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Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047021/the-influence-of-constructed-family-membership-on-hiv-risk-behaviors-among-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-new-orleans
#1
Meagan C Zarwell, William T Robinson
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) represent more new HIV infections than all other at-risk populations. Many young black MSM belong to constructed families (i.e., the house ball community, gay families, and pageant families) which are often organized in a family structure with members referred to as parents and children. Many constructed families are associated with a family surname which is informally adopted by members. In some cases, however, constructed families do not identify with a collective family name...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039133/the-experience-of-implementing-urban-heart-barcelona-a-tool-for-action
#2
Ana M Novoa, Glòria Pérez, Albert Espelt, Cynthia Echave, Patricia G de Olalla, M Jesús Calvo, Maribel Pasarín, Èlia Diez, Carme Borrell, M Jesús Calvo, Berta Cormenzana, Imma Cortés, Èlia Diez, Cynthia Echave, Albert Espelt, Patrícia G de Olalla, Josep Gòmez, Ana M Novoa, Montserrat Pallarès, Glòria Pérez, Maica Rodríguez-Sanz
Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (HEART) is a tool developed by the World Health Organization whose objective is to provide evidence on urban health inequalities so as to help to decide the best interventions aimed to promote urban health equity. The aim of this paper is to describe the experience of implementing Urban HEART in Barcelona city, both the adaptation of Urban HEART to the city of Barcelona, its use as a means of identifying and monitoring health inequalities among city neighbourhoods, and the difficulties and barriers encountered throughout the process...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039132/violent-injury-and-neighborhood-racial-ethnic-diversity-in-oakland-california
#3
Joshua Berezin, Sara Gale, Amani Nuru-Jeter, Maureen Lahiff, Colette Auerswald, Harrison Alter
Racial and ethnic segregation has been linked to a number of deleterious health outcomes, including violence. Previous studies of segregation and violence have focused on segregation between African Americans and Whites, used homicide as a measure of violence, and employed segregation measures that fail to take into account neighborhood level processes. We examined the relationship between neighborhood diversity and violent injury in Oakland, California. Violent injuries from the Alameda County Medical Center Trauma Registry that occurred between 1998 and 2002 were geocoded...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971349/criminal-use-of-assault-weapons-and-high-capacity-semiautomatic-firearms-an-updated-examination-of-local-and-national-sources
#4
Christopher S Koper, William D Johnson, Jordan L Nichols, Ambrozine Ayers, Natalie Mullins
Policies restricting semiautomatic assault weapons and large-capacity ammunition magazines are intended to reduce gunshot victimizations by limiting the stock of semiautomatic firearms with large ammunition capacities and other military-style features conducive to criminal use. The federal government banned such weaponry from 1994 to 2004, and a few states currently impose similar restrictions. Recent debates concerning these weapons have highlighted their use in mass shootings, but there has been little examination of their use in gun crime more generally since the expiration of the federal ban...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948444/preventing-injection-drug-use-initiation-state-of-the-evidence-and-opportunities-for-the-future
#5
EDITORIAL
Dan Werb, R N Bluthenthal, G Kolla, C Strike, A H Kral, A Uusküla, D Des Jarlais
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 25, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929301/urban-heart-detroit-a-tool-to-better-understand-and-address-health-equity-gaps-in-the-city
#6
R Mehdipanah, A J Schulz, B A Israel, C Gamboa, Z Rowe, M Khan, A Allen
The Urban Health Equity Assessment Response Tool (Urban HEART) combines statistical evidence and community knowledge to address urban health inequities. This paper describes the process of adopting and implementing this tool for Detroit, Michigan, the first city in the USA to use it. The six steps of Urban HEART were implemented by the Healthy Environments Partnership, a community-based participatory research partnership made up of community-based organizations, health service providers, and researchers based in academic institutions...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900893/associations-of-neighborhood-environmental-attributes-with-walking-in-japan-moderating-effects-of-area-level-socioeconomic-status
#7
Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Tomoya Hanibuchi, Tomoki Nakaya, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Yung Liao, Koichiro Oka, Takemi Sugiyama
Several studies have examined how the associations of built environment attributes with walking behaviors may be moderated by socioeconomic status (SES). Such understanding is important to address socioeconomic inequalities in health through urban design initiatives. However, to date, there is no study examining the moderation effects of SES in the relationships of environmental attributes and walking in non-Western countries. The current study aims to examine associations of environmental attributes with walking behaviors among Japanese adults, and to test whether these associations were moderated by area-level SES...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895036/independent-effects-of-neighborhood-poverty-and-psychosocial-stress-on-obesity-over-time
#8
Jamila L Kwarteng, Amy J Schulz, Graciela B Mentz, Barbara A Israel, Denise White Perkins
The objective of the study was to examine the independent effects of neighborhood poverty and psychosocial stress on increases in central adiposity over time. Data are from a community sample of 157 Non-Hispanic Black, Non-Hispanic White, and Hispanic adults collected in 2002-2003 and 2007-2008, and from the 2000 Decennial Census. The dependent variable was waist circumference. Independent variables included neighborhood poverty, perceived neighborhood physical environment, family stress, safety stress, everyday unfair treatment, and a cumulative stress index...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895027/the-aging-urban-brain-analyzing-outdoor-physical-activity-using-the-emotiv-affectiv-suite-in-older-people
#9
Chris Neale, Peter Aspinall, Jenny Roe, Sara Tilley, Panagiotis Mavros, Steve Cinderby, Richard Coyne, Neil Thin, Gary Bennett, Catharine Ward Thompson
This research directly assesses older people's neural activation in response to a changing urban environment while walking, as measured by electroencephalography (EEG). The study builds on previous research that shows changes in cortical activity while moving through different urban settings. The current study extends this methodology to explore previously unstudied outcomes in older people aged 65 years or more (n = 95). Participants were recruited to walk one of six scenarios pairing urban busy (a commercial street with traffic), urban quiet (a residential street) and urban green (a public park) spaces in a counterbalanced design, wearing a mobile Emotiv EEG headset to record real-time neural responses to place...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879489/place-still-matters-racial-ethnic-and-geographic-disparities-in-hiv-transmission-and-disease-burden
#10
Bridgette M Brawner, Barbara Guthrie, Robin Stevens, Lynne Taylor, Michael Eberhart, Jean J Schensul
Neighborhood-level structural interventions are needed to address HIV/AIDS in highly affected areas. To develop these interventions, we need a better understanding of contextual factors that drive the pandemic. We used multinomial logistic regression models to examine the relationship between census tract of current residence and mode of HIV transmission among HIV-positive cases. Compared to the predominantly white high HIV prevalence tract, both the predominantly black high and low HIV prevalence tracts had greater odds of transmission via injection drug use and heterosexual contact than male-to-male sexual contact...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879440/neighborhood-influences-on-vehicle-pedestrian-crash-severity
#11
Alireza Toran Pour, Sara Moridpour, Richard Tay, Abbas Rajabifard
Socioeconomic factors are known to be contributing factors for vehicle-pedestrian crashes. Although several studies have examined the socioeconomic factors related to the location of the crashes, limited studies have considered the socioeconomic factors of the neighborhood where the road users live in vehicle-pedestrian crash modelling. This research aims to identify the socioeconomic factors related to both the neighborhoods where the road users live and where crashes occur that have an influence on vehicle-pedestrian crash severity...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875435/client-and-partner-violence-among-urban-female-exotic-dancers-and-intentions-for-seeking-support-and-justice
#12
Michele R Decker, Jennifer E Nail, Sahnah Lim, Katherine Footer, Wendy Davis, Susan G Sherman
Urban female exotic dancers are thought to experience unique risk for violence and barriers to care, though limited research has focused on this aspect of urban sex industries. We characterize recent client-perpetrated and intimate partner violence (IPV) and their correlates, and describe women's intentions for violence-related help-seeking, among venue-based exotic dancers in a high-risk urban environment. We conducted a cross-sectional study with new female exotic dancers (n = 117) in Baltimore, MD. Over one third (36%) reported intimate partner violence (IPV), and 16% reported client physical or sexual violence, in the six months prior to the survey...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875414/legal-status-time-in-the-usa-and-the-well-being-of-latinos-in-los-angeles
#13
Maria-Elena De Trinidad Young, Anne R Pebley
In the USA, undocumented Latino immigrants may have poorer health because of barriers to health care, stressors, and detrimental effects of immigration enforcement. Previous immigrant health research, however, suggests that recently arrived Latino immigrants have better health than US-born Latinos and their health deteriorates over time. Given the current environments that undocumented immigrants face, legal status is a structural factor that likely influences the patterns of immigrant health. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the extent to which physical and mental health differed by legal status and duration in the USA for the Latino population in Los Angeles County, California...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875410/high-risk-geographic-mobility-patterns-among-young-urban-and-suburban-persons-who-inject-drugs-and-their-injection-network-members
#14
Basmattee Boodram, Anna L Hotton, Louis Shekhtman, Alexander Gutfraind, Harel Dahari
Young people in the USA who inject drugs, particularly those at a risk of residence instability, experience the highest incidence of hepatitis C (HCV) infections. This study examined associations between geographic mobility patterns and sociodemographic, behavioral, and social network characteristics of 164 young (ages 18-30) persons who inject drugs (PWID). We identified a potential bridge sub-population who reported residence in both urban and suburban areas in the past year (crossover transients) and higher-risk behaviors (receptive syringe sharing, multiple sex partners) compared to their residentially localized counterparts...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875409/disorganization-theory-neighborhood-social-capital-and-ethnic-inequalities-in-intimate-partner-violence-between-arab-and-jewish-women-citizens-of-israel
#15
Nihaya Daoud, Ruslan Sergienko, Patricia O'Campo, Ilana Shoham-Vardi
We draw on social disorganization (SD) theory and social capital to examine the impact of neighborhood environment on the ethnic gap in intimate partner violence (IPV) between Arab and Jewish women in Israel. We linked census data on neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) to national data we gathered in 2014-2015 on 1401 women (436 Arab, 965 Jewish) age 16-48. Women were interviewed while visiting 65 maternal and child health clinics throughout Israel. We used General Estimated Equation (GEE) multivariate logistic regression models to adjust for clinic cluster effects and estimated the contribution of neighborhood collective efficacy, problems, relative socioeconomic status (SES), bridging and linking social capital, and social support to explaining ethnic inequalities in IPV, while adjusting for women's socioeconomic and socio-demographic characteristics...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875308/physical-social-and-political-inequities-constraining-girls-menstrual-management-at-schools-in-informal-settlements-of-nairobi-kenya
#16
Candace Girod, Anna Ellis, Karen L Andes, Matthew C Freeman, Bethany A Caruso
Access to adequate water and sanitation is limited in informal settlements, contributing to girls' challenges managing menstruation at school, especially when they cannot access materials to absorb menstrual blood and appropriate facilities for hygiene. This study documents differences between girls' experience of menstruation at public schools (where the Kenyan government provides menstrual pads) and private schools (where pads are not provided) in two informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya. Results showed that supply chains to public schools were not reliable, and equitable pad provision was not assured...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842803/a-multilevel-analysis-of-individual-health-system-and-neighborhood-factors-associated-with-depression-within-a-large-metropolitan-area
#17
Arne Beck, Arthur J Davidson, Stanley Xu, M Josh Durfee, Carlos Irwin A Oronce, John F Steiner, Edward Havranek
Depression prevalence is known to vary by individual factors (gender, age, race, medical comorbidities) and by neighborhood factors (neighborhood deprivation). However, the combination of individual- and neighborhood-level data is rarely available to assess their relative contribution to variation in depression across neighborhoods. We geocoded depression diagnosis and demographic data from electronic health records for 165,600 patients seen in two large health systems serving the Denver population (Kaiser Permanente and Denver Health) to Denver's 144 census tracts, and combined these data with indices of neighborhood deprivation obtained from the American Community Survey...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831708/assessing-spatial-relationships-between-race-inequality-crime-and-gonorrhea-and-chlamydia-in-the-united-states
#18
Phillip Marotta
Incidence rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea reached unprecedented levels in 2015 and are concentrated in southern counties of the USA. Using incidence data from the Center for Disease Control, Moran's I analyses assessed the data for statistically significant clusters of chlamydia and gonorrhea at the county level in 46 states of the USA. Lagrange multiplier diagnostics justified selection of the spatial Durbin regression model for chlamydia and the spatial error model for gonorrhea. Rates of chlamydia (Moran's I = ...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815465/non-injection-drug-use-and-injection-initiation-assistance-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-tijuana-mexico
#19
Amen Ben Hamida, Claudia Rafful, Sonia Jain, Shelly Sun, Patricia Gonzalez-Zuniga, Gudelia Rangel, Steffanie A Strathdee, Dan Werb
Although most people who inject drugs (PWID) report receiving assistance during injection initiation events, little research has focused on risk factors among PWID for providing injection initiation assistance. We therefore sought to determine the influence of non-injection drug use among PWID on their risk to initiate others. We used generalized estimating equation (GEE) models on longitudinal data among a prospective cohort of PWID in Tijuana, Mexico (Proyecto El Cuete IV), while controlling for potential confounders...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779273/the-assets-and-challenges-of-formerly-incarcerated-latino-men-s-social-support-networks-in-promoting-healthy-behaviors
#20
Miguel Muñoz-Laboy, Omar Martinez, Jeffrey Draine, Vincent Guilamo-Ramos, Nicolette Severson, Ethan Levine, Gregory Benjamin
After being exposed to high-risk environments in correctional facilities, formerly incarcerated Latino men (FILM) encounter new risks upon reentering their community of residence including drug use and sexual risk behaviors. Families and close social support networks are critical in potentially mitigating the stressors and risks associated with reentry and reducing the likelihood of recidivism. We conducted a study to examine the material and cognitive assets that familial networks can use to provide support to FILM to engage in health-promoting practices...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
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