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Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912071/classical-and-alternative-macrophages-have-impaired-function-during-acute-and-chronic-hiv-1-infection
#1
Leonardo J Galvão-Lima, Milena S Espíndola, Luana S Soares, Fabiana A Zambuzi, Maira Cacemiro, Caroline Fontanari, Valdes R Bollela, Fabiani G Frantz
OBJECTIVES: Three decades after HIV recognition and its association with AIDS development, many advances have emerged - especially related to prevention and treatment. Undoubtedly, the development of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) dramatically changed the future of the syndrome that we know today. In the present study, we evaluate the impact of HAART on macrophage function and its relevance to HIV pathogenesis. METHODS: PBMCs were isolated from blood samples and monocytes (CD14+ cells) were purified...
November 29, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912070/cardiac-complications-associated-with-the-influenza-viruses-a-subtype-h7n9-or-pandemic-h1n1-in-critically-ill-patients-under-intensive-care
#2
Jiajia Wang, Hua Xu, Xinjing Yang, Daguo Zhao, Shenlang Liu, Xue Sun, Jian-An Huang, Qiang Guo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The clinical presentations and disease courses of patients hospitalized with either influenza A virus subtype H7N9 (H7N9) or 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (pH1N1) were compared in a recent report, but associated cardiac complications remain unclear. The present retrospective study investigated whether cardiac complications in critically ill patients with H7N9 infections differed from those infected with the pH1N1 strain. METHODS: Suspect cases were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays with specific confirmation of the pandemic H1N1 strain at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
November 29, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912069/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-southern-hemisphere-quadrivalent-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-a-phase-iii-open-label-study-of-adults-in-brazil
#3
Cristiano A F Zerbini, Rodrigo Ribeiro Dos Santos, Maria Jose Nunes, Jyoti Soni, Ping Li, Varsha K Jain, Opokua Ofori-Anyinam
The World Health Organization influenza forecast now includes an influenza B strain from each of the influenza B lineages (B/Yamagata and B/Victoria) for inclusion in seasonal influenza vaccines. Traditional trivalent influenza vaccines include an influenza B strain from one lineage, but because two influenza B lineages frequently co-circulate, the effectiveness of trivalent vaccines may be reduced in seasons of influenza B vaccine-mismatch. Thus, quadrivalent vaccines may potentially reduce the burden of influenza compared with trivalent vaccines...
November 29, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888674/qpcr-detection-of-mycobacterium-leprae-in-biopsies-and-slit-skin-smear-of-different-leprosy-clinical-forms
#4
Michelle de Campos Soriani Azevedo, Natália Mortari Ramuno, Luciana Raquel Vincenzi Fachin, Mônica Tassa, Patrícia Sammarco Rosa, Andrea de Faria Fernandes Belone, Suzana Madeira Diório, Cleverson Teixeira Soares, Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet, Ana Paula Favaro Trombone
Leprosy, whose etiological agent is Mycobacterium leprae, is a chronic infectious disease that mainly affects the skin and peripheral nervous system. The diagnosis of leprosy is based on clinical evaluation, whereas histopathological analysis and bacilloscopy are complementary diagnostic tools. Quantitative PCR (qPCR), a current useful tool for diagnosis of infectious diseases, has been used to detect several pathogens including Mycobacterium leprae. The validation of this technique in a robust set of samples comprising the different clinical forms of leprosy is still necessary...
November 23, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888673/clinical-correlates-of-pp65-antigenemia-monitoring-in-the-first-months-of-post-kidney-transplant-in-patients-undergoing-universal-prophylaxis-or-preemptive-therapy
#5
Fabiana Rabe Carvalho, Rachel Ingrid Juliboni Cosendey, Cintia Fernandes Souza, Thalia Medeiros, Paulo Alexandre Menezes, Andrea Alice Silva, Jorge Reis Almeida, Jocemir Ronaldo Lugon
INTRODUCTION: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major cause of morbidity in kidney transplant patients. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study viral replication and serological response in the first months post kidney transplant in patients undergoing universal prophylaxis or preemptive therapy and correlate the findings with the clinical course of HCMV infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Independent from the clinical strategy adopted for managing HCMV infection, prophylaxis versus preemptive therapy, the pp65 antigenemia assay and serological response were assessed on the day of transplantation, and then weekly during the first three months of post-transplant...
November 23, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883875/a-case-of-urinary-tract-infection-caused-by-raoultella-planticola-after-a-urodynamic-study
#6
Murat Tuğcu, Caglar Ruhi, Ali M Gokce, Melih Kara, Sebahat Aksaray
Here we report the case of a patient who developed urinary tract infection after a urodynamic study. The causative agent was Raoultella planticola, a rare opportunistic pathogen that usually invades immunocompromised patients. While a urinary tract infection with R. planticola has been previously described, this is the first report in which an R. planticola infection developed after a urodynamic study. We postulate that the mechanism of infection was direct invasion of the urinary tract from contaminated urodynamic study equipment...
November 21, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875687/complete-substitution-of-the-brazilian-endemic-clone-by-other-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-lineages-in-two-public-hospitals-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#7
Raiane Cardoso Chamon, Sthefanie da Silva Ribeiro, Thaina Miranda da Costa, Simone Aranha Nouér, Katia Regina Netto Dos Santos
Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of bloodstream infections (BSI). Therefore, the main purpose of this work was to characterize a collection of 139 S. aureus isolates from BSI in two public hospitals in relation to their antimicrobial susceptibility profile, SCCmec types, and clonal relationship. Methicillin resistance and resistance to other 12 agents were accessed by the disk diffusion test. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to mupirocin was also determined. The SCCmec types were accessed by multiplex PCR, and the clonal relationship was determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis method and restriction modification system characterization...
November 19, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875686/early-onset-neonatal-sepsis-and-the-implementation-of-group-b-streptococcus-prophylaxis-in-a-brazilian-maternity-hospital-a-descriptive-study
#8
Felipe Teixeira de Mello Freitas, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra Romero
OBJECTIVES: To describe early-onset neonatal sepsis (EOS) epidemiology in a public maternity hospital in Brasilia, Brazil. METHODS: We defined EOS as a positive blood culture result obtained from infants aged ≤72h plus treatment with antibiotic therapy for ≥5 days. Incidence was calculated based on the number of cases and total live births (LB). This is a descriptive study comparing the period of 2012-2013 with the period of 2014-September 2015, before and after implementation of antibiotic prophylaxis during labor for group B streptococcus (GBS) prevention, respectively...
November 19, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875685/progressive-disseminated-histoplasmosis-a-systematic-review-on-the-performance-of-non-culture-based-diagnostic-tests
#9
Diego R Falci, Elias R Hoffmann, Diego D Paskulin, Alessandro C Pasqualotto
The diagnosis of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis is often a challenge to clinicians, especially due to the low sensitivity and long turnaround time of the classic diagnostic methods. In recent years, studies involving a variety of non-culture-based diagnostic tests have been published in the literature. The aim of this paper is to perform a systematic review by selecting articles evaluating non-culture-based diagnostic methods in the diagnosis of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis. We searched for articles evaluating detection of antibody, antigens, and DNA methods...
November 19, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837655/snow-s-case-revisited-new-tool-in-geographic-profiling-of-epidemiology
#10
Alessio Papini, Ugo Santosuosso
Geographic Profiling technique is used to find the origin of a series of crimes. The method was recently extended to other fields. One of the best renowned data in epidemiology is that by John Snow during an outburst of cholera in London. We wrote Python scripts to perform the analyses to apply the Geographic Profiling for individuating the starting origin of an infection by using the old Snow's data set. We modified the method by applying a weight to each point of the map where cases of cholera were reported...
November 9, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832961/emergence-of-colistin-resistance-in-the-largest-university-hospital-complex-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil-over-five-years
#11
Flávia Rossi, Raquel Girardello, Ana Paula Cury, Thais Sabato Romano Di Gioia, João Nóbrega de Almeida, Alberto José da Silva Duarte
Colistin resistance involving Gram-negative bacilli infections is a challenge for health institutions around of the world. Carbapenem-resistance among these isolates makes colistin the last therapeutic option for this treatment. Colistin resistance among Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter spp., and Pseudomonas spp. was evaluated between 2010 and 2014 years, at Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, Brazil. Over five years 1346 (4.0%) colistin resistant Gram-negative bacilli were evaluated. Enterobacteriaceae was the most frequent (86...
November 7, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821250/antifungal-pharmacodynamics-latin-america-s-perspective
#12
Javier M Gonzalez, Carlos A Rodriguez, Maria Agudelo, Andres F Zuluaga, Omar Vesga
The current increment of invasive fungal infections and the availability of new broad-spectrum antifungal agents has increased the use of these agents by non-expert practitioners, without an impact on mortality. To improve efficacy while minimizing prescription errors and to reduce the high monetary cost to the health systems, the principles of pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) are necessary. A systematic review of the PD of antifungals agents was performed aiming at the practicing physician without expertise in this field...
November 5, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821249/protein-carbonyl-content-a-novel-biomarker-for-aging-in-hiv-aids-patients
#13
Vaishali Kolgiri, Vinayak Wamanrao Patil
BACKGROUND: The major complications of "treated" Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are cardiovascular disease, malignancy, renal disease, liver disease, bone disease, and perhaps neurological complications, which are phenomena of the normal aging process occurring at an earlier age in the HIV-infected population. The present study is aimed to explore protein carbonyl content as a biomarker for detecting oxidative DNA damage induced ART toxicity and/or accelerated aging in HIV/AIDS patients...
November 4, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821248/risk-factors-for-mortality-in-patients-with-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-caused-by-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae
#14
Felipe F Tuon, Maria Esther Graf, Alexandre Merlini, Jaime L Rocha, Suellen Stallbaum, Lavinia N Arend, Roberto Pecoit-Filho
BACKGROUND: The ideal therapeutic option for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is not defined. The aim of this study was to assess mortality-associated risk factors in patients with VAP by CRE and determine the outcome of several treatment options. METHODS: This was a retrospective study performed in two tertiary hospitals involving patients with VAP caused by CRE between January 2010 and August 2014...
November 4, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816418/papillomavirus-infections-in-the-oral-and-genital-mucosa-of-asymptomatic-women
#15
Ledy Horto Santos Oliveira, Larissa Silva Santos, Carolina Oliveira Silva, Everton Faccini Augusto, Felipe Piedade Gonçalves Neves
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been found in several regions of the body, including the oral cavity. Recently, this virus has been associated with oropharyngeal cancer, but little is known about HPV transmission to the oral cavity. We carried out a study to investigate concurrent oral and cervical infections in 76 asymptomatic women attending a healthcare program. Demographic and behavior data were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Oral and cervical mucosa scrapings were collected and stored for DNA extraction...
November 2, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789282/prevalence-of-ifnl3-gene-polymorphism-among-blood-donors-and-its-relation-to-genomic-profile-of-ancestry-in-brazil
#16
Silvia Renata Cornelio Parolin Rizzo, Diana Gazito, Henrique Pott-Junior, Flavia Roche Moreira Latini, Adauto Castelo
The recent development of interferon-free regimens based on direct-acting antivirals for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection has benefited many but not all patients. Some patients still experience treatment failure, possibly attributed to unknown host and viral factors, such as IFNL3 gene polymorphism. The present study assessed the prevalence of rs12979860-CC, rs12979860-CT, and rs12979860-TT genotypes of the IFNL3 gene, and its relationship with ancestry informative markers in 949 adult Brazilian healthy blood donors...
October 25, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789283/aging-neurocognitive-impairment-and-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals
#17
Cezar Arthur Tavares Pinheiro, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza, Janaína Vieira Dos Santos Motta, Evelin Franco Kelbert, Clarissa de Souza Ribeiro Martins, Marília Silva de Souza, Karen Amaral Tavares Pinheiro, Fábio Monteiro da Cunha Coelho, Ricardo Tavares Pinheiro
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: There is an increasing number of older patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection due to the success of antiretroviral therapy, the improved prognosis and life expectancy of patients, and the higher number of new infections among older individuals. The main objective of the present study was to compare the characteristics of older human immunodeficiency virus patients with those of younger patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients who were treated at the Specialized Care Service (Serviço de Assistência Especializada) for human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS in the city of Pelotas, South Brazil...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789281/prolonged-lymphocytosis-as-the-first-manifestation-of-hodgkin-like-adult-t-cell-leukemia-lymphoma
#18
Achiléa L Bittencourt, Agnes Carvalho Andrade, Cristiane Requião, Maria da Gloria Bomfim Arruda, Iguaracyra Araújo
Hodgkin-like ATLL is a rare variant of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a disease caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1). At admission, a 46-year-old female presented with lymphadenomegaly, lymphocytosis, slight elevation of LDH blood level, and acid-alcohol resistant bacilli in sputum and was being treated for pulmonary tuberculosis (Tb). She had lymphocytosis in the previous 20 months. Serology for HTLV-1 was positive. Lymph node was infiltrated by medium-sized lymphocytes with scattered Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg-like cells CD30+, CS1-4+, and CD79a+...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770615/plesiomonas-shigelloides-exports-a-lethal-cytotoxic-enterotoxin-lce-by-membrane-vesicles
#19
Marilucia Santos Ludovico, Luciano Moura Martins, Juares Ednaldo Romero Bianco, Célia Guadalupe Tardelli de Jesus Andrade, Rosabel Falcon, Paulo Pinto Joazeiro, Maria Silvia Viccari Gatti, Tomomasa Yano
Plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from water in Brazil was previously described as a hemorrhagic heat-labile cytotoxic-enterotoxin producer. We purified this toxin from culture supernatants using ion metallic affinity chromatography (IMAC) followed by molecular exclusion chromatography. The pure toxin presented molecular mass of 50kDa and isoelectric point (pI) around 6.9 by 2D electrophoresis. When injected intravenously, the purified cytotoxic-enterotoxin induced also severe spasms followed by sudden death of mice...
October 19, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768900/is-chronic-toxoplasmosis-a-risk-factor-for-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-case-control-studies
#20
Hamidreza Majidiani, Sahar Dalvand, Ahmad Daryani, Ma de la Luz Galvan-Ramirez, Masoud Foroutan-Rad
INTRODUCTION: The global protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, infects many warm-blooded animals and humans by employing different transmission routes. There have been some recent studies on the probable relevance of infectious agents and diabetes. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify the possible association between chronic toxoplasmosis and diabetes mellitus. METHODS: This study was conducted following the general methodology recommended for systematic reviews and meta-analysis...
October 18, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
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