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Pharmaceutical Biology

Wei Liu, Yufeng Sun, Zhenping Cheng, Yong Guo, Peiming Liu, Ying Wen
CONTEXT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common systemic auto-immune disease, which is characterized by chronic and symmetry synovial inflammation. Crocin has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in animal models. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of crocin on type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CIA rat model was established and randomly divided into five groups with or without crocin treatment (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg), which was started on day 21 after arthritis induction and persisted for 36 days...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Md Shahadat Hossan, Hassan Jindal, Sarah Maisha, Chandramathi Samudi Raju, Shamala Devi Sekaran, Veeranoot Nissapatorn, Fatima Kaharudin, Lim Su Yi, Teng Jin Khoo, Mohammed Rahmatullah, Christophe Wiart
CONTEXT: The resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is raising serious concern globally. Asian medicinal plants could improve the current treatment strategies for bacterial infections. The antibacterial properties of medicinal plants used by the Khyang tribe in Bangladesh have not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The present study examines the antibacterial properties of 18 medicinal plants used by the Khyang tribe in day-to-day practice against human pathogenic bacteria...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Daehyun Shin, Sihyeong Lee, Yu-Hua Huang, Hye-Won Lim, Yoonjin Lee, Kyounghee Jang, Yongwan Cho, Sang Jun Park, Dae-Duk Kim, Chang-Jin Lim
CONTEXT: Geniposide (genipin-1-O-β-d-glucoside) is a major bioactive ingredient in the fruits of gardenia [Gardenia jasminoides J. Ellis (Rubiaceae)], a traditional herbal medicine in Asian countries. OBJECTIVE: This work assesses the skin anti-photoaging potential of geniposide in human dermal fibroblasts under UV-B irradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anti-photoaging property of geniposide, at varying concentrations (5, 12 and 30 μM) treated for 30 min prior to UV-B irradiation, was evaluated by analysing reactive oxygen species (ROS), promatrix metalloproteinase-2 (proMMP-2), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and cellular viability...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Md Mahbubur Rahman, Myung-Jin Kim, Jin-Hyoung Kim, Sok-Ho Kim, Hyeon-Kyu Go, Mee-Hyang Kweon, Do-Hyung Kim
CONTEXT: Salicornia europaea (Amaranthaceae) (SE) has been shown to reduce obesity, but it remains a problem as a food supplement because of its high salt content (25-35% NaCl). OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the anti-obesity effects and mechanism of action of desalted SE powder (DSP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 50) were divided into a normal control group (NC), a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity control group (HFD), and HFD groups co-administered DSP (250 and 500 mg/kg) or Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) extract (GE, 200 mg/kg, standard control) orally each day for 12 weeks...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Kwan-Woo Kim, Tran Hong Quang, Wonmin Ko, Dong-Cheol Kim, Chi-Su Yoon, Hyuncheol Oh, Youn-Chul Kim
CONTEXT: Cudrania tricuspidata Bureau (Moraceae) is an important source of traditional Korean and Chinese medicines used to treat neuritis and inflammation. OBJECTIVE: The anti-neuroinflammatory effects of cudraflavanone A isolated from a chloroform fraction of C. tricuspidata were investigated in LPS-induced BV2 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cudraflavanone A was isolated from the root of C. tricuspidata, and its structure was determined by MS and NMR data...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Deniz Ortaç, Mustafa Cemek, Turan Karaca, Mehmet E Büyükokuroğlu, Zafer Ö Özdemir, Ayşe Tuba Kocaman, Sadık Göneş
CONTEXT: Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) (Malvaceae), is a medicinal plant widely used in Turkish traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases such as ulcers and gastritis. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we evaluated the gastroprotective effect of okra against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in animal models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were treated with 500, 250 or 100 mg/kg okra; 20 mg/kg famotidine (Fam); and 75 mg/kg quercetin (Que)...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Emily Guzman, Jeanmaire Molina
CONTEXT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death globally, responsible for over 17 million (31%) deaths in the world. Novel pharmacological interventions may be needed given the high prevalence of CVD. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to find potential new sources of cardiovascular (CV) drugs from phylogenetic and pharmacological analyses of plant species that have experimental and traditional CV applications in the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reconstructed the molecular phylogeny of these plant species and mapped their pharmacological mechanisms of action on the phylogeny...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Zhenzhen Liu, Yan Zeng, Pengyi Hou
CONTEXT: Euphorbia pekinensis Rupr. (Euphorbiaceae) has long been used in the Orient, while its clinical use was limited due to its nephrotoxic effect. OBJECTIVE: The possible mechanism of nephrotoxicity of Euphorbia pekinensis (EPR) and its related constituents were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Petroleum ether (PE), acetic ether (AE) and n-butanol (BUT) extracted sections of EPR were separately given to Wistar rats by gavage at the dose of 3 g/kg/day for 10 weeks to determine the nephrotoxic section of EPR...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Natasa Bogavac-Stanojevic, Jelena Kotur Stevuljevic, Darko Cerne, Janja Zupan, Janja Marc, Zorica Vujic, Milkica Crevar-Sakac, Miron Sopic, Jelena Munjas, Miroslav Radenkovic, Zorana Jelic-Ivanovic
CONTEXT: Polyphenols and flavonoids in artichoke leaf tincture (ALT) protect cells against oxidative damage. OBJECTIVES: We examined ALT effects on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and lipid profiles in rat plasma and gene expression in rat aorta [haemeoxygenase-1 (HO1), haemeoxygenase-2 (HO2), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX-4), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)]. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups (n = 6/group): The control group (CG) was fed with standard pellet chow for 11 weeks; the AD group was fed for a similar period of time with pellet chow supplemented with 2% cholesterol, 3% sunflower oil and 1% sodium cholate...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Huang-Chi Wang, Hsin-Sheng Tsay, Hui-Nung Shih, Yi-An Chen, Kai-Ming Chang, Dinesh Chandra Agrawal, Siendong Huang, Yi-Lo Lin, Meng-Jen Lee
CONTEXT: Andrographolide (Andro), found in large quantities in Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae), is anti-inflammatory, especially in the central nervous system (CNS) glia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to test Andro's ability to reduce allodynia in a spared nerve injury model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male 30 g BalbC mice were divided into four groups: (1) Sham-operated control (Sham-group); (2) nerve injured and treated with saline (Saline-group); (3) nerve injured and treated with Andro (Andro-group); (4) nerve injured and treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) (NSAIDS-group)...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Chengyin Zhang, Zhiqiang Gao, Lijuan Niu, Xuexun Chen
CONTEXT: Triptolide and amlodipine are often simultaneously used for reducing urine protein excretion after renal transplantation in China clinics. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of triptolide on the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine in male Sprague-Dawley rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pharmacokinetics of amlodipine (1 mg/kg) with or without triptolide pre-treatment (2 mg/kg/day for seven days) were investigated using a sensitive and reliable LC-MS/MS method...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Ling Guo, Ying Cui, Kaijun Hao
CONTEXT: Asiatic acid has been reported to possess a wide range of pharmacological activities. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the effects of glycyrrhizin on the pharmacokinetics of asiatic acid in rats and its potential mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pharmacokinetics of orally administered asiatic acid (20 mg/kg) with or without glycyrrhizin pretreatment (100 mg/kg/day for seven days) were investigated using a LC-MS method. Additionally, the Caco-2 cell transwell model and rat liver microsome incubation systems were used to investigate the potential mechanism of glycyrrhizin's effects on the pharmacokinetics of asiatic acid...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Thanchanit Thaipitakwong, Surawej Numhom, Pornanong Aramwit
CONTEXT: Cardiometabolic risks are regarded as the crucial factors associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Regarding an increased attention to medicinal plants in the current healthcare system, the effects of mulberry (Morus spp., Moraceae) leaves on cardiometabolic risks have been consecutively considered in scientific research. OBJECTIVE: The present review compiles and summarizes the chemical compositions, biological properties and clinical efficacy of mulberry leaves that are related to the amelioration of cardiometabolic risks...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Sen Sun, Rong Wang, Jie Fan, Guoqing Zhang, Hai Zhang
CONTEXT: Danshen tablets (DST), an effective traditional Chinese multi-herbal formula, are often combined with atorvastatin calcium (AC) for treating coronary heart disease in the clinic. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of DST on the pharmacokinetics of AC and the potential mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pharmacokinetics of AC (1 mg/kg) with or without pretreatment of DST (100 mg/kg) were investigated using LC-MS/MS...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Kiran Kumar Soni, Li Tao Zhang, Bo Ram Choi, Keshab Kumar Karna, Jae Hyung You, Yu Seob Shin, Sung Won Lee, Chul Young Kim, Chen Zhao, Han-Jung Chae, Hye Kyung Kim, Jong Kwan Park
CONTEXT: MOTILIPERM was prepared as a mixture of extracts of three medicinal herbs [roots of Morinda officinalis How (Rubiaceae), outer scales of Allium cepa L. (Liliaceae) and seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lamark (Convolvulaceae)]. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-based endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in a rat model of varicocele and the therapeutic efficacy of MOTILIPERM in this model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty male rats were divided into five experimental groups: a normal control group (CTR + vehicle), a control group administered MOTILIPERM 200 mg/kg (CTR + M 200), a varicocele-induced control group (VC + vehicle) and two varicocele-induced groups administered MOTILIPERM 100 (VC + M 100) or 200 (VC + M 200) mg/kg for 4 weeks...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Vilasinee Hirunpanich Sato, Bunleu Sungthong, Prasob-Orn Rinthong, Narawat Nuamnaichati, Supachoke Mangmool, Savita Chewchida, Hitoshi Sato
CONTEXT: Chatuphalatika (CTPT), is a Thai herbal formulation mixture of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), Terminalia belerica Linn. (Combretaceae), T. chebula and the fruit of T. arjuna (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. CTPT is considered to exert anti-inflammatory and antihyperuricemic effects, but there have been no reports to demonstrate these pharmacological effects in a quantitative manner. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antihyperuricemic effects of CTPT...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Vitali I Stsiapura, Ilya Bederman, Ivan I Stepuro, Tatiana S Morozkina, Stephen J Lewis, Laura Smith, Benjamin Gaston, Nadzeya Marozkina
CONTEXT: Exogenous nitrogen oxides must be made bioavailable to sustain normal physiology because nitric oxide synthase (NOS) deficient mice are viable. In the stomach, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) is formed from ingested nitrite and high levels of airway glutathione (GSH) that are cleared and swallowed. However, gastric GSNO may be broken down by nutrients like ascorbic acid (AA) before it is absorbed. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of AA on GSNO formation and stability...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Qian Zhang, Ya-Li Wang, Die Gao, Liang Cai, Yi-Yao Yang, Yuan-Jia Hu, Feng-Qing Yang, Hua Chen, Zhi-Ning Xia
CONTEXT: Selaginella tamariscina (P. Beauv.) Spring (Selaginellaceae) (ST) has been widely used in China as a medicine for improving blood circulation. However, its processed product, S. tamariscina carbonisatus (STC), possesses opposite haemostatic activity. OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively evaluate the activity of ST and STC on physiological coagulation system of rats, and seek potential active substances accounting for the activity transformation of ST during processing...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Mohammad Navid Forsatkar, Maryam HedayatiRad, Ana Carolina Luchiari
CONTEXT: There is growing interest in the pharmacological evaluation of Rue due to its potential to treat a variety of clinical diseases. The plant seems to present potent endocrine disrupting effects, and its excretion and disposal are not a concern. OBJECTIVE: The effects of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) ethanol extract (RE) on reproductive behaviour, fertility, and steroid and thyroid hormone levels in zebrafish were investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We exposed subjects to varying concentrations of RE, and one-tenth the LC50 concentration (2...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Fatemeh Mohammadipanah, Mana Momenilandi
CONTEXT: Actinobacteria are a precious source of novel bioactive metabolites with potential pharmaceutical applications. OBJECTIVES: Representatives of 11 genera of rare Actinobacteria were selected for the evaluation of antioxidant activity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fermentation broths of the Actinobacteria were extracted and dosage of 10 to 2000 µg/mL were applied for in vitro antioxidant-related bioassays. Cytotoxicity was assessed at the concentration of 2...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
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