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Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815465/non-injection-drug-use-and-injection-initiation-assistance-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-tijuana-mexico
#1
Amen Ben Hamida, Claudia Rafful, Sonia Jain, Shelly Sun, Patricia Gonzalez-Zuniga, Gudelia Rangel, Steffanie A Strathdee, Dan Werb
Although most people who inject drugs (PWID) report receiving assistance during injection initiation events, little research has focused on risk factors among PWID for providing injection initiation assistance. We therefore sought to determine the influence of non-injection drug use among PWID on their risk to initiate others. We used generalized estimating equation (GEE) models on longitudinal data among a prospective cohort of PWID in Tijuana, Mexico (Proyecto El Cuete IV), while controlling for potential confounders...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779273/the-assets-and-challenges-of-formerly-incarcerated-latino-men-s-social-support-networks-in-promoting-healthy-behaviors
#2
Miguel Muñoz-Laboy, Omar Martinez, Jeffrey Draine, Vincent Guilamo-Ramos, Nicolette Severson, Ethan Levine, Gregory Benjamin
After being exposed to high-risk environments in correctional facilities, formerly incarcerated Latino men (FILM) encounter new risks upon reentering their community of residence including drug use and sexual risk behaviors. Families and close social support networks are critical in potentially mitigating the stressors and risks associated with reentry and reducing the likelihood of recidivism. We conducted a study to examine the material and cognitive assets that familial networks can use to provide support to FILM to engage in health-promoting practices...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766241/risky-trade-individual-and-neighborhood-level-socio-demographics-associated-with-transactional-sex-among-urban-african-american-msm
#3
Robin Stevens, Larry Icard, John B Jemmott, Ann O'Leary, Scott Rutledge, Janet Hsu, Alisa Stephens-Shields
There is a clear, persistent association between poverty and HIV risk and HIV infection. Low educational attainment, neighborhood disadvantage, and residential instability are ways in which poverty is instrumentally experienced in urban America. We investigated the role of lived poverty at both the individual and neighborhood levels in transactional sex behavior among African American men who have sex with men (MSM) residing in urban neighborhoods. Using population-averaged models estimated by generalized estimating equation (GEE) models, we identified individual-level and neighborhood-level factors that are associated with exchanging sex for drugs and/or money...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741283/caring-for-young-children-with-asthma-perspectives-from-urban-community-health-centers
#4
Ellen Childs, Margaret A Laws, Mari-Lynn Drainoni, Anjali Nath, Margaret J Reid, Megan Sandel, Robyn T Cohen
Asthma disproportionately affects low-income, minority youth, with notable disparities among children <5 years of age. Understanding the perceptions of urban community health centers (CHCs) regarding treating young children with asthma could improve care for these patients. This study uses data from semi-structured focus groups with staff from eight urban CHCs. Themes emerged in three domains. Within the parent/family domain, providers noted low rates of follow-up visits, low health literacy, and-for young children specifically-misunderstanding about the diagnosis...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741282/reproductive-health-concerns-among-substance-using-women-in-community-corrections-in-new-york-city-understanding-the-role-of-environmental-influences
#5
Anindita Dasgupta, Alissa Davis, Louisa Gilbert, Dawn Goddard-Eckrich, Nabila El-Bassel
Women living in urban settings who are engaged in the criminal justice system are disproportionately affected by HIV and also contend with poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH). While studies have examined environmental influences of HIV, few have examined how these influences relate to poor SRH among this population. We used baseline data from an HIV-risk reduction study among substance-using women with a pregnancy history in community corrections in New York City (N = 299). We examined risk environment factors typically associated with HIV, and SRH outcomes of abortion, and miscarriage...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687898/a-time-series-analysis-of-associations-between-daily-temperature-and-crime-events-in-philadelphia-pennsylvania
#6
Leah H Schinasi, Ghassan B Hamra
Urban crime may be an important but overlooked public health impact of rising ambient temperatures. We conducted a time series analysis of associations between temperature and crimes in Philadelphia, PA, for years 2006-2015. We obtained daily crime data from the Philadelphia Police Department, and hourly temperature and dew point data from the National Centers for Environmental Information. We calculated the mean daily heat index and daily deviations from each year's seasonal mean heat index value. We used generalized additive models with a quasi-Poisson distribution, adjusted for day of the week, public holiday, and long-term trends and seasonality, to estimate relative rates (RR) and 95% confidence intervals...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681341/sexual-risks-and-policing-among-male-migrant-and-non-migrant-market-vendors-in-central-asia
#7
Phillip Marotta, Nabila El-Bassel, Assel Terlikbayeva, Gaukhar Mergenova, Sholpan Primbetova, Elwin Wu, Louisa Gilbert
The following study examined associations between sexual risk behaviors and policing among external migrant, internal migrant, and non-migrant male market workers in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Negative binomial regression and logistic regressions examined associations between sexual risk behaviors and policing (questioning by market officials and migration police, and arrest) for 1342 external, internal, and non-migrant workers recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were stratified by migration status...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631060/estimating-the-size-of-the-msm-population-in-metro-vancouver-canada-using-multiple-methods-and-diverse-data-sources
#8
Ashleigh J Rich, Nathan J Lachowsky, Paul Sereda, Zishan Cui, Jason Wong, Stanley Wong, Jody Jollimore, Henry Fisher Raymond, Travis Salway Hottes, Eric A Roth, Robert S Hogg, David M Moore
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV globally, regionally in Canada, and locally in Vancouver. Lack of reliable population size estimates of MSM impedes effective implementation of health care services and limits our understanding of the HIV epidemic. We estimated the population size of MSM residing in Metro Vancouver drawing on four data sources: the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), a cross-sectional bio-behavioural MSM survey, HIV testing services data from sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics serving MSM, and online social networking site Facebook...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631059/trends-in-hiv-risk-testing-and-treatment-among-msm-in-chicago-2004-2014-implications-for-hiv-elimination-planning
#9
Ethan Morgan, Britt Skaathun, Nicola Lancki, Antonio D Jimenez, Jesus Ramirez-Valles, Ramona Bhatia, Stephanie Masiello-Schuette, Nanette Benbow, Nikhil Prachand, John A Schneider
Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA continue to have high rates of HIV infection. Increasingly, in addition to behavioral factors, biomedical interventions have been found to play important roles in HIV prevention. In this analysis, we used four waves of cross-sectional data (2004, 2008, 2011, and 2014) from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System (NHBS) to examine trends in key behaviors and biomedical interventions among MSM in Chicago (N = 3298). Logistic regression was used to determine changes in behaviors and use of biomedical interventions...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623451/neighborhood-inequalities-in-hepatitis-c-mortality-spatial-and-temporal-patterns-and-associated-factors
#10
Mary M Ford, Payal S Desai, Gil Maduro, Fabienne Laraque
Deaths attributable to hepatitis C (HCV) infection are increasing in the USA even as highly effective treatments become available. Neighborhood-level inequalities create barriers to care and treatment for many vulnerable populations. We seek to characterize citywide trends in HCV mortality rates over time and identify and describe neighborhoods in New York City (NYC) with disproportionately high rates and associated factors. We used a multiple cause of death (MCOD) definition for HCV mortality. Cases identified between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2014, were geocoded to NYC census tracts (CT)...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616719/are-partner-race-and-intimate-partner-violence-associated-with-incident-and-newly-diagnosed-hiv-infection-in-african-american-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#11
Matthew R Beymer, Nina T Harawa, Robert E Weiss, Chelsea L Shover, Brian R Toynes, Steven Meanley, Robert K Bolan
Black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (BMSM) experience a disparate rate of HIV infections among MSM. Previous analyses have determined that STI coinfection and undiagnosed HIV infection partly explain the disparity. However, few studies have analyzed the impact of partner-level variables on HIV incidence among BMSM. Data were analyzed for BMSM who attended the Los Angeles LGBT Center from August 2011 to July 2015 (n = 1974) to identify risk factors for HIV infection. A multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze predictors for HIV prevalence among all individuals at first test (n = 1974; entire sample)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600749/correlates-of-preexposure-prophylaxis-prep-use-among-men%C3%A2-who-have-sex-with-men-msm-in-los-angeles-california
#12
Chukwuemeka N Okafor, Pamina M Gorbach, Amy Ragsdale, Brendan Quinn, Steve Shoptaw
We assessed socio-structural and behavioral correlates of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV infection among a sample of high-risk HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Los Angeles, California. Participants from an ongoing 5-year prospective cohort study investigating the direct impacts of substance use on HIV transmission dynamics were enrolled between February 2015 and January 2017. All men completed a computer-assisted self-interview every 6 months that assessed recent (past 6 months) PrEP use and socio-structural and behavioral factors...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597203/assessing-patient-activation-among-high-need-high-cost-patients-in-urban-safety-net-care-settings
#13
Tessa M Napoles, Nancy J Burke, Janet K Shim, Elizabeth Davis, David Moskowitz, Irene H Yen
We sought to examine the literature using the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) or the Patient Enablement Instrument (PEI) with high-need, high-cost (HNHC) patients receiving care in urban safety net settings. Urban safety net care management programs serve low-income, racially/ethnically diverse patients living with multiple chronic conditions. Although many care management programs track patient progress with the PAM or the PEI, it is not clear whether the PAM or the PEI is an effective and appropriate tool for HNHC patients receiving care in urban safety net settings in the United States...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560612/characterization-of-stress-in-low-income-inner-city-mothers-of-children-with-poorly-controlled-asthma
#14
Melissa H Bellin, Kathryn S Collins, Philip Osteen, Joan Kub, Mary Elizabeth Bollinger, Angelica Newsome, Cassie Lewis-Land, Arlene M Butz
The goal of this longitudinal analysis was to characterize factors associated with the experience of life stress in low-income, inner-city mothers of minority children with high-risk asthma.Participants (n = 276) reported on family demographics, child asthma control and healthcare utilization, social support, contemporary life difficulties (housing, finances, violence exposure) measured by the validated Crisis in Family Systems scale, and daily stress. Latent growth curve modeling examined predictors of life stress across 12 months as a function of home and community difficulties, asthma-specific factors, and social support...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560611/have-you-talked-about-it-advance-care-planning-among-african-americans-living-with-hiv-in-baltimore
#15
Allysha C Maragh-Bass, Yiqing Zhao, Sarina R Isenberg, Mary M Mitchell, Amy R Knowlton
Advance care planning (ACP) is the process of planning for when individuals are unable to make their own healthcare decisions. Research suggests ACP is understudied among HIV-positive African Americans. We explored ACP knowledge, preferences, and practices with HIV-positive African Americans from an urban HIV-specialty clinic (AFFIRM study). Participants completed surveys and interviews. Descriptive analyses and Poisson regression were conducted on survey data. Qualitative interviews were coded using grounded theory/constant comparative method...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550643/housing-experiences-among-opioid-dependent-criminal-justice-involved-individuals-in-washington-d-c
#16
Alese Wooditch, Mary Mbaba, Marissa Kiss, William Lawson, Faye Taxman, Frederick L Altice
Residential mobility and type of housing contributes to an individual's likelihood and frequency of drug/alcohol use and committing criminal offenses. Little research has focused simultaneously on the influence of housing status on the use of drugs and criminal behavior. The present study examines how residential mobility (transitions in housing) and recent housing stability (prior 30 days) correlates with self-reported criminal activity and drug/alcohol use among a sample of 504 addicted, treatment-seeking opioid users with a history of criminal justice involvement...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695402/wanted-a-transdisciplinary-knowledge-domain-for-urban-health
#17
EDITORIAL
Roderick J Lawrence, Franz W Gatzweiler
The current disconnection between access to increasing amounts of data about urbanization, health, and other global changes and the conflicting meanings and values of that data has created uncertainty and reduced the ability of people to act upon available information which they do not necessarily understand. We see a disconnection between increasing data availability and data processing capability and capacity. In response to this disconnection, modeling has been attributed an important role in international and national research programs in order to predict the future based on past and recent trends...
August 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664510/creating-integrated-strategies-for-increasing-access-to-healthy-affordable-food-in-urban-communities-a-case-study-of-intersecting-food-initiatives
#18
Michele Silver, Afia Bediako, Tracey Capers, Aysu Kirac, Nicholas Freudenberg
In New York and other cities, substantial evidence documents that community food environments interact with inequitable allocation of power, wealth, and services to shape the distribution of diet-related diseases and food insecurity. This case study shows how one Central Brooklyn community organization, Bedford Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation, has launched multiple coordinated food initiatives in order to reduce the burden of food-related health problems and boost community development. The report used standard case study methods to document the implementation of the New York City Food and Fitness Partnership in Central Brooklyn...
August 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656541/prevalence-and-correlates-of-smoking-among-low-income-adults-residing-in-new-york-city-public-housing-developments-2015
#19
A Feinberg, P M Lopez, K Wyka, N Islam, L Seidl, E Drackett, A Mata, J Pinzon, M R Baker, J Lopez, C Trinh-Shevrin, D Shelley, Z Bailey, K A Maybank, L E Thorpe
To guide targeted cessation and prevention programming, this study assessed smoking prevalence and described sociodemographic, health, and healthcare use characteristics of adult smokers in public housing. Self-reported data were analyzed from a random sample of 1664 residents aged 35 and older in ten New York City public housing developments in East/Central Harlem. Smoking prevalence was 20.8%. Weighted log-binomial models identified to be having Medicaid, not having a personal doctor, and using health clinics for routine care were positively associated with smoking...
August 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646369/impacts-of-a-temporary-urban-pop-up-park-on-physical-activity-and-other-individual-and-community-level-outcomes
#20
Deborah Salvo, Jorge A Banda, Jylana L Sheats, Sandra J Winter, Daniela Lopes Dos Santos, Abby C King
Physical inactivity is a known risk factor for obesity and a number of chronic diseases. Modifying the physical features of neighborhoods to provide residents with equitable and convenient access to spaces for physical activity (PA) is a promising strategy for promoting PA. Public urban recreation spaces (e.g., parks) play an important role in promoting PA and are potentially an important neighborhood element for optimizing social capital and liveability in cities. Most studies examining the effects of park availability and use on PA have focused on traditional, permanent parks...
August 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
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