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Pediatric and Developmental Pathology

Anne-Claude Muller Brochut, Patrick Taffe, Romain Piaget-Rossel, Laurence de Leval, Anne-Laure Rougemont
INTRODUCTION: Reference ranges in fetal postmortem anthropometric data derive from heterogeneous studies and rely on data obtained after intrauterine fetal death and abortion, which may introduce bias in the reported fetal growth parameters. We report anthropometric findings in fetuses with the least variation due to cause of death or developmental anomalies. METHODS: We analyzed fetuses after the termination of pregnancy for psychosocial reasons. The external measurements, X-ray dimensions, and body and organ weights were recorded as well as the placenta weight...
November 19, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Lauren N Parsons, Nghia Vo, David C Moe, Jason A Jarzembowski
Core biopsy (CB) is increasingly popular for assessing solid lesions in children. To date, pediatric literature is limited regarding factors contributing to diagnostically inadequate or inaccurate CB. Therefore, we retrospectively examined radiologic/pathologic factors associated with adequacy/accuracy of CB in pediatric patients. A search of the surgical pathology database for CB between January 2007 and December 2014 yielded 134 CB from 99 patients. Age, sex, anatomic site of lesion, CB diagnosis, and final diagnosis were acquired from the electronic medical record...
November 14, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Meeli Sirotkina, Konstantinos Douroudis, Magnus Westgren, Nikos Papadogiannakis
INTRODUCTION: Chorangioma (CA) is the most common nontrophoblastic, vascular tumor-like lesion of the placenta with a reported incidence of 0.5% to 1% in all examined placentas. The underlying molecular mechanisms of CAs are still poorly elucidated, and a systematic investigation of the genetic background of CAs has not previously been done. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue biopsies from 8 large (>40 mm) histologically confirmed CAs and 8 unaffected matched placenta controls, along with standard control DNA samples were analyzed for large genomic deletions and duplications using array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) method...
November 14, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Alvin B Caballes, Agustina D Abelardo, Miguel J Farolan, Januario Antonio D Veloso
The case involves a 10-year-old child who underwent a left radical nephrectomy for what was believed to be a Wilms' tumor. Histopath examination indicated a benign vascular lesion, subsequently determined to be an anastomosing hemangioma of the kidney. A comparison with the previously cited pediatric patients with renal vascular tumors is provided, and the inconsistent diagnostic terminologies for these conditions are highlighted. The therapeutic implications of these predominantly benign renal tumors, in the context of the much more frequently encountered malignant neoplasms in children, are additionally discussed...
October 28, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Pawel T Schubert, Deidre Mason, Roosacelis Martines, Marlene Deleon-Carnes, Sherif R Zaki, Drucilla J Roberts
Fetal bacterial infections are a common cause of fetal/neonatal morbidity and mortality. The pathologic correlates of congenital bacterial infection include acute chorioamnionitis, acute villitis, and acute intervillositis. The strength of the association of congenital bacterial infection differs among these pathologies. Acute chorioamnionitis results usually from an ascending infection, and damage to the fetus is thought to be cytokine driven rather than damage secondary to bacteremia. Acute villitis is strongly associated with fetal sepsis due to congenital infections...
October 18, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Adam C Wilberger, Xiayuan Liang
Peripheral NK/T-cell lymphoma (PNKTCL) represents a group of uncommon diagnoses for children in Western countries, and studies have often necessitated multiple institutions to assemble enough cases. We retrospectively analyzed 11 cases of nonanaplastic PNKTCL in children over 19 years at our institution with comparison to several published large multi-institutional studies. Patients included 9 males and 2 females of white (5), Native American (3), and Hispanic (3) background with 6 cases of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (EN-NKTL, 54...
October 18, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Alison R Huppmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Safaa Asmandar, Sarangarajan Ranganathan, Rodrigo Ramirez, Olivier Chamond, Aurore Coulomb, Sabah Boudjemaa
Image-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy is a standard and safe procedure for the diagnosis of both solid and hematological malignancies in children. Despite recent improvements, nondiagnosis biopsies persist. Lipoblastoma is a benign adipocytic tumor composed of embryonal fat admixed with mature adipocytes and occurring before the age of 1 year in one-third of cases. Lipoblastoma is usually easily diagnosed, but in some cases, diagnosis may be difficult on percutaneous biopsies, when the lipoblastic component is not well represented or when the tumor contains a prominent myxoid component mimicking other myxoid tumors...
October 15, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Gary M Woods, Natasha Pillay Smiley, Joseph Stanek, Samir Kahwash, Bryce A Kerlin, Sarah H O'Brien
Delta-granule platelet storage pool deficiency (δ-PSPD) is a qualitative platelet function defect associated with variable bleeding phenotypes. Platelet electron microscopy (EM) is commonly utilized to evaluate for δ-PSPD, but intrapatient variability in platelet δ-granule numbers by EM is currently unknown. Fifteen young women aged 11 to 17 years presenting to a young women's hematology clinic for the evaluation of heavy menstrual bleeding underwent platelet EM testing at their initial hematology clinic visit and at 1 and 3 months later...
October 9, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Alexandra E Kovach, Dedrick E Moulton, Walton D Plummer, William D Dupont, M Cristina Pacheco
Detailed histologic scoring systems have been developed for the assessment of disease activity in ulcerative colitis. Literature from adult patients has shown some correlation between endoscopy and histology, and reproducibility of histologic scoring systems has also been supported. The effectiveness of endoscopic appearance at predicting histologic scores in pediatric patients has not been well studied, and none of the histologic scoring systems used in adults have had interobserver reproducibility assessed in pediatric patients...
October 9, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Jerzy Stanek
Preeclampsia is distinguishable from other hypertensive conditions of pregnancy by its high rates of decidual arteriopathy, the uterine type of chronic hypoxic placental injury, the occurrence of villous infarctions, and clusters of multinucleate trophoblasts in the maternal floor. To retrospectively study the clinical and placental phenotypes of 230 women with early-onset preeclampsia, 261 women with late-onset preeclampsia, and 5059 women without hypertension in pregnancy (comparative group), 24 clinical and 46 placental phenotypes were statistically compared (analysis of variance, χ2 with Bonferroni correction)...
October 9, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Kaitlin Stanley, Erika Friehling, Amy Davis, Sarangarajan Ranganathan
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare in children. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient GISTs are wild type and lack KIT proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase and platelet-derived growth factor receptor A ( KIT or PDGFRA) mutations. These tumors result from germline SDH mutations, somatic SDH mutations, or SDH epimutants. Germline mutations in SDH genes ( SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, or SDHD) suggest Carney-Stratakis syndrome, a paraganglioma syndrome with predisposition for GIST. Negative immunohistochemistry for SDHB indicates dysfunction of the mitochondrial complex regardless of the subunit affected...
October 9, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Emanuela Ferretti, Sarah Pilon, Margaret Boland, Dina El Demellawy
Cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI) is a common entity in the pediatric population with a nonspecific presentation ranging from gastrointestinal symptoms to systemic manifestations. Most infants with CMPI are term, and symptoms often appear in the week following the introduction of cow's milk-based formula. There is typically a significant delay in the onset of milk allergy in premature infants compared to full term. We report a rare case of a premature neonate who presented with symptoms of CMPA within the first 2 days of life...
October 4, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
B J van der Knoop, J P van der Voorn, Pgj Nikkels, I A Zonnenberg, M M van Weissenbruch, R J Vermeulen, Jip de Vries
Objective Trauma in pregnancy may cause placental abruption. Consequences of moderate placental injury on neurodevelopment are unknown. The aim was to evaluate placental histology after maternal trauma. Methods A prospective study was conducted at 2 tertiary medical centers in the Netherlands. Placentas from women exposed to maternal trauma ≥ 20 weeks' gestational age were histologically examined. Neurological follow-up of the infants was performed at 1 year of age by means of Alberta Infant Motor Scale...
September 12, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Aude Tessier, Patrick Callier, Nathalie LeMeur, Thierry Frebourg, Jean-Christophe Sabourin, Sophie Patrier
We report a male fetus with a 6.8 Mb deletion on chromosome 7p22.1p22.3 at 16 weeks of gestation. The fetus presented a heart-hand syndrome with great artery malposition, bilateral radial ray deficiency, a single pelvic kidney, and growth retardation. This deletion involves a minimal deleted region for cardiac malformation and the RAC1 gene, previously described in limb anomalies in mice. This fetus is the third human case with limb defects and RAC1 deletion.
September 7, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Claire Hemedez, Elizabeth Trail-Burns, Quanfu Mao, Sharon Chu, Sunil K Shaw, Joseph M Bliss, Monique E De Paepe
Introduction/Objectives Non- albicans Candida species such as Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata have emerged as prevalent pathogens in premature infants. The aim of this study was to systematically delineate the histopathologic findings in neonatal non- albicans candidiasis. Methods We performed a retrospective clinicopathologic analysis of extremely premature (23-28 weeks' gestation) infants diagnosed with invasive candidiasis. Archival autopsy tissues were subjected to periodic acid-Schiff, methenamine-silver and anti- Candida (immuno)histochemical stains, as well as dual anti- Candida and anti-cytokeratin or anti-CD31 immunofluorescence assays...
September 7, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Henning Feist, Gitta Turowski, Kais Hussein, Thordis Blöcker, Albert Heim
Massive perivillous fibrin deposition (MFD) is a morphologically defined severe placental lesion associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality. The etiology is unknown, and recurrence risk in subsequent pregnancies is assumed to be high. In most cases, a pathologic immune reaction is supposed to be responsible for the lesion. We report a case of a pregnant woman's suffering from hand, foot, and mouth disease in the 20th gestational week. Subsequently, MFD developed in the placenta and was followed by intrauterine growth restriction and stillbirth in the 29th gestational week...
September 7, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Konstantinos S Mylonas, Chia-Sui Kao, David Levy, Leonardo Lordello, Paola Dal Cin, Peter T Masiakos, Esther Oliva
Chromosome 12p gains are typically present in postpubertal male patients with testicular malignant germ cell tumors, including most teratomas, and absent in pure ovarian teratomas, both mature and immature. We sought to evaluate the clinicopathologic features and chromosome 12p status of pediatric patients with sacrococcygeal teratomas (SCTs) using the institutional databases of 2 tertiary medical centers. Seven mature teratomas (3 pure, 2 with yolk sac tumor, 1 with medulloepithelioma, and 1 with ependymoma) and 3 immature teratomas (2 pure: grade 2 and grade 3 and 1 mixed: grade 3 with yolk sac tumor) were identified...
September 3, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Rajendra Gharbaran, Latchman Somenarain
Although the World Health Organization declared an end to the recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak and its association with adverse fetal and pediatric outcome, on November 18, 2016, the virus still remains a severe public health threat. Laboratory experiments thus far supported the suspicions that ZIKV is a teratogenic agent. Evidence indicated that ZIKV infection cripples the host cells' innate immune responses, allowing productive replication and potential dissemination of the virus. In addition, studies suggest potential transplacental passage of the virus and subsequent selective targeting of neural progenitor cells (NPCs)...
August 27, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
James R Wright, Peter B Baker, Hiroyuki Shimada
William A (Bill) Newton Jr practiced pediatric pathology and hematology/oncology at Children's Hospital of Columbus, Ohio, for over 40 years starting in 1952. Newton was an original member of the Pediatric Pathology Club, which preceded the Society for Pediatric Pathology, and was its president from 1968 to 1969. He published important independent observations in pediatric pathology, helped establish systematic cooperative pediatric tumor pathology review by experts, became an acclaimed expert on the diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma, was a critical contributor to many pediatric oncology clinical trials, made important early contributions to tumor banking in pediatrics, and trained numerous pediatric pathology and pediatric oncology fellows...
August 20, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
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