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Pharmaceutical Biology

Sabzar Ahmad Dar, Abdul Rehman Yousuf, Masood-Ul-Hassan Balkhi, Bashir Ahmad Ganai, Mudasir Tantry, Farooz Ahmad Bhat
CONTEXT: Medicinal plants continue to act as a repository for novel drug leads with novel mechanisms of action. Podophyllum hexandrum Royale (Berberideceae) treats diverse conditions in folk medicine. OBJECTIVE: The antimutagenic potential of P. hexandrum was evaluated against endosulfan-induced clastogenicity in a piscine model by cytogenetic endpoints. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Podophyllum hexandrum rhizomes were subjected to successive solvent extraction...
October 8, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
B Hemanth Kumar, B Dinesh Kumar, Prakash V Diwan
CONTEXT: Hesperidin (HSP), a flavanoglycone found in citrus fruits, has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the protective effect of HSP on l-methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups as DMSO, l-methionine, HSP (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg), HSP-per se (100 mg/kg) and donepezil (0.1 mg/kg)...
September 27, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Violet Kasabri, Entisar K Al-Hallaq, Yasser K Bustanji, Khalid K Abdul-Razzak, Ismail F Abaza, Fatma U Afifi
CONTEXT: Adiantum capillus-veneris L. (Adiantaceae) hypocholesterolemic activity is therapeutically praised. OBJECTIVES: Pharmacological modulation of pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (PL) and α-amylase/α-glucosidase by A. capillus-veneris are evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using positive controls (acarbose, orlistat, guar gum, atorvastatin, glipizide and metformin) as appropriate, crude aqueous extracts (AEs) of A. capillus-veneris aerial parts were tested via a combination of in vitro enzymatic (0...
September 23, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Sameh Ben Khedir, Sana Bardaa, Naourez Chabchoub, Dorsaf Moalla, Zouheir Sahnoun, Tarek Rebai
CONTEXT: Since antiquity, Pistacia lentiscus L. (Anacardiaceae) fruit oil (PLFO) has been used as a remedy for primary health care such as burn treatment. OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the healing effect of PLFO on CO2 laser fractional burn in a rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out on 18 adult male Wistar rats. A second-degree laser burn (wound area = 2.2 cm(2)) was inflicted in the dorsal region by the application of CO2 fractional laser within the following parameters; Energy level: 25 MJ and Depth level: 4...
September 23, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Ahmed Elkhateeb, Rasha R Abdel Latif, Mona M Marzouk, Sameh R Hussein, Mona E S Kassem, Wagdy K B Khalil, Mohamed A El-Ansari
CONTEXT: Dobera glabra (Forssk.) Poir (Salvadoraceae) is a highly valued tree with diverse importance as special mineral sourced feed and a folkloric tool for forecasting droughts. However, there are no reports on its phytochemical and biological investigations. OBJECTIVE: Phytochemical investigation of D. glabra leaves and its protective potential against CCl4 inducing changes in the genetic materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: D. glabra extract, DGE (70% MeOH/H2O), was applied to polyamide column chromatography, eluting with MeOH/H2O of decreasing polarities, followed by preparative chromatographic tools, yielded seven compounds...
September 23, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Chun-Hong Li, Cen Chen, Qian Zhang, Chen-Ning Tan, Yuan-Jia Hu, Peng Li, Jian-Bo Wan, Gang Feng, Zhi-Ning Xia, Feng-Qing Yang
CONTEXT: Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang (Papaveraceae) (Rhizoma Corydalis) showed inhibitory effects on rabbit platelet aggregation induced by ADP, thrombin (THR) or arachidonic acid (AA). OBJECTIVE: This study separates and identifies the possible target-related platelet proteins and suggests possible signal cascades of RC antiplatelet aggregation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on comparative proteomics, the differentially expressed platelet proteins treated before and after with 50 mg/mL RC 90% ethanol extract (for 15 min at 37 °C) were analyzed and identified by two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS...
September 22, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Siyavash Joukar, Sahar Ebrahimi, Majid Khazaei, Alireza Bashiri, Mohammad Reza Shakibi, Vida Naderi, Beydolah Shahouzehi, Masoud Alasvand
CONTEXT: The long-term consumption of glucocorticoids (GCs) may induce serious adverse effects such as hypertension. There is sufficient evidence related to the benefit of walnuts on the cardiovascular system. OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the effect of methanol extract of walnut [Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae)] on dexamethasone-induced hypertension and the possible mechanisms in Wistar rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Animals were randomized into control, kernel extract (100 and 200 mg/kg/d, orally), dexamethasone (0...
September 21, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Jawhar Hafsa, Mohamed Aymen Chaouch, Bassem Charfeddine, Christophe Rihouey, Khalifa Limem, Didier Le Cerf, Sonia Rouatbi, Hatem Majdoub
CONTENT: Recently, low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (LMWHA) has been reported to have novel features, such as free radical scavenging activities, antioxidant activities and dietary supplements. OBJECTIVE: In this study, hyaluronic acid (HA) was extracted from rooster comb and LMWHA was obtained by ultrasonic degradation in order to assess their antioxidant and antiglycation activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Molecular weight (Mw) and the content of glucuronic acid (GlcA) were used as the index for comparison of the effect of ultrasonic treatment...
September 21, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Isaiah O Ademola, Paul O Odeniran
CONTEXT: Control of African trypanosomiasis relies on chemotherapy, but the development of resistance and the problem of drug residues require research for alternatives. Triterpenes and phenolics, the major constituents of Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer (Pleurotaceae), are reported to be effective against trypanosomiasis. OBJECTIVE: Trypanocidal effect of whole Pleurotus sajor-caju aqueous extract was investigated in vivo against Trypanosoma congolense. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice (25-32 g) were divided into seven groups of six animals...
September 21, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Midéko Justin Kohoude, Fernand Gbaguidi, Pierre Agbani, Marc-Abel Ayedoun, Sylvie Cazaux, Jalloul Bouajila
CONTEXT: Boswellia dalzielii Hutch. (Burseraceae) is an aromatic plant. The leaves are used for beverage flavouring. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the chemical composition and biological activities of various extracts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The essential oil was prepared via hydrodistillation. Identification and quantification were realized via GC-MS and GC-FID. Consecutive extractions (cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol) were carried out and various chemical groups (phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, antocyanins and sugar) were quantified...
September 21, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Abdul Wadood, Mehreen Ghufran, Syed Fahad Hassan, Huma Khan, Syed Sikandar Azam, Umer Rashid
CONTEXT: Malaria remains one of the prevalent infectious diseases worldwide. Plasmodium falciparum 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (PfDXR) plays a role in isoprenoid biosynthesis in the malaria parasite, making this parasite enzyme an attractive target for antimalarial drug design. Fosmidomycin is a promising DXR inhibitor, which showed safety as well as efficacy against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in clinical trials. However, due to its poor oral bioavailability and non-drug-like properties, the focus of medicinal chemists is to develop inhibitors with improved pharmacological properties...
September 21, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Rui Yang, Bo-Chuan Yuan, Yong-Sheng Ma, Shan Zhou, Ying Liu
CONTEXT: Increasing incidence and impact of inflammatory diseases have encouraged the search of new pharmacological strategies to face them. Licorice has been used to treat inflammatory diseases since ancient times in China. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the current knowledge on anti-inflammatory properties and mechanisms of compounds isolated from licorice, to introduce the traditional use, modern clinical trials and officially approved drugs, to evaluate the safety and to obtain new insights for further research of licorice...
September 21, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Flávia Negromonte Souto-Maior, Diogo Vilar da Fonsêca, Paula Regina Rodrigues Salgado, Lucas de Oliveira Monte, Damião Pergentino de Sousa, Reinaldo Nóbrega de Almeida
CONTEXT: Linalool oxide (OXL) (a monoterpene) is found in the essential oils of certain aromatic plants, or it is derived from linalool. The motivation for this work is the lack of psychopharmacological studies on this substance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate OXL's acute toxicity, along with its anticonvulsant and antinociceptive activities in male Swiss mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: OXL (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg, i.p.) was investigated for acute toxicity and in the Rota-rod test...
September 13, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Rashmi S Tupe, Nisha G Kemse, Amrita A Khaire, Shamim A Shaikh
CONTEXT: Protein glycation is the major contributing factor in the development of diabetic complications. The antiglycation potential of medicinal plants provides a promising opportunity as complementary interventions for complications. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antiglycation potential of 19 medicinal plants extracts using albumin by estimating different indicators: (1) glycation (early and late), (2) albumin oxidation, and (3) amyloid aggregation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of aqueous plant extracts (1% w/v) on protein glycation was assessed by incubating albumin (10 mg/mL) with fructose (250 mM) for 4 days...
September 8, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Heitor G Araújo-Filho, Jessica Deise Santos Dias, Lucindo J Quintans-Júnior, Márcio R V Santos, Pollyanna A S White, Rosana S S Barreto, André S Barreto, Charles S Estevam, Silvan S Araujo, Jackson R G S Almeida, Irwin R A Menezes, Henrique D M Coutinho, Jullyana S S Quintans
CONTEXT: Chrysobalanus icaco L. (Chrysobalanaceae) has been used for the treatment of abdominal pain and cramps. OBJECTIVE: Assess the chemical and pharmacological profile of the lyophilized aqueous extract from C. icaco leaves (AEC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chromatographic methods were used to assess compounds from AEC. Mice were treated with vehicle (control group) or AEC (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) (group with 7-8 mice) and the analgesic profile was assessed employing the acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin, hot plate tests and hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan (CG) or tumour necrosis factor-alpha...
December 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Fulya Gulyurdu, Esra Kupeli Akkol, Fatma Sezer Senol, Serap Arabaci Anul, Iffet Irem Tatli
CONTEXT: Xeranthemum annuum L. (Asteraceae) (XA) is an ornamental and medicinal species with limited bioactivity and phytochemical data. OBJECTIVE: Identification of anticholinesterase, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the flower and root-stem (R-S) extracts of XA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anticholinesterase (at 100 μg mL(-1)) and antioxidant (at 1000 μg mL(-1)) effects of various extracts were evaluated via microtiter assays, while anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the R-S extracts were tested using carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema (100 and 200 mg kg(-1)) and p-benzoquinone (PBQ) writhing models (200 mg kg(-1)) in male Swiss albino mice...
November 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Jin-Yao Sun, Cui-Yu You, Kai Dong, Hai-Sheng You, Jian-Feng Xing
Context 3,4-Oxo-isopropylidene-shikimic acid (ISA) is an analog of shikimic acid (SA). SA is extracted from the dry fruit of Illicium verum Hook. f. (Magnoliaceae), which has been used for treating stomachaches, skin inflammation and rheumatic pain. Objective To investigate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities of ISA. Materials and methods Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ISA were evaluated using writhing, hot plate, xylene-induced ear oedema, carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellets-induced granuloma test, meanwhile the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assessed in the oedema paw tissue...
October 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Leide Caroline Dos Santos Picanço, José Adolfo Homobono Machado Bittencourt, Shayanne Vanessa Correia Henriques, Juliane Silva da Silva, Juliana Maria da Silva Oliveira, José Renato Ribeiro, Antony-Babu Sanjay, José Carlos Tavares Carvalho, Didier Stien, Jocivânia Oliveira da Silva
CONTEXT: Medicinal plants encompass a rich source of active compounds that can neutralize snake venoms or toxins. Costus spicatus (Jacq.) Sw. (Costaceae) is used by the Amazonian population to treat inflammation, pain and other pathological manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of C. spicatus aqueous extract on edema, peritonitis, nociception, coagulation, haemorrhage and indirect haemolytic activity induced by Bothrops atrox venom (BAV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dried and pulverized leaves were extracted with distilled water...
October 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Awodayo O Adepiti, Anthony A Elujoba, Oluseye O Bolaji
CONTEXT: Co-administration of amodiaquine with MAMA decoction (MD), an herbal antimalarial drug comprising the leaves of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae), Morinda lucida Benth (Rubiaceae) and Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae) was investigated. The practice of concurrent administration of herbal medicines with orthodox drugs is currently on the increase globally. OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to investigate the possible enhancement of the antimalarial potency as well as possible herb-drug interaction resulting from concurrent administration of MAMA decoction with amodiaquine (AQ)...
October 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Jianglin Zhang, Xiaoge Shen, Kai Wang, Xueping Cao, Cuiping Zhang, Huoqing Zheng, Fuliang Hu
Context Numerous studies have reported that propolis possesses strong antioxidant activities. However, their antioxidant molecular mechanisms are unclear. Objective We utilize ethanol extracts of Chinese propolis (EECP) as a reference to compare ethanol extracts of Eucalyptus propolis (EEEP) with ethanol extracts of Baccharis propolis (EEBGP) based on their antioxidant capacities and underlying molecular mechanisms. Materials and methods HPLC and chemical analysis are utilized to evaluate compositions and antioxidant activities...
October 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
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