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Pharmaceutical Biology

Jialin Sun, Junke Song, Wen Zhang, Fanbo Jing, Wen Xu, Ping Leng, Xianghua Quan, Guanhua Du, Zhongguo Sui
CONTEXT: Salvianolic acid A (Sal A) is a hydrophilic bioactive compound isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Lamiaceae). It exerts beneficial effects after oral administration on diabetic complications. OBJECTIVE: To systematically study the absorption, distribution and excretion of Sal A after single-dose oral administration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Animal experiments were conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma was sampled at designated times after oral doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, and an intravenous dose of 50 μg/kg...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Chung-Hung Shih, Chi-Ming Chen, Wun-Chang Ko
CONTEXT: The rhizome of Ligusticum chuaxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae) has been used by Chinese for several thousand years. Its main constituent, butylidenephthalide (Bdph), was proved to be active in inhibiting rat uterine contractions induced by prostaglandin F2α and was reported to be a nonspecific antispamodic and a blocker of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs). OBJECTIVES: The present study investigates the mechanisms of Bdph for twitch facilitation in ICR mouse vas deferens (MVD)...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Jinlan Wei, Hongying Zhang, Qingling Zhao
CONTEXT: Friedelin is a triterpenoid with several biological activities. However, the affects of Friedelin on the activity of human liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the inhibitory effects of Friedelin on the major human liver CYP isoforms (CYP3A4, 1A2, 2A6, 2E1, 2D6, 2C9, 2C19 and 2C8). MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, the inhibitory effects of Friedelin (100 μM) on the eight human liver CYP isoforms were investigated in vitro using human liver microsomes (HLMs), and then enzyme inhibition, kinetic studies, and time-dependent inhibition studies were conducted to investigate the IC50 , Ki and Kinact /KI values of Friedelin...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Bashir Mohammed Abubakar, Faezah Mohd Salleh, Mohd Shahir Shamsir Omar, Alina Wagiran
CONTEXT: Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Simaroubaceae) commonly known as Tongkat Ali is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. The plant extracts (particularly roots) are widely used for the treatment of cough and fever besides having antimalarial, antidiabetic, anticancer and aphrodisiac activities. OBJECTIVES: This study assesses the extent of adulteration of E. longifolia herbal medicinal products (HMPs) using DNA barcoding validated by HPLC analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chloroplastic rbcL and nuclear ITS2 barcode regions were used in the present study...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Jin Peng, Jian Zhang, Li Zhang, Yonggang Tian, Yahong Li, Lujun Qiao
CONTEXT: Dihydromyricetin (DMY) has oxidation resistance, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging capabilities. The preventive effects of DMY for vascular hyporeactivity remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the preventive effects of DMY in vascular hyporeactivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The experimental sepsis was induced by transvenous administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. DMY-treated rats received daily administration of DMY, 5 μg/kg dissolved in DMSO through the tail vein for 7 days...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Xiaoli Zhang, Xiaosu Zhang, Xiaocui Wang, Meijun Zhao
CONTEXT: Andrographolide and warfarin are often used together in clinics in China. However, the herb-drug interaction between andrographolide and warfarin is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the herb-drug interaction between andrographolide and warfarin in vivo and in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sensitive and reliable LC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of warfarin in male Sprague-Dawley rats plasma, and then the pharmacokinetics of orally administered warfarin (0...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Yuchuan Wang, Min Guan, Xin Zhao, Xinli Li
CONTEXT: Alcoholic liver fibrosis (ALF) is treatable and reversible consequence of liver disease. Intestinal microflora plays an important role in the progression of liver disease. Garlic (Allium sativum L. [Amaryllidaceae]) has been consumed as a traditional medicine to treat liver injury. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of garlic polysaccharide (GP) on ALF and intestinal microflora in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: KM mice were orally administered with alcohol (56%, 6 mL/kg) for 30 d to establish ALF model, and divided into four groups together with control group (water only)...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Huaqiao Tang, Nana Long, Min Dai, Lin Lin, Jianlong Li, Fenghui Sun, Lijuan Guo
CONTEXT: Citral is used as a potential natural treatment for various infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of citral on the mRNA expression and activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes and establish the relationship between citral-induced liver injury and oxidative stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ICR mice were randomly divided into citral (20, 200, and 2000 mg/kglow), Tween-80, and control groups (0.9% saline), 10 mice in each group...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Jeanne Louise Nkot, Dominique Serge Ngono Bikobo, Auguste Abouem A Zintchem, Norbert Mbabi Nyemeck, Esther Del Florence Moni Ndedi, Patrick Hervé Betote Diboué, Dieudonné Emmanuel Pegnyemb, Christian G Bochet, Ulrich Koert
CONTEXT: The roots of Lophira lanceolata Van Tiegh. Ex Keay (Ochnaceae) have numerous medicinal values in the Central African region. Even though the MeOH extract of the roots has shown antimycobacterial activities, the constituents responsible for this inhibitory activity remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: Phytochemical investigation of the MeOH root extract of L. lanceolata and determination of the antimycobacterial activities of that extract and constituents against the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Baiping Dong, Suowei Yuan, Jinsheng Hu, Yanzhen Yan
CONTEXT: Ginkgo leaf tablets (GLTs) and losartan are often simultaneously used for the treatment of hypertension in Chinese clinics. However, the herb-drug interaction between GLT and losartan is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the effects of GLT on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its metabolite EXP3174 in rats and its potential mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pharmacokinetic profiles of losartan and EXP3174 of orally administered losartan (10 mg/kg) with or without GLT pretreatment (80 mg/kg/day for 10 days) in Sprague-Dawley rats were determined...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Ji Eun Kim, Mi Rim Lee, Jin Ju Park, Jun Young Choi, Bo Ram Song, Hong Joo Son, Young Whan Choi, Kyung Mi Kim, Jin Tae Hong, Dae Youn Hwang
CONTEXT: Quercetin (QCT) has been known as a potential therapeutic strategy for gastrointestinal diseases because it contributes to the stabilization of mast cells, the prevention of histamine release and modulation of CaCC chloride channel. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the laxative effect and action mechanism of QCT in Lop-induced constipation model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Constipation of SD rats was induced by subcutaneous injection of loperamide (Lop) (4 mg/kg weight) in 0...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Amal A Aloud, Veeramani Chinnadurai, Chandramohan Govindasamy, Mohammed A Alsaif, Khalid S Al-Numair
CONTEXT: Galangin, a natural flavonoid, is found in honey and Alpinia officinarum Hance (Zingiberaceae). Galangin has antiviral, antimicrobial, antidiabetic and anticancer properties, without side effects. The effects of galangin on hyperglycaemia and lipid abnormalities are not known. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the effectiveness of galangin on hyperglycaemia-associated complications and lipid changes in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycaemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetes was induced in adult Wistar rats by administering 40 mg/kg of STZ...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Jingwen Gong, Zhong Zhang, Xuguang Zhang, Feng Chen, Yinfeng Tan, Hailong Li, Jie Jiang, Junqing Zhang
CONTEXT: Alpinia officinarum Hance (Zingiberoside) has a long history in treating gastrointestinal diseases, but its mechanisms of action are not yet known. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of the ethanol extract of A. officinarum rhizomes in an indomethacin-induced gastric injury rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Indomethacin (0.3 g/kg) was orally administered to Sprague-Dawley rats to induce gastric damage; after 7 h, the rats were treated with 0...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Hae Seong Song, Hyun Jung Koo, Bong Kyun Park, Jeong Eun Kwon, Seon-A Jang, Hyun Jin Baek, Se Young Kim, Sung Ryul Lee, Se Chan Kang
CONTEXT: Cynanchum wilfordii (Maximowicz) Hemsley (Apocynaceae), Arctium lappa L. var. rubescens Frivald (Asteraceae) and Dioscorea opposite Thunb (Dioscoreaceae) root extracts have been widely used as an alternative for intervening obesity. OBJECTIVES: The synergistic effect of three-herb mixture of C. wilfordii, A. lappa and D. opposita was determined on aortic and liver inflammatory responses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CWE, ALE and DOE were prepared from the root of C...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Agnieszka M Jurga, Ewelina Rojewska, Wioletta Makuch, Joanna Mika
CONTEXT: Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that Toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially TLR4 localized on microglia/macrophages, may play a significant role in nociception. OBJECTIVE: We examine the role of TLR4 in a neuropathic pain model. Using behavioural/biochemical methods, we examined the influence of TLR4 antagonist on levels of hypersensitivity and nociceptive factors whose contribution to neuropathy development has been confirmed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Behavioural (von Frey's/cold plate) tests were performed with Wistar male rats after intrathecal administration of a TLR4 antagonist (LPS-RS ULTRAPURE (LPS-RSU), 20 μG: lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, InvivoGen, San Diego, CA) 16 H and 1 h before chronic constriction injury (cci) to the sciatic nerve and then daily for 7 d...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Andreas Romulo, Ervizal A M Zuhud, Johana Rondevaldova, Ladislav Kokoska
CONTEXT: In many regions of Indonesia, there are numerous traditional herbal preparations for treatment of infectious diseases. However, their antimicrobial potential has been poorly studied by modern laboratory methods. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates in vitro antimicrobial activity of 49 ethanol extracts from 37 plant species used in Indonesian traditional medicine for treatment against Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Zengfu Wang, Dali Chen, Zhongwei Wang
CONTEXT: Diclofenac and celastrol are always used together for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis; the herb-drug interaction potential between diclofenac and celastrol is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the effects of diclofenac on the pharmacokinetics of celastrol in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups and received celastrol (1 mg/kg) or both celastrol (1 mg/kg) and diclofenac (10 mg/kg) by oral gavage, and blood samples were collected via the oculi chorioideae vein and determined using the LC-MS method developed in this study...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Victor Pena Ribeiro, Caroline Arruda, Mohamed Abd El-Salam, Jairo Kenupp Bastos
CONTEXT: Inflammatory disorders are common in modern life, and medicinal plants provide an interesting source for new compounds bearing anti-inflammatory properties. In this regard, Brazilian medicinal plants are considered to be a promising supply of such compounds due to their great biodiversity. OBJECTIVES: To undertake a review on Brazilian medicinal plants with corroborated anti-inflammatory activities by selecting data from the literature reporting the efficacy of plants used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, including the mechanisms of action of their extracts and isolated compounds...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Chandana Choudhury Barua, Prakash Haloi, Beenita Saikia, Kunjbihari Sulakhiya, Debesh Chandra Pathak, Shantanu Tamuli, Hooriah Rizavi, Xinguo Ren
CONTEXT: Depression is an inflammatory, commonly occurring and lethal psychiatric disorder having high lifetime prevalence. Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. (Rutaceae), commonly called Timur, has high medicinal value and is used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of various diseases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of hexane extract of Z. alatum seeds (ZAHE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depression-like behaviour in Swiss albino mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were treated with ZAHE (100 and 200 mg/kg, p...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Brian J Doyle, Temitope O Lawal, Tracie D Locklear, Lorraina Hernandez, Alice L Perez, Udeshi Patel, Shitalben Patel, Gail B Mahady
CONTEXT: Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae) is used in Costa Rican traditional medicine for women's health. Our previous work showed that P. dioica extracts were oestrogenic. OBJECTIVES: This work identifies phytochemicals from P. dioica that are responsible for the plant's oestrogen-like activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: P. dioica leaves were collected in Costa Rica in 2005. Fractions resulting from chromatographic separation of a methanol extract were tested at 50 μg/mL in a competitive oestrogen receptor-binding assay...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
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