journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30639143/paolo-boccone-and-the-visual-communication-of-pre-linnean-botany-a-comparison-between-his-leiden-herbarium-paris-autoprint-and-published-icones-1674
#1
F Giallombardo, T R van Andel
This article addresses the development of visual practices in early modern Botany by focusing on the diverse strategies of graphic representation of plant species. Naturalis Biodiversity Center holds a historic herbarium of 169 sheets with specimens of Mediterranean plants collected by the Sicilian Botanist Paolo Boccone (1633-1704). Part of Boccone's dried specimens served as model for the etchings published in his Icones et descriptiones rariorum plantarum (1674) and part of them were used as matrix for at least one album of botanical autoprints kept in Paris...
January 10, 2019: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30616989/vaccine-development-as-a-doable-problem-the-case-of-the-meningococcal-a-vaccines-1962-1969
#2
Baptiste Baylac-Paouly
During the period from 1962 to 1967, the development of a meningococcal A vaccine could be considered as feasible despite all the drawbacks of working with cerebrospinal meningitis A. In this paper, I analyse why and how this programme for vaccine development was put into place, and in particular how the problem was perceived as feasible. Deploying the concept of Doable Problems developed by Joan Fujimura, I examine the complex range of factors that led to the outcome of the trial in Yako in 1967. Thus I show how the different protagonists were mobilized and their work organized at different levels in order to produce and test a vaccine...
January 4, 2019: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30594412/fictional-experimental-modeling-in-biology-in-vivo-representation
#3
Sim-Hui Tee
It is commonly held that in vivo biological experimental models are concrete and non-fictional. This belief is primarily supported by the fact that in vivo studies involve biological models which are alive, and what is alive cannot be fictional. However, I argue that this is not always the case. The design of an experimental model could still render an in vivo model fictional because fictional elements and processes can be built into these in vivo experimental models. These fictional elements are essential parts of a credentialed fiction because the designs of in vivo experimental models are constrained by imaginability, conceivability, and credit-worthiness...
December 26, 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30573371/disentangling-organic-and-technological-progress-an-epistemological-clarification-introducing-a-key-distinction-between-two-levels-of-axiology
#4
Silvia De Cesare
The notion of "progress" can be defined as a directional change towards the better, implying both a descriptive and an axiological element. "Organic progress" refers to this notion applied to the history of life, whereas "technological progress" refers to this notion applied to the history of technological artifacts. This paper aims to disentangle conceptual questions about the notion of organic progress with respect to evolutionary theory, by proposing an epistemological perspective that also accounts for technological progress...
December 17, 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30459017/past-responsibility-history-and-the-ethics-of-research-on-ethnic-groups
#5
Hallvard J Fossheim
The article argues for the possibility of researchers' historical responsibility vis-à-vis ethnic groups. Such responsibility for a discipline's past transgressions is often attributed to anthropology, human genetics, parts of archaeology, and medicine, but without a clear conception of the nature of a responsibility supposedly going beyond the individual's own actions. Two concretizations are presented in order to show the fruitfulness and challenges of what I shall call a continuity approach: first, the case of the reburial of Sami human remains in Neiden, Norway; second, the use of the race concept in ethical and scientific contexts following the so-called New Synthesis in biology, which according to many marks a break with a racist past...
November 17, 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429047/radical-pluralism-classificatory-norms-and-the-legitimacy-of-species-classifications
#6
Stijn Conix
Moderate pluralism is a popular position in contemporary philosophy of biology. Despite its popularity, various authors have argued that it tends to slide off into a radical form of pluralism that is both normatively and descriptively unacceptable. This paper looks at the case of biological species classification, and evaluates a popular way of avoiding radical pluralism by relying on the shared aims and norms of a discipline. The main contention is that while these aims and norms may play an important role in the legitimacy of species classifications, they fail to fend off radical pluralism...
November 11, 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420275/motives-and-merits-of-counterfactual-histories-of-science
#7
Joachim L Dagg
I consider the motives of historians devising counterfactual histories, analyze the narrative structure of these histories, and assess their merits. Richard Evans attacked counterfactual histories as motivated by wishful thinking. And he claimed that they could not contribute anything to the understanding of the past because they are concerned "with pointing out supposedly preferable alternatives." Both claims can be refuted with two particular counterfactual histories of biology. An analysis of the narrative structure of counterfactual histories suggests objective criteria that can distinguish those that have been designed, in order to reach a certain narrative ending, from those that were open-ended at the beginning...
November 9, 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30396827/-relaxed-natural-kinds-and-psychiatric-classification
#8
Somogy Varga
This paper starts out highlighting a particular criticism that psychiatry faces and continues by investigating approaches to classification in psychiatry that operate with a "relaxed" (non-essentialist) notion of natural kind. Two accounts are examined, one by Rachel Cooper (2005; 2013) and one based on the work of Richard Boyd (1991; 1999; 2003; 2010). While these accounts do not directly pursue such a goal, the main aim is to probe whether deploying a "relaxed" notion of natural kind would be able to neutralize the criticism...
November 2, 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30391127/from-seconds-to-eons-time-scales-hierarchies-and-processes-in-evo-devo
#9
Jan Baedke, Siobhan F Mc Manus
This paper addresses the role of time scales in conceptualizing biological hierarchies. So far, the concept of hierarchies in philosophy of science has been dominated by the idea of composition and parthood, respectively. However, this view does not exhaust the diversity of hierarchical descriptions in the biosciences. Therefore, we highlight a type of hierarchy usually overlooked by philosophers of science. It distinguishes processes based on the different time scales (i.e. rates, frequencies, and rhythms) on which they occur...
December 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30385203/encode-and-the-parts-of-the-human-genome
#10
Marie I Kaiser
This paper examines a specific kind of part-whole relations that exist in the molecular genetic domain. The central question is under which conditions a particular molecule, such as a DNA sequence, is a biological part of the human genome. I address this question by analyzing how biologists in fact partition the human genome into parts. This paper thus presents a case study in the metaphysics of biological practice. I develop a metaphysical account of genomic parthood by analyzing the investigative and reasoning practices in the ENCODE (ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements) project...
December 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337139/sequencing-through-thick-and-thin-historiographical-and-philosophical-implications
#11
James W E Lowe
DNA sequencing has been characterised by scholars and life scientists as an example of 'big', 'fast' and 'automated' science in biology. This paper argues, however, that these characterisations are a product of a particular interpretation of what sequencing is, what I call 'thin sequencing'. The 'thin sequencing' perspective focuses on the determination of the order of bases in a particular stretch of DNA. Based upon my research on the pig genome mapping and sequencing projects, I provide an alternative 'thick sequencing' perspective, which also includes a number of practices that enable the sequence to travel across and be used in wider communities...
December 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314682/the-sick-dancers-the-construction-of-medical-knowledge-about-the-epidemic-of-dance-in-itapagipe-salvador-bahia-1882-1901
#12
Filipe Pinto Monteiro
The goal of this paper is to analyze a little-known set of documents referring to a "Dancing Epidemic" that took place in Itapagipe, a suburb of Salvador, capital of the province of Bahia, Brazil, in 1882. Through the studies of a group of physicians, especially Raimundo Nina Rodrigues (1862-1906), a psychiatrist and anthropologist from the Bahia School of Medicine, the medical knowledge built on this unique phenomenon in Brazilian history is examined. The case in particular involved a crowd that spread through the streets of Itapagipe, attracting the interest of the medical classes, who were intrigued by the symptoms of motor incoordination the patients manifested...
October 9, 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30297157/a-blooming-and-buzzing-confusion-buffon-reimarus-and-kant-on-animal-cognition
#13
Hein van den Berg
Kant's views on animals have received much attention in recent years. According to some, Kant attributed the capacity for objective perceptual awareness to non-human animals, even though he denied that they have concepts. This position is difficult to square with a conceptualist reading of Kant, according to which objective perceptual awareness requires concepts. Others take Kant's views on animals to imply that the mental life of animals is a blooming, buzzing confusion. In this article I provide a historical reconstruction of Kant's views on animals, relating them to eighteenth-century debates on animal cognition...
October 5, 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30293695/searle-on-the-biology-of-seeing
#14
Pierre Le Morvan
Searle offers an account of seeing as a conscious state not constituted by the object(s) seen. I focus in this article on his biological case for this thesis, and argue that the biological considerations he adduces neither establish his own position nor defeat a rival object-inclusive view. I show (among other things) that taking seeing to be a biological state is compatible with its being (partially) constituted by the object(s) seen.
October 4, 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318277/mechanism-diagrams-and-abstraction-by-aggregation
#15
Sim-Hui Tee
Mechanism diagrams exhibit visually the organized parts and operations of a biological mechanism. A mechanism diagram can facilitate mechanistic research by providing a mechanistic explanation of the phenomenon of interest. Much research has been focusing on the mechanistic explanation and the explanatory mechanistic models. As a specific type of scientific diagram, a simple mechanism diagram can be explanatory by drawing on the rich explanatory resources of non-depicted background knowledge. The relationship between the visually depicted and the background knowledge is underexplored...
October 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30224294/synthesis-convergence-and-differences-in-the-entangled-histories-of-cytogenetics-in-medicine-a-comparative-study-of-canada-and-mexico
#16
William Leeming, Ana Barahona
Most historians of science and medicine agree that medical interest in genetics intensified after 1930, and interest in the relationship of radiation damage and genetics continued and expanded after World War II. Moreover, they maintain that the synthesis and convergence of human genetics and cytological techniques in European centers resulted in their dissemination to centers in the United States, resulting in a new field of expertise focused on medicine and clinical research, known as cytogenetics. In this article, we broaden the scope of the inquiry by showing how the early histories of cytogenetics in Canada and Mexico unfolded against strikingly different backgrounds in clinical research and the delivery of health care...
September 14, 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100389/historical-biological-essentialism
#17
Michael Devitt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30122161/the-myth-of-hempel-and-the-dsm-iii
#18
Rachel Cooper, Roger Blashfield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30060909/functional-ecology-s-non-selectionist-understanding-of-function
#19
Antoine C Dussault
This paper reinforces the current consensus against the applicability of the selected effect theory of function in ecology. It does so by presenting an argument which, in contrast with the usual argument invoked in support of this consensus, is not based on claims about whether ecosystems are customary units of natural selection. Instead, the argument developed here is based on observations about the use of the function concept in functional ecology, and more specifically, research into the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning...
August 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887516/the-biopolitics-of-cfs-me
#20
Nikos Karfakis
This paper argues that Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) constitutes a biopolitical problem, a scientific object which needs to be studied, classified and regulated. Assemblages of authorities, knowledges and techniques make CFS/ME subjects and shape their everyday conduct in an attempt to increase their supposed autonomy, wellbeing and health. CFS and CFS/ME identities are however made not only through government, scientific, and medical interventions but also by the patients themselves, a biosocial community who collaborates with scientists, educates itself about the intricacies of biomedicine, and contests psychiatric truth claims...
August 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
journal
journal
33042
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"