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Growth Hormone & IGF Research

Kei Tanaka, Momoe Watanabe, Miho Matsushima, Yukiko Matsuzawa, Tomoko Izawa, Takashi Nagashima, Yoichi Kobayashi, Mitsutoshi Iwashita
OBJECTIVE: Trophoblast survival is regulated by cytokines and growth factors. While the pharmacological levels (10-100 ng/mL) of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α affect trophoblasts survival in vitro, the effects of the physiological levels (1-10 pg/mL) of TNF-α remain unknown. We investigated the effects of the physiological levels of TNF-α on proliferation and apoptosis of human trophoblast cells by using BeWo cells. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is also a potent regulator of trophoblast survival and has been known to exert synergistic effects with other hormones...
July 4, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Sunelle A Barnard, Wayne Smith, Catharina M C Mels, Shani Botha, Aletta E Schutte
INTRODUCTION: Low circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are associated with endothelial dysfunction, subsequently leading to the development of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To better understand the early phases of vascular deterioration in a young, healthy population, we investigated, cross-sectionally, whether biomarkers of endothelial function (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and von Willebrand factor antigen (vWFag )) are associated with IGF-1 in a healthy study population forming part of the larger African Prospective study on the Early Detection and Identification of Cardiovascular diseases and Hypertension (African-PREDICT)...
June 12, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
İsmail Akaltun, Atilla Çayır, Tayfun Kara, Hamza Ayaydın
AIM: Children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are reported to experience failure in psychological maturation, and to have a lack of self-confidence in social life, and depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between GHD and anxiety disorders and depression in children and adolescents. METHOD: 122 children and adolescents aged 7-17, 87 receiving GHD therapy and 35 before treatment, and 122 healthy volunteers were included in the study...
June 4, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Rikke Hjortebjerg
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4) is a modulator of the IGF system, exerting both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on IGF-induced cellular growth. IGFBP-4 is the principal substrate for the enzyme pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). Through IGF-dependent cleavage of IGFBP-4 in the vicinity of the IGF receptor, PAPP-A is able to increase IGF bioavailability and stimulate IGF-mediated growth. Recently, the stanniocalcins (STCs) were identified as novel inhibitors of PAPP-A proteolytic activity, hereby adding additional members to the seemingly endless list of proteins belonging to the IGF family...
May 30, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Oliver Krug, Andreas Thomas, Helle Malerød-Fjeld, Yvette Dehnes, Tim Laussmann, Ingo Feldmann, Albert Sickmann, Mario Thevis
Detecting agents allegedly or evidently promoting growth such as human growth hormone (GH) or growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP) in doping controls has represented a pressing issue for sports drug testing laboratories. While GH is a recombinant protein with a molecular weight of 22 kDa, the GHRPs are short (3-6 amino acids long) peptides with GH releasing properties. The endogenously produced GH (22 kDa isoform) consists of 191 amino acids and has a monoisotopic molecular mass of 22,124 Da. Within this study, a slightly modified form of GH was discovered consisting of 192 amino acids carrying an additional alanine at the N-terminus, leading to a monoisotopic mass of 22,195 Da...
May 19, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Mareen Nipkow, Elisa Wirthgen, Peter Luft, Alexander Rebl, Andreas Hoeflich, Tom Goldammer
The insulin-like growth factors IGF-1 and IGF-2 play important roles in the growth, development, and metabolism of teleost fish. We isolated cDNA sequences of igf1, and igf2 genes from maraena whitefish. We quantified the mRNA and protein expressions of IGFs in different tissues of marketable juvenile maraena whitefish. Moreover, we analyzed the gene expression profiles during maraena whitefish development from unfertilized egg to fingerling and examined the effect of incubation temperature on igf1, and igf2 gene expression during embryonic and early larval development...
June 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Nandini Bhat, Eric Dulmovits, Andrew Lane, Catherine Messina, Thomas Wilson
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to determine if it is possible to truncate a combined simultaneous arginine clonidine stimulation test, and to correlate the outcome of the test with clinical indices of GH status. METHODS: Charts of subjects who underwent a combined simultaneous arginine clonidine stimulation test between January 1, 2007 and August 31, 2016 were reviewed. RESULTS: 131/203 (64.5%) tests performed in children with growth failure demonstrated a peak GH ≥ 10 ng/ml...
June 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Laura E Dichtel, Mette Bjerre, Melanie Schorr, Miriam A Bredella, Anu V Gerweck, Brian M Russell, Jan Frystyk, Karen K Miller
OBJECTIVE: Overweight/obesity is characterized by decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion whereas circulating IGF-I levels are less severely reduced. Yet, the activity of the circulating IGF-system appears to be normal in overweight/obese subjects, as estimated by the ability of serum to activate the IGF-I receptor in vitro (bioactive IGF). We hypothesized that preservation of bioactive IGF in overweight/obese women is regulated by an insulin-mediated suppression of IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and IGFBP-2, and by suppression of IGFBP-3, mediated by low GH...
June 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Jesús Argente, Luis A Pérez-Jurado
As a result of our publication of the first patients with short stature due to a mutation in the gene for PAPP-A2 the question, "Why did you continue to study these patients when they were not more than 2 SDS below normal?" has been proposed surprisingly frequently. We would like to communicate our opinions on why these patients were studied and share the experience on how this process took place. In addition, the choice of treatment is also discussed. We believe that this discovery process is a good example of good clinical practice and international collaboration...
June 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Dan Jia, Weijiang Zheng, Honglin Jiang
The C3H10T1/2 cells are considered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) because they can be induced to become the progenitor cells for myocytes, adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes by the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5'-azacytidine. In this study, we determined the effect of growth hormone (GH) on the myogenic and adipogenic lineage commitment in C3H10T1/2 cells. The C3H10T1/2 cells were treated with recombinant bovine GH in the presence or absence of 5'-azacytidine for 4 days. The myogenic commitment in C3H10T1/2 cells was assessed by immunostaining them for MyoD, the marker for myoblasts, and by determining their capacity to differentiate into the multinucleated myotubes...
June 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Katharina Schilbach, Daniel S Olsson, Margaret C S Boguszewski, Martin Bidlingmaier, Gudmundur Johannsson, Jens-Otto Lunde Jørgensen
Growth hormone (GH) and IGF-I levels in serum are used as biomarkers in the diagnosis and management of GH-related disorders but have not been subject to structured validation. Auxological parameters in children and changes in body composition in adults, as well as metabolic parameters and patient related outcomes are used as clinical and surrogate endpoints. New treatment options, such as long acting GH and GH antagonists, require reevaluation of the currently used biochemical biomarkers. This article will review biomarkers, surrogate endpoints and clinical endpoints related to GH treatment in children and adults as well as in acromegaly...
June 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Hitoshi Ishii, Akira Shimatsu, Hiromi Nishinaga, Osamu Murai, Kazuo Chihara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Roshni Patel, Meifang Zhu, Danielle M Robertson
OBJECTIVE: The human corneal epithelium expresses both the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and the IGF-1R/insulin receptor (INSR) hybrid. Despite the previous identification of IGF-1 in human tear fluid, little is known regarding the regulation of IGF-1 in tear fluid and its role in corneal epithelial homeostasis. In the present study, we investigated the impact of biological parameters on the concentration of human tear levels of IGF-1. DESIGN: Tear levels of IGF-1 were measured in 41 healthy, human volunteers without any reported symptoms of dry eye...
June 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Elena Lundberg, Björn Andersson, Berit Kriström, Sten Rosberg, Kerstin Albertsson-Wikland
OBJECTIVE: Daily subcutaneous self-injection of GH is used worldwide to treat short stature in childhood; longitudinal data on the impact of this regimen on GH-uptake are lacking. DESIGN: Children with/without GH-deficiency participating in clinical trials were followed prospectively (≤8 times). Blood was sampled pre-GH-injection (dose GH33 /GH67  μg/kg) and either every 30 min thereafter for 24 h (Experimental-setting; 59 GH-curves/15 children); or every 2 h thereafter for 16 h (Clinical-setting; 429 GH-curves/117 children)...
June 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Misa Hayashi, Kumi Futawaka, Midori Matsushita, Rie Koyama, Yue Fun, Yuki Fukuda, Ayaka Nushida, Syoko Nezu, Tetsuya Tagami, Kenji Moriyama
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the direct action of GH signaling in energy homeostasis in myocytes. DESIGN: We investigated the GH-induced expression of UCP3 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, human H-EMC-SS chondrosarcoma cells, murine C2C12 skeletal muscle myoblasts, and rat L6 skeletal muscle cells, as well as its direct effect on the GHR/JAK/STAT5 pathway using a combination of a reporter assay, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and western blotting...
June 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Ryusaku Matsumoto, Masafumi Koga, Soji Kasayama, Hidenori Fukuoka, Genzo Iguchi, Yukiko Odake, Kenichi Yoshida, Hironori Bando, Kentaro Suda, Hitoshi Nishizawa, Michiko Takahashi, Wataru Ogawa, Yutaka Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Most of circulating IGF-I is derived from the liver and circulating IGF-I levels are decreased in several pathological conditions, such as liver cirrhosis, uncontrolled diabetes, renal failure, and malnutrition. However, it has not fully been elucidated which factors modify IGF-I level in a physiological condition. OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors which are associated with circulating IGF-I levels. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
June 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Rikke Hjortebjerg, Darlene E Berryman, Ross Comisford, Edward O List, Claus Oxvig, Mette Bjerre, Jan Frystyk, John J Kopchick
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) stimulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I action through proteolytic cleavage of IGF binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4). Recently, stanniocalcin-2 (STC2) was discovered as an inhibitor of PAPP-A. Most members of the IGF system are expressed in adipose tissue (AT), but there is a relative paucity of information on the distribution of IGFBP-4, PAPP-A, and STC2 in different AT depots. Since IGF-I expression in AT is highly GH-dependent, we used bovine GH transgenic (bGH) and GH receptor knockout (GHR-/-) mice to investigate AT depot-specific expression patterns of IGFBP-4, PAPP-A, and STC2, and whether the regulation is GH-dependent...
April 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Lara A Householder, Ross Comisford, Silvana Duran-Ortiz, Kevin Lee, Katie Troike, Cody Wilson, Adam Jara, Mitchell Harberson, Edward O List, John J Kopchick, Darlene E Berryman
OBJECTIVE: White adipose tissue (WAT) fibrosis - the buildup of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, primarily collagen - is now a recognized hallmark of tissue dysfunction and is increased with obesity and lipodystrophy. While growth hormone (GH) is known to increase collagen in several tissues, no previous research has addressed its effect on ECM in WAT. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine if GH influences WAT fibrosis. DESIGN: This study examined WAT from four distinct strains of GH-altered mice (bGH and GHA transgenic mice as well as two tissue specific GH receptor gene disrupted lines, fat growth hormone receptor knockout or FaGHRKO and liver growth hormone receptor knockout or LiGHRKO mice)...
April 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Alessandro Ciresi, Valentina Guarnotta, Giuseppe Pizzolanti, Carla Giordano
OBJECTIVE: Data about the impact of growth hormone treatment (GHT) on insulin sensitivity in children are quite controversial, due to the different surrogate indices that have been used. DESIGN: We evaluated insulin sensitivity through the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, considered the gold standard technique, in 23 children affected by growth hormone deficiency (GHD) at baseline and after 12months of GHT and in 12 controls with short stature at baseline, and we compared the clamp-derived index (M-value) with the most commonly used surrogate index of insulin sensitivity, as ISI Matsuda, and with circulating plasma markers of insulin sensitivity, as adiponectin and resistin levels...
April 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Gunnel Hellgren, Chatarina Löfqvist, Ingrid Hansen-Pupp, Magnus Gram, Lois E Smith, David Ley, Ann Hellström
OBJECTIVE: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a multifactorial disease linked to low insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels and perhaps to postnatal inflammation. Here, we investigated the longitudinal postnatal serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in relation to IGF-I levels and ROP. DESIGN: The study cohort included 52 infants born before 31 gestational weeks. The infants were screened for ROP and classified as non-ROP (n=33), non-proliferative ROP (stages 1 and 2; n=10), or proliferative ROP (stage 3, all treated for ROP; n=9)...
April 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
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