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Pharmaceutical Biology

Sana Bahri, Ridha Ben Ali, Khaoula Gasmi, Mona Mlika, Saloua Fazaa, Riadh Ksouri, Raja Serairi, Saloua Jameleddine, Vadim Shlyonsky
CONTEXT: Pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating disease without effective treatment. Rosemary is appreciated since ancient times for its medicinal properties, while biomolecules originated from the plant have an antioxidant and antifibrotic effect. OBJECTIVE: The effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) leaves extract (RO) on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were given a single dose of bleomycin (BLM, 4 mg/kg, intratracheal), while RO (75 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) was administered 3 days later and continued for 4 weeks (BLM/RO1-curative group)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Massara Mzid, Sameh Ben Khedir, Maryem Ben Salem, Wafa Regaieg, Tarek Rebai
CONTEXT: Urtica urens L. (Urticaceae) is an important and commonly used plant for its medicinal and pharmacological properties. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the leaves of Urtica urens in ethanol (EtOH) and water (WA) solvents, employing standard analytical methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Polyphenol, flavonoid and tannin content of Urtica urens leaves were determined, after their extraction, using EtOH (70%) and WA extracts as well as the antioxidant (DPPH, ABTS, β-carotene and FRAP) and the antibacterial (via the method of dilution tests) activities of EtOH and WA extracts...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Samar M Hassan, Marwa M Khalaf, Sawsan A Sadek, Amira M Abo-Youssef
CONTEXT: Currently, the outcomes of the use of cisplatin in cancer therapy is limited by nephrotoxicity. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the nephroprotective role of apigenin and myricetin against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult female Wistar Albino mice were divided into eight groups (n = 8). Group I served as normal control. Groups II, III and IV received apigenin (3 mg/kg, i.p.), myricetin (3 mg/kg, i...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Mona F Mahmoud, Fatma El Zahraa Z El Ashry, Nabila N El Maraghy, Ahmed Fahmy
CONTEXT: Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) (MC) is used in folk medicine to treat various diseases including diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the antidiabetic activities of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wister rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups. Group I, Normal control; Group II, STZ diabetic; Group III and IV, Momordica charantia fruit juice was orally administered to diabetic rats (10 mL/kg/day either as prophylaxis for 14 days before induction of diabetes then 21 days treatment, or as treatment given for 21 days after induction of diabetes)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Harsimran Singh, Shabir Sidhu, Kanwaljit Chopra, M U Khan
CONTEXT: β-Aescin has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and antiedematous properties. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the hepatoprotective effect and underlying mechanisms of β-aescin in CCl4-induced liver damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five Wistar rats were divided into six groups: normal control, CCl4 control, silymarin (50 mg/kg, p.o) and β-aescin (0.9, 1.8 and 3.6 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment for 14 d. CCl4 (1 mL/kg, i...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Faten M Ibrahim, Hanan Naeim Attia, Yousreya Aly Aly Maklad, Kawkab A Ahmed, Mohamed F Ramadan
CONTEXT: Cold-pressed oils (CPO) are commercially available in the market and characterized by their health-promoting properties. OBJECTIVE: Clove oil (CLO), coriander seed oil (COO) and black cumin oil (BCO) were evaluated for their bioactive lipids. Pharmacological screening was performed to evaluate acute toxicity, anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic effects as well as histopathological changes in tissues of albino rats fed with CPO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fatty acids, tocols and total phenolics were analyzed...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Hanif Ahmad, Shujaat Ahmad, Ezzat Khan, Adnan Shahzad, Mumtaz Ali, Muhammad Nawaz Tahir, Farzana Shaheen, Manzoor Ahmad
CONTEXT: Delphinium denudatum Wall (Ranunculaceae) is a rich source of diterpenoid alkaloids and is widely used for the treatment of various neurological disorders such as epilepsy, sciatica and Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: The present study describes crystal structure determination and cholinesterase inhibitory potential of isotalatazidine hydrate isolated from the aerial part of Delphinium denudatum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phytochemical investigation of Delphinium denudatum resulted in the isolation of isotalatazidine hydrate in crystalline form...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Ommoleila Molavi, Farzaneh Narimani, Farshid Asiaee, Simin Sharifi, Vahideh Tarhriz, Ali Shayanfar, Mohammadsaied Hejazi, Raymond Lai
CONTEXT: Multiple drug resistance is the major obstacle to conventional chemotherapy. Silibinin, a nontoxic naturally occurring compound, has anticancer activity and can increase the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy in various cancer models. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of silibinin on enhancing the sensitivity of chemo-resistant human breast cell lines to doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PAC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cells were treated with silibinin (at 50 to 600 μM concentrations) and/or chemo drugs for 24 and 48 h, then cell viability and changes in oncogenic proteins were determined by MTT assay and Western blotting/RT-PCR, respectively...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Andrey N Prusov, Galina Ya Kolomijtseva, Tatiana A Smirnova
CONTEXT: Natural oligopeptide antibiotic distamycin A (Dst) biosynthesized by Streptomyces distallicus is traditionally used in medical practice as an anti-inflammatory and antitumour drug. OBJECTIVE: Dst was investigated for its effect on the structural components of native chromatin directly within isolated rat liver nuclei in the presence of physiologically significant cations (magnesium or spermine and spermidine). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the Dst action at molar ratio Dst/DNA = 0...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Ikshit Sharma, Washim Khan, Sayeed Ahmad
CONTEXT: Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) fruits have long been used in traditional systems of medicine for the treatment of various urinary diseases including urolithiasis. OBJECTIVE: To explore the anti-urolithiatic potential of gokhru and to develop an analytical method for quantitative estimation of metabolites for its quality control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous extract of gokhru fruit was prepared through maceration followed by decoction to produce a mother extract, which was further used for polarity-based fractionations...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Baixin Ye, Xiaoxing Xiong, Xu Deng, Lijuan Gu, Qiongyu Wang, Zhi Zeng, Xiang Gao, Qingping Gao, Yueying Wang
CONTEXT: Inflammatory disease is a big threat to human health. Leukocyte chemotactic migration is required for efficient inflammatory response. Inhibition of leukocyte chemotactic migration to the inflammatory site has been shown to provide therapeutic targets for treating inflammatory diseases. OBJECTIVE: Our study was designed to discover effective and safe compounds that can inhibit leukocyte chemotactic migration, thus providing possible novel therapeutic strategy for treating inflammatory diseases...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
James I Eze, Chioma F Ekelozie, Nwakego E Nweze
CONTEXT: The seeds of Buchholzia coriacea Engler (Capparaceae) are used in Eastern Nigeria to treat feverish conditions, and to treat malaria and sleeping sickness that cause fever. OBJECTIVE: The current study assesses the immunomodulatory activity of Buchholzia coriacea seed extract on Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Delayed hypersensitivity reaction, humoral antibody response and in-vivo leucocyte mobilization tests were assessed in three different experiments to determine the effect of the extract on immune response...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Abida Latif, Khalid Hussain, Naureen Shehzadi, Muhammad Islam, Muhammad Tanveer Khan, Rukhsana Anwar, Humaira Majeed Khan, Nadeem Irfan Bukhari
CONTEXT: Kanji, a liquid preparation of roots of Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus (Hoffm.) Arcang. var. vavilovii Mazk. (Apiaceae), may inhibit glutathione sulfotransferase (GST) activity due to ferulic acid content. OBJECTIVES: GST inhibition activity and characterization of Kanji and methanol extract of D. carota roots, and oral absorption pattern of ferulic acid from Kanji in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: GST inhibition activity of Kanji and methanol extract of D...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Rayn Clarenc Aarland, Angel Ernesto Bañuelos-Hernández, Mabel Fragoso-Serrano, Edgar Del Carmen Sierra-Palacios, Fernando Díaz de León-Sánchez, Laura Josefina Pérez-Flores, Fernando Rivera-Cabrera, José Alberto Mendoza-Espinoza
CONTEXT: Echinacea (Asteraceae) is used because of its pharmacological properties. However, there are few studies that integrate phytochemical analyses with pharmacological effects. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the chemical profile and biological activity of hydroalcoholic Echinacea extracts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Density, dry matter, phenols (Folin-Ciocalteu method), flavonoids (AlCl3 method), alkylamides (GC-MS analysis), antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS methods), antiproliferative effect (SRB assay), anti-inflammatory effect (paw oedema assay, 11 days/Wistar rats; 0...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Lu Liu, Xiaolan Yin, Xu Wang, Xiaohua Li
CONTEXT: The pharmacokinetics properties of dihydromyricetin (DHM) are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the pharmacokinetic characteristics of DHM using a sensitive and reliable LC-MS/MS method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of DHM in male Sprague-Dawley rat plasma. Twelve rats were equally randomized into two groups, including the intravenous group (2 mg/kg) and the oral group (20 mg/kg)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Maicon Roberto Kviecinski, Isabela Machado Barbosa David, Flávia de Souza Fernandes, Marina Dos Reis Correa, Morgana Miranda Clarinda, Amanda Fernandes Freitas, Jane da Silva, Marta Gava, Simony Davet Müller, Drielly Florentino, Fabrícia Petronilho, Diego Moterle, Luiz Alberto Kanis, Rozangela Curi Pedrosa
CONTEXT: Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) is traditionally used to treat skin inflammation. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the healing effect of Dillenia indica fruit extracts on induced psoriasis-like wounds in Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Extracts were standardized to betulinic acid, including an aqueous ethanolic extract (AEE), ethyl acetate extract (EAE) and petroleum ether extract. Effects against lipid peroxidation were assessed in vitro...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Anouar Ben Saad, Brahmi Dalel, Ilhem Rjeibi, Amani Smida, Sana Ncib, Nacim Zouari, Lazhar Zourgui
CONTEXT: Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Castaceae) (cactus) is used in Tunisian medicine for the treatment of various diseases. OBJECTIVE: This study determines phytochemical composition of cactus cladode extract (CCE). It also investigates antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective potential of CCE against lithium carbonate (Li2CO3)-induced liver injury in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar male rats were divided into four groups of six each: a control group given distilled water (0...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Bochuan Yuan, Rui Yang, Yongsheng Ma, Shan Zhou, Xiaodong Zhang, Ying Liu
CONTEXT: Radix Bupleuri has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for over 2000 years with functions of relieving exterior syndrome, clearing heat, regulating liver-qi, and lifting yang-qi. More natural active compounds, especially saikosaponins, have been isolated from Radix Bupleuri, which possess various valuable pharmacological activities. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the current knowledge on pharmacological activities, mechanisms and applications of extracts and saikosaponins isolated from Radix Bupleuri, and obtain new insights for further research and development of Radix Bupleuri...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Zu-Yue Deng, Wei-Guang Shan, Shen-Feng Wang, Meng-Mei Hu, Yan Chen
CONTEXT: Astaxanthin (ASTX) is a xanthophyll carotenoid that reduces hemostasis in hyperlipidemic organisms. Its antihemostatic mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: The effects of ASTX on coagulation, the fibrinolytic system and platelet aggregation were investigated in hyperlipidemic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different doses of ASTX (5, 10 and 30 mg/kg/day, p.o.) were administered for four weeks to high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Ali Sen, Suna Ozbas Turan, Leyla Bitis
CONTEXT: The genus Centaurea L. (Asteraceae) is one of the largest genera in Turkey. Compounds and extracts obtained from different Centaurea species have significant anti-cancer activity against various cancer cell lines. OBJECTIVE: To determine the anti-proliferative activity of isolates from the chloroform extract of C. kilaea Boiss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven compounds were isolated using column chromatography and preparative TLC from the chloroform extract of aerial parts of endemic C...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
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