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Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641091/increasing-rates-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-mexican-hospitals
#1
Laura Palau Dávila, Elvira Garza-González, Patricia Rodríguez-Zulueta, Rayo Morfín-Otero, Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega, Diana Villar-Compte, Juan C Rodríguez-Aldama, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz
INTRODUCTION: The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed in the last two decades. There is a lack of information regarding incidence and severity of CDI, especially in the developing world. METHODS: This was a retrospective and observational study from four hospitals of three Mexican cities. Patients were diagnosed with CDI when presented with loose stools and had at least one of the following tests positive: toxins assay, real-time PCR, or an endoscopic image compatible with pseudomembranous colitis...
June 19, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628760/tuberculosis-incidence-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-with-virological-failure-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-salvador-bahia-brazil
#2
Monaliza Cardozo Rebouças, Márcio Oliveira da Silva, Tatiana Haguihara, Carlos Brites, Eduardo Martins Netto
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV has led to increased survival of HIV-infected patients. However, tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading opportunistic infection and cause of death among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). TB has been shown to be a good predictor of virological failure among PLWHA. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of TB and its consequences among individuals diagnosed with virological failure of HIV. This was a retrospective cohort study involving PLWHA being followed-up in an AIDS reference center in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil...
June 16, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623676/unrecognized-pediatric-and-adult-family-members-of-children-with-acute-brucellosis
#3
Dilek Yılmaz Çiftdoğan, Selda Aslan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Brucellosis is an infectious, contagious and zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide. The family members of an index case of brucellosis may be especially susceptible, due to sharing the same source of infection and similar risk factors for brucellosis. In this study, we propose to screen pediatric and adult family members of brucellosis index cases for detecting additional unrecognized infected family members. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 114 family members of 41 pediatric patients with brucellosis were evaluated...
June 14, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623675/development-of-a-prototype-immunochromatographic-test-for-rapid-diagnosis-of-respiratory-adenovirus-infection
#4
Inarei Paulini, Joselma Siqueira-Silva, Luciana Thomaz, Leticia Rocha, Charlotte Harsi, Nancy Bellei, Celso Granato
Human adenoviruses comprise an important group of etiologic agents that are responsible for various diseases in adults and children, such as respiratory, ocular, gastroenteric, and urinary infections. In immunocompromised and organ-transplanted individuals, these agents can cause generalized infections. Rapid diagnostic methods for detecting these infectious agents are not widely available. The aim of this work was to produce monoclonal and polyclonal anti-adenovirus antibodies to be used in a rapid diagnostic test for respiratory infections...
June 14, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609647/a-case-of-chronic-lacrimal-canaliculitis-revisiting-the-role-of-actinomyces-israelii
#5
LETTER
Srujana Mohanty, Subhrajyoti Sahu, Sucheta Parija, Ashok K Praharaj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 10, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606416/intrauterine-fetal-death-due-to-congenital-cytomegalovirus-cmv-infection
#6
Stefano Licci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606415/identification-of-hepatitis-b-virus-a1762t-g1764a-double-mutant-strain-in-patients-in-southern-brazil
#7
Adaliany Souza, Giórgia Marasca, Nélson Kretzmann-Filho, Aline Dall-Bello, Dimas Kliemann, Cristiane Tovo, Ana Veiga
Infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a worldwide public health problem. Chronic HBV infection with high viral replication may lead to cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. Mutant HBV strains, such as the HBV A1762T/G1764A double mutant, have been associated with poor prognosis and higher risk of the patient for developing cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. This study analyzed the presence of the HBV A1762T/G1764A double mutant in patients with chronic HBV and its association with clinical parameters such as viral load, aminotransferases, and HBV antigens...
June 9, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606414/high-prevalence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-antibodies-in-sao-paulo-southeastern-brazil-analysis-of-a-group-of-blood-donors-representative-of-the-general-population
#8
Ana Maria Passos-Castilho, Mônica Renata Reinaldo, Anne de Sena, Celso F H Granato
Brazil is a non-endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection with seroprevalence from 1% to 4% in blood donors and the general population. However, data on seroprevalence of HEV in the country are still limited. This study evaluated the prevalence of past or present HEV infection in a group of blood donors representative of the general population of the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 500 blood donors were tested from July to September 2014 by serological and molecular methods...
June 9, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606413/leishmania-donovani-infection-activates-tlr-2-4-expressions-and-tgf-%C3%AE-mediated-apoptosis-in-renal-tissues
#9
Vinod Kumar, Neeraj Tiwari, Mallikarjun Rao Gedda, Rizwanul Haque, Rakesh K Singh
The present study was aimed to identify the underlying mechanisms of improper renal function in Leishmania donovani infection that causes VL. Mice (BALB/c) were infected with L. donovani and different parameters for proteinuria were assessed. The levels of superoxide anion (O2(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), lipid peroxidation (MDA), inflammatory cytokines, and toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 expression were found significantly elevated at 60th day in these animals and declined at 90th day post infection. However, TGF-β and caspase 3 activities were higher at 90th day in comparison to 60th day post infection...
June 9, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602616/salivary-anti-pgl-1-igm-may-indicate-active-transmission-of-mycobacterium-leprae-among-young-people-under-16-years-of-age
#10
Alexandre Casimiro de Macedo, José Evandro Cunha, Juliana Navarro Ueda Yaochite, Clodis Maria Tavares, Aparecida Tiemi Nagao-Dias
Considering that the main route of Mycobacterium leprae transmission is the upper respiratory tract, detection of salivary antibodies can be a useful tool for diagnosing early infection. The study aimed to analyze salivary anti-PGL-1 IgA and IgM antibodies in 169 children aged 4-16 years old, who lived nearby or inside the house of multibacillary or paucibacillary leprosy patients in two endemic cities in Alagoas State - Brazil. Salivary anti-PGL-1 antibodies were quantified by modified ELISA method. The frequency of contact and clinical form of the index case were significantly associated with salivary antibodies levels...
June 8, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579170/vaccination-coverage-in-a-cohort-of-hiv-infected-patients-receiving-care-at-an-aids-outpatient-clinic-in-esp%C3%A3-rito-santo-brazil
#11
Lauro Ferreira da Silva Pinto Neto, Julia Vescovi Vieira, Nathália Rossoni Ronchi
This cross-sectional study assessed the immunization status of human immune deficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving care at an outpatient clinic in Brazil. The sociodemographic characteristics, CD4 count and HIV viral load of 281 out of 612 adult outpatients were analyzed. A total of 331 patients were excluded because of no availability of vaccination cards. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used. Immunization coverage was higher for diphtheria/tetanus (59.79%) and hepatitis B (56.7%), and lowest for hepatitis A (6...
June 1, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577370/viruses-vector-control-proposal-genus-aedes-emphasis
#12
REVIEW
Nelson Nogueira Reis, Alcino Lázaro da Silva, Elma Pereira Guedes Reis, Flávia Chaves E Silva, Igor Guedes Nogueira Reis
The dengue fever is a major public health problem in the world. In Brazil, in 2015, there were 1,534,932 cases, being 20,320 cases of severe form, and 811 deaths related to this disease. The distribution of Aedes aegypti, the vector, is extensive. Recently, Zika and Chikungunya viruses had arisen, sharing the same vector as dengue and became a huge public health issue. Without specific treatment, it is urgently required as an effective vector control. This article is focused on reviewing vector control strategies, their effectiveness, viability and economical impact...
May 31, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571687/ngs-virulome-analysis-of-a-yersinia-enterocolitica-subsp-palearctica-bioserotype-4-o-3-st18-isolated-from-human-blood-in-brazil
#13
Leonardo Alves Rusak, Ricardo Magrani Junqueira, Ernesto Hofer, Deyse Christina Vallim, Marise Dutra Asensi
Yersinia enterocolitica is a widespread Gram-negative bacterium that causes gastrointestinal disease and other clinical manifestations in humans. Potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica has been isolated in Brazil, from human, environmental, food, and animal sources. Herein we report a genome sequence of Y. enterocolitica subsp. palearctica strain YE 19, serotype O:3, biotype 4, sequence type 18, with virulence determinants isolated from human blood in Rio de Janeiro in 2005. The results corroborate other findings that this strain harbors a set of virulence determinants that could play a role in host pathoadaptation and may also justify the successful dissemination of bioserotype 4/O:3 in Brazil...
May 29, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558260/antimicrobial-resistance-and-plasmid-replicons-in-yersinia-enterocolitica-strains-isolated-in-brazil-in-30-years
#14
Miliane R Frazão, Leonardo N Andrade, Ana L C Darini, Juliana P Falcão
Some studies evaluated the resistance profile of the Y. enterocolitica strains isolated in diverse countries. However, in Brazil the isolation and the study of Y. enterocolitica are not common and therefore information about the antimicrobial resistance profile of this species in this country is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance of Y. enterocolitica of biotypes 1A, 2 and 4 isolated from clinical and non-clinical sources between 1979 and 2012, in Brazil. This study showed that some Yersinia enterocolitica of different biotypes remain susceptible to antimicrobials used for gastroenteritis treatment...
May 27, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554002/retrospective-analysis-of-hepatitis-b-virus-chronic-infection-in-247-patients-clinical-stages-response-to-treatment-and-poor-prognostic-factors
#15
Marlone Cunha-Silva, Fábio R T Marinho, Paulo F Oliveira, Tirzah M Lopes, Tiago Sevá-Pereira, Sonia L S Lorena, Jazon R S Almeida
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B is a major cause of cirrhosis, and the natural history of the disease has several clinical stages that should be thoroughly understood for the implementation of proper treatment. Nonetheless, curing the disease with antiviral treatment remains a challenge. AIMS: To describe the clinical course, response to treatment, and poor prognostic factors in 247 hepatitis B virus chronic infection patients treated in a tertiary hospital in Brazil...
May 26, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549858/a-prospective-observational-cohort-study-to-assess-the-incidence-of-acute-otitis-media-among-children-0-5-years-of-age-in-southern-brazil
#16
Tatiana M Lanzieri, Clóvis Arns da Cunha, Rejane B Cunha, D Fermin Arguello, Raghavendra Devadiga, Nervo Sanchez, Eduardo Ortega Barria
OBJECTIVES: To estimate acute otitis media (AOM) incidence among young children and impact on quality of life of parents/caregivers in a southern Brazilian city. METHODS: Prospective cohort study including children 0-5 years of age registered at a private pediatric practice. AOM episodes diagnosed by a pediatrician and impact on quality of life of parents/caregivers were assessed during a 12-month follow-up. RESULTS: During September 2008-March 2010, of 1136 children enrolled in the study, 1074 (95%) were followed: 55...
May 23, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549857/low-seroprevalence-of-zika-virus-in-cameroonian-blood-donors
#17
Bouba Gake, Marie A Vernet, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Jan Felix Drexler, Ernest A Gould, Pierre Gallian, Xavier de Lamballerie
A Zika virus seroepidemiology study was performed in 1084 blood donors collected from August to October 2015 in six sites of Cameroon representing a large panel of eco-environments. Samples were tested using an anti-NS1 IgG ELISA detection kit and positives were further confirmed by seroneutralization. The observed global seroprevalence was low (around 5%, peaking at 10% and 7.7% in Douala and Bertoua, respectively) with risk factors associated with seropositivity pointing to the existence of a local (peri-)sylvatic cycle of transmission...
May 23, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545939/relationship-between-climatic-factors-and-air-quality-with-tuberculosis-in-the-federal-district-brazil-2003-2012
#18
Fernanda Monteiro de Castro Fernandes, Eder de Souza Martins, Daniella Melo Arnaud Sampaio Pedrosa, Maria do Socorro Nantua Evangelista
INTRODUCTION: Despite the high rate of tuberculosis (TB) indicators in Brazil, the Federal District (FD) shows a low prevalence of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between climatic factors and air quality with tuberculosis in the Brazilian Federal District. METHODOLOGY: This was an ecological and descriptive study comparing 3927 new cases of TB registered at the Federal District Tuberculosis Control Program with data from the National Institute of Meteorology, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, Brazilian Agricultural Research Institute, Brasilia Environmental Institute, and the Federal District Planning Company...
May 22, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539254/prevalence-of-primary-resistance-among-acutely-recently-hiv-infected-patients-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#19
Ana Cristina G Ferreira, Lara E Coelho, Eduarda Grinsztejn, Carlos S de Jesus, Monick L Guimarães, Valdilea G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Sandra W Cardoso
INTRODUCTION: The widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increased the transmission of antiretroviral resistant HIV strains. ART initiation during acute/recent HIV infection limits HIV reservoirs and improves immune response in HIV infected individuals. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) may jeopardize the early goals of early ART among acute/recent HIV infected patients. METHODS: Patients with acute/recent HIV infection who underwent resistance test before ART initiation were included in this analysis...
May 21, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535397/quality-of-life-anxiety-and-depression-in-patients-with-hiv-aids-who-present-poor-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-a-cross-sectional-study-in-salvador-brazil
#20
Mónica Narváez Betancur, Liliane Lins, Irismar Reis de Oliveira, Carlos Brites
The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy marked a major gain in efficacy of HIV/AIDS treatment and a reduction in morbidity and mortality of the infected patients. However, high levels of adherence are required to obtain virologic suppression. In Brazil, the policy of free and universal access to antiretroviral therapy has been in place since 1996, although there are reports of poor adherence. OBJECTIVE: To define the clinical, demographic and psychological characteristics, and quality of life of patients with HIV/AIDS who present poor adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy...
May 20, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
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