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Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

Jonathan M D Staynor, Sean D Byrne, Jacqueline A Alderson, Cyril J Donnelly
OBJECTIVES: Appropriate statistical analysis of clustered data necessitates accounting for within-participant effects to ensure results are repeatable and translatable to real-world applications. This study aimed to compare statistical output and injury risk interpretation differences from two statistical regression models built from a clinical movement sidestepping database. A "naïve" regression model, which does not account for within-participant effects, was compared with an appropriately applied mixed effects model...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Melinda Craike, Helena Britt, Alexandra Parker, Christopher Harrison
OBJECTIVES: Physical activity is essential in the primary and secondary prevention of several chronic diseases and should be a standard component of clinical care. The aims of this study were to examine the trends and characteristics of referrals to exercise physiologists in routine care in a nationally representative sample of general practitioners (GPs) in Australia. DESIGN: This prospective study was an analysis of Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health (BEACH) GP data from April 2009 to March 2016...
October 21, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Alexis A Pihoker, Austin M Peterjohn, Eric T Trexler, Katie R Hirsch, Malia N M Blue, Kara C Anderson, Eric D Ryan, Abbie E Smith-Ryan
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of pre- vs. post-workout nutrition on strength, body composition, and metabolism in trained females over 6 weeks of high intensity resistance training (HIRT). DESIGN: Forty-three trained females (mean±SD; age: 20.5±2.2 yrs; height: 165.2±5.7cm; body mass: 66.5±11.4kg) were measured for strength, body composition, and metabolic variables before and after a HIRT intervention. Participants were randomized using a 2:2:1 matched block randomization scheme by baseline leg press strength into a group that consumed a 1:1...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Christopher M Young, Wei Luo, Paul Gastin, Jacqueline Tran, Dan B Dwyer
OBJECTIVES: To identify novel insights about performance in Australian Football (AF), by modelling the relationships between player actions and match outcomes. This study extends and improves on previous studies by utilising a wider range of performance indicators (PIs) and a longer time frame for the development of predictive models. DESIGN: Observational. METHODS: Ninety-one team PIs from the 2001 to 2016 Australian Football League seasons were used as independent variables...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Gerhard Ruedl, Elena Pocecco, Martin Kopp, Martin Burtscher, Patrick Zorowka, Josef Seebacher
OBJECTIVES: In recreational skiing and snowboarding, listening to music may be associated with an increased injury risk due to impaired sound localization. Thus, we evaluated effects of listening to music at different sound levels on sound source localization while wearing a ski helmet. DESIGN: within-subjects design. METHOD: Sound source localization of 20 participants (50% females; age: 23.8±2.4years) was assessed in an anechoic chamber under six conditions: (1) head bare, (2) wearing a ski helmet, (3) wearing a ski helmet and insert ear phones, and (4-6) the latter and listening to music at 3 different sound levels of 45, 55, and 65dB sound pressure level (SPL), respectively...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Shaun Porter, Noah D Silverberg, Naznin Virji-Babul
OBJECTIVES: To examine the neurophysiological correlates and brain network organization underlying physical and cognitive exertion in active young adults. DESIGN: Repeated measures. METHODS: Thirteen healthy adults completed three exertion tasks in a counterbalanced order: a graded working memory task (anti-saccade and serial addition task (ASAT)), a graded exercise task (cycling on a stationary bicycle) (EX) and a combined graded working memory and exercise task (ASAT+EX)...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Amanda J L Watson, Anna Timperio, Helen Brown, Kylie D Hesketh
OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility and efficacy of a 6-week pilot active break program (ACTI-BREAK) on academic achievement, classroom behaviour and physical activity. DESIGN: Pilot cluster randomised controlled trial. METHODS: 374 children in Year 3 and 4 (74% response) were recruited from six schools across Melbourne, Australia. Schools were randomised to the ACTI-BREAK intervention or usual teaching practice. The intervention involved teachers incorporating 3×5min active breaks into their classroom routine daily...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Patrick P J M Schoenmakers, Kate E Reed
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the effects of different recovery durations on self-selected running velocities, physiological responses, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in a commonly used high intensity interval training (HIIT) protocol. DESIGN & METHODS: Twelve trained runners performed an incremental treadmill exercise test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2 max) and heart rate (HRmax). In four subsequent visits, participants performed a HIIT session comprising six 4-min work intervals, in which the recovery duration between work intervals equalled either a fixed (1MIN, 2MIN, 3MIN) or a self-selected duration (ssMIN)...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Wen-Shiuan Shih, Chueh-Hung Wu, Tyng-Guey Wang
OBJECTIVES: Among symptomatic dancers, sonographic abnormalities are common. Whether asymptomatic dancers have any abnormalities remains unknown. Some dancers became cyanosis over distal feet after ballet training. The hemodynamic changes at the feet in ballet are not clearly understood. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: In 25 dancers and 14 non-dancers, B-mode ultrasonography was used to measure cross-sectional areas (CSA) of tendons of deep posterior compartment muscles...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Kurt Schindelwig, Hans-Peter Platzer, Martin Mössner, Werner Nachbauer
OBJECTIVES: In winter terrain parks special airbags are used for skiers and snowboarders to practice jumps and achieve safe landings. However, in 2010 two skiers landed at the end of oval airbags. One suffered fatal, the other severe, injuries. The aim of this study was to identify parameters that lead to jumping over the airbag and to suggest preventive measures. DESIGN: Simulation study. METHODS: For the calculation of the flight distance the equation of motion was solved for the jumper's approach and flight phase...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Timm Intemann, Idoia Labayen, Ana B Peinado, Josep Vidal-Conti, Joaquin Sanchis-Moysi, Diego Moliner-Urdiales, Manuel A Rodriguez Perez, Jorge Cañete Garcia-Prieto, Jorge Del Rosario Fernández-Santos, Borja Martinez-Tellez, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez, Marie Löf, Jonatan R Ruiz, Francisco B Ortega
OBJECTIVES: Reference values are necessary for classifying children, for health screening, and for early prevention as many non-communicable diseases aggravate during growth and development. While physical fitness reference standards are available in children aged 6 and older, such information is lacking in preschool children. Therefore, the purposes of this study were (1) to provide sex-and age-specific physical fitness reference standards for Spanish preschool children; and (2) to study sex differences across this age period and to characterise fitness performance throughout the preschool period...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Celeste E Coltman, Julie R Steele, Deirdre E McGhee
OBJECTIVES: Research has shown that women with large breasts experience increased breast motion, which can act as a barrier to participating in physical activity. Despite this evidence, limited research has investigated the effect of breast size on physical activity participation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: 355 Australian women (aged 18-75years) who volunteered as participants were divided into four breast size groups (small, medium, large and hypertrophic)...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Sylvain Gaudet, Mickaël Begon, Jonathan Tremblay
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic validity of the Kerlan-Jobe orthopedic clinic shoulder and elbow score (KJOC) and the Closed kinetic upper extremity stability test (CKCUEST) to assess functional impairments associated with shoulder injury in overhead female athletic populations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. METHODS: Thirty-four synchronized swimming and team handball female athletes completed the KJOC and the CKCUEST during their respective team selection trials...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Felicity M Bright, Georgia K Chaseling, Ollie Jay, Nathan B Morris
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the exercise performance benefits with neck cooling in the heat are attributable to neck-specific cooling, general body cooling, a cooler site-specific thermal perception or a combination of the above. DESIGN: Counter-balanced crossover design. METHODS: Twelve healthy participants cycled in the heat (34°C, 30% relative humidity), at a power output (PO) self-selected to maintain a fixed rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 16...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Jozo Grgic, Brad J Schoenfeld, Christopher Latella
OBJECTIVES: Current reviews and position stands on resistance training (RT) frequency and associated muscular hypertrophy are based on limited evidence holding implications for practical application and program design. Considering that several recent studies have shed new light on this topic, the present paper aimed to collate the available evidence on RT frequency and the associated effect on muscular hypertrophy. DESIGN: Review article. METHODS: Articles for this review were obtained through searches of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Mark McKean, Lachlan Mitchell, Helen O'Connor, Tania Prvan, Gary Slater
OBJECTIVES: Registered exercise professionals (REP) are trained to provide structured exercise recommendations and general nutrition advice to healthy clients. However REP provide specific nutrition advice beyond their scope of practice, including diet-disease advice. The present study aims to investigate the level of general nutrition knowledge of REP, and compare this to a sample of community members (CTM), and university trained dietitians (DN). DESIGN: Age-matched REP, CTM and DN were recruited to complete the previously validated revised-general nutrition knowledge questionnaire...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Tryntsje Fokkema, Robert Burggraaff, Fred Hartgens, Bas Kluitenberg, Evert Verhagen, Frank J G Backx, Henk van der Worp, Sita M A Bierma-Zeinstra, Bart W Koes, Marienke van Middelkoop
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prognosis and possible prognostic factors of running-related injuries (RRIs) in novice runners. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Participants of Start to Run, a 6-weeks course for novice runners in The Netherlands, were asked to participate in this study. Before the start of the course a baseline questionnaire, on demographics, physical activity and perceived health, was sent to runners willing to participate...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Clint R Bellenger, John B Arnold, Jonathan D Buckley, Dominic Thewlis, Joel T Fuller
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether functional overreaching affects locomotor system behaviour when running at fixed relative intensities and if any effects were associated with changes in running performance. DESIGN: Prospective intervention study. METHODS: Ten trained male runners completed three training blocks in a fixed order. Training consisted of one week of light training (baseline), two weeks of heavy training designed to induce functional overreaching, and ten days of light taper training designed to allow athletes to recover from, and adapt to, the heavy training...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Patrick O McKeon, Erik A Wikstrom
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of sensory-targeted ankle rehabilitation strategies on laboratory-oriented measures of single-leg balance in those with chronic ankle instability. DESIGN: Non-inferiority randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Seventy-seven participants with self-reported chronic ankle instability were randomized into 4 treatment groups: Ankle joint mobilization, plantar massage, triceps surae stretching, and a control group...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Jozo Grgic, Craig Pickering
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this paper are threefold: (1) to summarize the research examining the effects of caffeine on isokinetic strength, (2) pool the effects using a meta-analysis, and (3) to explore if there is a muscle group or a velocity specific response to caffeine ingestion. DESIGN: Meta-analysis. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus were searched using relevant terms. The PEDro checklist was used for the assessment of study quality...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
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