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Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909897/nha2-is-expressed-in-distal-nephron-and-regulated-by-dietary-sodium
#1
Kalyan C Kondapalli, R Todd Alexander, Jennifer L Pluznick, Rajini Rao
Increased renal reabsorption of sodium is a significant risk factor in hypertension. An established clinical marker for essential hypertension is elevated sodium lithium countertransport (SLC) activity. NHA2 is a newly identified Na(+)(Li(+))/H(+) antiporter with potential genetic links to hypertension, which has been shown to mediate SLC activity and H(+)-coupled Na(+)(Li(+)) efflux in kidney-derived MDCK cells. To evaluate a putative role in sodium homeostasis, we determined the effect of dietary salt on NHA2...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878518/comparative-efficacy-of-alpha-linolenic-acid-and-gamma-linolenic-acid-to-attenuate-valproic-acid-induced-autism-like-features
#2
Sneha Yadav, Virendra Tiwari, Manjari Singh, Rajnish K Yadav, Subhadeep Roy, Uma Devi, Swetlana Gautam, Jitendra Kumar Rawat, Mohd Nazam Ansari, Abdulaziz Sa Saeedan, Anand Prakash, Shubhini A Saraf, Gaurav Kaithwas
The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3, ω-3) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3, ω-6) on experimental autism features induced by early prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) in albino wistar pups. The pups were scrutinized on the accounts of behavioral, biochemical, and inflammatory markers, and the results suggested that the GLA can impart significant protection in comparison to ALA against VPA-induced autism features. When scrutinized histopathologically, the cerebellum of the GLA-treated animals was evident for more marked protection toward neuronal degeneration and neuronal loss in comparison to ALA...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864790/understanding-pacing-postconditioning-mediated-cardiac-protection-a-role-of-oxidative-stress-and-a-synergistic-effect-of-adenosine
#3
Fawzi A Babiker, Aishah Al-Jarallah, Shaji Joseph
We and others have demonstrated a protective role for pacing postconditioning (PPC) against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the heart; however, the underlying mechanisms behind these protective effects are not completely understood. In this study, we wanted to further characterize PPC-mediated cardiac protection, specifically identify optimal pacing sites; examine the role of oxidative stress; and test the existence of a potential synergistic effect between PPC and adenosine. Isolated rat hearts were subjected to coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858307/m3-cholinoreceptors-alter-electrical-activity-of-rat-left-atrium-via-suppression-of-l-type-ca-2-current-without-affecting-k-conductance
#4
Tatiana S Filatova, Nikolay Naumenko, Pavel A Galenko-Yaroshevsky, Denis V Abramochkin
Electrophysiological effects produced by selective activation of M3 cholinoreceptors were studied in isolated left atrium preparations from rat using the standard sharp glass microelectrode technique. The stimulation of M3 receptors was obtained by application of muscarinic agonist pilocarpine (10(-5) M) in the presence of selective M2 antagonist methoctramine (10(-7) M). Stimulation of M3 receptors induced marked reduction of action potential duration by 14.4 ± 2.4% and 16.1 ± 2.5% of control duration measured at 50 and 90% of repolarization, respectively...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834040/anti-proliferative-effects-of-paeonol-on-human-prostate-cancer-cell-lines-du145-and-pc-3
#5
Yi Xu, Jian-Yong Zhu, Zhang-Ming Lei, Li-Jun Wan, Xiu-Wen Zhu, Feng Ye, Yan-Yue Tong
Paeonol (Pae) is the main active ingredient from the root bark of Paeonia moutan and the grass of Radix Cynanchi Paniculati. Numerous reports indicate that Pae effectively inhibits several types of cancer lines. In this study, we report that Pae hinders prostate cancer growth both in vivo and in vitro. Human prostate cancer lines DU145 and PC-3 were cultured in the presence of Pae. The xenograft tumor in mice was established by subcutaneous injection of DU145 cells. Cell growth was measured by MTT, and the apoptosis was detected by the flow cytometry...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826900/human-thermogenic-adipocytes-a-reflection-on-types-of-adipocyte-developmental-origin-and-potential-application
#6
REVIEW
Dinh-Toi Chu, Yang Tao
Obesity is a leading health problem facing the modern world; however, no effective therapy for this health issue has yet been developed. A promising research direction to identify novel therapies to prevent obesity has emerged from discoveries on development and function of brown/brite adipocytes in mammals. Importantly, there is evidence for the presence and function of active thermogenic brown adipocytes in both infants and adult humans. Several new investigations have shown that thermogenic adipocytes are beneficial to maintain glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and a healthy body fat content...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822918/ferulic-acid-prevents-methylglyoxal-induced-protein-glycation-dna-damage-and-apoptosis-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#7
Weerachat Sompong, Henrique Cheng, Sirichai Adisakwattana
Methylglyoxal (MG) can react with amino acids of proteins to induce protein glycation and consequently the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Previous studies reported that ferulic acid (FA) prevented glucose-, fructose-, and ribose-induced protein glycation. In this study, FA (0.1-1 mM) inhibited MG-induced protein glycation and oxidative protein damage in bovine serum albumin (BSA). Furthermore, FA (0.0125-0.2 mM) protected against lysine/MG-mediated oxidative DNA damage, thereby inhibiting superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical generation during lysine and MG reaction...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822917/phosphorylation-and-subcellular-localization-of-na-h-exchanger-isoform-3-nhe3-are-associated-with-altered-gallbladder-absorptive-function-after-formation-of-cholesterol-gallstones
#8
Yongsheng Chen, Shuodong Wu, Yu Tian, Jing Kong
Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) dysfunction is thought to contribute to the altered gallbladder absorption that occurs in cholesterol gallstone disease, but the mechanism is unknown. The current study was undertaken to examine the expression, phosphorylation, and subcellular localization of NHE3 in gallbladder epithelium cells (GBECs) of male C57BL/6 mice on a control or lithogenic diet. Thirty-six 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to receive a high cholesterol diet or a regular diet for 8 weeks...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812957/the-effects-of-verapamil-and-its-combinations-with-glutamate-and-glycine-on-cardiodynamics-coronary-flow-and-oxidative-stress-in-isolated-rat-heart
#9
Isidora Stojic, Ivan Srejovic, Vladimir Zivkovic, Nevena Jeremic, Marko Djuric, Ana Stevanovic, Tamara Milanovic, Dragan Djuric, Vladimir Jakovljevic
The role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) in heart is still unclear. For these ionotropic glutamate receptors is characteristic the necessity of both co-agonists, glutamate and glycine, for their activation, which primarily allows influx of calcium. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of verapamil, as a calcium channel blocker, alone and its combination with glycine and/or glutamate on cardiac function, coronary flow, and oxidative stress in isolated rat heart or to examine the effects of potential activation of NMDA-R in isolated rat heart...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807764/mice-lacking-myotubularin-related-protein-14-show-accelerated-high-fat-diet-induced-lipid-accumulation-and-inflammation
#10
Lv Yin, Peng Yong-Bo, Yu Meng-Fei, Chen Weiwei, Zhao Ping, Xue Lu, Ma Li-Qun, Cai Congli, Liu Qing-Hua, Shen Jinhua
The phosphoinositide phosphatase, myotubularin-related protein 14 (MTMR14), has been reported to play an important role in the regulation of muscle performance, autophagy, and aging in mice. We previously showed that MTMR14-knockout (KO) mice gain weight earlier than their wild-type (WT) littermates even on a normal chow diet (NCD), suggesting that this gene might also be involved in regulating metabolism. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of MTMR14 deficiency on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, lipid accumulation, metabolic disorders, and inflammation in WT and MTMR14-KO mice fed with NCD or HFD...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785616/pepck-c-reexpression-in-the-liver-counters-neonatal-hypoglycemia-in-pck1-del-del-mice-unmasking-role-in-non-gluconeogenic-tissues
#11
Jana Semakova, Petra Hyroššová, Andrés Méndez-Lucas, Ernest Cutz, Jordi Bermudez, Shawn Burgess, Soledad Alcántara, José C Perales
Whole body cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase knockout (PEPCK-C KO) mice die early after birth with profound hypoglycemia therefore masking the role of PEPCK-C in adult, non-gluconeogenic tissues where it is expressed. To investigate whether PEPCK-C deletion in the liver was critically responsible for the hypoglycemic phenotype, we reexpress this enzyme in the liver of PEPCK-C KO pups by early postnatal administration of PEPCK-C-expressing adenovirus. This maneuver was sufficient to partially rescue hypoglycemia and allow the pups to survive and identifies the liver as a critical organ, and hypoglycemia as the critical pathomechanism, leading to early postnatal death in the whole-body PEPCK-C knockout mice...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778230/an-iron-deficient-diet-during-development-induces-oxidative-stress-in-relation-to-age-and-gender-in-wistar-rats
#12
Patricia Vieyra-Reyes, Diana Millán-Aldaco, Marcela Palomero-Rivero, Clementina Jiménez-Garcés, Margarita Hernández-González, Javier Caballero-Villarraso
Iron is a trace element and a structural part of antioxidant enzymes, and its requirements vary according to age and gender. We hypothesized that iron deficiency (ID) leads to an increase in free radicals which mainly affect the brain, and the severity of damage would therefore be dependent on age and gender. Two groups of Wistar rats were evaluated evolutionarily: 100 rats (50 males; 50 females) with ID diet and 100 rats (50 males; 50 females) with standard diet. Both groups were offspring from mothers who were previously under the same dietary intervention...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771871/chronic-type-i-diabetes-could-not-impede-the-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-apoptotic-effects-of-combined-postconditioning-with-ischemia-and-cyclosporine-a-in-myocardial-reperfusion-injury
#13
Reza Badalzadeh, Ako Azimi, Alireza Alihemmati, Bahman Yousefi
It has been shown that diabetes modifies the myocardial responses to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and to cardioprotective agents. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of combined treatment with ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) and cyclosporine A (CsA) on inflammation and apoptosis of the diabetic myocardium injured by I/R. Eight weeks after induction of diabetes in Wistar rats, hearts were mounted on a Langendorff apparatus and were subsequently subjected to a 30-min regional ischemia followed by 45-min reperfusion...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766585/anatomical-distribution-of-primary-amine-oxidase-activity-in-four-adipose-depots-and-plasma-of-severely-obese-women-with-or-without-a-dysmetabolic-profile
#14
Christian Carpéné, Francisco Les, Mounia Hasnaoui, Simon Biron, Picard Marceau, Denis Richard, Jean Galitzky, Denis R Joanisse, Pascale Mauriège
Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), identical to primary amine oxidase or vascular adhesion protein-1, is a membrane enzyme that generates hydrogen peroxide. SSAO is highly expressed at the adipocyte surface, and its plasma levels increase with type 2 diabetes. Since visceral adipose tissue (AT) is more tightly associated with obesity complications than subcutaneous (SC) abdominal fat, we compared SSAO activity in plasma and 4 distinct AT locations in 48 severely obese women (body mass index (BMI), averaging 54 ± 11 kg/m(2)), with or without a dysmetabolic profile...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761888/a-lifelong-competitive-training-practice-attenuates-age-related-lipid-peroxidation
#15
Yaira Barranco-Ruiz, Antonio Martínez-Amat, Cristina Casals, Jerónimo Aragón-Vela, Silvia Rosillo, Silvana N Gomes, Ana Rivas-García, Rafael Guisado, Jesús R Huertas
The effect of exercise-induced oxidative stress on health and aging is not clearly explained. This study examined the effects of habitual sport practice, age, and submaximal exercise on the blood markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage, and antioxidant response. Seventy-two healthy men were grouped by their habitual sport practice: inactive (<1.5 h/week), recreational (3-8 h/week), and trained athletes (>8 h/week), and further divided by age: young (18-25 years), adult (40-55 years), and senior (>55 years)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743340/%C3%AE-tocotrienol-prevents-cell-cycle-arrest-in-aged-human-fibroblast-cells-through-p16-ink4a-pathway
#16
Azalina Zainuddin, Kien-Hui Chua, Jen-Kit Tan, Faizul Jaafar, Suzana Makpol
Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) proliferation in culture has been used as a model of aging at the cellular level. Growth arrest is one of the most important mechanisms responsible for replicative senescence. Recent researches have been focusing on the function of vitamin E in modulating cellular signaling and gene expression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of palm γ-tocotrienol (vitamin E) in modulating cellular aging through p16(INK4a) pathway in HDF cells. Primary culture of senescent HDFs was incubated with 70 μM of palm γ-tocotrienol for 24 hours...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738973/octodon-degus-a-new-model-to-study-the-agonist-and-plexus-induced-response-in-the-urinary-bladder
#17
Francisco Eduardo Martin-Cano, Mercedes Caso-Agundez, Cristina Camello-Almaraz, Francisco Juan Santos, María Teresa Espin, Juan Antonio Madrid, Adolfo Diez-Perez, Pedro Javier Camello, Maria Jose Pozo
Urinary bladder function consists in the storage and controlled voiding of urine. Translational studies require animal models that match human characteristics, such as Octodon degus, a diurnal rodent. This study aims to characterize the contractility of the detrusor muscle and the morphology and code of the vesical plexus from O. degus. Body temperature was measured by an intra-abdominal sensor, the contractility of detrusor strips was evaluated by isometric tension recording, and the vesical plexus was studied by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and immunofluorescence...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734324/usefulness-of-the-conicity-index-together-with-the-conjoint-use-of-adipocytokines-and-nutritional-inflammatory-markers-in-hemodialysis-patients
#18
Mar Ruperto, Guillermina Barril, Francisco J Sánchez-Muniz
Abdominal fat has been recognized as the most hormonally active tissue secreting a variety of adipocytokines and, therefore, potentially contributing to inflammation. The conicity index (Cindex) has been considered a valuable indicator of central obesity. This study aims to relate plasma concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) with Cindex values in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Cross-sectional study in 45 HD patients (55.6 % men; DM 20 %; mean age, 68...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730429/association-of-the-melanocortin-4-receptor-gene-rs17782313-polymorphism-with-rewarding-value-of-food-and-eating-behavior-in-chilean-children
#19
A M Obregón, K Oyarce, J L Santos, M Valladares, G Goldfield
Studies conducted in monozygotic and dizygotic twins have established a strong genetic component in eating behavior. Rare mutations and common variants of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene have been linked to obesity and eating behavior scores. However, few studies have assessed common variants in MC4R gene with the rewarding value of food in children. The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between the MC4R rs17782313 polymorphism with homeostatic and non-homeostatic eating behavior patterns in Chileans children...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722988/reactive-oxygen-species-derived-from-nad-p-h-oxidase-play-a-role-on-ethanol-induced-hypertension-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-rat-resistance-arteries
#20
Janaina A Simplicio, Gabriel T do Vale, Natália A Gonzaga, Letícia N Leite, Ulisses V Hipólito, Camila A Pereira, Rita C Tostes, Carlos R Tirapelli
Chronic ethanol consumption is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We studied whether NAD(P)H oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in ethanol-induced hypertension, vascular dysfunction, and protein expression in resistance arteries. Male Wistar rats were treated with ethanol (20 % v/v) for 6 weeks. Ethanol treatment increased blood pressure and decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation in the rat mesenteric arterial bed (MAB). These responses were attenuated by apocynin (30 mg/kg/day; p...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
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