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Pharmaceutical Biology

Xiaxia Di, Jon T Oskarsson, Sesselja Omarsdottir, Jona Freysdottir, Ingibjorg Hardardottir
CONTEXT: Halichondria (Halichondriidae) marine sponges contain components possessing various biological activities, but immunomodulation is not among the ones reported. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of fractions/compounds from Halichondria sitiens Schmidt. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Crude dichloromethane/methanol extracts of H. sitiens were subjected to various chromatographic techniques to obtain fractions/compounds with immunomodulatory activity, using bioassay-guided isolation...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Chul-Hong Park, Hyeong-U Son, Chi-Yeol Yoo, Sang-Han Lee
CONTEXT: Aloe has been used for the prevention and cure of various diseases and symptoms including burns, injuries, oedema and pain. OBJECTIVE: This study determines the specific inhibitory activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 induced by the low molecular-weight gel fraction of Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. (lgfAv) on alcohol-induced acute gastric lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the protective effects of oral (p.o.) administration of lgfAv (molecular weight cutoff <50...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Nur Liana Md Nasir, Noorsyaza Eddrina Kamsani, Norhafizah Mohtarrudin, Fezah Othman, Siti Farah Md Tohid, Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria
CONTEXT: Leaves of Muntingia calabura (Elaeocarpaceae) are widely used in traditional medical practice; scientific findings show various pharmacological activities. However, its anticancer effect has not been investigated thoroughly yet. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to study the chemoprevention effects of MEMCL against azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer and to examine the involvement of endogenous antioxidants Materials and methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats, divided into five groups (n = 7), were injected intraperitoneally once weekly for 2 weeks with 15 mg/kg AOM, except for the normal group (received saline)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Abhinandan Ghosh, Bhabani Prasad Pakhira, Adrija Tripathy, Debidas Ghosh
CONTEXT: Terminalia chebula Retz (Combretaceae) and Musa balbisiana Colla (Musaceae) have a traditional reputation as a male contraceptive. OBJECTIVE: To determine the hypo-testicular activity of aqueous extracts of Terminalia chebula (fruit) and Musa balbisiana (seed) separately, and in composite manner at the ratio of 1:1 named as 'Contracept-TM' compared to cyproterone acetate (CPA), for developing a polyherbal contraceptive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The separate extract of above said plants or 'Contracept-TM' at the dose of 40 mg/100 g body weight of rat/day or CPA at 2 mg/100 g body weight of rat/day was administered for 28 days...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Varisha Anjum, Poonam Arora, Shahid Husain Ansari, Abul Kalam Najmi, Sayeed Ahmad
CONTEXT: Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae) leaf (CPL) juice has long been traditionally used in ethnomedicine for dengue fever. OBJECTIVE: The study examines the effects of standardized CPL aqueous extract (SCPLE) on platelet count, extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH), and immunomodulation in cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced animal model of thrombocytopenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The extract was analyzed for myricetin, caffeic acid, trans-ferulic acid, and kaempferol using HPTLC for standardization followed by UPLC-qTOF/MS fingerprinting for metabolite signature...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Yung Sing Ch'ng, Yean Chun Loh, Chu Shan Tan, Mariam Ahmad, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Wan Maznah Wan Omar, Mun Fei Yam
CONTEXT: Vernonia amygdalina Del. (VA) (Asteraceae) is commonly used to treat hypertension in Malaysia. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the vasorelaxant mechanism of VA ethanol extract (VAE) and analyzes its tri-step FTIR spectroscopy fingerprint. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dried VA leaves were extracted with ethanol through maceration and concentrated using rotary evaporator before freeze-dried. The vasorelaxant activity and the underlying mechanisms of VAE using the cumulative concentration (0...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Gyubyung Park, Eunji Kim, Young-Jin Son, Deok Hyo Yoon, Gi-Ho Sung, Adithan Aravinthan, Yung Chul Park, Jong-Hoon Kim, Jae Youl Cho
CONTEXT: Torilidis fructus, fruits of Torilis japonica Decadolle (Umbelliferae), is a medicinal herb traditionally used as a pesticide, an astrictive, or a medicine for various inflammatory diseases. OBJECTIVES: Due to the lack of pharmacological studies on this herbal medicine, we explored the inhibitory activity of torilidis fructus on the macrophage-mediated inflammatory response using its ethanol extract (Tf-EE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Griess assay and prostaglandin (PGE2) ELISA assay were conducted with Tf-EE (0-75 µg/mL) and LPS (1 µg/mL) treated RAW264...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Sun Hyuk Im, Zhiqiang Wang, Soon Sung Lim, Ok-Hwan Lee, Il-Jun Kang
CONTEXT: Sanguisorba officinalis Linne (Rosaceae) is a medicinal plant used traditionally for the treatment of inflammatory and metabolic diseases in Korea, China, and Japan. In our previous study, a 50% ethanol extract inhibited fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates bioassay-guided fractionation, isolation, and identification of anti-adipogenic bioactive compounds in S. officinalis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bioassay-guided fractionation was conducted using effective differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes (with 50 μg/mL test material for 8 days) to isolate the inhibitory compounds from ethyl acetate fraction of S...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Jianjun Xu, Yongxin Zhao, Haji Akber Aisa
CONTEXT: Punica granatum L (Punicaceae) flower is an important diabetes treatment in oriental herbal medicine. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the inflammation effects of pomegranate flower (PFE) ethanol extract in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PFE (10, 25, 50, 100 μg/mL) was applied to 1 μg/mL LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro. Levels of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β), interleukin (IL)-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in the supernatant fraction were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Xin Zhao, Ziyang Chen, Yuling Yin, Xinli Li
CONTEXT: Diabetic liver injury is a serious diabetic complication. The alterations of intestinal microbiota play an important role in induction and promotion of liver injury progression. Physalis alkekengi L. var. francheti (Mast.) Makino (Solanaceae) has been used as a water decoction for treating diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of a polysaccharide (PPSB) from Physalis alkekengi var. francheti on liver injury and intestinal microflora in type-2 diabetic mice...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Hoda M Eid, Farah Thong, Abir Nachar, Pierre S Haddad
CONTEXT: Caffeic acid methyl (CAME) and ethyl (CAEE) esters stimulate glucose uptake and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in C2C12 myocytes (ATCC(®) CRL-1772(TM)). OBJECTIVE: Effects of CAME and CAEE were now assessed on myocyte glucose transporter GLUT4 activity and expression, on hepatic gluconeogenesis and on adipogenesis as well as major underlying signaling pathways. MATERIALS AND METHODS: GLUT4 protein translocation was studied in L6 GLUT4myc cells, glucose-6-phospatase (G6Pase) in H4IIE hepatocytes and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Arezoo Rezvani-Kamran, Iraj Salehi, Siamak Shahidi, Mohammad Zarei, Shirin Moradkhani, Alireza Komaki
CONTEXT: High-fat diet (HFD) can cause deficits in learning and memory through oxidative stress and increase Alzheimer disease risk. Rosa damascena Mill. (Rosaceae) extract possesses potent antioxidant properties. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts of petals of R. damascena on learning and memory in male rats consuming an HFD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were randomly assigned to four groups: control, R...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Manoela Viar Fogaça, Priscila de Matos Cândido-Bacani, Lucas Milanez Benicio, Lara Martinelli Zapata, Priscilla de Freitas Cardoso, Marcelo Tempesta de Oliveira, Tamara Regina Calvo, Eliana Aparecida Varanda, Wagner Vilegas, Ilce Mara de Syllos Cólus
CONTEXT: Indigofera suffruticosa Miller (Fabaceae) and I. truxillensis Kunth produce compounds, such as isatin (ISA) and indirubin (IRN), which possess antitumour properties. Their effects in mammalian cells are still not very well understood. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the activities of ISA and/or IRN on cell viability and apoptosis in vitro, their genotoxic potentials in vitro and in vivo, and the IRN- and ISA-induced expression of ERCC1 or BAX genes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HeLa and/or CHO-K1 cell lines were tested (3 or 24 h) in the MTT, Trypan blue exclusion, acridine orange/ethidium bromide, cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) and comet (36, 24 and 72 h) tests after treatment with IRN (0...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Yan Luo, Wanxing Wu, Dan Chen, Yuping Lin, Yage Ma, Chaoyin Chen, Shenglan Zhao
CONTEXT: Walnut is a traditional food as well as a traditional medicine recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia; however, the large amounts of walnut flour (WF) generated in walnut oil production have not been well utilized. OBJECTIVE: This study maximized the total polyphenolic yield (TPY) from the walnut flour (WF) by optimizing simultaneous ultrasound/microwave-assisted hydroalcoholic extraction (SUMAE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Response surface methodology was used to optimize the processing parameters for the TPY, including microwave power (20-140 W), ultrasonic power (75-525 W), extraction temperature (25-55 °C), and time (0...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Tiago Rodrigues Leite, Maria Arlene Pessoa da Silva, Antônio Carlito Bezerra Dos Santos, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, Antonia Eliene Duarte, José Galberto Martins da Costa
CONTEXT: Croton sp. are plants with a well-reported antimicrobial activity. Croton limae A.P. Gomes, M.F. Sales P.E. Berry (Euphorbiaceae), known as 'marmeleiro-prateado', is commonly used to manage abdominal pain in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: This work evaluates the phytochemical composition, antimicrobial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of C. limae leaves (EOCL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the modulation of the antibiotic activity were determined using a microdilution method...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Cindy Cruz Martínez, Martha Diaz Gómez, Myung Sook Oh
CONTEXT: Herbal therapies are used worldwide to treat health conditions. In Mexico, generations have used them to treat gingivitis, periodontitis, mouth infections, and discoloured teeth. However, few studies have collected scientific evidence on their effects. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at searching and compiling scientific evidence of alternative oral and dental treatments using medicinal herbs from Mexico. METHODS: We collected various Mexican medicinal plants used in the dental treatment from the database of the Institute of Biology at the National Autonomous University of Mexico...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Bruno Burlando, Giulia Pastorino, Annalisa Salis, Gianluca Damonte, Marco Clericuzio, Laura Cornara
CONTEXT: The search for bioactive compounds from botanical sources is attracting much interest. However, differences in chemical composition may occur within the same species depending on different geographical origins. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the properties on skin enzymes and cells of extracts from sulla legume crop Hedysarum coronarium L. (Fabaceae), collected at two Italian sites near Pisa and Ventimiglia, for possible dermatological and cosmetic applications...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Mustafa Ahmed Abdel-Reheim, Basim Anwar Shehata Messiha, Ali Ahmed Abo-Saif
CONTEXT: Saponins from different sources are historically reported in Chinese medicine to possess many beneficial effects. However, insufficient experimental data are available regarding the hepatoprotective potential of Quillaja bark saponin. OBJECTIVE: The protective effect of Quillaja saponaria Molina (Quillajaceae) bark triterpenoid saponin against iron-induced hepatotoxicity is compared to the standard N-acetylcysteine in adult male Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Animals were divided into (six) groups, namely a normal control, an N-acetylcysteine control (300 mg/kg/day, p...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Eric Boakye-Gyasi, Isaac Tabiri Henneh, Wonder Kofi Mensah Abotsi, Elvis Ofori Ameyaw, Eric Woode
CONTEXT: Various parts of Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst ex. A. Rich (Rhamnaceae) have been used in Ghanaian and African traditional medicine as an analgesic. However, there are little scientific data to support the anti-nociceptive effects of the hydro-ethanolic leaf extract of Ziziphus abyssinica (EthE) as well as the possible mechanisms involved in its anti-nociceptive effects. PURPOSE: To predict possible nociceptive pathways involved in the anti-nociceptive effects of EthE...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Hend Rashad, Fateheya M Metwally, Shahira M Ezzat, Maha M Salama, Adel Hasheesh, Amira Abdel Motaal
CONTEXT: Balanites aegyptiaca Del. (Zygophyllaceae) fruits are traditionally known for the treatment of hyperglycaemia. Several in vitro and in vivo studies proposed some mechanisms of action. However, clinical trials in human beings were never reported to date. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the antidiabetic efficacy of the 70% ethanol extract of the pericarps of B. aegyptiaca (BE) within a nutritional intervention in elderly people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ultra-performance electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis was used for metabolic profiling of BE which was incorporated in hard gelatine capsules (400 mg/day) and tested on 30 type 2 diabetes (T2D) Egyptian patients for 8 weeks...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
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