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Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30547363/the-interaction-of-race-and-gender-as-a-significant-driver-of-racial-arrest-disparities-for-african-american-men
#1
Rebecca Fielding-Miller, Hannah L F Cooper, Sharon Caslin, Anita Raj
The mass incarceration of African Americans is both a driver of racial health inequalities in the USA. Systemic social biases which associate African American men with criminality, violence, and as a particular threat to white women may partially explain their over-representation in the criminal justice system. We combined data from the Washington, DC Metro Police Department (MPD) and the American Community Survey to test whether neighborhood-level gender, race, and economic makeup were associated with elevated drug-related arrest disproportions for African American men...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511138/alcohol-outlet-density-and-area-level-heavy-drinking-are-independent-risk-factors-for-higher-alcohol-related-complaints
#2
Yusuf Ransome, Hui Luan, Xun Shi, Dustin T Duncan, S V Subramanian
Alcohol outlet density has well-documented associations with social and health indicators such as crime and injury. However, significantly less is known about the relationships among alcohol-related complaints. Bayesian hierarchical Poisson regression with spatial autocorrelation was used to model the association between on- and off-premises alcohol outlet density and area-level prevalence of current drinkers and heavy drinking, and graffiti density-an indicator of physical disorder-in association with calls from civilians reporting illegal use, alcohol sales, and other alcohol-related activities (hereafter alcohol-related complaints)...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511137/perceptions-of-neighborhood-environment-sense-of-community-and-self-rated-health-an-age-friendly-city-project-in-hong-kong
#3
Ruby Yu, Moses Wong, Jean Woo
To examine the relationships between perceptions of neighborhood environment, sense of community, and self-rated heath, we recruited 1798 people aged 60 years and older living in Hong Kong. With reference to the checklist of the essential features of age-friendly cities developed by the World Health Organization, perceptions of neighborhood environment were assessed using a questionnaire covering physical and social environmental domains, which mapped onto "outdoor spaces and buildings," "transportation," "housing," "social participation," "respect and social inclusion," "civic participation and employment," "communication and information," and "community support and health services...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30506136/high-effort-coping-and-cardiovascular-disease-among-women-a-systematic-review-of-the-john-henryism-hypothesis
#4
REVIEW
Ashley S Felix, Robert Shisler, Timiya S Nolan, Barbara J Warren, Jennifer Rhoades, Kierra S Barnett, Karen Patricia Williams
African-American women living in the United States experience higher cardiovascular disease risk (CVD) mortality compared to White women. Unique mechanisms, including prolonged high-effort coping in the face of discriminatory stressors might contribute to these racial disparities. The John Henryism hypothesis is a conceptual framework used to explain poor health outcomes observed among individuals with low resources who repeatedly utilize active coping to overcome barriers. The aims of our study were to summarize the literature related to John Henryism and CVD-related factors with a particular focus on women and to identify gaps for areas of future inquiry...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30506135/separate-and-sick-residential-segregation-and-the-health-of-children-and-youth-in-metropolitan-statistical-areas
#5
Jack A Kotecki, Keith P Gennuso, Marjory L Givens, David A Kindig
The purpose of this study was to better understand residential segregation and child/youth health by examining the relationship between a measure of Black-White residential segregation, the index of dissimilarity, and a suite of child and youth health measures in 235 U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). MSAs are urban areas with a population of 50,000 or more and adjacent communities that share a high degree of economic and social integration. MSAs are defined by the Office of Management and Budget. Health-related measures included child mortality (CDC WONDER), teen births (NCHS natality data), children in poverty (SAIPE program), and disconnected youth (Measure of America)...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30488362/resilience-in-african-american-women-at-risk-for-cardiovascular-disease-an-exploratory-study
#6
Karen L Saban, Dina Tell, Linda Janusek
African Americans (AAs) have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) which is not fully explained by traditional CVD risk factors such as smoking, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Evidence demonstrates that chronic stress, low subjective status, and lack of social support play important roles in increasing the risk for CVD, particularly in minority women. Increasing evidence demonstrates that resilience may ameliorate the effect of social stressors on the development of CVD. However, little is known about the social context that may influence resilience in AA women...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30488361/environmental-exposures-the-epigenome-and-african-american-women-s-health
#7
REVIEW
Joyce E Ohm
Stress is a common feature of modern life, but both the extent of exposure to stressors and the downstream effects of these stress exposures can vary considerably among individuals, communities, and populations. When individuals are exposed to repeated or chronic stress, wear and tear on the body can accumulate and manifest in many ways. The term "allostatic load" represents the physiological consequences of repeated or chronic exposure to environmental stressors and is linked to fluctuating and/or heightened neural or neuroendocrine responses...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30478764/demographic-inequities-in-health-outcomes-and-air-pollution-exposure-in-the-atlanta-area-and-its-relationship-to-urban-infrastructure
#8
Joseph L Servadio, Abiola S Lawal, Tate Davis, Josephine Bates, Armistead G Russell, Anu Ramaswami, Matteo Convertino, Nisha Botchwey
Environmental burdens such as air pollution are inequitably distributed with groups of lower socioeconomic statuses, which tend to comprise of large proportions of racial minorities, typically bearing greater exposure. Such groups have also been shown to present more severe health outcomes which can be related to adverse pollution exposure. Air pollution exposure, especially in urban areas, is usually impacted by the built environment, such as major roadways, which can be a significant source of air pollution...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30465261/building-a-data-platform-for-cross-country-urban-health-studies-the-salurbal-study
#9
D Alex Quistberg, Ana V Diez Roux, Usama Bilal, Kari Moore, Ana Ortigoza, Daniel A Rodriguez, Olga L Sarmiento, Patricia Frenz, Amélia Augusta Friche, Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa, Alejandra Vives, J Jaime Miranda
Studies examining urban health and the environment must ensure comparability of measures across cities and countries. We describe a data platform and process that integrates health outcomes together with physical and social environment data to examine multilevel aspects of health across cities in 11 Latin American countries. We used two complementary sources to identify cities with ≥ 100,000 inhabitants as of 2010 in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, and Peru...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30465260/using-network-and-spatial-data-to-better-target-overdose-prevention-strategies-in-rural-appalachia
#10
Abby E Rudolph, April M Young, Jennifer R Havens
This analysis uses network and spatial data to identify optimal individuals to target with overdose prevention interventions in rural Appalachia. Five hundred and three rural persons who use drugs were recruited to participate in the Social Networks among Appalachian People Study (2008-2010). Interviewer-administered surveys collected information on demographic characteristics, risk behaviors (including overdose history), network members, and residential addresses. We restricted the sample to individuals with at least one confirmed relationship to another study participant (N = 463)...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397819/the-cost-effectiveness-of-bike-share-expansion-to-low-income-communities-in-new-york-city
#11
Wenya Yu, Chen Chen, Boshen Jiao, Zafar Zafari, Peter Muennig
The "Citi Bike" bike share program in New York City is the largest bike share program in the USA. We ask whether expanding this program to lower-income communities is cost-effective means of encouraging exercise and reducing pollution in New York City. We built a stochastic Markov model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Citi Bike expansion program, an effort to extend bike share to areas with higher costs and risks over a 10-year time horizon. We used one-way sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulation to test the model uncertainty...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377938/correction-to-how-do-risk-environment-factors-influence-perpetration-of-partner-violence-among-male-migrant-and-non-migrant-market-workers-in-central-asia
#12
Louisa Gilbert, Lynn Michalopoulos, Xin Ma, Tina Jiwatram-Negrón, Assel Terlikbayeva, Sholpan Primbetova, Tara McCrimmon, Mingway Chang, Timothy Hunt, Stacey A Shaw, Gaukhar Mergenova
The surname of coauthor Lynn Michalopoulos was misspelled (as "Michalopolous") in this originally published. The original article has been corrected.
October 30, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30353483/urban-heat-island-and-future-climate-change-implications-for-delhi-s-heat
#13
Richa Sharma, Hans Hooyberghs, Dirk Lauwaet, Koen De Ridder
UrbClim, the urban climate model, is used for short- and long-term projections of climate for Delhi. The projections are performed for RCP8.5 using an ensemble of 11 GCM model outputs. Various heat stress indices were employed to understand the role of urban heat island (UHI) in influencing the present and future urban climate of the city. UHI intensity based on 5% warmest nights (TNp95) was 4.1 °C and exhibits negligible change over time. However, the impact of UHI on other heat stress indices is very strong...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30353482/-digital-hood-engagement-with-risk-content-on-social-media-among-black-and-hispanic-youth
#14
Robin Stevens, Amy Bleakley, Michael Hennessy, Jamie Dunaev, Stacia Gilliard-Matthews
The digital neighborhood is the amalgamation of the spaces online where youth connect with others. Just as Black and Hispanic youth live in neighborhoods that influence their health, they are also influenced by online digital neighborhoods. Youth are exposed to social media content featuring substance use, sexual risk, and violence, yet little is known about the extent to which youth engage with such content. Using a modified venue sampling strategy, we administered CASI surveys to 145 Black and Hispanic youth aged 13-24 living in low-income urban neighborhoods...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341562/the-risk-of-tuberculosis-among-populations-living-in-slum-settings-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Ekaterina Noykhovich, Sangeeta Mookherji, Amira Roess
According to the WHO, half of the 10.4 million incident cases of TB in 2016 came from five countries where 20-50% of the urban population live in slums. Crowded living conditions and limited access to healthcare further contribute to the burden of TB in urban slums. This article aims to assess the odds of the burden of TB in urban slums through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Four electronic databases were searched for studies published between 1993 and 2017, with TB defined as at least one sputum smear-positive...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328063/-starfish-sampling-a-novel-hybrid-approach-to-recruiting-hidden-populations
#16
H Fisher Raymond, Yea-Hung Chen, Willi McFarland
We sought to leverage the strengths of time location sampling (TLS) and respondent-driven sampling (RDS) for surveys of hidden populations by combing elements of both methods in a new approach we call "starfish sampling." Starfish sampling entails random selection of venue-day-time units from a mapping of the locations where the population can be found, combined with short chains of peer referrals from their social networks at the venue or presenting to the study site later. Using the population of transmen in San Francisco as a case example, we recruited 122 eligible participants using starfish sampling: 79 at randomly selected venues, 11 on dating applications, and 32 by referral...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324357/contributions-of-neighborhood-parks-to-physical-activity-in-high-poverty-urban-neighborhoods
#17
Sujeong Park, Bing Han, Deborah A Cohen, Kathryn P Derose
Neighborhood parks are important venues for the urban population to do moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in leisure time. Parks can be particularly important for low-income neighborhoods, whose residents suffer from high rates of chronic diseases and may have less access to fee-based fitness exercise facilities. This study assessed the contribution of parks to local populations' physical activity in 48 high-poverty neighborhoods in the city of Los Angeles, using systematic observation of park use and surveys of park users and residents conducted between 2013 and 2015...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324356/safety-of-a-modified-community-trailer-to-manage-patients-with-presumed-fentanyl-overdose
#18
Frank X Scheuermeyer, Eric Grafstein, Jane Buxton, Keith Ahamad, Mark Lysyshyn, Stan DeVlaming, Gerrit Prinsloo, Christopher Van Veen, Andrew Kestler, Reka Gustafson
Opioid overdoses (OD) cause substantial morbidity and mortality globally, and current emergency management is typically limited to supportive care, with variable emphasis on harm reduction and addictions treatment. Our urban setting has a high concentration of patients with presumed fentanyl OD, which places a burden on both pre-hospital and emergency department (ED) resources. From December 13, 2016, to March 1, 2017, we placed a modified trailer away from an ED but near the center of the expected area of high OD and accepted low-risk patients with presumed fentanyl OD...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324355/privacy-confidentiality-and-safety-considerations-for-conducting-geographic-momentary-assessment-studies-among-persons-who-use-drugs-and-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#19
Abby E Rudolph, April M Young, Jennifer R Havens
Geographic momentary assessments (GMA) collect real-time behavioral data in one's natural environment using a smartphone and could potentially increase the ecological validity of behavioral data. Several studies have evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of GMA among persons who use drugs (PWUD) and men who have sex with men (MSM), but fewer have discussed privacy, confidentiality, and safety concerns, particularly when illegal or stigmatized behavioral data were collected. This study explores perceptions regarding privacy, confidentiality, and safety of GMA research among PWUD and MSM recruited in three different settings (rural Appalachia, a mid-sized city in the South, and a mid-Atlantic city)...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311055/variation-in-rates-of-fatal-police-shootings-across-us-states-the-role-of-firearm-availability
#20
David Hemenway, Deborah Azrael, Andrew Conner, Matthew Miller
The USA has very high rates of homicide by police compared to other high-income countries, with approximately 1000 civilians killed annually. The overwhelming majority of these police homicides are fatal shootings. Over the past 5 years, several comprehensive, real-time, data repositories, drawn largely from news reporting, have kept track of incidents in which civilians die during an encounter with the police and have become widely available. Data from these repositories, which are more complete than data available from federal data systems, have been used to explore fatal police shootings of civilians, often with a focus on racial disparities in police shootings of unarmed civilians, and have consistently found that police are more likely to shoot unarmed African American men than unarmed White men...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
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