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Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357578/effect-of-fatty-acid-interaction-on-myoglobin-oxygen-affinity-and-triglyceride-metabolism
#1
Thomas Jue, Gregory Simond, Traver J Wright, Lifan Shih, Youngran Chung, Renuka Sriram, Ulrike Kreutzer, Randall W Davis
Recent studies have suggested myoglobin (Mb) may have other cellular functions in addition to storing and transporting O2. Indeed, NMR experiments have shown that the saturated fatty acid (FA) palmitate (PA) can interact with myoglobin (Mb) in its ligated state (MbCO and MbCN) but does not interact with Mb in its deoxygenated state. The observation has led to the hypothesis that Mb can also serve as a fatty acid transporter. The present study further investigates fatty acid interaction with the physiological states of Mb using the more soluble but unsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid (OA)...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353150/gene-methylation-parallelisms-between-peripheral-blood-cells-and-oral-mucosa-samples-in-relation-to-overweight
#2
Rodrigo San-Cristobal, Santiago Navas-Carretero, Fermín I Milagro, J Ignacio Riezu-Boj, Elizabeth Guruceaga, Carlos Celis-Morales, Katherine M Livingstone, Lorraine Brennan, Julie A Lovegrove, Hannelore Daniel, Wim H Saris, Iwonna Traczyk, Yannis Manios, Eileen R Gibney, Michael J Gibney, John C Mathers, J Alfredo Martinez
Epigenetics has an important role in the regulation of metabolic adaptation to environmental modifications. In this sense, the determination of epigenetic changes in non-invasive samples during the development of metabolic diseases could play an important role in the procedures in primary healthcare practice. To help translate the knowledge of epigenetics to public health practice, the present study aims to explore the parallelism of methylation levels between white blood cells and buccal samples in relation to obesity and associated disorders...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337718/sex-dependent-effects-of-neonatal-maternal-deprivation-on-endocannabinoid-levels-in-the-adipose-tissue-influence-of-diet
#3
Virginia Mela, Fabiana Piscitelli, Alvaro Llorente Berzal, Julie Chowen, Cristoforo Silvestri, Maria Paz Viveros, Vincenzo Di Marzo
Maternal deprivation (MD) during neonatal life has diverse long-term effects, including modification of metabolism. We have previously reported that MD modifies the metabolic response to high-fat diet (HFD) intake, with this response being different between males and females, while previous studies indicate that in mice with HFD-induced obesity, endocannabinoid (EC) levels are markedly altered in various brown and white adipose tissue depots. Here, we analyzed the effects of MD (24 h at postnatal day 9), alone or in combination with a HFD from weaning until the end of the experiment in Wistar rats of both sexes...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283967/exercise-training-and-high-fat-diet-elicit-endocannabinoid-system-modifications-in-the-rat-hypothalamus-and-hippocampus
#4
François-Xavier Gamelin, Julien Aucouturier, Fabio Arturo Iannotti, Fabiana Piscitelli, Enrico Mazzarella, Teresa Aveta, Melissa Leriche, Erwan Dupont, Caroline Cieniewski-Bernard, Erwan Leclair, Bruno Bastide, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Elsa Heyman
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of chronic exercise on the hypothalamus and hippocampus levels of the endocannabinoids (eCBs) anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and of two AEA congeners and on the expression of genes coding for CB1, CB2 receptors (Cnr1 and Cnr2, respectively), and the enzymes responsible for eCB biosynthesis and degradation, in rats fed with a standard or high-fat diet. Male Wistar rats (n = 28) were placed on a 12-week high-fat (HFD) or standard diet period, followed by 12 weeks of exercise training for half of each group...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258543/reducing-mitochondrial-bound-hexokinase-ii-mediates-transition-from-non-injurious-into-injurious-ischemia-reperfusion-of-the-intact-heart
#5
Rianne Nederlof, Ebru Gürel-Gurevin, Otto Eerbeek, Chaoqin Xie, G Sjoerd Deijs, Moritz Konkel, Jun Hu, Nina C Weber, Cees A Schumacher, Antonius Baartscheer, Egbert G Mik, Markus W Hollmann, Fadi G Akar, Coert J Zuurbier
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) of the heart becomes injurious when duration of the ischemic insult exceeds a certain threshold (approximately ≥20 min). Mitochondrial bound hexokinase II (mtHKII) protects against I/R injury, with the amount of mtHKII correlating with injury. Here, we examine whether mtHKII can induce the transition from non-injurious to injurious I/R, by detaching HKII from mitochondria during a non-injurious I/R interval. Additionally, we examine possible underlying mechanisms (increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased oxygen consumption (MVO2) and decreased cardiac energetics) associated with this transition...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243863/effects-of-pterostilbene-in-brown-adipose-tissue-from-obese-rats
#6
Leixuri Aguirre, Iñaki Milton-Laskibar, Elizabeth Hijona, Luis Bujanda, Agnes M Rimando, María P Portillo
In recent years, much attention has been paid by the scientific community to phenolic compounds as active biomolecules naturally present in foods. Pterostilbene is a resveratrol dimethylether derivative which shows higher bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of pterostilbene on brown adipose tissue thermogenic markers in a model of genetic obesity, which shows reduced thermogenesis. The experiment was conducted with 30 Zucker (fa/fa) rats that were distributed in three experimental groups: control and two groups orally administered with pterostilbene at 15 and 30 mg/kg body weight/day for 6 weeks...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181168/apoa-i-sr-bi-modulates-s1p-s1pr2-mediated-inflammation-through-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-in-huvecs
#7
Kun Ren, Yan-Ju Lu, Zhong-Cheng Mo, Xing -Liu, Zhen-Li Tang, Yue Jiang, Xiao-Shan Peng, Li Li, Qing-Hai Zhang, Guang-Hui Yi
Endothelial dysfunction plays a vital role during the initial stage of atherosclerosis. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induces vascular endothelial injury and vessel wall inflammation. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) exerts numerous vasoprotective effects by binding to diverse S1P receptors (S1PRs; S1PR1-5). A number of studies have shown that in endothelial cells (ECs), S1PR2 acts as a pro-atherosclerotic mediator by stimulating vessel wall inflammation through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181167/adherence-to-mediterranean-diet-is-associated-with-methylation-changes-in-inflammation-related-genes-in-peripheral-blood-cells
#8
A Arpón, J I Riezu-Boj, F I Milagro, C Razquin, M A Martínez-González, D Corella, R Estruch, R Casas, M Fitó, E Ros, J Salas-Salvadó, J A Martínez
Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation, might be modulated by environmental factors such as the diet, which in turn have been associated with the onset of several diseases such as obesity or cardiovascular events. Meanwhile, Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has demonstrated favourable effects on cardiovascular risk, blood pressure, inflammation and other complications related to excessive adiposity. Some of these effects could be mediated by epigenetic modifications. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether the adherence to MedDiet is associated with changes in the methylation status from peripheral blood cells...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160259/protein-malnutrition-during-fetal-programming-induces-fatty-liver-in-adult-male-offspring-rats
#9
Sabrina Edith Campisano, Stella Maris Echarte, Enrique Podaza, Andrea Nancy Chisari
We evaluated the effects of protein malnutrition on liver morphology and physiology in rats subjected to different malnutrition schemes. Pregnant rats were fed with a control diet or a low protein diet (LPD). Male offspring rats received a LPD during gestation, lactation, and until they were 60 days old (MM group), a late LPD that began after weaning (CM), or a LPD administrated only during the gestation-lactation period followed by a control diet (MC). On day 60, blood was collected and the liver was dissected out...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155123/p66shc-mediated-toxicity-of-high-dose-%C3%AE-tocopherol-in-renal-proximal-tubule-cells
#10
Dustin K Reed, Anthony Carter, Mehul Dixit, Istvan Arany
α-Tocopherol (TOC) is a widely used supplement known for its role as an antioxidant. Previously, we have shown that TOC elicits adaptive responses by upregulating the ERK/CREB/HO-1 pathway, which depends on its concentration in cultured renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs). This suggests that high-dose TOC (hTOC) may elicit adverse effects via inflicting oxidative stress. Since the pro-oxidant p66shc is a major mediator of oxidant injury in various models of renal toxicants, we tested the hypothesis that hTOC elicits renal toxicity through activation of p66shc and consequent oxidative stress...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826900/human-thermogenic-adipocytes-a-reflection-on-types-of-adipocyte-developmental-origin-and-potential-application
#11
REVIEW
Dinh-Toi Chu, Yang Tao
Obesity is a leading health problem facing the modern world; however, no effective therapy for this health issue has yet been developed. A promising research direction to identify novel therapies to prevent obesity has emerged from discoveries on development and function of brown/brite adipocytes in mammals. Importantly, there is evidence for the presence and function of active thermogenic brown adipocytes in both infants and adult humans. Several new investigations have shown that thermogenic adipocytes are beneficial to maintain glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and a healthy body fat content...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822918/ferulic-acid-prevents-methylglyoxal-induced-protein-glycation-dna-damage-and-apoptosis-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#12
Weerachat Sompong, Henrique Cheng, Sirichai Adisakwattana
Methylglyoxal (MG) can react with amino acids of proteins to induce protein glycation and consequently the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Previous studies reported that ferulic acid (FA) prevented glucose-, fructose-, and ribose-induced protein glycation. In this study, FA (0.1-1 mM) inhibited MG-induced protein glycation and oxidative protein damage in bovine serum albumin (BSA). Furthermore, FA (0.0125-0.2 mM) protected against lysine/MG-mediated oxidative DNA damage, thereby inhibiting superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical generation during lysine and MG reaction...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822917/phosphorylation-and-subcellular-localization-of-na-h-exchanger-isoform-3-nhe3-are-associated-with-altered-gallbladder-absorptive-function-after-formation-of-cholesterol-gallstones
#13
Yongsheng Chen, Shuodong Wu, Yu Tian, Jing Kong
Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) dysfunction is thought to contribute to the altered gallbladder absorption that occurs in cholesterol gallstone disease, but the mechanism is unknown. The current study was undertaken to examine the expression, phosphorylation, and subcellular localization of NHE3 in gallbladder epithelium cells (GBECs) of male C57BL/6 mice on a control or lithogenic diet. Thirty-six 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to receive a high cholesterol diet or a regular diet for 8 weeks...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812957/the-effects-of-verapamil-and-its-combinations-with-glutamate-and-glycine-on-cardiodynamics-coronary-flow-and-oxidative-stress-in-isolated-rat-heart
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Isidora Stojic, Ivan Srejovic, Vladimir Zivkovic, Nevena Jeremic, Marko Djuric, Ana Stevanovic, Tamara Milanovic, Dragan Djuric, Vladimir Jakovljevic
The role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) in heart is still unclear. For these ionotropic glutamate receptors is characteristic the necessity of both co-agonists, glutamate and glycine, for their activation, which primarily allows influx of calcium. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of verapamil, as a calcium channel blocker, alone and its combination with glycine and/or glutamate on cardiac function, coronary flow, and oxidative stress in isolated rat heart or to examine the effects of potential activation of NMDA-R in isolated rat heart...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807764/mice-lacking-myotubularin-related-protein-14-show-accelerated-high-fat-diet-induced-lipid-accumulation-and-inflammation
#15
Lv Yin, Peng Yong-Bo, Yu Meng-Fei, Chen Weiwei, Zhao Ping, Xue Lu, Ma Li-Qun, Cai Congli, Liu Qing-Hua, Shen Jinhua
The phosphoinositide phosphatase, myotubularin-related protein 14 (MTMR14), has been reported to play an important role in the regulation of muscle performance, autophagy, and aging in mice. We previously showed that MTMR14-knockout (KO) mice gain weight earlier than their wild-type (WT) littermates even on a normal chow diet (NCD), suggesting that this gene might also be involved in regulating metabolism. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of MTMR14 deficiency on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, lipid accumulation, metabolic disorders, and inflammation in WT and MTMR14-KO mice fed with NCD or HFD...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785616/pepck-c-reexpression-in-the-liver-counters-neonatal-hypoglycemia-in-pck1-del-del-mice-unmasking-role-in-non-gluconeogenic-tissues
#16
Jana Semakova, Petra Hyroššová, Andrés Méndez-Lucas, Ernest Cutz, Jordi Bermudez, Shawn Burgess, Soledad Alcántara, José C Perales
Whole body cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase knockout (PEPCK-C KO) mice die early after birth with profound hypoglycemia therefore masking the role of PEPCK-C in adult, non-gluconeogenic tissues where it is expressed. To investigate whether PEPCK-C deletion in the liver was critically responsible for the hypoglycemic phenotype, we reexpress this enzyme in the liver of PEPCK-C KO pups by early postnatal administration of PEPCK-C-expressing adenovirus. This maneuver was sufficient to partially rescue hypoglycemia and allow the pups to survive and identifies the liver as a critical organ, and hypoglycemia as the critical pathomechanism, leading to early postnatal death in the whole-body PEPCK-C knockout mice...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778230/an-iron-deficient-diet-during-development-induces-oxidative-stress-in-relation-to-age-and-gender-in-wistar-rats
#17
Patricia Vieyra-Reyes, Diana Millán-Aldaco, Marcela Palomero-Rivero, Clementina Jiménez-Garcés, Margarita Hernández-González, Javier Caballero-Villarraso
Iron is a trace element and a structural part of antioxidant enzymes, and its requirements vary according to age and gender. We hypothesized that iron deficiency (ID) leads to an increase in free radicals which mainly affect the brain, and the severity of damage would therefore be dependent on age and gender. Two groups of Wistar rats were evaluated evolutionarily: 100 rats (50 males; 50 females) with ID diet and 100 rats (50 males; 50 females) with standard diet. Both groups were offspring from mothers who were previously under the same dietary intervention...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771871/chronic-type-i-diabetes-could-not-impede-the-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-apoptotic-effects-of-combined-postconditioning-with-ischemia-and-cyclosporine-a-in-myocardial-reperfusion-injury
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Reza Badalzadeh, Ako Azimi, Alireza Alihemmati, Bahman Yousefi
It has been shown that diabetes modifies the myocardial responses to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and to cardioprotective agents. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of combined treatment with ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) and cyclosporine A (CsA) on inflammation and apoptosis of the diabetic myocardium injured by I/R. Eight weeks after induction of diabetes in Wistar rats, hearts were mounted on a Langendorff apparatus and were subsequently subjected to a 30-min regional ischemia followed by 45-min reperfusion...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761888/a-lifelong-competitive-training-practice-attenuates-age-related-lipid-peroxidation
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Yaira Barranco-Ruiz, Antonio Martínez-Amat, Cristina Casals, Jerónimo Aragón-Vela, Silvia Rosillo, Silvana N Gomes, Ana Rivas-García, Rafael Guisado, Jesús R Huertas
The effect of exercise-induced oxidative stress on health and aging is not clearly explained. This study examined the effects of habitual sport practice, age, and submaximal exercise on the blood markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage, and antioxidant response. Seventy-two healthy men were grouped by their habitual sport practice: inactive (<1.5 h/week), recreational (3-8 h/week), and trained athletes (>8 h/week), and further divided by age: young (18-25 years), adult (40-55 years), and senior (>55 years)...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743340/%C3%AE-tocotrienol-prevents-cell-cycle-arrest-in-aged-human-fibroblast-cells-through-p16-ink4a-pathway
#20
Azalina Zainuddin, Kien-Hui Chua, Jen-Kit Tan, Faizul Jaafar, Suzana Makpol
Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) proliferation in culture has been used as a model of aging at the cellular level. Growth arrest is one of the most important mechanisms responsible for replicative senescence. Recent researches have been focusing on the function of vitamin E in modulating cellular signaling and gene expression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of palm γ-tocotrienol (vitamin E) in modulating cellular aging through p16(INK4a) pathway in HDF cells. Primary culture of senescent HDFs was incubated with 70 μM of palm γ-tocotrienol for 24 hours...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
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