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Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695402/wanted-a-transdisciplinary-knowledge-domain-for-urban-health
#1
EDITORIAL
Roderick J Lawrence, Franz W Gatzweiler
The current disconnection between access to increasing amounts of data about urbanization, health, and other global changes and the conflicting meanings and values of that data has created uncertainty and reduced the ability of people to act upon available information which they do not necessarily understand. We see a disconnection between increasing data availability and data processing capability and capacity. In response to this disconnection, modeling has been attributed an important role in international and national research programs in order to predict the future based on past and recent trends...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687898/a-time-series-analysis-of-associations-between-daily-temperature-and-crime-events-in-philadelphia-pennsylvania
#2
Leah H Schinasi, Ghassan B Hamra
Urban crime may be an important but overlooked public health impact of rising ambient temperatures. We conducted a time series analysis of associations between temperature and crimes in Philadelphia, PA, for years 2006-2015. We obtained daily crime data from the Philadelphia Police Department, and hourly temperature and dew point data from the National Centers for Environmental Information. We calculated the mean daily heat index and daily deviations from each year's seasonal mean heat index value. We used generalized additive models with a quasi-Poisson distribution, adjusted for day of the week, public holiday, and long-term trends and seasonality, to estimate relative rates (RR) and 95% confidence intervals...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681341/sexual-risks-and-policing-among-male-migrant-and-non-migrant-market-vendors-in-central-asia
#3
Phillip Marotta, Nabila El-Bassel, Assel Terlikbayeva, Gaukhar Mergenova, Sholpan Primbetova, Elwin Wu, Louisa Gilbert
The following study examined associations between sexual risk behaviors and policing among external migrant, internal migrant, and non-migrant male market workers in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Negative binomial regression and logistic regressions examined associations between sexual risk behaviors and policing (questioning by market officials and migration police, and arrest) for 1342 external, internal, and non-migrant workers recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were stratified by migration status...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664510/creating-integrated-strategies-for-increasing-access-to-healthy-affordable-food-in-urban-communities-a-case-study-of-intersecting-food-initiatives
#4
Michele Silver, Afia Bediako, Tracey Capers, Aysu Kirac, Nicholas Freudenberg
In New York and other cities, substantial evidence documents that community food environments interact with inequitable allocation of power, wealth, and services to shape the distribution of diet-related diseases and food insecurity. This case study shows how one Central Brooklyn community organization, Bedford Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation, has launched multiple coordinated food initiatives in order to reduce the burden of food-related health problems and boost community development. The report used standard case study methods to document the implementation of the New York City Food and Fitness Partnership in Central Brooklyn...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656541/prevalence-and-correlates-of-smoking-among-low-income-adults-residing-in-new-york-city-public-housing-developments-2015
#5
A Feinberg, P M Lopez, K Wyka, N Islam, L Seidl, E Drackett, A Mata, J Pinzon, M R Baker, J Lopez, C Trinh-Shevrin, D Shelley, Z Bailey, K A Maybank, L E Thorpe
To guide targeted cessation and prevention programming, this study assessed smoking prevalence and described sociodemographic, health, and healthcare use characteristics of adult smokers in public housing. Self-reported data were analyzed from a random sample of 1664 residents aged 35 and older in ten New York City public housing developments in East/Central Harlem. Smoking prevalence was 20.8%. Weighted log-binomial models identified to be having Medicaid, not having a personal doctor, and using health clinics for routine care were positively associated with smoking...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646369/impacts-of-a-temporary-urban-pop-up-park-on-physical-activity-and-other-individual-and-community-level-outcomes
#6
Deborah Salvo, Jorge A Banda, Jylana L Sheats, Sandra J Winter, Daniela Lopes Dos Santos, Abby C King
Physical inactivity is a known risk factor for obesity and a number of chronic diseases. Modifying the physical features of neighborhoods to provide residents with equitable and convenient access to spaces for physical activity (PA) is a promising strategy for promoting PA. Public urban recreation spaces (e.g., parks) play an important role in promoting PA and are potentially an important neighborhood element for optimizing social capital and liveability in cities. Most studies examining the effects of park availability and use on PA have focused on traditional, permanent parks...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639058/geospatial-analysis-of-drug-poisoning-deaths-involving-heroin-in-the-usa-2000-2014
#7
Kathleen Stewart, Yanjia Cao, Margaret H Hsu, Eleanor Artigiani, Eric Wish
We investigate the geographic patterns of drug poisoning deaths involving heroin by county for the USA from 2000 to 2014. The county-level patterns of mortality are examined with respect to age-adjusted rates of death for different classes of urbanization and racial and ethnic groups, while rates based on raw counts of drug poisoning deaths involving heroin are estimated for different age groups and by gender. To account for possible underestimations in these rates due to small areas or small numbers, spatial empirical Baye's estimation techniques have been used to smooth the rates of death and alleviate underestimation when analyzing spatial patterns for these different groups...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634777/healthy-and-unhealthy-food-prices-across-neighborhoods-and-their-association-with-neighborhood-socioeconomic-status-and-proportion-black-hispanic
#8
David M Kern, Amy H Auchincloss, Lucy F Robinson, Mark F Stehr, Genevieve Pham-Kanter
This paper evaluates variation in food prices within and between neighborhoods to improve our understanding of access to healthy foods in urbanized areas and potential economic incentives and barriers to consuming a higher-quality diet. Prices of a selection of healthier foods (dairy, fruit juice, and frozen vegetables) and unhealthy foods (soda, sweets, and salty snacks) were obtained from 1953 supermarkets across the USA during 2009-2012 and were linked to census block group socio-demographics. Analyses evaluated associations between neighborhood SES and proportion Black/Hispanic and the prices of healthier and unhealthy foods, and the relative price of healthier foods compared with unhealthy foods (healthy-to-unhealthy price ratio)...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631060/estimating-the-size-of-the-msm-population-in-metro-vancouver-canada-using-multiple-methods-and-diverse-data-sources
#9
Ashleigh J Rich, Nathan J Lachowsky, Paul Sereda, Zishan Cui, Jason Wong, Stanley Wong, Jody Jollimore, Henry Fisher Raymond, Travis Salway Hottes, Eric A Roth, Robert S Hogg, David M Moore
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV globally, regionally in Canada, and locally in Vancouver. Lack of reliable population size estimates of MSM impedes effective implementation of health care services and limits our understanding of the HIV epidemic. We estimated the population size of MSM residing in Metro Vancouver drawing on four data sources: the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), a cross-sectional bio-behavioural MSM survey, HIV testing services data from sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics serving MSM, and online social networking site Facebook...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631059/trends-in-hiv-risk-testing-and-treatment-among-msm-in-chicago-2004-2014-implications-for-hiv-elimination-planning
#10
Ethan Morgan, Britt Skaathun, Nicola Lancki, Antonio D Jimenez, Jesus Ramirez-Valles, Ramona Bhatia, Stephanie Masiello-Schuette, Nanette Benbow, Nikhil Prachand, John A Schneider
Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA continue to have high rates of HIV infection. Increasingly, in addition to behavioral factors, biomedical interventions have been found to play important roles in HIV prevention. In this analysis, we used four waves of cross-sectional data (2004, 2008, 2011, and 2014) from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System (NHBS) to examine trends in key behaviors and biomedical interventions among MSM in Chicago (N = 3298). Logistic regression was used to determine changes in behaviors and use of biomedical interventions...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623451/neighborhood-inequalities-in-hepatitis-c-mortality-spatial-and-temporal-patterns-and-associated-factors
#11
Mary M Ford, Payal S Desai, Gil Maduro, Fabienne Laraque
Deaths attributable to hepatitis C (HCV) infection are increasing in the USA even as highly effective treatments become available. Neighborhood-level inequalities create barriers to care and treatment for many vulnerable populations. We seek to characterize citywide trends in HCV mortality rates over time and identify and describe neighborhoods in New York City (NYC) with disproportionately high rates and associated factors. We used a multiple cause of death (MCOD) definition for HCV mortality. Cases identified between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2014, were geocoded to NYC census tracts (CT)...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616719/are-partner-race-and-intimate-partner-violence-associated-with-incident-and-newly-diagnosed-hiv-infection-in-african-american-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#12
Matthew R Beymer, Nina T Harawa, Robert E Weiss, Chelsea L Shover, Brian R Toynes, Steven Meanley, Robert K Bolan
Black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (BMSM) experience a disparate rate of HIV infections among MSM. Previous analyses have determined that STI coinfection and undiagnosed HIV infection partly explain the disparity. However, few studies have analyzed the impact of partner-level variables on HIV incidence among BMSM. Data were analyzed for BMSM who attended the Los Angeles LGBT Center from August 2011 to July 2015 (n = 1974) to identify risk factors for HIV infection. A multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze predictors for HIV prevalence among all individuals at first test (n = 1974; entire sample)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600749/correlates-of-preexposure-prophylaxis-prep-use-among-men%C3%A2-who-have-sex-with-men-msm-in-los-angeles-california
#13
Chukwuemeka N Okafor, Pamina M Gorbach, Amy Ragsdale, Brendan Quinn, Steve Shoptaw
We assessed socio-structural and behavioral correlates of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV infection among a sample of high-risk HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Los Angeles, California. Participants from an ongoing 5-year prospective cohort study investigating the direct impacts of substance use on HIV transmission dynamics were enrolled between February 2015 and January 2017. All men completed a computer-assisted self-interview every 6 months that assessed recent (past 6 months) PrEP use and socio-structural and behavioral factors...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597203/assessing-patient-activation-among-high-need-high-cost-patients-in-urban-safety-net-care-settings
#14
Tessa M Napoles, Nancy J Burke, Janet K Shim, Elizabeth Davis, David Moskowitz, Irene H Yen
We sought to examine the literature using the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) or the Patient Enablement Instrument (PEI) with high-need, high-cost (HNHC) patients receiving care in urban safety net settings. Urban safety net care management programs serve low-income, racially/ethnically diverse patients living with multiple chronic conditions. Although many care management programs track patient progress with the PAM or the PEI, it is not clear whether the PAM or the PEI is an effective and appropriate tool for HNHC patients receiving care in urban safety net settings in the United States...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589340/cigarette-smoking-among-women-who-are-homeless-or-unstably-housed-examining-the-role-of-food-insecurity
#15
Jin E Kim, Annesa Flentje, Janice Y Tsoh, Elise D Riley
Smoking prevalence remains high among individuals who are homeless, partly due to stressors related to homelessness. Beyond housing insecurity, homelessness involves financial stresses and unmet subsistence needs. In particular, food insecurity contributes to negative health outcomes and other health risks. This study examined associations between food insecurity severity and smoking among homeless and marginally housed women in San Francisco, California. We used data from 247 women from a longitudinal cohort study...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560613/the-relationship-between-neighborhood-disorder-social-networks-and-indoor-cigarette-smoking-among-impoverished-inner-city-residents
#16
Carl A Latkin, Tuo-Yen Tseng, Melissa Davey-Rothwell, Ryan D Kennedy, Meghan Bridgid Moran, Lauren Czaplicki, Catie Edwards, Oluwaseun Falade-Nwulia, Geetanjali Chander, Amy R Knowlton
Impoverished urban neighborhoods tend to have higher rates of smoking and higher rates of exposure to secondhand smoke as compared to more affluent neighborhoods. Contextual factors of neighborhood disorder and social network and household composition may have an impact on indoor smoking behaviors. The TIDE study examined psychosocial factors associated with smoking behaviors among impoverished inner-city smokers in Baltimore, Maryland. Among a community-recruited sample of 413 smokers who lived with others, most (73%) reported that they or others smoked in their residence...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560612/characterization-of-stress-in-low-income-inner-city-mothers-of-children-with-poorly-controlled-asthma
#17
Melissa H Bellin, Kathryn S Collins, Philip Osteen, Joan Kub, Mary Elizabeth Bollinger, Angelica Newsome, Cassie Lewis-Land, Arlene M Butz
The goal of this longitudinal analysis was to characterize factors associated with the experience of life stress in low-income, inner-city mothers of minority children with high-risk asthma.Participants (n = 276) reported on family demographics, child asthma control and healthcare utilization, social support, contemporary life difficulties (housing, finances, violence exposure) measured by the validated Crisis in Family Systems scale, and daily stress. Latent growth curve modeling examined predictors of life stress across 12 months as a function of home and community difficulties, asthma-specific factors, and social support...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560611/have-you-talked-about-it-advance-care-planning-among-african-americans-living-with-hiv-in-baltimore
#18
Allysha C Maragh-Bass, Yiqing Zhao, Sarina R Isenberg, Mary M Mitchell, Amy R Knowlton
Advance care planning (ACP) is the process of planning for when individuals are unable to make their own healthcare decisions. Research suggests ACP is understudied among HIV-positive African Americans. We explored ACP knowledge, preferences, and practices with HIV-positive African Americans from an urban HIV-specialty clinic (AFFIRM study). Participants completed surveys and interviews. Descriptive analyses and Poisson regression were conducted on survey data. Qualitative interviews were coded using grounded theory/constant comparative method...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550643/housing-experiences-among-opioid-dependent-criminal-justice-involved-individuals-in-washington-d-c
#19
Alese Wooditch, Mary Mbaba, Marissa Kiss, William Lawson, Faye Taxman, Frederick L Altice
Residential mobility and type of housing contributes to an individual's likelihood and frequency of drug/alcohol use and committing criminal offenses. Little research has focused simultaneously on the influence of housing status on the use of drugs and criminal behavior. The present study examines how residential mobility (transitions in housing) and recent housing stability (prior 30 days) correlates with self-reported criminal activity and drug/alcohol use among a sample of 504 addicted, treatment-seeking opioid users with a history of criminal justice involvement...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547345/where-are-adults-active-an-examination-of-physical-activity-locations-using-gps-in-five-us-cities
#20
Katelyn M Holliday, Annie Green Howard, Michael Emch, Daniel A Rodríguez, Wayne D Rosamond, Kelly R Evenson
Increasing physical activity (PA) at the population level requires appropriately targeting intervention development. Identifying the locations in which participants with various sociodemographic, body weight, and geographic characteristics tend to engage in varying intensities of PA as well as locations these populations underutilize for PA may facilitate this process. A visual location-coding protocol was developed and implemented in Google Fusion Tables and Maps using data from participants (N = 223, age 18-85) in five states...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
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