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Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194686/implementing-a-prison-medicaid-enrollment-program-for-inmates-with-a-community-inpatient-hospitalization
#1
David L Rosen, Catherine A Grodensky, Anna R Miller, Carol E Golin, Marisa E Domino, Wizdom Powell, David A Wohl
In 2011, North Carolina (NC) created a program to facilitate Medicaid enrollment for state prisoners experiencing community inpatient hospitalization during their incarceration. The program, which has been described as a model for prison systems nationwide, has saved the NC prison system approximately $10 million annually in hospitalization costs and has potential to increase prisoners' access to Medicaid benefits as they return to their communities. This study aims to describe the history of NC's Prison-Based Medicaid Enrollment Assistance Program (PBMEAP), its structure and processes, and program personnel's perspectives on the challenges and facilitators of program implementation...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168544/the-urban-dental-index-a-method-for-measuring-and-mapping-dental-health-disparities-across-urban-areas
#2
Emily Coles, Estie Kruger, Abed Aktam Anjrini, Marc Tennant
The aim of this study was to create an Urban Dental Index (UDI) for Perth, Western Australia, adapting a method utilised by the World Health Organisation. Dental health indicators were derived from the 2011 census, standardised on a (0,1) interval, amalgamated using a geometric mean, and mapped to identify dental health inequity. The validity of the UDI was tested by comparison with oral cellulitis data. Dental health disparities were examined using a ratio of the mean of the highest to lowest decile and slope of the eight middle deciles...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138800/residential-surrounding-greenness-self-rated-health-and-interrelations-with-aspects-of-neighborhood-environment-and-social-relations
#3
Ester Orban, Robynne Sutcliffe, Nico Dragano, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Susanne Moebus
Previous research suggests that green environments positively influence health. Several underlying mechanisms have been discussed; one of them is facilitation of social interaction. Further, greener neighborhoods may appear more aesthetic, contributing to satisfaction and well-being. Aim of this study was to analyze the association of residential surrounding greenness with self-rated health, using data from 4480 women and men aged 45-75 years that participated in the German population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138799/population-size-estimation-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-ho-chi-minh-city-and-nghe-an-using-social-app-multiplier-method
#4
Ali Safarnejad, Nguyen Thien Nga, Vo Hai Son
This study aims to estimate the number of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) and Nghe An province, Viet Nam, using a novel method of population size estimation, and to assess the feasibility of the method in implementation. An innovative approach to population size estimation grounded on the principles of the multiplier method, and using social app technology and internet-based surveys was undertaken among MSM in two regions of Viet Nam in 2015. Enumeration of active users of popular social apps for MSM in Viet Nam was conducted over 4 weeks...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130678/local-residential-segregation-matters-stronger-association-of-census-tract-compared-to-conventional-city-level-measures-with-fatal-and-non-fatal-assaults-total-and-firearm-related-using-the-index-of-concentration-at-the-extremes-ice-for-racial-economic-and
#5
Nancy Krieger, Justin M Feldman, Pamela D Waterman, Jarvis T Chen, Brent A Coull, David Hemenway
Research on residential segregation and health, primarily conducted in the USA, has chiefly employed city or regional measures of racial segregation. To test our hypothesis that stronger associations would be observed using local measures, especially for racialized economic segregation, we analyzed risk of fatal and non-fatal assault in Massachusetts (1995-2010), since this outcome is strongly associated with residential segregation. The segregation metrics comprised the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE), the Index of Dissimilarity, and poverty rate, with measures computed at both the census tract and city/town level...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127666/examining-fatal-opioid-overdoses-in-marion-county-indiana
#6
Bradley Ray, Kenna Quinet, Timothy Dickinson, Dennis P Watson, Alfarena Ballew
Drug-related overdoses are now the leading injury-related death in the USA, and many of these deaths are associated with illicit opioids and prescription opiate pain medication. This study uses multiple sources of data to examine accidental opioid overdoses across 6 years, 2010 through 2015, in Marion County, IN, an urban jurisdiction in the USA. The primary sources of data are toxicology reports from the county coroner, which reveal that during this period, the most commonly detected opioid substance was heroin...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116590/relationship-between-recreational-resources-in-the-school-neighborhood-and-changes-in-fitness-in-new-york-city-public-school-students
#7
Carla P Bezold, James H Stark, Andrew Rundle, Kevin Konty, Sophia E Day, James Quinn, Kathryn Neckerman, Ana V Diez Roux
Physical fitness in children has many beneficial effects, including the maintenance of a healthy weight. The built environment may influence youths' physical fitness by encouraging physical activity. This paper assessed whether higher density of parks, playgrounds, and sports facilities around a school is related to improvements in fitness in middle school boys and girls. Fitness scores and other student covariates collected as part of NYC FITNESSGRAM between the 2006-2007 and 2010-2011 school years were linked with school neighborhood data on characteristics of the built environment for NYC public school students in grades 6-8...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116589/identifying-health-experiences-of-domestically-sex-trafficked-women-in-the-usa-a-qualitative-study-in-rikers-island-jail
#8
Anita Ravi, Megan Rose Pfeiffer, Zachary Rosner, Judy A Shea
While sex trafficking in the USA is a significant medical and public health issue, there is sparse data on the healthcare needs of and access for this population. This study was designed to identify experiences of domestically sex-trafficked women regarding healthcare access, reproductive health, and infectious diseases while trafficked. Trafficking survivors incarcerated in New York City's Rikers Island women's jail participated in audio-recorded interviews between July and September 2015. Recordings were transcribed, and a content analysis was completed to identify health-related themes...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116588/early-onset-of-sexual-intercourse-and-parental-incarceration-among-african-american-youth-living-in-urban-public-housing
#9
Von E Nebbitt, Dexter R Voisin, M Taqi Tirmazi
Mass incarceration, substance use, and adolescent early onset of sex (e.g., initiate sexual intercourse at 13 years of age or younger) are social problems with disparate impacts on low-income African American communities. Two out of every five inmates in state and federal prisons are African American and the vast majority of these inmates are from low-income communities. Furthermore, this population experiences more severe consequences of substance use and abuse compared to other populations. In sum, African American youth endure the lion share of problems that mass incarceration and substance use leave in their wake...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116587/preparing-for-disaster-a-cross-sectional-study-of-social-connection-and-gun-violence
#10
Carley Riley, Brita Roy, Nurit Harari, Anita Vashi, Pina Violano, Ann Greene, Georgina Lucas, Jerry Smart, Teresa Hines, Stacy Spell, Sharon Taylor, Barbara Tinney, Maurice Williams, Emily A Wang
Living in communities with persistent gun violence is associated with negative social, behavioral, and health outcomes, analogous to those of a natural disaster. Taking a disaster-preparedness approach may identify targets for community-based action to respond to on-going gun violence. We assessed the relevance of adapting a disaster-preparedness approach to gun violence and, specifically, the relationship between perceived collective efficacy, its subscales of social cohesion and informal social control, and exposure to gun violence...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116586/hiv-related-sexual-risk-among-african-american-men-preceding-incarceration-associations-with-support-from-significant-others-family-and-friends
#11
Ashley M Coatsworth, Joy D Scheidell, David A Wohl, Nicole E Whitehead, Carol E Golin, Selena Judon-Monk, Maria R Khan
We evaluated the association between social support received from significant others, family, and friends and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among African American men involved in the criminal justice system. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study among African American men released from prison in North Carolina (N = 189). During the baseline (in-prison) survey, we assessed the amount of support men perceived they had received from significant others, family, and friends. We measured associations between low support from each source (<median value) and participants' sex risk in the 6 months before incarceration...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116585/comparing-the-utilization-and-cost-of-health-services-between-veterans-experiencing-brief-and-ongoing-episodes-of-housing-instability
#12
Thomas Byrne, Richard E Nelson, Ann Elizabeth Montgomery, Emily Brignone, Adi V Gundlapalli, Jamison D Fargo
Housing instability is associated with costly patterns of health and behavioral health service use. However, little prior research has examined patterns of service use associated with higher costs among those experiencing ongoing housing instability. To address this gap, we compared inpatient and outpatient medical and behavioral health service utilization and costs between veterans experiencing brief and ongoing episodes of housing instability. We used data from a brief screening instrument for homelessness and housing instability that has been implemented throughout the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system to identify a national sample of veterans experiencing housing instability...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116584/healthy-cities-of-tomorrow-the-case-for-large-scale-built-environment-health-studies
#13
EDITORIAL
Chinmoy Sarkar, Chris Webster
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108873/does-employment-related-resilience-affect-the-relationship-between-childhood-adversity-community-violence-and-depression
#14
Seth L Welles, Falguni Patel, Mariana Chilton
Depression is a barrier to employment among low-income caregivers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and exposure to community violence (ECV) are often associated with depression. Using baseline data of 103 TANF caregivers of young children of the Building Wealth and Health Network Randomized Controlled Trial Pilot, this study investigated associations of two forms of employment-related resilience-self-efficacy and employment hope-with exposure to adversity/violence and depression, measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) short form...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108872/neighborhood-disorder-and-physical-activity-among-older-adults-a-longitudinal-study
#15
Stephen J Mooney, Spruha Joshi, Magdalena Cerdá, Gary J Kennedy, John R Beard, Andrew G Rundle
Neighborhood physical disorder-the visual indications of neighborhood deterioration-may inhibit outdoor physical activity, particularly among older adults. However, few previous studies of the association between neighborhood disorder and physical activity have focused on this sensitive population group, and most have been cross-sectional. We examined the relationship between neighborhood physical disorder and physical activity, measured using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), in a three-wave longitudinal study of 3497 New York City residents aged 65-75 at baseline weighted to be representative of the older adult population of New York City...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105586/occupational-safety-in-the-age-of-the-opioid-crisis-needle-stick-injury-among-baltimore-police
#16
Javier A Cepeda, Leo Beletsky, Anne Sawyer, Chris Serio-Chapman, Marina Smelyanskaya, Jennifer Han, Natanya Robinowitz, Susan G Sherman
At a time of resurgence in injection drug use and injection-attributable infections, needle stick injury (NSI) risk and its correlates among police remain understudied. In the context of occupational safety training, a convenience sample of 771 Baltimore city police officers responded to a self-administered survey. Domains included NSI experience, protective behaviors, and attitudes towards syringe exchange programs. Sixty officers (8%) reported lifetime NSI. Officers identifying as Latino or other race were almost three times more likely (aOR 2...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105585/how-feasible-is-multiple-time-point-web-based-data-collection-with-individuals-experiencing-street-homelessness
#17
Karin M Eyrich-Garg, Shadiya L Moss
Three barriers investigators often encounter when conducting longitudinal work with homeless or other marginalized populations are difficulty tracking participants, high rates of no-shows for follow-up interviews, and high rates of loss to follow-up. Recent research has shown that homeless populations have substantial access to information technologies, including mobile devices and computers. These technologies have the potential both to make longitudinal data collection with homeless populations easier and to minimize some of these methodological challenges...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105584/awareness-of-paid-sick-leave-among-new-york-city-restaurant-workers
#18
Emma K Tsui, Madeline Duffy, Sherry Baron
Restaurant workers are less likely to have paid sick leave (PSL) benefits than other professions, despite the fact that they handle food and interact with the public. In this study, we collected and analyzed quantitative and qualitative data on PSL awareness among New York City's restaurant workers and the factors that produced these levels of awareness. We found that 62% of surveyed workers were aware of NYC's law, and that successful outreach requires building broad awareness and ensuring trustworthy sources of information with multiple points of contact...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097615/trends-in-injection-risk-behaviors-among-people-who-inject-drugs-and-the-impact-of-harm-reduction-programs-in-ukraine-2007-2013
#19
Iuliia Makarenko, D C Ompad, Y Sazonova, T Saliuk, J DeHovitz, L Gensburg
The study examined trends in injection risk behaviors among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) and assessed the impact of harm reduction programs in Ukraine during 2007-2013. We performed a secondary analysis of the data collected in serial cross-sectional bio-behavioral surveillance surveys administered with PWIDs in Ukraine in 2007, 2008, 2011, and 2013. Using data from 14 Ukrainian cities, we assessed short-term trends in injection risk behaviors with the Cochran-Armitage test for trend and multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for age, sex, region, marital status, education level, occupation, age at injection drug use initiation, experience of overdose, and self-reported HIV status...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097614/comprehensive-and-medically-appropriate-food-support-is-associated-with-improved-hiv-and-diabetes-health
#20
Kartika Palar, Tessa Napoles, Lee L Hufstedler, Hilary Seligman, Fredrick M Hecht, Kimberly Madsen, Mark Ryle, Simon Pitchford, Edward A Frongillo, Sheri D Weiser
Food insecurity is associated with negative chronic health outcomes, yet few studies have examined how providing medically appropriate food assistance to food-insecure individuals may improve health outcomes in resource-rich settings. We evaluated a community-based food support intervention in the San Francisco Bay Area for people living with HIV and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and potential impact of the intervention on nutritional, mental health, disease management, healthcare utilization, and physical health outcomes...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
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