Read by QxMD icon Read

Pediatric and Developmental Pathology

Whitney A McCarthy, Edwina J Popek
Fetal anemia and hydrops may be caused by parvovirus B19 infection and maternal alloimmunization to RhD with subsequent hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. The use of intrauterine transfusion over the last few decades has dramatically improved outcomes. Prior literature has extensively documented placental changes associated with untreated parvovirus infection and RhD HDFN in intrauterine fetal demises (IUFD) and pre-term births; however, histopathologic changes in term placentas from term infants treated with IUT have not been reported...
September 19, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Manuel Nistal, Ricardo Paniagua, Pilar Gonzalez-Peramato, Miguel Reyes-Múgica
Testicular tumors in the prepubertal age are relatively rare, representing only 9.4% of the total testicular and paratesticular specimens from a 20 year review performed at a large pediatric hospital 1. They account for 1 to 2 % of all solid tumors in the pediatric age group, with an annual incidence between 0.5 and 2/100,000 boys according to Coppes et al. 2 and data from the Prepubertal Testicular Tumor Registry 3. Similar to other neoplasms afflicting children, a bimodal age distribution is observed. The first peak is between birth and 3 years of age, and a second one occurs at the onset of puberty,extending to the fourth decade...
September 14, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
James R Wright
Ward Burdick is a name most pathologists who have attended an American Society for Clinical Pathology meeting recognize because of his annual named lecture established in 1929. However few pathologists, including many recipients of the Ward Burdick Award for Distinguished Service to Pathology, know the details of his life or understand his accomplishments. Ward Burdick, who practiced as a pediatric pathologist at the Children's Hospital of Denver, was one of the two primary organizers of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists in 1921-22, which was formed to raise the standards of practice in Clinical Pathology...
September 12, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Suravi Mohanty, Usha Kini, Kanishka Das, Divya Puttegowda, Lokendra Yadav, Manjally Kunjipapu Babu, Kiran Mahadevappa, Prasanna Kumar, Shubha Attibele Mahadevaiah, Mainak Deb
: The reliability of intraoperative evaluation of ganglion cells in the appendix as a guide to a diagnosis of total colonic aganglionosis is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic utility of appendicular innervation in colonic Hirschsprung Disease (HD) and TCA. METHODS: Prospective, systematic study of ganglion cells and the neural plexii in appendices from cases (HD and TCA) & age matched controls with frozen & paraffin sections, rapid acetylcholinesterase (AChE) & immunohistochemistry...
September 9, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Mana Taweevisit, Boochit Theerasantipong, Kanlaya Taothong, Paul Scott Thorner
The pulmonary neuroendocrine system includes pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) and neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) that are distributed throughout respiratory epithelium, and regulate lung growth and maturation antenatally. Abnormalities in this system have been linked to many hypoxia-associated pediatric pulmonary disorders. Hemoglobin (Hb) Bart disease is a severe form of α-thalassemia resulting in marked intrauterine hypoxia with hydrops fetalis (HF) and usually death in utero. Affected fetuses can serve as a naturally occurring human model for the effects of intrauterine hypoxia and we postulated these effects should include changes in the pulmonary neuroendocrine system...
September 6, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Benoit Vaillancourt, Luc Laurier Oligny, Julie Déry, Julie Franc-Guimond, Dorothee Bouron-Dal Soglio
Ossifying renal tumor of infancy (ORTI) is a rare, benign pediatric tumor of the kidney. Since first reported by Chatten in 1980, 23 cases have been published. Previous authors have argued that ORTI might originate from nephrogenic rests, thereby sharing a pathogenic relationship with Wilms' tumor (WT). ORTI is characterized histologically by a population of polygonal osteoblast-like cells around an osteoid core and densely cellular component of blastemal-like or spindle cells. While the immunohistochemical profile of the cellular components has been reported, to the best of our knowledge the status of WT1 expression has only been reported once, where it showed negative marking...
August 30, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Yiang Hui, Sonja Chen, Kara A Lombardo, Murray B Resnick, Shamlal Mangray, Andres Matoso
Histologically, esophageal biopsies should have {greater than or equal to}15 intraepithelial eosinophils (IEEs) per high power field (HPF) to support a clinicopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Children with clinically apparent EoE may show pauci-eosinophilic biopsies due to patchy involvement. Immunostaining (IHC) for arachidonate-15 lipooxygenase (ALOX15) has been demonstrated to be a sensitive marker for EoE. We retrospectively assessed the expression of ALOX15 in 48 biopsies from 21 patients with established diagnosis of EoE and with tissue fragments below the threshold of 15 IEEs/HPF...
August 30, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Khairul Zainun, Kirsten Hope, Andrew G Nicholson, Marta Cecilia Cohen
Abnormal muscularization of intra acinar pulmonary arteries is a histological hallmark of persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN), an uncommon disease with high morbidity and mortality. PPHN presents with signs of respiratory distress immediately following birth. The disease is multi-factorial in origin and can be idiopathic as well associated with a variety of conditions such as congenital heart disease and both congenital and acquired lung diseases. We report two cases presenting as sudden unexpected death in late neonatal period (SUDI) showing abnormal muscularization of acinar pulmonary arteries reminiscent of PPHN...
August 30, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Manuel Nistal, Ricardo Paniagua, Pilar Gonzalez-Peramato, Miguel Reyes-Múgica
Acute scrotal pain in children represents a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. An important initial differentiation should be made between epididymitis and other processes that cause acute scrotal pain such as testicular torsion and tumor. Infectious agents disseminating through the blood flow can damage the testis by causing orchitis. On the other hand, infections ascending via spermatic pathways typically lead to epididymitis.
August 30, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Sayeeda Yasmeen, Anita Rajkumar, Heather Grossman, Arpad Szallasi
Pediatric TdT-negative precursor B- or T-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) cases are rare and their prognostic significance remains controversial. We aimed to determine the frequency of TdT-negative ALL in the community hospital setting. Between 2005 and 2015, 43 pediatric patients were diagnosed with ALL at our Institution, of which six (14%) were characterized as TdT-negative by flow cytometric analysis. Four of these six patients had B-ALL and the other two had T-ALL. Two of the six TdT-negative patients also had undetectable CD34 expression by flow cytometry (TdT/CD34 double-negatives)...
August 12, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Joanna Sue Yee Chan, Debra Heller, Rebecca Baergen
Decidual vasculopathy (DV) is a general term for a number of lesions involving uteroplacental vessels. It is often seen in preeclamptic placentas and indicates a disorder of uteroplacental malperfusion and is associated with placental ischemia and infarction. Although some have advocated submitting special sections in order to better document DV, it is unclear which placental sections have the highest yield in demonstrating these abnormal vessels. 76 consecutive cases of decidual vasculopathy were identified and evaluated for location of DV, as well as presence of other lesions of ischemic change, infarcts and retroplacental hematomas...
August 11, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Zoe Powis, Adam C Chamberlin, Christina L Alamillo, Sophia Ceulemans, Lynne M Bird, Sha Tang
OBJECTIVE: Herein we report a case of a deceased newborn with prenatally detected hydrocephalus. Postnatal findings included abnormal brain imaging and electroencephalogram (EEG), optic nerve abnormalities, and elevated creatine kinase (CK). No underlying genetic etiology had been previously identified for the proband, despite testing with a congenital muscular dystrophy gene panel. METHODS: Diagnostic exome sequencing (DES) was performed on the proband-parents trio, and candidate alterations were confirmed using automated fluorescence dideoxy sequencing...
August 4, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Steven Hardee, Lea Tuzovic, Cicero T Silva, Robert A Cowles, Joshua Copel, Raffaella A Morotti
Congenital cystic lung lesions (CCLL) are a group of rare pathologies that are usually diagnosed in the pre-natal period. The majority of these lesions are diagnosed at pathology examination as congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAM) and bronchopulmonary sequestration (BPS). These lesions are typically managed by surgical intervention within the first year of life and have an excellent prognosis. We examined the evolution of imaging appearances from prenatal diagnosis to postnatal work-up of these lesions and correlate imaging and pathological findings...
August 4, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
M Cristina Pacheco, Michelle Dolan, Anne Bendel
Ewing sarcoma (ES)/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) are high-grade malignancies of childhood, each of which is associated with genetic abnormalities on chromosome 22. ES is typically characterized by rearrangement of the EWSR1 locus and ATRT by deletion of SMARCB1. We report a case with an unusual FISH signal pattern consistent with EWSR1 rearrangement that was shown to have loss of INI1 expression by immunohistochemistry due to deletion in the long arm of one chromosome 22...
July 28, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Albert Njoroge Huho, Niveen Issaq, Ionela Iacobas, M Tarek Elghetany, Dolores Lopez-Terrada, Kevin Fisher, Jyotinder Nain Punia
Pediatric chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is uncommon. We report a pediatric patient with CML presenting with a normal white blood cell count and no circulating immature myeloid cells. The patient presented with extreme thrombocytosis (platelet count range: 2,175-3,064 x 109/L) noted incidentally. No splenomegaly was found. Examination of the bone marrow aspirate (BMA) revealed normal cellularity and normal myeloid: erythroid ratio with marked megakaryocytic hyperplasia. Molecular studies on the BMA detected both the major BCR/ABL1p210 fusion transcript (9,280 copies; p210/ABL1 ratio: 38...
July 25, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
M Khalid Khan Niazi, Jonathan H Chung, Katherine J Heaton-Johnson, Daniel Martinez, Raquel Castellanos, Meredith Irwin, Stephen R Master, Bruce Pawel, Metin N Gurcan, Daniel Weiser
A subset of patients with neuroblastoma are at extremely high risk for treatment failure, though they are not identifiable at diagnosis and therefore have the highest mortality with conventional treatment approaches. Despite tremendous understanding of clinical and biological features that correlate with prognosis, neuroblastoma at ultra-high risk for treatment failure remains a diagnostic challenge. As a first step towards improving prognostic risk stratification within the high-risk group of patients, we determined the feasibility of using computerized image analysis and proteomic profiling on single slides from diagnostic tissue specimens...
July 21, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Linda M Ernst, Rebecca L Linn, Lucy Minturn, Emily S Miller
BACKGROUND: The pathology that underlies morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to describe the placental pathology, especially implantation site pathology, associated with MAP. METHODS: This was a single institution, retrospective case-control study design examining placentas of patients who delivered between January 2008 and September 2013. MAP cases were defined by the need for clinical intervention at delivery beyond spontaneous placental delivery or simple manual extraction of the placenta...
July 21, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Henry Tran, Nick Shillingford, Stefanie Thomas, Jeffrey Hammoudeh, Shengmei Zhou
Primary epithelioid sarcoma of bone is extremely rare with only two reported cases in the English literature. A previously healthy 18-year-old male presented with a six-month history of right facial numbness and tingling and right eye diplopia. CT scan revealed an ill-defined mass with dense osseous matrix centered in the right zygomatic bone. An outside biopsy was read as osteosarcoma. The resection specimen revealed large epithelioid and spindle cells embedded in a prominent hyalinized matrix with focal metaplastic bone formation...
July 21, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Kristen Zhelnin, Grant Gebhard, David Mirsky, Scott Oliver, Mark A Lovell, Csaba Galambos, Timothy Crombleholme, Emily McCourt
Intraocular teratomas are rare neoplasms with only three previously reported cases. We present the fourth case of intraocular teratoma and the second associated with sacrococcygeal teratoma. While the nature of the association between intraocular teratomas and sacrococcygeal teratomas is unclear it suggests a need for careful ophthalmologic follow-up of infants with congenital sacrococcygeal teratomas.
July 6, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Narongsak Nakwan, Wuttichart Kamolvisit, Charoen Napapongsuriya, Pornpreenun Chaiwiriyawong, Cheep Charoenlap
Vernix caseosa aspiration is an extremely rare condition resulting in high mortality if complicated by persistent hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Herein we offer the first case report of PPHN due to massive vernix caseosa aspiration documented by histopathological examination. This case report is presented to provide a synopsis of the pathoetiology of PPHN related to vernix caseosa aspiration syndrome as likely to be encountered by neonatologists and general pediatricians involved with neonatal care.
July 6, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"