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Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214436/aggregate-trends-of-hepatitis-c-virus-identification-and-treatment-in-maryland-corrections-fiscal-years-2012-2016
#1
Martin Joseph Calabrese, Fadia T Shaya, Valerie L Barnes, Akin Akinwumi, Kashaun Temesgen, Sharon Baucom
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214435/exploring-lifetime-accumulation-of-criminal-justice-involvement-and-associated-health-and-social-outcomes-in-a-community-based-sample-of-women-who-use-drugs
#2
Jennifer Lorvick, Megan Comfort, Alex H Kral, Barrot H Lambdin
Among people who use illegal drugs, engagement with the criminal justice (CJ) system often involves an ongoing, intermittent series of arrests, incarcerations, and periods of community supervision. The potential associations between the lifetime accumulation of CJ involvement and social and health outcomes is largely unexplored. In a cross-sectional sample of women who use crack, heroin, and/ or methamphetamine recruited from communities in Oakland, CA (N = 624), we developed an approach to characterize CJ accumulation...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204846/the-costly-consequences-of-not-being-socially-and-behaviorally-ready-to-learn-by-kindergarten-in-baltimore-city
#3
Amie F Bettencourt, Deborah Gross, Grace Ho, Nancy Perrin
Social, emotional, and behavioral skills are foundational to learning and long-term success. However, poverty and exposure to adverse childhood experiences reduce the chances of children entering kindergarten socially-behaviorally ready to learn. This study examined the unique impact of 5-year-old children (N = 11,412) entering kindergarten not socially-behaviorally ready on three costly school outcomes by fourth grade in Baltimore City Public Schools: being retained in grade, receiving services and supports through an IEP or 504 plan, and being suspended/expelled...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204845/six-month-emergency-department-use-among-older-adults-following-jail-incarceration
#4
Jessi Humphreys, Cyrus Ahalt, Irena Stijacic-Cenzer, Eric Widera, Brie Williams
Although the number of older adults who are arrested and subject to incarceration in jail is rising dramatically, little is known about their emergency department (ED) use or the factors associated with that use. This lack of knowledge impairs the ability to design evidence-based approaches to care that would meet the needs of this population. This 6-month longitudinal study aimed to determine the frequency of 6-month ED use among 101 adults aged 55 or older enrolled while in jail and to identify factors associated with that use...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204844/homicides-public-goods-and-population-health-in-the-context-of-high-urban-violence-rates-in-cali-colombia
#5
Lina Martínez, Sergio Prada, Daniela Estrada
Obesity and frequent mental and physical distress are often associated with major health problems. The characteristics of the urban environment, such as homicide rates and public goods provision, play an important role in influencing participation in physical activity and in overall mental health. This study aimed to determine whether there was a relationship between homicide rates and public goods provision on the health outcomes of the citizens of Cali, Colombia, a city known for its high urban violence rate and low municipal investment in public goods...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204843/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-illicit-drug-users-in-italy
#6
Enea Spada, Giovanni Rezza, Anna Rosa Garbuglia, Flavia Lucia Lombardo, Ornella Zuccaro, Francesca Menniti Ippolito, Elisabetta Cupellaro, Stefania Capone, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Alfredo Nicosia, Riccardo Cortese, Antonella Folgori, Alfonso Mele
So far, only three small outdated studies have investigated hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence and risk factors among illicit drug users (DUs) in Italy. Thus, during 2007-2010, we conducted a prospective cohort study among DUs attending 17 Italian rehabilitation centers serving urban areas. Two hundred eighty-four HCV-uninfected DUs were prospectively followed by interview and anti-HCV antibody and RNA testing every 6 months. Incidence was calculated using the person-years method. Infection predictors were assessed by time-dependent Cox analysis...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204842/the-role-of-social-context-in-racial-disparities-in-self-rated-health
#7
Caryn N Bell, Roland J Thorpe, Thomas A LaVeist
Race disparities in self-rated health in the USA are well-documented, such that African Americans rate their health more poorly than whites. However, after adjusting for health status, socioeconomic status (SES), and health behaviors, residual race differences are observed. This suggests the importance of unmeasured variables. Because African Americans and whites tend to live in differing social contexts, it is possible that accounting for social and environmental conditions may reduce racial disparities in self-rated health...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197035/the-association-between-apartment-layout-and-depressive-symptomology-among-hispanic-latino-residents-in-low-income-housing-the-ahome-study
#8
Earle C Chambers, Sonit Bafna, Herminia Machry
In this study of low-income Hispanic/Latino adults living in 291 individual apartments in the Bronx, New York, the apartment layout was significantly associated with the odds of depressive symptomology. Women living in apartments in which the most central rooms were the living, dining, or kitchen (i.e., rooms commonly used for communal activities) were less likely to have depressive symptomology (OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.22-0.86) than women in apartments where the central rooms were lobbies or corridors, adjusting for demographics, health conditions, and housing and neighborhood characteristics...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134325/spatial-context-and-health-inequity-reconfiguring-race-place-and-poverty
#9
Elizabeth L Tung, Kathleen A Cagney, Monica E Peek, Marshall H Chin
Intimate connections among race, place, and poverty are increasingly featured in the health disparities literature. However, few models exist that can guide our understanding of these interconnections. We build on the Chicago School of Sociology's contributions in urban research and one of its contemporary elaborations, often described as the "neighborhood effects approach," to propose a three-axis model of health inequity. This model, in alignment with Chicago School theory, postulates a dynamic and adaptive relationship between spatial context and health inequity...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063246/correction-to-the-aging-urban-brain-analyzing-outdoor-physical-activity-using-the-emotiv-affectiv-suite-in-older-people
#10
Chris Neale, Peter Aspinall, Jenny Roe, Sara Tilley, Panagiotis Mavros, Steve Cinderby, Richard Coyne, Neil Thin, Gary Bennett, Catharine Ward Thompson
Please note that the legend to Fig. 1 has been modified since this article was originally published, and also that in Tables 2, 3 and 4, R[2] was corrected to (the now correct) R squared.
October 23, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047021/the-influence-of-constructed-family-membership-on-hiv-risk-behaviors-among-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-new-orleans
#11
Meagan C Zarwell, William T Robinson
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) represent more new HIV infections than all other at-risk populations. Many young black MSM belong to constructed families (i.e., the house ball community, gay families, and pageant families) which are often organized in a family structure with members referred to as parents and children. Many constructed families are associated with a family surname which is informally adopted by members. In some cases, however, constructed families do not identify with a collective family name...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039133/the-experience-of-implementing-urban-heart-barcelona-a-tool-for-action
#12
Ana M Novoa, Glòria Pérez, Albert Espelt, Cynthia Echave, Patricia G de Olalla, M Jesús Calvo, Maribel Pasarín, Èlia Diez, Carme Borrell, M Jesús Calvo, Berta Cormenzana, Imma Cortés, Èlia Diez, Cynthia Echave, Albert Espelt, Patrícia G de Olalla, Josep Gòmez, Ana M Novoa, Montserrat Pallarès, Glòria Pérez, Maica Rodríguez-Sanz
Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (HEART) is a tool developed by the World Health Organization whose objective is to provide evidence on urban health inequalities so as to help to decide the best interventions aimed to promote urban health equity. The aim of this paper is to describe the experience of implementing Urban HEART in Barcelona city, both the adaptation of Urban HEART to the city of Barcelona, its use as a means of identifying and monitoring health inequalities among city neighbourhoods, and the difficulties and barriers encountered throughout the process...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039132/violent-injury-and-neighborhood-racial-ethnic-diversity-in-oakland-california
#13
Joshua Berezin, Sara Gale, Amani Nuru-Jeter, Maureen Lahiff, Colette Auerswald, Harrison Alter
Racial and ethnic segregation has been linked to a number of deleterious health outcomes, including violence. Previous studies of segregation and violence have focused on segregation between African Americans and Whites, used homicide as a measure of violence, and employed segregation measures that fail to take into account neighborhood level processes. We examined the relationship between neighborhood diversity and violent injury in Oakland, California. Violent injuries from the Alameda County Medical Center Trauma Registry that occurred between 1998 and 2002 were geocoded...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971349/criminal-use-of-assault-weapons-and-high-capacity-semiautomatic-firearms-an-updated-examination-of-local-and-national-sources
#14
Christopher S Koper, William D Johnson, Jordan L Nichols, Ambrozine Ayers, Natalie Mullins
Policies restricting semiautomatic assault weapons and large-capacity ammunition magazines are intended to reduce gunshot victimizations by limiting the stock of semiautomatic firearms with large ammunition capacities and other military-style features conducive to criminal use. The federal government banned such weaponry from 1994 to 2004, and a few states currently impose similar restrictions. Recent debates concerning these weapons have highlighted their use in mass shootings, but there has been little examination of their use in gun crime more generally since the expiration of the federal ban...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948444/preventing-injection-drug-use-initiation-state-of-the-evidence-and-opportunities-for-the-future
#15
EDITORIAL
Dan Werb, R N Bluthenthal, G Kolla, C Strike, A H Kral, A Uusküla, D Des Jarlais
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 25, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929301/urban-heart-detroit-a-tool-to-better-understand-and-address-health-equity-gaps-in-the-city
#16
R Mehdipanah, A J Schulz, B A Israel, C Gamboa, Z Rowe, M Khan, A Allen
The Urban Health Equity Assessment Response Tool (Urban HEART) combines statistical evidence and community knowledge to address urban health inequities. This paper describes the process of adopting and implementing this tool for Detroit, Michigan, the first city in the USA to use it. The six steps of Urban HEART were implemented by the Healthy Environments Partnership, a community-based participatory research partnership made up of community-based organizations, health service providers, and researchers based in academic institutions...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879489/place-still-matters-racial-ethnic-and-geographic-disparities-in-hiv-transmission-and-disease-burden
#17
Bridgette M Brawner, Barbara Guthrie, Robin Stevens, Lynne Taylor, Michael Eberhart, Jean J Schensul
Neighborhood-level structural interventions are needed to address HIV/AIDS in highly affected areas. To develop these interventions, we need a better understanding of contextual factors that drive the pandemic. We used multinomial logistic regression models to examine the relationship between census tract of current residence and mode of HIV transmission among HIV-positive cases. Compared to the predominantly white high HIV prevalence tract, both the predominantly black high and low HIV prevalence tracts had greater odds of transmission via injection drug use and heterosexual contact than male-to-male sexual contact...
October 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875435/client-and-partner-violence-among-urban-female-exotic-dancers-and-intentions-for-seeking-support-and-justice
#18
Michele R Decker, Jennifer E Nail, Sahnah Lim, Katherine Footer, Wendy Davis, Susan G Sherman
Urban female exotic dancers are thought to experience unique risk for violence and barriers to care, though limited research has focused on this aspect of urban sex industries. We characterize recent client-perpetrated and intimate partner violence (IPV) and their correlates, and describe women's intentions for violence-related help-seeking, among venue-based exotic dancers in a high-risk urban environment. We conducted a cross-sectional study with new female exotic dancers (n = 117) in Baltimore, MD. Over one third (36%) reported intimate partner violence (IPV), and 16% reported client physical or sexual violence, in the six months prior to the survey...
October 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875409/disorganization-theory-neighborhood-social-capital-and-ethnic-inequalities-in-intimate-partner-violence-between-arab-and-jewish-women-citizens-of-israel
#19
Nihaya Daoud, Ruslan Sergienko, Patricia O'Campo, Ilana Shoham-Vardi
We draw on social disorganization (SD) theory and social capital to examine the impact of neighborhood environment on the ethnic gap in intimate partner violence (IPV) between Arab and Jewish women in Israel. We linked census data on neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) to national data we gathered in 2014-2015 on 1401 women (436 Arab, 965 Jewish) age 16-48. Women were interviewed while visiting 65 maternal and child health clinics throughout Israel. We used General Estimated Equation (GEE) multivariate logistic regression models to adjust for clinic cluster effects and estimated the contribution of neighborhood collective efficacy, problems, relative socioeconomic status (SES), bridging and linking social capital, and social support to explaining ethnic inequalities in IPV, while adjusting for women's socioeconomic and socio-demographic characteristics...
October 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831708/assessing-spatial-relationships-between-race-inequality-crime-and-gonorrhea-and-chlamydia-in-the-united-states
#20
Phillip Marotta
Incidence rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea reached unprecedented levels in 2015 and are concentrated in southern counties of the USA. Using incidence data from the Center for Disease Control, Moran's I analyses assessed the data for statistically significant clusters of chlamydia and gonorrhea at the county level in 46 states of the USA. Lagrange multiplier diagnostics justified selection of the spatial Durbin regression model for chlamydia and the spatial error model for gonorrhea. Rates of chlamydia (Moran's I = ...
October 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
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