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Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450681/factors-related-to-the-probable-ptsd-after-the-9-11-world-trade-center-attack-among-asian-americans
#1
Winnie W Kung, Xinhua Liu, Debbie Huang, Patricia Kim, Xiaoran Wang, Lawrence H Yang
Despite the fact that Asians constituted a sizeable proportion of those exposed to the World Trade Center attack on September 11, 2001 due to its proximity to Chinatown and many South Asians working in the nearby buildings, no study had focused on examining the mental health impact of the attack in this group. Based on data collected by the World Trade Center Health Registry from a sample of 4721 Asians 2-3 years after the disaster, this study provides a baseline investigation for the prevalence and the risk and protective factors for PTSD among Asian Americans directly exposed to the attack and compared this population against 42,862 non-Hispanic Whites...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442222/novel-methods-for-environmental-assessment-of-pedestrian-injury-creation-and-validation-of-the-inventory-for-pedestrian-safety-infrastructure
#2
Elizabeth D Nesoff, Adam J Milam, Keshia M Pollack, Frank C Curriero, Janice V Bowie, Andrea C Gielen, Debra M Furr-Holden
Nationally, 80% of pedestrian fatalities occur in urban environments, yet the distribution of injuries across urban areas is not uniform. Identifying street-level risk factors for pedestrian injury is essential for urban planning and improvement projects, as well as targeted injury prevention efforts. However, creating and maintaining a comprehensive database of a city's traffic safety infrastructure can be cumbersome and costly. The purpose of this study was to create and validate a neighborhood environmental observational assessment tool to capture evidence-based pedestrian safety infrastructure using Google Street View (GSV)-The Inventory for Pedestrian Safety Infrastructure (IPSI)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427264/urban-renewal-mega-projects-and-residents-quality-of-life-evidence-from-historical-religious-center-of-mashhad-metropolis
#3
Amir Forouhar, Mahnoosh Hasankhani
Urban decay is the process by which a historical city center, or an old part of a city, falls into decrepitude and faces serious problems. Urban management, therefore, implements renewal mega projects with the goal of physical and functional revitalization, retrieval of socioeconomic capacities, and improving of quality of life of residents. Ignoring the complexities of these large-scale interventions in the old and historical urban fabrics may lead to undesirable consequences, including an additional decline of quality of life...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427263/park-use-in-low-income-urban-neighborhoods-who-uses-the-parks-and-why
#4
Christine A Vaughan, Natalie Colabianchi, Gerald P Hunter, Robin Beckman, Tamara Dubowitz
We examined individual and environmental influences on park use among residents of two low-income predominantly African American neighborhoods to identify determinants of park use in lower-income urban neighborhoods. We analyzed data from interviews of 1003 individuals randomly selected from the neighborhoods, systematic observations of neighborhood parks, and police-recorded crime incidence within a .5-mi buffer around each park. Most participants (82.4%) had previously visited a neighborhood park, and nearly half (46...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423896/patterns-of-non-injection-drug-use-associated-with-injection-cessation-among-street-involved-youth-in-vancouver-canada
#5
Stephanie Lake, Thomas Kerr, Ekaterina Nosova, M-J Milloy, Evan Wood, Kora DeBeck
Although abstinence from drug use is often a key goal of youth substance use treatment, transitioning to less harmful routes and types of drug use is desirable from both a clinical and public health perspective. Despite this, little is known about the trajectories of youth who inject drugs including changes in patterns of non-injection drug use. The At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS) is a longitudinal cohort of street-involved youth who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada. We used linear growth curve modeling to compare changes in non-injection drug use among participants who ceased injecting drugs for at least one 6-month period between September 2005 and May 2015 to matched controls who continued injecting over the same period...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340911/prevalence-of-sexual-violence-and-its-association-with-depression-among-male-and-female-patients-with-risky-drug-use-in-urban-federally-qualified-health-centers
#6
Curtis W Bone, Amelia M Goodfellow, Mani Vahidi, Lillian Gelberg
Sexual violence (SV) is common; however, the prevalence of SV and its long term sequela vary geographically and among subpopulations within the USA. As such, the aims of this study are the following: (1) to determine the prevalence of SV, (2) to identify correlates of SV, and (3) to determine if SV is associated with depression among male and female risky drug users in urban Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) in Los Angeles. This study includes adult patients of five urban FQHCs who self-reported risky drug use...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280065/workers-not-paid-for-sick-leave-after-implementation-of-the-new-york-city-paid-sick-leave-law
#7
Gerod Sharper Hall, Sarah Walters, Christopher Wimer, Amber Levanon Seligson, Matthew Maury, Jane Waldfogel, L Hannah Gould, Sungwoo Lim
This study examined factors associated with being paid for sick leave after implementation of the New York City (NYC) paid sick leave law. A random sample of NYC residents was surveyed by telephone multiple times over a 2-year period. Participants (n = 1195) reported socio-demographics, awareness of the law, income, work hours per week, and payment for sick time off work. In the year after implementation of the law, part-time workers were significantly more likely to attend work while sick than full-time workers (relative risk = 1...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270709/the-role-of-distance-and-quality-on-facility-selection-for-maternal-and-child-health-services-in-urban-kenya
#8
Veronica Escamilla, Lisa Calhoun, Jennifer Winston, Ilene S Speizer
Universal access to health care requires service availability and accessibility for those most in need of maternal and child health services. Women often bypass facilities closest to home due to poor quality. Few studies have directly linked individuals to facilities where they sought maternal and child health services and examined the role of distance and quality on this facility choice. Using endline data from a longitudinal survey from a sample of women in five cities in Kenya, we examine the role of distance and quality on facility selection for women using delivery, facility-based contraceptives, and child health services...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230628/blacks-diminished-health-return-of-family-structure-and-socioeconomic-status-15%C3%A2-years-of-follow-up-of-a-national-urban-sample-of-youth
#9
Shervin Assari, Alvin Thomas, Cleopatra H Caldwell, Ronald B Mincy
The protective effect of family structure and socioeconomic status (SES) on physical and mental health is well established. There are reports, however, documenting a smaller return of SES among Blacks compared to Whites, also known as Blacks' diminished return. Using a national sample, this study investigated race by gender differences in the effects of family structure and family SES on subsequent body mass index (BMI) over a 15-year period. This 15-year longitudinal study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), in-home survey...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214436/aggregate-trends-of-hepatitis-c-virus-identification-and-treatment-in-maryland-corrections-fiscal-years-2012-2016
#10
Martin Joseph Calabrese, Fadia T Shaya, Valerie L Barnes, Akin Akinwumi, Kashaun Temesgen, Sharon Baucom
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214435/exploring-lifetime-accumulation-of-criminal-justice-involvement-and-associated-health-and-social-outcomes-in-a-community-based-sample-of-women-who-use-drugs
#11
Jennifer Lorvick, Megan Comfort, Alex H Kral, Barrot H Lambdin
Among people who use illegal drugs, engagement with the criminal justice (CJ) system often involves an ongoing, intermittent series of arrests, incarcerations, and periods of community supervision. The potential associations between the lifetime accumulation of CJ involvement and social and health outcomes is largely unexplored. In a cross-sectional sample of women who use crack, heroin, and/ or methamphetamine recruited from communities in Oakland, CA (N = 624), we developed an approach to characterize CJ accumulation...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204846/the-costly-consequences-of-not-being-socially-and-behaviorally-ready-to-learn-by-kindergarten-in-baltimore-city
#12
Amie F Bettencourt, Deborah Gross, Grace Ho, Nancy Perrin
Social, emotional, and behavioral skills are foundational to learning and long-term success. However, poverty and exposure to adverse childhood experiences reduce the chances of children entering kindergarten socially-behaviorally ready to learn. This study examined the unique impact of 5-year-old children (N = 11,412) entering kindergarten not socially-behaviorally ready on three costly school outcomes by fourth grade in Baltimore City Public Schools: being retained in grade, receiving services and supports through an IEP or 504 plan, and being suspended/expelled...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204845/six-month-emergency-department-use-among-older-adults-following-jail-incarceration
#13
Jessi Humphreys, Cyrus Ahalt, Irena Stijacic-Cenzer, Eric Widera, Brie Williams
Although the number of older adults who are arrested and subject to incarceration in jail is rising dramatically, little is known about their emergency department (ED) use or the factors associated with that use. This lack of knowledge impairs the ability to design evidence-based approaches to care that would meet the needs of this population. This 6-month longitudinal study aimed to determine the frequency of 6-month ED use among 101 adults aged 55 or older enrolled while in jail and to identify factors associated with that use...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204844/homicides-public-goods-and-population-health-in-the-context-of-high-urban-violence-rates-in-cali-colombia
#14
Lina Martínez, Sergio Prada, Daniela Estrada
Obesity and frequent mental and physical distress are often associated with major health problems. The characteristics of the urban environment, such as homicide rates and public goods provision, play an important role in influencing participation in physical activity and in overall mental health. This study aimed to determine whether there was a relationship between homicide rates and public goods provision on the health outcomes of the citizens of Cali, Colombia, a city known for its high urban violence rate and low municipal investment in public goods...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204843/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-illicit-drug-users-in-italy
#15
Enea Spada, Giovanni Rezza, Anna Rosa Garbuglia, Flavia Lucia Lombardo, Ornella Zuccaro, Francesca Menniti Ippolito, Elisabetta Cupellaro, Stefania Capone, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Alfredo Nicosia, Riccardo Cortese, Antonella Folgori, Alfonso Mele
So far, only three small outdated studies have investigated hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence and risk factors among illicit drug users (DUs) in Italy. Thus, during 2007-2010, we conducted a prospective cohort study among DUs attending 17 Italian rehabilitation centers serving urban areas. Two hundred eighty-four HCV-uninfected DUs were prospectively followed by interview and anti-HCV antibody and RNA testing every 6 months. Incidence was calculated using the person-years method. Infection predictors were assessed by time-dependent Cox analysis...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204842/the-role-of-social-context-in-racial-disparities-in-self-rated-health
#16
Caryn N Bell, Roland J Thorpe, Thomas A LaVeist
Race disparities in self-rated health in the USA are well-documented, such that African Americans rate their health more poorly than whites. However, after adjusting for health status, socioeconomic status (SES), and health behaviors, residual race differences are observed. This suggests the importance of unmeasured variables. Because African Americans and whites tend to live in differing social contexts, it is possible that accounting for social and environmental conditions may reduce racial disparities in self-rated health...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197035/the-association-between-apartment-layout-and-depressive-symptomology-among-hispanic-latino-residents-in-low-income-housing-the-ahome-study
#17
Earle C Chambers, Sonit Bafna, Herminia Machry
In this study of low-income Hispanic/Latino adults living in 291 individual apartments in the Bronx, New York, the apartment layout was significantly associated with the odds of depressive symptomology. Women living in apartments in which the most central rooms were the living, dining, or kitchen (i.e., rooms commonly used for communal activities) were less likely to have depressive symptomology (OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.22-0.86) than women in apartments where the central rooms were lobbies or corridors, adjusting for demographics, health conditions, and housing and neighborhood characteristics...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134325/spatial-context-and-health-inequity-reconfiguring-race-place-and-poverty
#18
Elizabeth L Tung, Kathleen A Cagney, Monica E Peek, Marshall H Chin
Intimate connections among race, place, and poverty are increasingly featured in the health disparities literature. However, few models exist that can guide our understanding of these interconnections. We build on the Chicago School of Sociology's contributions in urban research and one of its contemporary elaborations, often described as the "neighborhood effects approach," to propose a three-axis model of health inequity. This model, in alignment with Chicago School theory, postulates a dynamic and adaptive relationship between spatial context and health inequity...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063246/correction-to-the-aging-urban-brain-analyzing-outdoor-physical-activity-using-the-emotiv-affectiv-suite-in-older-people
#19
Chris Neale, Peter Aspinall, Jenny Roe, Sara Tilley, Panagiotis Mavros, Steve Cinderby, Richard Coyne, Neil Thin, Gary Bennett, Catharine Ward Thompson
Please note that the legend to Fig. 1 has been modified since this article was originally published, and also that in Tables 2, 3 and 4, R[2] was corrected to (the now correct) R squared.
October 23, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047021/the-influence-of-constructed-family-membership-on-hiv-risk-behaviors-among-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-new-orleans
#20
Meagan C Zarwell, William T Robinson
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) represent more new HIV infections than all other at-risk populations. Many young black MSM belong to constructed families (i.e., the house ball community, gay families, and pageant families) which are often organized in a family structure with members referred to as parents and children. Many constructed families are associated with a family surname which is informally adopted by members. In some cases, however, constructed families do not identify with a collective family name...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
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