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Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934825/medicaid-enrollment-among-prison-inmates-in-a-non-expansion-state-exploring-predisposing-enabling-and-need-factors-related-to-enrollment-pre-incarceration-and-post-release
#1
Catherine A Grodensky, David L Rosen, Colleen M Blue, Anna R Miller, Steve Bradley-Bull, Wizdom A Powell, Marisa E Domino, Carol E Golin, David A Wohl
Prison inmates suffer from a heavy burden of physical and mental health problems and have considerable need for healthcare and coverage after prison release. The Affordable Care Act may have increased Medicaid access for some of those who need coverage in Medicaid expansion states, but inmates in non-expansion states still have high need for Medicaid coverage and face unique barriers to enrollment. We sought to explore barriers and facilitators to Medicaid enrollment among prison inmates in a non-expansion state...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916006/how-do-racial-ethnic-groups-differ-in-their-use-of-neighborhood-parks-findings-from-the-national-study-of-neighborhood-parks
#2
Christine A Vaughan, Deborah A Cohen, Bing Han
The current study examined racial/ethnic differences in use of parks and park facilities and features and self-reported park use and perceptions. We conducted observations in a nationally representative sample of 193 neighborhood parks in 27 US cities over a 1-week period between April and August of 2016 using the System of Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). To determine the propensity of different racial/ethnic groups to use parks relative to expectation based on their representation in the surrounding neighborhood, we calculated the percentages of park users of each race/ethnicity and compared these to the percentages of racial/ethnic groups residing in the neighborhood within a 1-mile radius of the park based on 2010 U...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873038/revealing-and-responding-to-multiple-health-risks-in-informal-settlements-in-sub-saharan-african-cities
#3
David Satterthwaite, Alice Sverdlik, Donald Brown
This paper underscores the need for detailed data on health and disaster risks for sub-Saharan African cities, particularly for their informal settlements. Systems that should contribute to the information base on health and health risks in each locality are rarely functional. In most cities, there is a lack of data on health risks, health outcomes, and health determinants; where data are available, they are usually too aggregated to be useful to urban governments. Such data shortfalls likely hide the scale of premature death, serious illness, and injury in informal settlements; limited data can also curtail the identification of particularly vulnerable urban residents...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869318/building-the-evidence-base-to-prevent-firearm-deaths-and-injuries
#4
EDITORIAL
David Vlahov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 4, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869317/using-index-of-concentration-at-the-extremes-as-indicators-of-structural-racism-to-evaluate-the-association-with-preterm-birth-and-infant-mortality-california-2011-2012
#5
Brittany D Chambers, Rebecca J Baer, Monica R McLemore, Laura L Jelliffe-Pawlowski
Disparities in adverse birth outcomes for Black women continue. Research suggests that societal factors such as structural racism explain more variation in adverse birth outcomes than individual-level factors and societal poverty alone. The Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE) measures spatial social polarization by quantifying extremes of deprived and privileged social groups using a single metric and has been shown to partially explain racial disparities in black carbon exposures, mortality, fatal and non-fatal assaults, and adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth and infant mortality...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869316/using-a-birth-center-model-of-care-to-improve-reproductive-outcomes-in-informal-settlements-a-case-study
#6
Jacqueline Wallace
The world is becoming increasingly urban. For the first time in history, more than 50% of human beings live in cities (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, ed. (2015)). Rapid urbanization is often chaotic and unstructured, leading to the formation of informal settlements or slums. Informal settlements are frequently located in environmentally hazardous areas and typically lack adequate sanitation and clean water, leading to poor health outcomes for residents. In these difficult circumstances women and children fair the worst, and reproductive outcomes for women living in informal settlements are grim...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858978/is-the-urban-child-health-advantage-declining-in-malawi-evidence-from-demographic-and-health-surveys-and-multiple-indicator-cluster-surveys
#7
Edgar Arnold Lungu, Regien Biesma, Maureen Chirwa, Catherine Darker
In many developing countries including Malawi, health indicators are on average better in urban than in rural areas. This phenomenon has largely prompted Governments to prioritize rural areas in programs to improve access to health services. However, considerable evidence has emerged that some population groups in urban areas may be facing worse health than rural areas and that the urban advantage may be waning in some contexts. We used a descriptive study undertaking a comparative analysis of 13 child health indicators between urban and rural areas using seven data points provided by nationally representative population based surveys-the Malawi Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858977/the-sustainable-development-goal-for-urban-sanitation-africa-s-statistical-tragedy-continues
#8
Robert M Buckley, Achilles Kallergis
Sanitation delivery in the urban areas of sub-Saharan African countries has been a chronic issue, particularly difficult to tackle. Under the Millennium Development Goals, the sanitation target in urban sub-Saharan Africa was missed by a wide margin and witnessed almost no improvement. After 2 years of review, the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme published a new measure of access to sanitation as a baseline for the Sustainable Development Goals. There are a number of improvements in the new measure. However, despite the improvements, the new measure continues to be characterized by an important flaw: it continues to disregard how shared toilet facilities contribute towards the SDG sanitation target...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846909/correction-to-participatory-budgeting-could-it-diminish-health-disparities-in-the-united-states
#9
Carolin Hagelskamp, David Schleifer, Chloe Rinehart, Rebecca Silliman
The abstract is missing from this article despite the fact that the heading "Abstract" appears before the article's first paragraph.
May 30, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845586/neighborhood-and-network-characteristics-and-the-hiv-care-continuum-among-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#10
Hong-Van Tieu, Beryl A Koblin, Carl Latkin, Frank C Curriero, Emily R Greene, Andrew Rundle, Victoria Frye
In order for treatment as prevention to work as a national strategy to contain the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States (US), the HIV care continuum must become more robust, retaining more individuals at each step. The majority of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the US are gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM). Within this population, there are distinct race- and ethnicity-based disparities in rates of HIV infection, engagement, and retention in HIV care, and viral suppression. Compared with White MSM, HIV-infected Black MSM are less likely to be on anti-retroviral therapy (ART), adhere to ART, and achieve viral suppression...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845585/morbidity-forecast-in-cities-a-study-of-urban-air-pollution-and-respiratory-diseases-in-the-metropolitan-region-of-curitiba-brazil
#11
Fabio Teodoro de Souza
In the last two decades, urbanization has intensified, and in Brazil, about 90% of the population now lives in urban centers. Atmospheric patterns have changed owing to the high growth rate of cities, with negative consequences for public health. This research aims to elucidate the spatial patterns of air pollution and respiratory diseases. A data-based model to aid local urban management to improve public health policies concerning air pollution is described. An example of data preparation and multivariate analysis with inventories from different cities in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba was studied...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785569/association-between-firearm-laws-and-homicide-in-urban-counties
#12
Cassandra K Crifasi, Molly Merrill-Francis, Alex McCourt, Jon S Vernick, Garen J Wintemute, Daniel W Webster
Laws related to the sale, use, and carrying of firearms have been associated with differences in firearm homicide rates at the state level. Right-to-carry (RTC) and stand your ground (SYG) laws are associated with increases in firearm homicide; permit-to-purchase (PTP) laws and those prohibiting individuals convicted of violent misdemeanors (VM) have been associated with decreases in firearm homicide. Evidence for the effect of comprehensive background checks (CBC) not tied to PTP is inconclusive. Because firearm homicide tends to concentrate in urban areas, this study was designed to test the effects of firearm laws on homicide in large, urban U...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748766/firearm-storage-in-gun-owning-households-with-children-results-of-a-2015-national-survey
#13
Deborah Azrael, Joanna Cohen, Carmel Salhi, Matthew Miller
Data from a nationally representative probability-based online survey sample of US adults conducted in 2015 (n = 3949, response rate 55%) were used to assess self-reported gun storage practices among gun owners with children. The presence of firearms and children in the home, along with other household and individual level characteristics, was ascertained from all respondents. Questions pertaining to household firearms (how guns are stored, number, type, etc.) were asked only of those respondents who reported that they personally owned a gun...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744717/closer-to-guns-the-role-of-street-gangs-in-facilitating-access-to-illegal-firearms
#14
Elizabeth Roberto, Anthony A Braga, Andrew V Papachristos
Criminal offenders often turn to social networks to gain access to firearms, yet we know little about how networks facilitate access to firearms. This study conducts a network analysis of a co-offending network for the City of Chicago to determine how close any offender may be to a firearm. We use arrest data to recreate the co-offending network of all individuals who were arrested with at least one other person over an eight-year period. We then use data on guns recovered by the police to measure potential network pathways of any individual to known firearms...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736813/participatory-budgeting-could-it-diminish-health-disparities-in-the-united-states
#15
EDITORIAL
Carolin Hagelskamp, David Schleifer, Chloe Rinehart, Rebecca Silliman
Participatory budgeting (PB)-a democratic process where ordinary residents decide directly how to spend part of a public budget-has gained impressive momentum in US municipalities, spreading from one pilot project in Chicago's 49th ward in 2009 to 50 active PB processes across 14 cities in 2016-2017. Over 93,600 US residents voted in a PB process in 2015-2016, deciding over a total of about $49.5 million and funding 264 projects intended to improve their communities. The vast majority of US PB processes take place in large urban centers (e...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728898/perceptions-of-health-related-community-reentry-challenges-among-incarcerated-drug-users-in-azerbaijan-kyrgyzstan-and-ukraine
#16
Julia Rozanova, Olga Morozova, Lyuba Azbel, Chethan Bachireddy, Jacob M Izenberg, Tetiana Kiriazova, Sergiy Dvoryak, Frederick L Altice
Facing competing demands with limited resources following release from prison, people who inject drugs (PWID) may neglect health needs, with grave implications including relapse, overdose, and non-continuous care. We examined the relative importance of health-related tasks after release compared to tasks of everyday life among a total sample of 577 drug users incarcerated in Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and Kyrgyzstan. A proxy measure of whether participants identified a task as applicable (easy or hard) versus not applicable was used to determine the importance of each task...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725887/community-based-response-to-fentanyl-overdose-outbreak-san-francisco-2015
#17
Christopher Rowe, Eliza Wheeler, T Stephen Jones, Clement Yeh, Phillip O Coffin
This report documents a successful intervention by a community-based naloxone distribution program in San Francisco. The program and its partner organizations, working with participants who use drugs, first identified the appearance of illicitly made fentanyl and increased outreach and naloxone distribution. Distribution of naloxone and reported use of naloxone to reverse opioid-involved overdoses increased significantly while the number of opioid-involved and fentanyl-involved overdose deaths did not. Community-based programs that provide training and naloxone to people who use drugs can serve as an early warning system for overdose risk and adaptively respond to the rapidly changing overdose risk environment...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721814/pre-incarceration-rates-of-nonmedical-use-of-prescription-drugs-among-black-men-from-urban-counties
#18
Paris Wheeler, Danelle Stevens-Watkins, Joi-Sheree' Knighton, Carlos Mahaffey, Dominiqueca Lewis
There are inconsistent findings regarding the rates of nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU) among Black Americans. The majority of previous studies used pharmaceutical names of drugs and relied on national data that excludes incarcerated populations, in which Black men are overrepresented. Therefore, the current study aimed to describe pre-incarceration rates of NMPDU among Black men in prison using culturally relevant alternative drug names. We recruited 208 incarcerated (adult age 18 or older) Black men nearing community reentry to urban counties from four state prisons in Kentucky...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717402/assessing-the-effect-of-recent-incarceration-in-prison-on-hiv-care-retention-and-viral-suppression-in-two-states
#19
Michael Costa, Brian T Montague, Liza Solomon, Cara Sammartino, Roee Gutman, Chava Zibman, David Rosen, Josiah D Rich
The prevalence of HIV among people in correctional facilities remains much higher than that of the general population. Numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness and acceptability of HIV treatment for individuals incarcerated in US prisons and jails. However, the period following incarceration is characterized by significant disruptions in HIV care. These disruptions include failure to link in a timely manner (or at all) to community care post-release, as well as not being retained in care after linking...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679220/tackling-health-inequalities-using-urban-heart-in-the-sustainable-development-goals-era
#20
EDITORIAL
Amit Prasad, Carme Borrell, Roshanak Mehdipanah, Somnath Chatterji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
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