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Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

David A Shearer, William Sparkes, Jonny Northeast, Daniel J Cunningham, Christian J Cook, Liam P Kilduff
OBJECTIVES: Biochemical (e.g. creatine kinase (CK)) and neuromuscular (e.g. peak power output (PPO)) markers of recovery are expensive and require specialist equipment. Perceptual measures are an effective alternative, yet most validated scales are too long for daily use. DESIGN: This study utilises a longitudinal multi-level design to test an adapted Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM+), with four extra items and a 100mm visual analogue scale to measure recovery. METHODS: Elite under-21 academy soccer players (N=11) were monitored across five games with data (BAM+, CK and PPO) collected for each game at 24h pre, 24h and 48h post-match...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Timo Hänninen, Jari Parkkari, Markku Tuominen, Grant L Iverson, Juha Öhman, Matti Vartiainen, Teemu M Luoto
OBJECTIVES: To examine test-retest reliability of the SCAT3 for two consecutive seasons using a large sample of professional male ice hockey players, and to make recommendations for interpreting change on the test. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive study. METHODS: Preseason baseline testing was administered in the beginning of the seasons 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 to 179 professional male hockey players in rink side settings. RESULTS: The test-retest reliabilities of the SCAT3 components were uniformly low...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Masouda Rahim, Sasha Mannion, Blake Klug, Hayden Hobbs, Willem van der Merwe, Michael Posthumus, Malcolm Collins, Alison V September
OBJECTIVES: The extracellular matrix (ECM) of ligaments continuously undergoes remodelling in order to maintain tissue homeostasis. Several key mediators of ECM remodelling were chosen for investigation in the present study. It is thought that polymorphisms within genes encoding signalling molecules may contribute to inter-individual variation in the responses to mechanical loading, potentially altering risk of injury. DESIGN: A genetic association study was conducted on 232 asymptomatic controls (CON) and 234 participants with surgically diagnosed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures; of which 135 participants reported a non-contact mechanism of injury (NON subgroup)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
William M Adams, Yuri Hosokawa, Luke N Belval, Robert A Huggins, Rebecca L Stearns, Douglas J Casa
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between pacing, gastrointestinal temperature (TGI), and percent body mass loss (%BML) on relative race performance during a warm weather 11.3km road race. DESIGN: Observational study of a sample of active runners competing in the 2014 Falmouth Road Race. METHODS: Participants ingested a TGI pill and donned a GPS enabled watch with heart rate monitoring capabilities prior to the start of the race...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Ian Shrier, Andreas Serner, Arnlaug Wangensteen, Russell J Steele, Adam Weir
OBJECTIVES: Different individuals may make different return to play (RTP) decisions due to different risk assessments or risk tolerances. Our objectives were to determine the feasibility of eliciting reinjury risk assessments with Bayesian methods, and risk tolerance with questionnaires, from clinicians and athletes in a real-world RTP setting. DESIGN: Feasibility study with a descriptive prospective case-series. METHODS: We recruited the athlete, sport physician and physiotherapist caring for an athlete ("triplet") within on-going groin and hamstring injury studies...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Felipe D Lisbôa, Tiago Turnes, Rogério S O Cruz, João A G Raimundo, Gustavo S Pereira, Fabrizio Caputo
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to determine the effects of ischemic preconditioning on performance in three successive 50-m swimming trials and to measure stroke rate, stroke length and blood lactate accumulation. DESIGN: Counterbalanced, repeated-measures cross-over study. METHODS: On two separate days, eleven competitive male swimmers (20±3 years, 182±5cm, 77±5kg) performed three successive 50-m trials in a 50-m swimming pool, preceded by intermittent bilateral cuff inflation (4× 5-min of blood flow restriction+5-min of cuff deflation) at either 220 for thighs and 180mmHg for arms (ischemic preconditioning) or 20mmHg for both limbs (control-treatment)...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Waseem Hindieh, Arnon Adler, Adaya Weissler-Snir, Dana Fourey, Sarah Harris, Harry Rakowski
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a common genetic disorder with a prevalence of 1:500 in the general population. Amongst a varied spectrum of clinical presentations, the most feared complication of this cardiac disorder is sudden cardiac death. Although only a minority of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who suffer sudden cardiac death or resuscitated cardiac arrest do so during exercise, strenuous physical activity is regarded as an important trigger for these tragic outcomes. Furthermore, during exercise, patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may develop augmentation of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, myocardial ischemia, diastolic dysfunction and/or inappropriate vasodilation in non-exercising vascular beds...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Katharine E Reed, Amanda L White, Spiros Logothetis, Christopher J McManus, Gavin R H Sandercock
OBJECTIVES: Compression garments are used by athletes in attempts to enhance performance and recovery, although evidence to support their use is equivocal. Reducing the exertion experienced during exercise may encourage sedentary individuals to increase physical activity. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of compression garments on walking performance (self-paced and enforced pace) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in adults who presented with two or more CVD risk factors...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Matthew D Mucha, Wade Caldwell, Emily L Schlueter, Carly Walters, Amy Hassen
OBJECTIVES: Determine the association between hip abduction strength and lower extremity running related injury in distance runners. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: Prospective longitudinal and cross sectional studies that quantified hip abduction strength and provided diagnosis of running related injury in distance runners were included and assessed for quality. Effect size was calculated for between group differences in hip abduction strength...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Elena Philippou, Nicos Middleton, Constantinos Pistos, Eleni Andreou, Michael Petrou
OBJECTIVES: Nutrition education of adolescent competitive swimmers is under-studied although their diet and nutrition knowledge are generally poor. This study aimed to assess the impact of nutrition education on nutrition knowledge and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD) and explore the effect of parental education on the swimmers' MD adherence. DESIGN: A pre-post measurement interventional study was carried out. METHODS: A half-day nutrition education session was delivered for the swimmers and a separate session for their parents...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Zhi Long, Renwei Wang, Jia Han, Gordon Waddington, Roger Adams, Judith Anson
OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of kinesiology taping (KT) and athletic taping (AT) on ankle proprioception when tested in functional, full weight-bearing stance. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy university students participated. Proprioception was measured using the Active Movement Extent Discrimination Apparatus (AMEDA). The three testing conditions: no-taping, KT, AT, and foot tested were randomly assigned...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
William Howard, Jonathan Burgess, Borut Vrhovnik, Christian Stringer, Sherrie T Choy, Jonathan F Marsden, Ingrid A Gedikoglou, Gary L Shum
OBJECTIVES: To determine the differences in the dynamic control ratio of the glenohumeral joint rotators, during internal rotation at 20° and 60° of humeral elevation in the scapular plan. Dynamic control ratio (DCR) is defined as the ratio between eccentric action of the lateral rotators and the concentric action of the medial rotators. DESIGN: A cross-sectional laboratory study. METHODS: Thirty asymptomatic participants (men n=14, women n=16, mean age=29...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Chelsea Starbuck, Victoria Stiles, Daniel Urà, Matt Carré, Sharon Dixon
OBJECTIVES: To examine the influence of clay court frictional properties on tennis players' biomechanical response. DESIGN: Repeated measures. METHODS: Lower limb kinematic and force data were collected on sixteen university tennis players during 10×180° turns (running approach speed 3.9±0.20ms(-1)) on a synthetic clay surface of varying friction levels. To adjust friction levels the volume of sand infill above the force plate was altered (kg per m(2) surface area; 12, 16 and 20kgm(-2))...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Catriona M Adams, Jeremiah J Peiffer
OBJECTIVES: Research is equivocal regarding endurance performance benefits of external nasal dilators, and currently research focusing on internal nasal dilators is non-existent. Both devices are used within competitive cycling. This study examined the influence of external and internal nasal dilation on cycling economy of motion and 20-km time trial performance. DESIGN: The study utilized a randomized, counterbalanced cross-over design. METHODS: Fifteen trained cyclists completed three exercise sessions consisting of a 15min standardized warm up and 20-km cycling time trial while wearing either a Breathe Right(®) external nasal dilator, Turbine(®) internal nasal dilator or no device (control)...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Masaru Teramoto, Chad L Cross, Daniel M Cushman, Travis G Maak, David J Petron, Stuart E Willick
OBJECTIVES: Injury management is critical in the National Basketball Association (NBA), as players experience a wide variety of injuries. Recently, it has been suggested that game schedules, such as back-to-back games and four games in five days, increase the risk of injuries in the NBA. The aim of this study was to examine the association between game schedules and player injuries in the NBA. DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. METHODS: The present study analyzed game injuries and game schedules in the 2012-13 through 2014-15 regular seasons...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Federico Y Fontana, Alessandro L Colosio, Giorgio Da Lozzo, Silvia Pogliaghi
OBJECTIVES: The study questioned if and to what extent specific anthropometric and functional characteristics measured in youth draft camps, can accurately predict subsequent career progression in rugby union. DESIGN: Original research. METHODS: Anthropometric and functional characteristics of 531 male players (U16) were retrospectively analysed in relation to senior level team representation at age 21-24. Players were classified as International (Int: National team and international clubs) or National (Nat: 1st, 2nd and other divisions and dropout)...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Farid Bardid, Matthieu Lenoir, Floris Huyben, Kristine De Martelaer, Jan Seghers, Jacqueline D Goodway, Frederik J A Deconinck
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a 30-week fundamental motor skill program in typically developing young children and to investigate possible sex differences. DESIGN: A multicenter quasi experimental design was set up for this study which involved 992 children aged 3-8 years. METHODS: All participants received their typical Physical Education curriculum and habitual movement activities. The intervention group (n=523; 53...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
E M Beckman, M J Connick, S M Tweedy
OBJECTIVES: Classification in Paralympic Sport aims to minimize the impact of 10 eligible types of impairment on the outcome of competition. Methods for assessing the extent to which a given body structure or function has been impaired are required, but are challenging because it is not possible to directly measure an absence or loss. Rather, impairment must be inferred by measurement of extant body structures or functions. METHODS: This manuscript reviews the literature concerning the assessment of strength with the aim of identifying and describing the most appropriate method for inferring strength impairment in para-athletes...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Andrew R Nealon, Alex Kountouris, Jill L Cook
OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the published literature on epidemiology, pathomechanics and risk factors for side strain injury in sport, complemented by clinical perspectives of diagnosis and management strategies that are not covered in the literature. DESIGN: Narrative review METHODS: A review of the literature was completed with all studies on side strain up until October 2015 included. As the studies were unable to be synthesised the findings were placed in a clinical context...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Richard M Pulsford, James Blackwell, Melvyn Hillsdon, Katarina Kos
OBJECTIVES: Interrupting prolonged periods of sitting may improve postprandial insulin and glucose although it is unclear whether interruptions need to involve physical activity or simply a change in posture (from sitting to standing) to benefit adults without metabolic impairment. This study examined effects of interrupting sitting with intermittent walking, and intermittent standing on dynamic insulin and glucose responses in men without known metabolic impairment. DESIGN: A randomised three-arm, cross-over experimental study comprising three seven-hour days of sustained sitting...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
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