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Nature Neuroscience

Antoine Louveau, Jasmin Herz, Maria Nordheim Alme, Andrea Francesca Salvador, Michael Q Dong, Kenneth E Viar, S Grace Herod, James Knopp, Joshua C Setliff, Alexander L Lupi, Sandro Da Mesquita, Elizabeth L Frost, Alban Gaultier, Tajie H Harris, Rui Cao, Song Hu, John R Lukens, Igor Smirnov, Christopher C Overall, Guillermo Oliver, Jonathan Kipnis
Neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, are characterized by invasion of the brain by autoreactive T cells. The mechanism for how T cells acquire their encephalitogenic phenotype and trigger disease remains, however, unclear. The existence of lymphatic vessels in the meninges indicates a relevant link between the CNS and peripheral immune system, perhaps affecting autoimmunity. Here we demonstrate that meningeal lymphatics fulfill two critical criteria: they assist in the drainage of cerebrospinal fluid components and enable immune cells to enter draining lymph nodes in a CCR7-dependent manner...
September 17, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Gianluigi Mongillo, Simon Rumpel, Yonatan Loewenstein
Recent experiments demonstrate substantial volatility of excitatory connectivity in the absence of any learning. This challenges the hypothesis that stable synaptic connections are necessary for long-term maintenance of acquired information. Here we measure ongoing synaptic volatility and use theoretical modeling to study its consequences on cortical dynamics. We show that in the balanced cortex, patterns of neural activity are primarily determined by inhibitory connectivity, despite the fact that most synapses and neurons are excitatory...
September 17, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Xianjun Dong, Zhixiang Liao, David Gritsch, Yavor Hadzhiev, Yunfei Bai, Joseph J Locascio, Boris Guennewig, Ganqiang Liu, Cornelis Blauwendraat, Tao Wang, Charles H Adler, John C Hedreen, Richard L M Faull, Matthew P Frosch, Peter T Nelson, Patrizia Rizzu, Antony A Cooper, Peter Heutink, Thomas G Beach, John S Mattick, Ferenc Müller, Clemens R Scherzer
Enhancers function as DNA logic gates and may control specialized functions of billions of neurons. Here we show a tailored program of noncoding genome elements active in situ in physiologically distinct dopamine neurons of the human brain. We found 71,022 transcribed noncoding elements, many of which were consistent with active enhancers and with regulatory mechanisms in zebrafish and mouse brains. Genetic variants associated with schizophrenia, addiction, and Parkinson's disease were enriched in these elements...
September 17, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Atsushi Noritake, Taihei Ninomiya, Masaki Isoda
Behaviors are influenced by rewards to both oneself and others, but the neurons and neural connections that monitor and evaluate rewards in social contexts are unknown. To address this issue, we devised a social Pavlovian conditioning procedure for pairs of monkeys. Despite being constant in amount and probability, the subjective value of forthcoming self-rewards, as indexed by licking and choice behaviors, decreased as partner-reward probability increased. This value modulation was absent when the conspecific partner was replaced by a physical object...
September 17, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Olga Dal Monte, Siqi Fan, Steve W C Chang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
William Heffley, Eun Young Song, Ziye Xu, Benjamin N Taylor, Mary Anne Hughes, Andrew McKinney, Mati Joshua, Court Hull
The prevailing model of cerebellar learning states that climbing fibers (CFs) are both driven by, and serve to correct, erroneous motor output. However, this model is grounded largely in studies of behaviors that utilize hardwired neural pathways to link sensory input to motor output. To test whether this model applies to more flexible learning regimes that require arbitrary sensorimotor associations, we developed a cerebellar-dependent motor learning task that is compatible with both mesoscale and single-dendrite-resolution calcium imaging in mice...
September 17, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Thomas Marissal, Rodrigo F Salazar, Cristina Bertollini, Sophie Mutel, Mathias De Roo, Ivan Rodriguez, Dominique Müller, Alan Carleton
Schizophrenia is a severely debilitating neurodevelopmental disorder. Establishing a causal link between circuit dysfunction and particular behavioral traits that are relevant to schizophrenia is crucial to shed new light on the mechanisms underlying the pathology. We studied an animal model of the human 22q11 deletion syndrome, the mutation that represents the highest genetic risk of developing schizophrenia. We observed a desynchronization of hippocampal neuronal assemblies that resulted from parvalbumin interneuron hypoexcitability...
September 17, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Timothy R Darlington, Jeffrey M Beck, Stephen G Lisberger
Actions are guided by a Bayesian-like interaction between priors based on experience and current sensory evidence. Here we unveil a complete neural implementation of Bayesian-like behavior, including adaptation of a prior. We recorded the spiking of single neurons in the smooth eye-movement region of the frontal eye fields (FEFSEM ), a region that is causally involved in smooth-pursuit eye movements. Monkeys tracked moving targets in contexts that set different priors for target speed. Before the onset of target motion, preparatory activity encodes and adapts in parallel with the behavioral adaptation of the prior...
September 17, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
William Menegas, Korleki Akiti, Ryunosuke Amo, Naoshige Uchida, Mitsuko Watabe-Uchida
Midbrain dopamine neurons are well known for their role in reward-based reinforcement learning. We found that the activity of dopamine axons in the posterior tail of the striatum (TS) scaled with the novelty and intensity of external stimuli, but did not encode reward value. We demonstrated that the ablation of TS-projecting dopamine neurons specifically inhibited avoidance of novel or high-intensity stimuli without affecting animals' initial avoidance responses, suggesting a role in reinforcement rather than simply in avoidance itself...
September 3, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
John H Wittig, Anthony I Jang, John B Cocjin, Sara K Inati, Kareem A Zaghloul
In the version of this article originally published, the reference citations in the Methods section were misnumbered. This has now been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the paper.
August 20, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Maria Wimber, Arjen Alink, Ian Charest, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte, Michael C Anderson
In the published version of this article, a detail is missing from the Methods section "Experimental procedure." The following sentence is to be inserted at the end of its fourth paragraph: "If participants failed to respond within 3.5 s, we assumed that they were unable to successfully recognize the item and coded the corresponding trial as an error." The critical behavioral forgetting effect is significant irrespective of whether these timeouts are coded as errors (t23 = 4.91, P < 0...
August 15, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Daria Merkurjev, Wan-Ting Hong, Kei Iida, Ikumi Oomoto, Belinda J Goldie, Hitoshi Yamaguti, Takayuki Ohara, Shin-Ya Kawaguchi, Tomoo Hirano, Kelsey C Martin, Matteo Pellegrini, Dan Ohtan Wang
In the version of this article initially published, a Supplementary Fig. 6f was cited in the last paragraph of the Results. No such panel exists; the citation has been deleted. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.
August 10, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Melissa J Sharpe, Chun Yun Chang, Melissa A Liu, Hannah M Batchelor, Lauren E Mueller, Joshua L Jones, Yael Niv, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
In the version of this article initially published, the laser activation at the start of cue X in experiment 1 was described in the first paragraph of the Results and in the third paragraph of the Experiment 1 section of the Methods as lasting 2 s; in fact, it lasted only 1 s. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.
July 17, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Roger Marek, Jingji Jin, Travis D Goode, Thomas F Giustino, Qian Wang, Gillian M Acca, Roopashri Holehonnur, Jonathan E Ploski, Paul J Fitzgerald, Timothy Lynagh, Joseph W Lynch, Stephen Maren, Pankaj Sah
In the version of this article initially published, the traces in Fig. 1j and in Fig. 1k, right, were duplicated from the corresponding traces in Fig. 1c, bottom, and Fig. 1d, bottom right. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.
July 9, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Eldin Jašarević, Christopher D Howard, Kathleen Morrison, Ana Misic, Tiffany Weinkopff, Phillip Scott, Christopher Hunter, Daniel Beiting, Tracy L Bale
Early prenatal stress disrupts maternal-to-offspring microbiota transmission and has lasting effects on metabolism, physiology, cognition, and behavior in male mice. Here we show that transplantation of maternal vaginal microbiota from stressed dams into naive pups delivered by cesarean section had effects that partly resembled those seen in prenatally stressed males. However, transplantation of control maternal vaginal microbiota into prenatally stressed pups delivered by cesarean section did not rescue the prenatal-stress phenotype...
July 9, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Vilas Menon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Kevin W Kelley, Hiromi Nakao-Inoue, Anna V Molofsky, Michael C Oldham
It is widely assumed that cells must be physically isolated to study their molecular profiles. However, intact tissue samples naturally exhibit variation in cellular composition, which drives covariation of cell-class-specific molecular features. By analyzing transcriptional covariation in 7,221 intact CNS samples from 840 neurotypical individuals, representing billions of cells, we reveal the core transcriptional identities of major CNS cell classes in humans. By modeling intact CNS transcriptomes as a function of variation in cellular composition, we identify cell-class-specific transcriptional differences in Alzheimer's disease, among brain regions, and between species...
September 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Joëlle A Pasman, Karin J H Verweij, Zachary Gerring, Sven Stringer, Sandra Sanchez-Roige, Jorien L Treur, Abdel Abdellaoui, Michel G Nivard, Bart M L Baselmans, Jue-Sheng Ong, Hill F Ip, Matthijs D van der Zee, Meike Bartels, Felix R Day, Pierre Fontanillas, Sarah L Elson, Harriet de Wit, Lea K Davis, James MacKillop, Jaime L Derringer, Susan J T Branje, Catharina A Hartman, Andrew C Heath, Pol A C van Lier, Pamela A F Madden, Reedik Mägi, Wim Meeus, Grant W Montgomery, A J Oldehinkel, Zdenka Pausova, Josep A Ramos-Quiroga, Tomas Paus, Marta Ribases, Jaakko Kaprio, Marco P M Boks, Jordana T Bell, Tim D Spector, Joel Gelernter, Dorret I Boomsma, Nicholas G Martin, Stuart MacGregor, John R B Perry, Abraham A Palmer, Danielle Posthuma, Marcus R Munafò, Nathan A Gillespie, Eske M Derks, Jacqueline M Vink
Cannabis use is a heritable trait that has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes. In the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) for lifetime cannabis use to date (N = 184,765), we identified eight genome-wide significant independent single nucleotide polymorphisms in six regions. All measured genetic variants combined explained 11% of the variance. Gene-based tests revealed 35 significant genes in 16 regions, and S-PrediXcan analyses showed that 21 genes had different expression levels for cannabis users versus nonusers...
September 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Eszter Boldog, Trygve E Bakken, Rebecca D Hodge, Mark Novotny, Brian D Aevermann, Judith Baka, Sándor Bordé, Jennie L Close, Francisco Diez-Fuertes, Song-Lin Ding, Nóra Faragó, Ágnes K Kocsis, Balázs Kovács, Zoe Maltzer, Jamison M McCorrison, Jeremy A Miller, Gábor Molnár, Gáspár Oláh, Attila Ozsvár, Márton Rózsa, Soraya I Shehata, Kimberly A Smith, Susan M Sunkin, Danny N Tran, Pratap Venepally, Abby Wall, László G Puskás, Pál Barzó, Frank J Steemers, Nicholas J Schork, Richard H Scheuermann, Roger S Lasken, Ed S Lein, Gábor Tamás
We describe convergent evidence from transcriptomics, morphology, and physiology for a specialized GABAergic neuron subtype in human cortex. Using unbiased single-nucleus RNA sequencing, we identify ten GABAergic interneuron subtypes with combinatorial gene signatures in human cortical layer 1 and characterize a group of human interneurons with anatomical features never described in rodents, having large 'rosehip'-like axonal boutons and compact arborization. These rosehip cells show an immunohistochemical profile (GAD1+ CCK+ , CNR1- SST- CALB2- PVALB- ) matching a single transcriptomically defined cell type whose specific molecular marker signature is not seen in mouse cortex...
September 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Fanny Herisson, Vanessa Frodermann, Gabriel Courties, David Rohde, Yuan Sun, Katrien Vandoorne, Gregory R Wojtkiewicz, Gustavo Santos Masson, Claudio Vinegoni, Jiwon Kim, Dong-Eog Kim, Ralph Weissleder, Filip K Swirski, Michael A Moskowitz, Matthias Nahrendorf
Innate immune cells recruited to inflammatory sites have short life spans and originate from the marrow, which is distributed throughout the long and flat bones. While bone marrow production and release of leukocyte increases after stroke, it is currently unknown whether its activity rises homogeneously throughout the entire hematopoietic system. To address this question, we employed spectrally resolved in vivo cell labeling in the murine skull and tibia. We show that in murine models of stroke and aseptic meningitis, skull bone marrow-derived neutrophils are more likely to migrate to the adjacent brain tissue than cells that reside in the tibia...
September 2018: Nature Neuroscience
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