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Pharmaceutical Biology

Sabzar Ahmad Dar, Abdul Rehman Yousuf, Masood-Ul-Hassan Balkhi, Bashir Ahmad Ganai, Mudasir Tantry, Farooz Ahmad Bhat
CONTEXT: Medicinal plants continue to act as a repository for novel drug leads with novel mechanisms of action. Podophyllum hexandrum Royale (Berberideceae) treats diverse conditions in folk medicine. OBJECTIVE: The antimutagenic potential of P. hexandrum was evaluated against endosulfan-induced clastogenicity in a piscine model by cytogenetic endpoints. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Podophyllum hexandrum rhizomes were subjected to successive solvent extraction...
October 8, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
B Hemanth Kumar, B Dinesh Kumar, Prakash V Diwan
CONTEXT: Hesperidin (HSP), a flavanoglycone found in citrus fruits, has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the protective effect of HSP on l-methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups as DMSO, l-methionine, HSP (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg), HSP-per se (100 mg/kg) and donepezil (0.1 mg/kg)...
September 27, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Violet Kasabri, Entisar K Al-Hallaq, Yasser K Bustanji, Khalid K Abdul-Razzak, Ismail F Abaza, Fatma U Afifi
CONTEXT: Adiantum capillus-veneris L. (Adiantaceae) hypocholesterolemic activity is therapeutically praised. OBJECTIVES: Pharmacological modulation of pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (PL) and α-amylase/α-glucosidase by A. capillus-veneris are evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using positive controls (acarbose, orlistat, guar gum, atorvastatin, glipizide and metformin) as appropriate, crude aqueous extracts (AEs) of A. capillus-veneris aerial parts were tested via a combination of in vitro enzymatic (0...
September 23, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Sameh Ben Khedir, Sana Bardaa, Naourez Chabchoub, Dorsaf Moalla, Zouheir Sahnoun, Tarek Rebai
CONTEXT: Since antiquity, Pistacia lentiscus L. (Anacardiaceae) fruit oil (PLFO) has been used as a remedy for primary health care such as burn treatment. OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the healing effect of PLFO on CO2 laser fractional burn in a rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out on 18 adult male Wistar rats. A second-degree laser burn (wound area = 2.2 cm(2)) was inflicted in the dorsal region by the application of CO2 fractional laser within the following parameters; Energy level: 25 MJ and Depth level: 4...
September 23, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Ahmed Elkhateeb, Rasha R Abdel Latif, Mona M Marzouk, Sameh R Hussein, Mona E S Kassem, Wagdy K B Khalil, Mohamed A El-Ansari
CONTEXT: Dobera glabra (Forssk.) Poir (Salvadoraceae) is a highly valued tree with diverse importance as special mineral sourced feed and a folkloric tool for forecasting droughts. However, there are no reports on its phytochemical and biological investigations. OBJECTIVE: Phytochemical investigation of D. glabra leaves and its protective potential against CCl4 inducing changes in the genetic materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: D. glabra extract, DGE (70% MeOH/H2O), was applied to polyamide column chromatography, eluting with MeOH/H2O of decreasing polarities, followed by preparative chromatographic tools, yielded seven compounds...
September 23, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Chun-Hong Li, Cen Chen, Qian Zhang, Chen-Ning Tan, Yuan-Jia Hu, Peng Li, Jian-Bo Wan, Gang Feng, Zhi-Ning Xia, Feng-Qing Yang
CONTEXT: Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang (Papaveraceae) (Rhizoma Corydalis) showed inhibitory effects on rabbit platelet aggregation induced by ADP, thrombin (THR) or arachidonic acid (AA). OBJECTIVE: This study separates and identifies the possible target-related platelet proteins and suggests possible signal cascades of RC antiplatelet aggregation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on comparative proteomics, the differentially expressed platelet proteins treated before and after with 50 mg/mL RC 90% ethanol extract (for 15 min at 37 °C) were analyzed and identified by two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS...
September 22, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Siyavash Joukar, Sahar Ebrahimi, Majid Khazaei, Alireza Bashiri, Mohammad Reza Shakibi, Vida Naderi, Beydolah Shahouzehi, Masoud Alasvand
CONTEXT: The long-term consumption of glucocorticoids (GCs) may induce serious adverse effects such as hypertension. There is sufficient evidence related to the benefit of walnuts on the cardiovascular system. OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the effect of methanol extract of walnut [Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae)] on dexamethasone-induced hypertension and the possible mechanisms in Wistar rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Animals were randomized into control, kernel extract (100 and 200 mg/kg/d, orally), dexamethasone (0...
September 21, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Jawhar Hafsa, Mohamed Aymen Chaouch, Bassem Charfeddine, Christophe Rihouey, Khalifa Limem, Didier Le Cerf, Sonia Rouatbi, Hatem Majdoub
CONTENT: Recently, low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (LMWHA) has been reported to have novel features, such as free radical scavenging activities, antioxidant activities and dietary supplements. OBJECTIVE: In this study, hyaluronic acid (HA) was extracted from rooster comb and LMWHA was obtained by ultrasonic degradation in order to assess their antioxidant and antiglycation activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Molecular weight (Mw) and the content of glucuronic acid (GlcA) were used as the index for comparison of the effect of ultrasonic treatment...
September 21, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Isaiah O Ademola, Paul O Odeniran
CONTEXT: Control of African trypanosomiasis relies on chemotherapy, but the development of resistance and the problem of drug residues require research for alternatives. Triterpenes and phenolics, the major constituents of Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer (Pleurotaceae), are reported to be effective against trypanosomiasis. OBJECTIVE: Trypanocidal effect of whole Pleurotus sajor-caju aqueous extract was investigated in vivo against Trypanosoma congolense. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice (25-32 g) were divided into seven groups of six animals...
September 21, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Midéko Justin Kohoude, Fernand Gbaguidi, Pierre Agbani, Marc-Abel Ayedoun, Sylvie Cazaux, Jalloul Bouajila
CONTEXT: Boswellia dalzielii Hutch. (Burseraceae) is an aromatic plant. The leaves are used for beverage flavouring. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the chemical composition and biological activities of various extracts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The essential oil was prepared via hydrodistillation. Identification and quantification were realized via GC-MS and GC-FID. Consecutive extractions (cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol) were carried out and various chemical groups (phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, antocyanins and sugar) were quantified...
September 21, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Abdul Wadood, Mehreen Ghufran, Syed Fahad Hassan, Huma Khan, Syed Sikandar Azam, Umer Rashid
CONTEXT: Malaria remains one of the prevalent infectious diseases worldwide. Plasmodium falciparum 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (PfDXR) plays a role in isoprenoid biosynthesis in the malaria parasite, making this parasite enzyme an attractive target for antimalarial drug design. Fosmidomycin is a promising DXR inhibitor, which showed safety as well as efficacy against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in clinical trials. However, due to its poor oral bioavailability and non-drug-like properties, the focus of medicinal chemists is to develop inhibitors with improved pharmacological properties...
September 21, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Rui Yang, Bo-Chuan Yuan, Yong-Sheng Ma, Shan Zhou, Ying Liu
CONTEXT: Increasing incidence and impact of inflammatory diseases have encouraged the search of new pharmacological strategies to face them. Licorice has been used to treat inflammatory diseases since ancient times in China. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the current knowledge on anti-inflammatory properties and mechanisms of compounds isolated from licorice, to introduce the traditional use, modern clinical trials and officially approved drugs, to evaluate the safety and to obtain new insights for further research of licorice...
September 21, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Flávia Negromonte Souto-Maior, Diogo Vilar da Fonsêca, Paula Regina Rodrigues Salgado, Lucas de Oliveira Monte, Damião Pergentino de Sousa, Reinaldo Nóbrega de Almeida
CONTEXT: Linalool oxide (OXL) (a monoterpene) is found in the essential oils of certain aromatic plants, or it is derived from linalool. The motivation for this work is the lack of psychopharmacological studies on this substance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate OXL's acute toxicity, along with its anticonvulsant and antinociceptive activities in male Swiss mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: OXL (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg, i.p.) was investigated for acute toxicity and in the Rota-rod test...
September 13, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Rashmi S Tupe, Nisha G Kemse, Amrita A Khaire, Shamim A Shaikh
CONTEXT: Protein glycation is the major contributing factor in the development of diabetic complications. The antiglycation potential of medicinal plants provides a promising opportunity as complementary interventions for complications. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antiglycation potential of 19 medicinal plants extracts using albumin by estimating different indicators: (1) glycation (early and late), (2) albumin oxidation, and (3) amyloid aggregation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of aqueous plant extracts (1% w/v) on protein glycation was assessed by incubating albumin (10 mg/mL) with fructose (250 mM) for 4 days...
September 8, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Yadu Nandan Dey, Garima Sharma, Manish M Wanjari, Dharmendra Kumar, Vinay Lomash, Ankush D Jadhav
CONTEXT: The tuber of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson (Araceae), commonly called Suran or Jimmikand, has high medicinal value and is used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of different gastrointestinal and inflammatory disorders. OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the effects of extracts of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tubers on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were orally administered methanol extract (APME) or aqueous extract (APAE) (250 and 500 mg/kg) or standard drug, prednisolone (PRDS) (4 mg/kg) for 7 days...
September 7, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Amal A Al-Gendy, Khaled A Nematallah, Soumaya S Zaghloul, Nahla A Ayoub
CONTEXT: Brassicaceae plants are associated with protection against cancers due to their glucosinolate contents. OBJECTIVES: We investigate fresh leaves, roots and ripe seeds of Lobularia libyca (Viv.) C.F.W. Meissn. (Brassicaceae) to identify their glucosinolate constituents, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities Materials and methods: The glucosinolates were identified using GC-MS analysis of their hydrolysis products and LC-MS analysis in the case of seeds. Disc diffusion (1 mg/disc) and minimum inhibitory concentration (0-160 μg/mL) methods were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of seed hydrolysate...
September 6, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Abdenour Bounihi, Arezki Bitam, Asma Bouazza, Lyece Yargui, Elhadj Ahmed Koceir
CONTEXT: Fruit vinegars (FVs) are used in Mediterranean folk medicine for their hypolipidemic and weight-reducing properties. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the preventive effects of three types of FV, commonly available in Algeria, namely prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill (Cectaceae)], pomegranate [Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae)], and apple [Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae)], against obesity-induced cardiomyopathy and its underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-two male Wistar rats were equally divided into 12 groups...
September 5, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Suranjana Nandi, Bidisha Ukil, Saptarshi Roy, Suman Kundu, Larisha Mawkhlieng Lyndem
CONTEXT: Clerodendrum viscosum Vent. (Verbenaceae) is a shrub, widely used amongst the natives of India against various diseases. OBJECTIVE: Crude extract of the plant was tested in vitro on a tapeworm Raillietina tetragona Molin (Davaineidae) to evaluate its potential anthelmintic efficacy and ultrastructural changes in the parasite. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parasites were exposed to different concentrations of ethanolic leaf extract (10-80 mg/mL) and praziquantel (0...
September 5, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Senthamil Selvan Perumal, Sanmuga Priya Ekambaram, T Dhanam
CONTEXT: Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. (Clusiaceae) (CI) is traditionally used to treat pain, inflammation, eye disorders and rheumatism. OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluates the antiarthritic activity of the ethanol extract of the stem bark (ESBCI) and seeds (ESCI) of Calophyllum inophyllum in Freund's adjuvant induced arthritic Wistar albino rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ESBCI and ESCI were screened for in vitro anti-inflammatory activity by proteinase inhibition and membrane stabilization assays...
September 5, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Magdalena Wójciak-Kosior, Ireneusz Sowa, Kamila Pucek, Grażyna Szymczak, Ryszard Kocjan, Piotr Luchowski
CONTEXT: Viscum album L. (Loranthaceae) is a semi-parasitic plant used in pharmacy and medicine mostly for its hypotensive and anticancer activity. The effects may be related to the presence of triterpenic acids, such as betulinic (BA) and oleanolic (OA) acids. OBJECTIVES: In our investigations the content of triterpenic acids in V. album from different host trees depending on the season of harvest was determined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: V. album herb was dried and extracted with ethyl acetate using ultrasound energy...
September 4, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
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