A Hossain, Ann M Manzardo, Shaquanna Brown, Paula J Fite, Marco Bortolato, Merlin G Butler
CONTEXT: The first study of growth hormone receptor (GHR) genotypes in healthy young adults in the United States attending a Midwestern university and impact on selected growth parameters. OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of GHR genotypes in a sample of healthy young adults from the United States attending a university in the Midwest and analyze the relationship between GHR genotypes and selected growth parameters. DESIGN: Saliva was collected from 459 healthy young adults (237 females, 222 males; age range = 18-25 y) and DNA isolated for genotyping of GHR alleles (fl/fl, fl/d3, or d3/d3)...
August 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Kevin Christian Bermea, Alejandro Rodríguez-García, Andrew Tsin, Hugo Alberto Barrera-Saldaña
IMPORTANCE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common of all diabetic complications. The number of people with DR in the United States is expected to increase to 16 million by 2050. DR is the leading cause of blindness among working-age adults in many different countries, including the United States. In later DR stages, neovascularization is associated with extensive retinal capillary non-perfusion and vitreo-proliferation leading to retinal detachment. This neovascularization is orchestrated by an imbalance of growth factors in the retina from which somatolactogens (pituitary growth hormone, GH-N; placental growth hormone, GH-V; prolactin, PRL; and placental lactogen, PL, also referred as chorionic somatomammotropin, CSH), may play an important role...
August 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Mareen Nipkow, Elisa Wirthgen, Peter Luft, Alexander Rebl, Andreas Hoeflich, Tom Goldammer
The insulin-like growth factors IGF-1 and IGF-2 play important roles in the growth, development, and metabolism of teleost fish. We isolated cDNA sequences of igf1, and igf2 genes from maraena whitefish. We quantified the mRNA and protein expressions of IGFs in different tissues of marketable juvenile maraena whitefish. Moreover, we analyzed the gene expression profiles during maraena whitefish development from unfertilized egg to fingerling and examined the effect of incubation temperature on igf1, and igf2 gene expression during embryonic and early larval development...
June 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Nandini Bhat, Eric Dulmovits, Andrew Lane, Catherine Messina, Thomas Wilson
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to determine if it is possible to truncate a combined simultaneous arginine clonidine stimulation test, and to correlate the outcome of the test with clinical indices of GH status. METHODS: Charts of subjects who underwent a combined simultaneous arginine clonidine stimulation test between January 1, 2007 and August 31, 2016 were reviewed. RESULTS: 131/203 (64.5%) tests performed in children with growth failure demonstrated a peak GH ≥ 10 ng/ml...
June 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
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