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Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

Clint R Bellenger, John B Arnold, Jonathan D Buckley, Dominic Thewlis, Joel T Fuller
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether functional overreaching affects locomotor system behaviour when running at fixed relative intensities and if any effects were associated with changes in running performance. DESIGN: Prospective intervention study. METHODS: Ten trained male runners completed three training blocks in a fixed order. Training consisted of one week of light training (baseline), two weeks of heavy training designed to induce functional overreaching, and ten days of light taper training designed to allow athletes to recover from, and adapt to, the heavy training...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Jozo Grgic, Craig Pickering
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this paper are threefold: (1) to summarize the research examining the effects of caffeine on isokinetic strength, (2) pool the effects using a meta-analysis, and (3) to explore if there is a muscle group or a velocity specific response to caffeine ingestion. DESIGN: Meta-analysis. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus were searched using relevant terms. The PEDro checklist was used for the assessment of study quality...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Kate E Parker, Jo Salmon, Helen L Brown, Karen Villanueva, Anna Timperio
OBJECTIVES: To identify typologies of activity-related behaviours and demographic characteristics of these typologies among Australian adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 473 Secondary School students (41.4% boys, mean age 14.95±1.61 years) conducted in 2014-15. METHODS: Active travel to school, sport participation, leisure-time sedentary and demographic variables were self-reported in a survey. Duration of sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (mins/day) were accelerometer-derived...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Paul Macadam, Kim D Simperingham, John B Cronin
OBJECTIVES: Arm swing is a distinctive characteristic of sprint-running with the arms working in a contralateral manner with the legs to propel the body in a horizontal direction. The purpose of this study was to determine the acute changes in kinematics and kinetics when wearable resistance (WR) of 1kg (equivalent to ∼1% body mass) was attached to each forearm during over ground short distance (20m) maximal sprint-running. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Twenty-two male amateur rugby athletes (19...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Tracey J Dickson, Gordon Waddington, F Anne Terwiel, Lisa Elkington
OBJECTIVES: Head injuries, including concussion, are a concern in many sports. Current validated concussion assessment protocols such are problematic with suggestions that an oculomotor examination, such as the King-Devick (K-D) test, could be included. This research explores the role of the K-D test in snowsport concussion research. DESIGN: Experienced snowsport participants were recruited through a western Canadian resort (n=75). METHODS: Participants completed a questionnaire that included their history of prior serious head impacts and were assessed via the computer-based K-D test in English...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Camma Damsted, Erik Thorlund Parner, Henrik Sørensen, Laurent Malisoux, Rasmus Oestergaard Nielsen
OBJECTIVES: The health benefits from participation in half-marathon is challenged by a yearly running-related injury (RRI) incidence proportion exceeding 30%. Research in injury etiology is needed to successfully prevent injuries. The body's load capacity is believed to play an essential role for injury development. Therefore, the purpose of ProjectRun21 was to investigate the association between load capacity defined as running experience and running pace, and RRI when following a specific half-marathon running schedule...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Gennaro Boccia, Paolo Riccardo Brustio, Paolo Moisè, Alberto Franceschi, Antonio La Torre, Federico Schena, Alberto Rainoldi, Marco Cardinale
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe and analyse the performance career trajectories for Italian athletes that participated in sprint, hurdles, discus throw, and shot-put athletics events. DESIGN: Retrospective study, data collected between 1994 and 2014. METHODS: A total of 5929 athletes (female: n=2977, 50.2%) were included in the study. The age of entering competition and personal best performance was identified in the official competition records...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Ana B Peinado, Darías Holgado, Antonio Luque-Casado, Miguel A Rojo-Tirado, Daniel Sanabria, Coral González, Manuel Mateo-March, Cristóbal Sánchez-Muñoz, Francisco J Calderón, Mikel Zabala
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to test the effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 - ) ingestion on performance during a simulated competition on a Bicycle Motocross (BMX) track. DESIGN: Double-blind cross-over study. METHODS: Twelve elite male BMX cyclists (age: 19.2±3.4 years; height: 174.2±5.3cm; body mass: 72.4±8.4kg) ingested either NaHCO3- ( body weight) or placebo 90min prior to exercise. The cyclists completed three races in a BMX Olympic track interspersed with 15min of recovery...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Pamela A Shaw, Robert McMurray, Nancy Butte, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Hengrui Sun, Mark Stoutenberg, Kelly R Evenson, William W Wong, Ashley E Moncrieft, Lisa A P Sanchez-Johnsen, Mercedes R Carnethon, Elva Arredondo, Robert C Kaplan, Charles E Matthews, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani
OBJECTIVES: Usual physical activity (PA) is a complex exposure and typical instruments to measure aspects of PA are subject to measurement error, from systematic biases and biological variability. This error can lead to biased estimates of associations between PA and health outcomes. We developed a calibrated physical activity measure that adjusts for measurement error in both self-reported and accelerometry measures of PA in adults from the US Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a community-based cohort study...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Joy G Shen, Meredith B Brooks, Jessica Cincotta, Justin D Manjourides
OBJECTIVES: Caffeine has well-documented benefits on endurance athletic performance. Because of caffeine's ergogenic effects of reducing perceived fatigue, it is hypothesized that as duration of athletic event increases, so will the effect size of caffeine upon performance. This study aims to examine the relationship between duration of endurance athletic event and the effect size of caffeine compared to placebo for athletic performance. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials assessing the effects of caffeine in adults performing endurance athletic events...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Farid Bardid, Giuseppe Vannozzi, Samuel W Logan, Louise L Hardy, Lisa M Barnett
OBJECTIVES: To offer a user's guide to select appropriate measures of motor competence for children and adolescents. DESIGN: Expert consensus among a working group of the International Motor Development Research Consortium (I-MDRC). METHODS: The guide provides information on objective (motion devices and direct observation) and subjective (self-reports and proxy reports) methods for assessing motor competence among children and adolescents...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Mark Bennett, Neil Bezodis, David A Shearer, Duncan Locke, Liam P Kilduff
OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to examine whether accuracy of rugby union match prediction outcomes differed dependent on the method of data analysis (i.e., isolated vs. descriptively converted or relative data). A secondary aim was to then use the most appropriate method to investigate the performance indicators (PI's) most relevant to match outcome. METHODS: Data was 16 PI's from 127 matches across the 2016-17 English Premiership rugby season. Given the binary outcome (win/lose), a random forest classification model was built using these data sets...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Esther Ubago-Guisado, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Alan R Barker, Tore Christoffersen, Brad Metcalf, Luis Gracia-Marco
OBJECTIVES: To describe differences in bone outcomes according to biological age in male athletes participating in osteogenic (OS) or non-osteogenic (NOS) sports. DESIGN: Longitudinal (12-months). METHODS: 104 adolescents (12-14years) were measured at baseline and after 1y: OS group (n=37 football or soccer players) and NOS group (n=39 swimmers, n=28 cyclists). Years from peak height velocity (PHV, -2 to +2) was used as a maturational landmark...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Breanne E Kunstler, Jill L Cook, Joanne L Kemp, Paul D O'Halloran, Caroline F Finch
OBJECTIVES: To determine the factors that influence physiotherapists' choice to promote non-treatment physical activity to patients with musculoskeletal conditions. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. METHODS: A national, online self report survey was targeted at Australian registered physiotherapists primarily treating patients with musculoskeletal conditions in private practice and outpatient settings. Likert scale questions were used to measure the factors influencing non-treatment physical activity promotion by physiotherapists...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Paul W Sanderson, Stacy A Clemes, Karl E Friedl, Stuart J H Biddle
OBJECTIVE: In the British Army, fitness is assessed by a load carriage test (Annual Fitness Test, AFT) and by a three event Personal Fitness Assessment (PFA). Body composition based on body mass index (BMI) and abdominal circumference (AC) is also part of a mandatory annual assessment. This study examined the influence of BMI and AC on fitness test results within a comprehensive sample of British Army personnel. DESIGN: Secondary analyse were carried out on data obtained from the 2011 Defence Analytical Services and Advice (DASA) database for 50,635 soldiers (47,173 men and 3,462 women)...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Tracey J Dickson, Gordon Waddington, F Anne Terwiel
OBJECTIVES: Previous research demonstrates that a history of ankle injuries increases the risk of overall future injuries, and that somatosensory scores are correlated to sport performance. This research explores the relationship between lower limb somatosensory scores in snowsport participants and ankle injury history; and the relationship between lower limb somatosensory scores and Instructor qualification. DESIGN AND METHODS: Experienced snowsport participants who were recruited through a western Canadian snowsport school completed a questionnaire that included their ankle injury history, the Identification of Functional Ankle Instability (idFAI), the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT), and their current instructor qualification level, as a proxy for sport performance...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Gavin M Levy, Phil Lucas, Nigel Hope
OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of an ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection in the treatment of patients with proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT). DESIGN: Pilot prospective cohort study METHODS: Administration of a single PRP injection under ultrasound guidance to 29 patients with PHT confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pain, function and sporting activity were measured via the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Proximal Hamstring Tendons (VISA-H) questionnaire, administered before injection and at 8-weeks follow-up...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Richard D Telford, Rohan M Telford, Marijke Welvaert
OBJECTIVES: Despite evidence suggesting caution, employment of body mass index (BMI, kgm-2 ) as a proxy for percentage of body fat (PFat) in longitudinal studies of children and adolescents remains commonplace. Our objective was to test the validity of change in BMI as a proxy for change in PFat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during adolescence. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. METHODS: Healthy, predominantly Australian youth of mainly Caucasian background (131 females and 115 males) underwent repeated measures at 12...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Richard C Blagrove, Kristina M Holding, Stephen D Patterson, Glyn Howatson, Philip R Hayes
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of performing depth jumps (DJ) pre-exercise on running economy (RE) and time to exhaustion (TTE) at the speed associated with maximal oxygen uptake (sV˙O2max ) in a group of high-performing junior middle-distance runners. DESIGN: Randomized crossover study. METHODS: Seventeen national- and international-standard male distance runners (17.6±1.2years, 63.4±6.3kg, 1.76±0.06m, 70.7±5.2mLkg-1 min-1 ) completed two trials...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Rebecca J H M Verheggen, Thijs M H Eijsvogels, Milène Catoire, Rieneke Terink, Rob Ramakers, Coen C W G Bongers, Marco Mensink, Ad R M M Hermus, Dick H J Thijssen, Maria T E Hopman
OBJECTIVES: Obesity is characterized by a pro-inflammatory state, which plays a role in the pathogenesis of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. An exercise bout causes a transient increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, whilst training has anti-inflammatory effects. No previous study examined whether the exercise-induced increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines is altered with repeated prolonged exercise bouts and whether this response differs between lean and overweight/obese individuals...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
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