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Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283967/exercise-training-and-high-fat-diet-elicit-endocannabinoid-system-modifications-in-the-rat-hypothalamus-and-hippocampus
#1
François-Xavier Gamelin, Julien Aucouturier, Fabio Arturo Iannotti, Fabiana Piscitelli, Enrico Mazzarella, Teresa Aveta, Melissa Leriche, Erwan Dupont, Caroline Cieniewski-Bernard, Erwan Leclair, Bruno Bastide, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Elsa Heyman
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of chronic exercise on the hypothalamus and hippocampus levels of the endocannabinoids (eCBs) anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and of two AEA congeners and on the expression of genes coding for CB1, CB2 receptors (Cnr1 and Cnr2, respectively), and the enzymes responsible for eCB biosynthesis and degradation, in rats fed with a standard or high-fat diet. Male Wistar rats (n = 28) were placed on a 12-week high-fat (HFD) or standard diet period, followed by 12 weeks of exercise training for half of each group...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258543/reducing-mitochondrial-bound-hexokinase-ii-mediates-transition-from-non-injurious-into-injurious-ischemia-reperfusion-of-the-intact-heart
#2
Rianne Nederlof, Ebru Gürel-Gurevin, Otto Eerbeek, Chaoqin Xie, G Sjoerd Deijs, Moritz Konkel, Jun Hu, Nina C Weber, Cees A Schumacher, Antonius Baartscheer, Egbert G Mik, Markus W Hollmann, Fadi G Akar, Coert J Zuurbier
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) of the heart becomes injurious when duration of the ischemic insult exceeds a certain threshold (approximately ≥20 min). Mitochondrial bound hexokinase II (mtHKII) protects against I/R injury, with the amount of mtHKII correlating with injury. Here, we examine whether mtHKII can induce the transition from non-injurious to injurious I/R, by detaching HKII from mitochondria during a non-injurious I/R interval. Additionally, we examine possible underlying mechanisms (increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased oxygen consumption (MVO2) and decreased cardiac energetics) associated with this transition...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243863/effects-of-pterostilbene-in-brown-adipose-tissue-from-obese-rats
#3
Leixuri Aguirre, Iñaki Milton-Laskibar, Elizabeth Hijona, Luis Bujanda, Agnes M Rimando, María P Portillo
In recent years, much attention has been paid by the scientific community to phenolic compounds as active biomolecules naturally present in foods. Pterostilbene is a resveratrol dimethylether derivative which shows higher bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of pterostilbene on brown adipose tissue thermogenic markers in a model of genetic obesity, which shows reduced thermogenesis. The experiment was conducted with 30 Zucker (fa/fa) rats that were distributed in three experimental groups: control and two groups orally administered with pterostilbene at 15 and 30 mg/kg body weight/day for 6 weeks...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181168/apoa-i-sr-bi-modulates-s1p-s1pr2-mediated-inflammation-through-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-in-huvecs
#4
Kun Ren, Yan-Ju Lu, Zhong-Cheng Mo, Xing -Liu, Zhen-Li Tang, Yue Jiang, Xiao-Shan Peng, Li Li, Qing-Hai Zhang, Guang-Hui Yi
Endothelial dysfunction plays a vital role during the initial stage of atherosclerosis. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induces vascular endothelial injury and vessel wall inflammation. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) exerts numerous vasoprotective effects by binding to diverse S1P receptors (S1PRs; S1PR1-5). A number of studies have shown that in endothelial cells (ECs), S1PR2 acts as a pro-atherosclerotic mediator by stimulating vessel wall inflammation through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181167/adherence-to-mediterranean-diet-is-associated-with-methylation-changes-in-inflammation-related-genes-in-peripheral-blood-cells
#5
A Arpón, J I Riezu-Boj, F I Milagro, C Razquin, M A Martínez-González, D Corella, R Estruch, R Casas, M Fitó, E Ros, J Salas-Salvadó, J A Martínez
Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation, might be modulated by environmental factors such as the diet, which in turn have been associated with the onset of several diseases such as obesity or cardiovascular events. Meanwhile, Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has demonstrated favourable effects on cardiovascular risk, blood pressure, inflammation and other complications related to excessive adiposity. Some of these effects could be mediated by epigenetic modifications. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether the adherence to MedDiet is associated with changes in the methylation status from peripheral blood cells...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176184/reviewers-2016
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160259/protein-malnutrition-during-fetal-programming-induces-fatty-liver-in-adult-male-offspring-rats
#7
Sabrina Edith Campisano, Stella Maris Echarte, Enrique Podaza, Andrea Nancy Chisari
We evaluated the effects of protein malnutrition on liver morphology and physiology in rats subjected to different malnutrition schemes. Pregnant rats were fed with a control diet or a low protein diet (LPD). Male offspring rats received a LPD during gestation, lactation, and until they were 60 days old (MM group), a late LPD that began after weaning (CM), or a LPD administrated only during the gestation-lactation period followed by a control diet (MC). On day 60, blood was collected and the liver was dissected out...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155123/p66shc-mediated-toxicity-of-high-dose-%C3%AE-tocopherol-in-renal-proximal-tubule-cells
#8
Dustin K Reed, Anthony Carter, Mehul Dixit, Istvan Arany
α-Tocopherol (TOC) is a widely used supplement known for its role as an antioxidant. Previously, we have shown that TOC elicits adaptive responses by upregulating the ERK/CREB/HO-1 pathway, which depends on its concentration in cultured renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs). This suggests that high-dose TOC (hTOC) may elicit adverse effects via inflicting oxidative stress. Since the pro-oxidant p66shc is a major mediator of oxidant injury in various models of renal toxicants, we tested the hypothesis that hTOC elicits renal toxicity through activation of p66shc and consequent oxidative stress...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132394/il-5-blocks-apoptosis-and-tau-hyperphosphorylation-induced-by-a%C3%AE-25-35-peptide-in-pc12-cells
#9
Yuanyuan Zhou, Chaoyan Li, Deheng Li, Yaping Zheng, Jin Wang
The primary features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are extracellular amyloid plaques consisting mainly of deposits of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Sets of evidence suggest that interleukin-5 (IL-5) is involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Herein, we investigated the protective role of IL-5 in PC12 cells, to provide new insights into understanding this disease. Western blot was employed to assess the protein levels of Bax and phospho-tau as well as phospho-JAK2; MTT assay was performed to decipher cell viability...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124277/igf-1-modulates-gene-expression-of-proteins-involved-in-inflammation-cytoskeleton-and-liver-architecture
#10
V J Lara-Diaz, I Castilla-Cortazar, I Martín-Estal, M García-Magariño, G A Aguirre, J E Puche, R G de la Garza, L A Morales, U Muñoz
Even though the liver synthesizes most of circulating IGF-1, it lacks its receptor under physiological conditions. However, according to previous studies, a damaged liver expresses the receptor. For this reason, herein, we examine hepatic histology and expression of genes encoding proteins of the cytoskeleton, extracellular matrix, and cell-cell molecules and inflammation-related proteins. A partial IGF-1 deficiency murine model was used to investigate IGF-1's effects on liver by comparing wild-type controls, heterozygous igf1(+/-), and heterozygous mice treated with IGF-1 for 10 days...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110436/contribution-of-inducible-and-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthases-to-mitochondrial-damage-and-melatonin-rescue-in-lps-treated-mice
#11
José Antonio García, Francisco Ortiz, Javier Miana, Carolina Doerrier, Marisol Fernández-Ortiz, Iryna Rusanova, Germaine Escames, José Joaquín García, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo
NOS isoform activation is related to liver failure during sepsis, but the mechanisms driving mitochondrial impairment remain unclear. We induced sepsis by LPS administration to inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS(-/-)) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS(-/-)) mice and their respective wild-type controls to examine the contribution of iNOS to mitochondrial failure in the absence of nNOS. To achieve this goal, the determination of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and protein content of iNOS in cytosol and mitochondria, the mitochondrial respiratory complex content, and the levels of nitrosative and oxidative stress (by measuring 3-nitrotyrosine residues and carbonyl groups, respectively) were examined in the liver of control and septic mice...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074419/deciphering-the-molecular-mechanisms-involved-in-hiv-associated-lipoatrophy-by-transcriptomics-a-pilot-study
#12
Patricia Pérez-Matute, María Iñiguez, Emma Recio-Fernández, José-Antonio Oteo
HIV-associated lipoatrophy (LA) has considerable implications for risk of metabolic diseases, quality of life, and adherence to treatments. Although it has decreased in high-income countries, it is still very common in resource-limited countries. Understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of LA can open the possibility to explore new ways to treat or prevent this condition. To identify new markers for an accurate and quick diagnosis will be also of interest. Thus, we aimed to examine functional classes of genes implicated in LA and to identify potential new markers for an accurate/quick diagnosis of LA and future complications...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063097/ideal-cardiovascular-health-and-liver-enzyme-levels-in-european-adolescents-the-helena-study
#13
Idoia Labayen, Jonatan R Ruiz, Inge Huybrechts, Francisco B Ortega, Manuel Castillo, Michael Sjöstrom, Marcela González-Gross, Yannis Manios, Kurt Widhalm, Anthony Kafatos, Christina Breidenassel, Gerardo Rodríguez, Jean Dallongeville, Frédéric Gottrand, Luis A Moreno
There is an increasing interest for the role of liver enzymes as predictors of non-liver-related morbidity and mortality. The American Heart Association (AHA) described the ideal cardiovascular health concept as a score of seven cardiovascular health behaviors and factors that can be used to monitor and predict ideal cardiovascular health over time. This study aimed to examine the association of the ideal cardiovascular health (ICH), as defined by the AHA, with liver enzyme levels in European adolescents. A total of 637 adolescents (54...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826900/human-thermogenic-adipocytes-a-reflection-on-types-of-adipocyte-developmental-origin-and-potential-application
#14
REVIEW
Dinh-Toi Chu, Yang Tao
Obesity is a leading health problem facing the modern world; however, no effective therapy for this health issue has yet been developed. A promising research direction to identify novel therapies to prevent obesity has emerged from discoveries on development and function of brown/brite adipocytes in mammals. Importantly, there is evidence for the presence and function of active thermogenic brown adipocytes in both infants and adult humans. Several new investigations have shown that thermogenic adipocytes are beneficial to maintain glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and a healthy body fat content...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822918/ferulic-acid-prevents-methylglyoxal-induced-protein-glycation-dna-damage-and-apoptosis-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#15
Weerachat Sompong, Henrique Cheng, Sirichai Adisakwattana
Methylglyoxal (MG) can react with amino acids of proteins to induce protein glycation and consequently the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Previous studies reported that ferulic acid (FA) prevented glucose-, fructose-, and ribose-induced protein glycation. In this study, FA (0.1-1 mM) inhibited MG-induced protein glycation and oxidative protein damage in bovine serum albumin (BSA). Furthermore, FA (0.0125-0.2 mM) protected against lysine/MG-mediated oxidative DNA damage, thereby inhibiting superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical generation during lysine and MG reaction...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822917/phosphorylation-and-subcellular-localization-of-na-h-exchanger-isoform-3-nhe3-are-associated-with-altered-gallbladder-absorptive-function-after-formation-of-cholesterol-gallstones
#16
Yongsheng Chen, Shuodong Wu, Yu Tian, Jing Kong
Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) dysfunction is thought to contribute to the altered gallbladder absorption that occurs in cholesterol gallstone disease, but the mechanism is unknown. The current study was undertaken to examine the expression, phosphorylation, and subcellular localization of NHE3 in gallbladder epithelium cells (GBECs) of male C57BL/6 mice on a control or lithogenic diet. Thirty-six 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to receive a high cholesterol diet or a regular diet for 8 weeks...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812957/the-effects-of-verapamil-and-its-combinations-with-glutamate-and-glycine-on-cardiodynamics-coronary-flow-and-oxidative-stress-in-isolated-rat-heart
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Isidora Stojic, Ivan Srejovic, Vladimir Zivkovic, Nevena Jeremic, Marko Djuric, Ana Stevanovic, Tamara Milanovic, Dragan Djuric, Vladimir Jakovljevic
The role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) in heart is still unclear. For these ionotropic glutamate receptors is characteristic the necessity of both co-agonists, glutamate and glycine, for their activation, which primarily allows influx of calcium. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of verapamil, as a calcium channel blocker, alone and its combination with glycine and/or glutamate on cardiac function, coronary flow, and oxidative stress in isolated rat heart or to examine the effects of potential activation of NMDA-R in isolated rat heart...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807764/mice-lacking-myotubularin-related-protein-14-show-accelerated-high-fat-diet-induced-lipid-accumulation-and-inflammation
#18
Lv Yin, Peng Yong-Bo, Yu Meng-Fei, Chen Weiwei, Zhao Ping, Xue Lu, Ma Li-Qun, Cai Congli, Liu Qing-Hua, Shen Jinhua
The phosphoinositide phosphatase, myotubularin-related protein 14 (MTMR14), has been reported to play an important role in the regulation of muscle performance, autophagy, and aging in mice. We previously showed that MTMR14-knockout (KO) mice gain weight earlier than their wild-type (WT) littermates even on a normal chow diet (NCD), suggesting that this gene might also be involved in regulating metabolism. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of MTMR14 deficiency on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, lipid accumulation, metabolic disorders, and inflammation in WT and MTMR14-KO mice fed with NCD or HFD...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785616/pepck-c-reexpression-in-the-liver-counters-neonatal-hypoglycemia-in-pck1-del-del-mice-unmasking-role-in-non-gluconeogenic-tissues
#19
Jana Semakova, Petra Hyroššová, Andrés Méndez-Lucas, Ernest Cutz, Jordi Bermudez, Shawn Burgess, Soledad Alcántara, José C Perales
Whole body cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase knockout (PEPCK-C KO) mice die early after birth with profound hypoglycemia therefore masking the role of PEPCK-C in adult, non-gluconeogenic tissues where it is expressed. To investigate whether PEPCK-C deletion in the liver was critically responsible for the hypoglycemic phenotype, we reexpress this enzyme in the liver of PEPCK-C KO pups by early postnatal administration of PEPCK-C-expressing adenovirus. This maneuver was sufficient to partially rescue hypoglycemia and allow the pups to survive and identifies the liver as a critical organ, and hypoglycemia as the critical pathomechanism, leading to early postnatal death in the whole-body PEPCK-C knockout mice...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778230/an-iron-deficient-diet-during-development-induces-oxidative-stress-in-relation-to-age-and-gender-in-wistar-rats
#20
Patricia Vieyra-Reyes, Diana Millán-Aldaco, Marcela Palomero-Rivero, Clementina Jiménez-Garcés, Margarita Hernández-González, Javier Caballero-Villarraso
Iron is a trace element and a structural part of antioxidant enzymes, and its requirements vary according to age and gender. We hypothesized that iron deficiency (ID) leads to an increase in free radicals which mainly affect the brain, and the severity of damage would therefore be dependent on age and gender. Two groups of Wistar rats were evaluated evolutionarily: 100 rats (50 males; 50 females) with ID diet and 100 rats (50 males; 50 females) with standard diet. Both groups were offspring from mothers who were previously under the same dietary intervention...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
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