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Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry

Yang Zhou, Bo Pang, Yingbin Xiao, Simin Zhou, Bin He, Fan Zhang, Wei Liu, Huali Peng, Peng Li
The protective effects of downregulated miR-199a-5p on ischemic and hypoxic cardiomyocytes were well recognized, but the underlying mechanism of inhibited miR-199a-5p is not yet clear. The present study explored the relationship between enhanced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling and lowered production of miR-199a-5p in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. This study firstly found the correlation between elevated interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-11, as well as subsequent STAT3 signaling activation and the downregulation of miR-199a-5p in hypoxic myocardial samples from children with congenital heart disease...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Jonatan Miranda, Itziar Eseberri, Arrate Lasa, María P Portillo
Some researchers have proposed important variations in adipose tissue among different strains of rats and mice in response to a high-caloric (hc) diet, but data concerning the mechanisms underlying these differences are scarce. The aim of the present research was to characterize different aspects of triacylglycerol (TG) metabolism and clock genes between Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats. For this purpose, 16 male Sprague-Dawley and 16 male Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups (n = 8) and fed either a normal-caloric (nc) diet or a hc diet for 6 weeks...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Leonardo Catalano-Iniesta, María Carmen Iglesias-Osma, Virginia Sánchez-Robledo, Marta Carretero-Hernández, Enrique J Blanco, José Carretero, María José García-Barrado
The adrenomedullary chromaffin cells' hormonal pathway has been related to the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus. In mice, the deletion of insulin receptor substrate type 2 (Irs2) causes peripheral insulin resistance and reduction in β-cell mass, leading to overt diabetes, with gender differences on adrenergic signaling. To further unravel the relevance of Irs2 on glycemic control, we analyzed in adult Irs2 deficient (Irs2-/- ) mice, of both sexes but still normoglycemic, dopamine effects on insulin secretion and glycerol release, as well as their adrenal medulla by an immunohistochemical and morphologic approach...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Shunli Luo, Ziyin Li, Lianzhi Mao, Siqiang Chen, Suxia Sun
Butyrate is produced by the fermentation of undigested dietary fibers and acts as the promising candidate for cancer treatment. However, the mechanism underlying sodium butyrate (NaB)-induced autophagy in colorectal cancer is not yet completely understood. The expressions of LC3-II protein and mRNA were detected by western blot and quantitative RT-PCR in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines HCT-116 and HT-29, respectively. Autolysosome formation was observed by transmission electron microscope. AMPK and LKB1 were inhibited by chemical inhibitor or siRNAs and confirmed by western blot...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Cynthia Rocha, Olivia H Koury, Celena Scheede-Bergdahl, Andreas Bergdahl
Low-carbohydrate diets are considered to be an effective approach to weight loss and have, subsequently, grown in popularity. Despite the apparent health benefits that these diets may provide for insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, their implications on cardiomyocyte oxidative capacity have yet to be investigated. To evaluate the adaptations induced by a 6-week low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diet on mitochondrial respiration, two groups of male mice were investigated: Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice on a LCHF diet (L-DIET) and apolipoprotein E-deficient mice on a regular rodent diet (CON)...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
María Iñiguez, Patricia Pérez-Matute, María Jesús Villanueva-Millán, Emma Recio-Fernández, Irene Roncero-Ramos, Margarita Pérez-Clavijo, José-Antonio Oteo
Obesity is a global epidemic characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by important complications such as nonalcoholic liver steatosis. Beneficial antiobesogenic effects have been described for some mushrooms. The current study aimed to demonstrate the protective effect of Agaricus bisporus (AB) supplementation against the metabolic alterations induced by high-fat-diet (HFD) feeding. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed for 10 weeks with one of the following diets: (1) control diet (n = 7), (2) HFD (n = 7), (3) HFD supplemented with 5% AB (n = 9), and (4) HFD supplemented with 10% AB (n = 9)...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Xin-Xin Li, Zhi-Hui Jiang, Bo Zhou, Chen Chen, Xiao-Ying Zhang
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a common and serious threat to human health worldwide. In this study, the hepatoprotective effect of gastrodin against alcohol-induced liver injury in mice was examined. Mice with alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity were treated intragastrically with gastrodin (50, 80, or 100 mg/kg). The mice treated with gastrodin experienced better outcomes than those who received only one dose of alcohol (50%, 10 mL/kg b.w.). Gastrodin treatment reduced the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), decreased hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and increased hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activities in a dose-dependent manner...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Gwendoline Astre, Simon Deleruyelle, Alizée Dortignac, Christelle Bonnet, Philippe Valet, Cédric Dray
To fight against metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, new alimentary behaviors are developed. For instance, hyperproteined, gluten-free, or collagen-enriched diets could be preconized in order to reduce the consequences of obesity. In this aim, this study evaluates the potential effects of warm sea fish collagen peptides (Naticol®) on representative metabolic and inflammatory parameters. For that, male C57Bl6/J mice fed with either a chow- (CD) or high-fat diet (HFD) were submitted or not to specific collagen peptides in drinking water (4 g/kg bw/d) for 20 weeks...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Jiayu Diao, Jin Wei, Rui Yan, Gang Fan, Lin Lin, Mengjie Chen
Mitochondrial dysfunction is essential in the development and prognosis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Resveratrol (RES) is thought as a mitochondrial protector. In this study, we hypothesized that RES may ameliorate mitochondrial function and consequently improve cardiac function in diabetic rats, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was involved in the protective effects of RES on DCM. Thirty rats were divided into three groups: normal control, DCM, and DCM+RES groups. DCM was induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneal injection, the rats in DCM+RES group received RES gavage for 16 weeks...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Davoud Sanajou, Amir Ghorbani Haghjo, Hassan Argani, Leila Roshangar, Saeed Nazari Soltan Ahmad, Zahra Ashrafi Jigheh, Somayeh Aslani, Fatemeh Panah, Jalil Rashedi, Mehran Mesgari Abbasi
Despite the effectiveness of renin-angiotensin blockade in retarding diabetic nephropathy progression, a considerable number of patients still develop end-stage renal disease. The present investigation aims to evaluate the protective potential of FPS-ZM1, a selective inhibitor of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), alone and in combination with valsartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, against glomerular injury parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. FPS-ZM1 at 1 mg/kg (i.p.), valsartan at 100 mg/kg (p...
August 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Maria Andrea Barbosa, Renata Guerra-Sá, Uberdan Guilherme Mendes De Castro, Wanderson Geraldo de Lima, Robson Augusto Souza Dos Santos, Maria José Campagnole-Santos, Andréia Carvalho Alzamora
Physical training (PT) has been considered as a treatment in metabolic syndrome (MS), since it induces thermogenic activity in brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues. We evaluated the therapeutic effect of PT on activity of WAT and BAT in rats with MS induced by high-fat diet (30% lard) for 13 weeks and submitted, for the last 6 weeks, to swimming or kept sedentary (SED) rats. MS-SED rats compared to control diet (CT-SED) rats showed low physical fitness and high levels of glucose, insulin, homeostasis evaluation of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostasis evaluation of the functional capacity of β-cells (HOMA-β), and blood pressure...
August 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Dong Wu, Yu-Gang Cheng, Xin Huang, Ming-Wei Zhong, Shao-Zhuang Liu, San-Yuan Hu
Ameliorated renal function has been reported after bariatric surgery, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well-studied. To investigate whether the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) MALAT1 mediates the amelioration of diabetic nephropathy after duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) surgery, rats were assigned randomly into four groups: diabetic (DM) group, DM with DJB surgery group, DM with sham surgery group, and healthy control group. Food intake, body weight, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), urine albumin excretion rate (UAER), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were measured and histological examination of renal sections was performed...
August 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Anand Thirupathi, Ricardo A Pinho
A large number of researches have led to a substantial growth of knowledge about exercise and oxidative stress. Initial investigations reported that physical exercise generates free radical-mediated damages to cells; however, in recent years, studies have shown that regular exercise can upregulate endogenous antioxidants and reduce oxidative damage. Yet, strenuous exercise perturbs the antioxidant system by increasing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content. These alterations in the cellular environment seem to occur in an exercise type-dependent manner...
August 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Xueqi Gan, Ling Zhang, Beilei Liu, Zhuoli Zhu, Yuting He, Junsheng Chen, Junfei Zhu, Haiyang Yu
Bone is a dynamic organ, the bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts form the physiological basis of bone remodeling process. During pathological process of numerous inflammatory diseases, these two aspects are uncoupled and the balance is usually tipped in favor of bone destruction. Evidence suggests that the inflammatory destruction of bone is mainly attributed to oxidative stress and is closely related to mitochondrial dysfunction. The mechanisms underlying osteogenic dysfunction in inflammation still need further investigation...
August 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Samira Alizadeh, Hossein Mazloom, Asie Sadeghi, Solaleh Emamgholipour, Abolfazl Golestani, Farshid Noorbakhsh, Mohsen Khoshniatnikoo, Reza Meshkani
Autophagy was shown to modulate inflammation in immune cells. This study was designed to evaluate the association between autophagy and inflammation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of type 2 diabetic (T2D) and non-diabetic (ND) subjects. The autophagy markers were measured by real-time PCR and western blot. The gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was assessed by real-time PCR. Reduced transcription of BECN1 and LAMP2 and unchanged expression of MAP1LC3B and ATG5 were observed in PBMCs of T2D patients...
August 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Chen Chen, Yuan Deng, Xionggui Hu, Huibo Ren, Ji Zhu, Shengcai Fu, Julan Xie, Yinglin Peng
Differentiation of adipocytes and their aggregation to adipose tissue are critical for mammalian growth and development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in adipogenesis and lipid metabolism. miR-128-3p may contribute to adipose tissue development according to the previous studies. However, the role of miR-128-3p in the process of preadipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism is not yet understood. The purpose of this research was to investigate the biological function and molecular mechanism of miR-128-3p in 3T3-L1 cells...
August 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Milan Holeček, Melita Vodeničarovová
The aim was to determine the effects of enhanced availability of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) on ammonia detoxification to glutamine (GLN) and protein metabolism in two types of skeletal muscle under hyperammonemic conditions. Isolated soleus (SOL, slow-twitch) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL, fast-twitch) muscles from the left leg of white rats were incubated in a medium with 1 mM ammonia (NH3 group), BCAAs at four times the concentration of the controls (BCAA group) or high levels of both ammonia and BCAA (NH3 + BCAA group)...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Christian Carpéné, Jean Galitzky, Chloé Belles, Alexia Zakaroff-Girard
Tyramine is found in foodstuffs, the richest being cheeses, sausages, and wines. Tyramine has been recognized to release catecholamines from nerve endings and to trigger hypertensive reaction. Thereby, tyramine-free diet is recommended for depressed patients treated with irreversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidases (MAO) to limit the risk of hypertension. Tyramine is a substrate of amine oxidases and also an agonist at trace amine-associated receptors. Our aim was to characterize the dose-dependent effects of tyramine on human adipocyte metabolic functions...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Lisa Rein-Fischboeck, Ganimete Bajraktari, Rebekka Pohl, Susanne Feder, Kristina Eisinger, Wolfgang Mages, Elisabeth M Haberl, Christa Buechler
The scaffold protein alpha-syntrophin (SNTA) is a component of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex and has been comprehensively studied in skeletal muscle and adipocytes. SNTA is further expressed in the liver where its biological role remains unclear. Unpublished data from our group suggested that SNTA deficiency is associated with altered tubulin alpha 8 (TUBA8) levels in fat. TUBA8 is highly expressed in different cell lines including hepatoma cells, and here we analyzed whether SNTA has a role herein. In Hepa1-6 cells, TUBA8 protein levels were increased upon SNTA knock down and were reduced upon overexpression of SNTA...
July 22, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Yong Tang, Guojun Cao, Xiaobo Min, Tao Wang, Shiran Sun, Xiaolong Du, Weikang Zhang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as the most common chronic liver disease. NLRP3 inflammasome activation has been widely studied in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Cathepsin B (CTSB) is a ubiquitous cysteine cathepsin, and the role of CTSB in the progression and development of NAFLD has received extensive concern. However, the exact roles of CTSB in the NAFLD development and NLRP3 inflammasome activation are yet to be evaluated. In the present study, we used methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet to establish mice NASH model...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
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