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Nature Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893727/mechanosensory-hair-cells-express-two-molecularly-distinct-mechanotransduction-channels
#1
Zizhen Wu, Nicolas Grillet, Bo Zhao, Christopher Cunningham, Sarah Harkins-Perry, Bertrand Coste, Sanjeev Ranade, Navid Zebarjadi, Maryline Beurg, Robert Fettiplace, Ardem Patapoutian, Ulrich Müller
Auditory hair cells contain mechanotransduction channels that rapidly open in response to sound-induced vibrations. We report here that auditory hair cells contain two molecularly distinct mechanotransduction channels. One ion channel is activated by sound and is responsible for sensory transduction. This sensory transduction channel is expressed in hair cell stereocilia, and previous studies show that its activity is affected by mutations in the genes encoding the transmembrane proteins TMHS, TMIE, TMC1 and TMC2...
November 28, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893726/glutamatergic-synaptic-integration-of-locomotion-speed-via-septoentorhinal-projections
#2
Daniel Justus, Dennis Dalügge, Stefanie Bothe, Falko Fuhrmann, Christian Hannes, Hiroshi Kaneko, Detlef Friedrichs, Liudmila Sosulina, Inna Schwarz, David Anthony Elliott, Susanne Schoch, Frank Bradke, Martin Karl Schwarz, Stefan Remy
The medial septum and diagonal band of Broca (MSDB) send glutamatergic axons to medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). We found that this pathway provides speed-correlated input to several MEC cell-types in layer 2/3. The speed signal is integrated most effectively by pyramidal cells but also excites stellate cells and interneurons. Thus, the MSDB conveys speed information that can be used by MEC neurons for spatial representation of self-location.
November 28, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869801/direct-dorsal-hippocampal-prelimbic-cortex-connections-strengthen-fear-memories
#3
Xiaojing Ye, Dana Kapeller-Libermann, Alessio Travaglia, M Carmen Inda, Cristina M Alberini
The ability to regulate the consolidation and strengthening of memories for threatening experiences is critical for mental health, and its dysregulation may lead to psychopathologies. Re-exposure to the context in which the threat was experienced can either increase or decrease fear response through distinct processes known, respectively, as reconsolidation or extinction. Using a context retrieval-dependent memory-enhancement model in rats, we report that memory strengthens through activation of direct projections from dorsal hippocampus to prelimbic (PL) cortex and activation of critical PL molecular mechanisms that are not required for extinction...
November 21, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869800/a-rapidly-acting-glutamatergic-arc%C3%A2-pvh-satiety-circuit-postsynaptically-regulated-by-%C3%AE-msh
#4
Henning Fenselau, John N Campbell, Anne M J Verstegen, Joseph C Madara, Jie Xu, Bhavik P Shah, Jon M Resch, Zongfang Yang, Yael Mandelblat-Cerf, Yoav Livneh, Bradford B Lowell
Arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons sense the fed or fasted state and regulate hunger. Agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons in the ARC (ARC(AgRP) neurons) are stimulated by fasting and, once activated, they rapidly (within minutes) drive hunger. Pro-opiomelanocortin (ARC(POMC)) neurons are viewed as the counterpoint to ARC(AgRP) neurons. They are regulated in an opposite fashion and decrease hunger. However, unlike ARC(AgRP) neurons, ARC(POMC) neurons are extremely slow in affecting hunger (many hours). Thus, a temporally analogous, rapid ARC satiety pathway does not exist or is presently unidentified...
November 21, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842071/a-feedback-neural-circuit-for-calibrating-aversive-memory-strength
#5
Takaaki Ozawa, Edgar A Ycu, Ashwani Kumar, Li-Feng Yeh, Touqeer Ahmed, Jenny Koivumaa, Joshua P Johansen
Aversive experiences powerfully regulate memory formation, and memory strength is proportional to the intensity of these experiences. Inhibition of the neural circuits that convey aversive signals when they are predicted by other sensory stimuli is hypothesized to set associative memory strength. However, the neural circuit mechanisms that produce this predictive inhibition to regulate memory formation are unknown. Here we show that predictive sensory cues recruit a descending feedback circuit from the central amygdala that activates a specific population of midbrain periaqueductal gray pain-modulatory neurons to control aversive memory strength...
November 14, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820602/an-interferon-%C3%AE-resistant-and-nlrp3-inflammasome-independent-subtype-of-eae-with-neuronal-damage
#6
Makoto Inoue, Po-Han Chen, Stephen Siecinski, Qi-Jing Li, Chunlei Liu, Lawrence Steinman, Simon G Gregory, Eric Benner, Mari L Shinohara
Inflammation induced by innate immunity influences the development of T cell-mediated autoimmunity in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We found that strong activation of innate immunity induced Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-independent and interferon-β (IFNβ)-resistant EAE (termed type B EAE), whereas EAE induced by weak activation of innate immunity requires the NLRP3 inflammasome and is sensitive to IFNβ treatment. Instead, an alternative inflammatory mechanism, including membrane-bound lymphotoxin-β receptor (LTβR) and CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2), is involved in type B EAE development, and type B EAE is ameliorated by antagonizing these receptors...
November 7, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798633/vibrissa-motor-cortex-activity-suppresses-contralateral-whisking-behavior
#7
Christian Laut Ebbesen, Guy Doron, Constanze Lenschow, Michael Brecht
Anatomical, stimulation and lesion data implicate vibrissa motor cortex in whisker motor control. Work on motor cortex has focused on movement generation, but correlations between vibrissa motor cortex activity and whisking are weak. The exact role of vibrissa motor cortex remains unknown. We recorded vibrissa motor cortex neurons during various forms of vibrissal touch, which were invariably associated with whisker protraction and movement. Free whisking, object palpation and social touch all resulted in decreased cortical activity...
October 31, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798632/a-faithful-internal-representation-of-walking-movements-in-the-drosophila-visual-system
#8
Terufumi Fujiwara, Tomás L Cruz, James P Bohnslav, M Eugenia Chiappe
The integration of sensorimotor signals to internally estimate self-movement is critical for spatial perception and motor control. However, which neural circuits accurately track body motion and how these circuits control movement remain unknown. We found that a population of Drosophila neurons that were sensitive to visual flow patterns typically generated during locomotion, the horizontal system (HS) cells, encoded unambiguous quantitative information about the fly's walking behavior independently of vision...
October 31, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798631/parallel-processing-by-cortical-inhibition-enables-context-dependent-behavior
#9
Kishore V Kuchibhotla, Jonathan V Gill, Grace W Lindsay, Eleni S Papadoyannis, Rachel E Field, Tom A Hindmarsh Sten, Kenneth D Miller, Robert C Froemke
Physical features of sensory stimuli are fixed, but sensory perception is context dependent. The precise mechanisms that govern contextual modulation remain unknown. Here, we trained mice to switch between two contexts: passively listening to pure tones and performing a recognition task for the same stimuli. Two-photon imaging showed that many excitatory neurons in auditory cortex were suppressed during behavior, while some cells became more active. Whole-cell recordings showed that excitatory inputs were affected only modestly by context, but inhibition was more sensitive, with PV(+), SOM(+), and VIP(+) interneurons balancing inhibition and disinhibition within the network...
October 31, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798630/the-spatial-structure-of-correlated-neuronal-variability
#10
Robert Rosenbaum, Matthew A Smith, Adam Kohn, Jonathan E Rubin, Brent Doiron
Shared neural variability is ubiquitous in cortical populations. While this variability is presumed to arise from overlapping synaptic input, its precise relationship to local circuit architecture remains unclear. We combine computational models and in vivo recordings to study the relationship between the spatial structure of connectivity and correlated variability in neural circuits. Extending the theory of networks with balanced excitation and inhibition, we find that spatially localized lateral projections promote weakly correlated spiking, but broader lateral projections produce a distinctive spatial correlation structure: nearby neuron pairs are positively correlated, pairs at intermediate distances are negatively correlated and distant pairs are weakly correlated...
October 31, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798629/a-viral-strategy-for-targeting-and-manipulating-interneurons-across-vertebrate-species
#11
Jordane Dimidschstein, Qian Chen, Robin Tremblay, Stephanie L Rogers, Giuseppe-Antonio Saldi, Lihua Guo, Qing Xu, Runpeng Liu, Congyi Lu, Jianhua Chu, Michael C Avery, Mohammad S Rashid, Myungin Baek, Amanda L Jacob, Gordon B Smith, Daniel E Wilson, Georg Kosche, Illya Kruglikov, Tomasz Rusielewicz, Vibhakar C Kotak, Todd M Mowery, Stewart A Anderson, Edward M Callaway, Jeremy S Dasen, David Fitzpatrick, Valentina Fossati, Michael A Long, Scott Noggle, John H Reynolds, Dan H Sanes, Bernardo Rudy, Guoping Feng, Gord Fishell
A fundamental impediment to understanding the brain is the availability of inexpensive and robust methods for targeting and manipulating specific neuronal populations. The need to overcome this barrier is pressing because there are considerable anatomical, physiological, cognitive and behavioral differences between mice and higher mammalian species in which it is difficult to specifically target and manipulate genetically defined functional cell types. In particular, it is unclear the degree to which insights from mouse models can shed light on the neural mechanisms that mediate cognitive functions in higher species, including humans...
October 31, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786180/using-model-systems-to-understand-errant-plasticity-mechanisms-in-psychiatric-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Bruno B Averbeck, Matthew V Chafee
In vivo model systems are a critical tool for gaining insight into the pathology underlying psychiatric disorders. Although modern functional imaging tools allow study of brain correlates of behavior in clinical groups and genome-wide association studies are beginning to uncover the complex genetic architecture of psychiatric disorders, there is less understanding of pathology at intervening levels of organization. Several psychiatric disorders derive from pathological neural plasticity, and studying the mechanisms that underlie these processes, including reinforcement learning and spike-timing-dependent plasticity, requires the use of animals...
October 26, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775722/gravity-orientation-tuning-in-macaque-anterior-thalamus
#13
Jean Laurens, Byounghoon Kim, J David Dickman, Dora E Angelaki
Gravity may provide a ubiquitous allocentric reference to the brain's spatial orientation circuits. Here we describe neurons in the macaque anterior thalamus tuned to pitch and roll orientation relative to gravity, independently of visual landmarks. We show that individual cells exhibit two-dimensional tuning curves, with peak firing rates at a preferred vertical orientation. These results identify a thalamic pathway for gravity cues to influence perception, action and spatial cognition.
October 24, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775721/the-brain-adapts-to-dishonesty
#14
Neil Garrett, Stephanie C Lazzaro, Dan Ariely, Tali Sharot
Dishonesty is an integral part of our social world, influencing domains ranging from finance and politics to personal relationships. Anecdotally, digressions from a moral code are often described as a series of small breaches that grow over time. Here we provide empirical evidence for a gradual escalation of self-serving dishonesty and reveal a neural mechanism supporting it. Behaviorally, we show that the extent to which participants engage in self-serving dishonesty increases with repetition. Using functional MRI, we show that signal reduction in the amygdala is sensitive to the history of dishonest behavior, consistent with adaptation...
October 24, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775720/a-neuronal-pi-3-4-5-p3-dependent-program-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-recruitment-and-myelination
#15
Sandra Goebbels, Georg L Wieser, Alexander Pieper, Sonia Spitzer, Bettina Weege, Kuo Yan, Julia M Edgar, Oleksandr Yagensky, Sven P Wichert, Amit Agarwal, Khalad Karram, Nicolas Renier, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Moritz J Rossner, Ragnhildur Thóra Káradóttir, Klaus-Armin Nave
The molecular trigger of CNS myelination is unknown. By targeting Pten in cerebellar granule cells and activating the AKT1-mTOR pathway, we increased the caliber of normally unmyelinated axons and the expression of numerous genes encoding regulatory proteins. This led to the expansion of genetically wild-type oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, oligodendrocyte differentiation and de novo myelination of parallel fibers. Thus, a neuronal program dependent on the phosphoinositide PI(3,4,5)P3 is sufficient to trigger all steps of myelination...
October 24, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749830/functional-and-structural-underpinnings-of-neuronal-assembly-formation-in-learning
#16
REVIEW
Anthony Holtmaat, Pico Caroni
Learning and memory are associated with the formation and modification of neuronal assemblies: populations of neurons that encode what has been learned and mediate memory retrieval upon recall. Functional studies of neuronal assemblies have progressed dramatically thanks to recent technological advances. Here we discuss how a focus on assembly formation and consolidation has provided a powerful conceptual framework to relate mechanistic studies of synaptic and circuit plasticity to behaviorally relevant aspects of learning and memory...
October 17, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749829/trpa1-mediates-sensation-of-the-rate-of-temperature-change-in-drosophila-larvae
#17
Junjie Luo, Wei L Shen, Craig Montell
Avoidance of noxious ambient heat is crucial for survival. A well-known phenomenon is that animals are sensitive to the rate of temperature change. However, the cellular and molecular underpinnings through which animals sense and respond much more vigorously to fast temperature changes are unknown. Using Drosophila larvae, we found that nociceptive rolling behavior was triggered at lower temperatures and at higher frequencies when the temperature increased rapidly. We identified neurons in the brain that were sensitive to the speed of the temperature increase rather than just to the absolute temperature...
October 17, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749827/synaptic-scaling-rule-preserves-excitatory-inhibitory-balance-and-salient-neuronal-network-dynamics
#18
Jérémie Barral, Alex D Reyes
The balance between excitation and inhibition (E-I balance) is maintained across brain regions though the network size, strength and number of synaptic connections, and connection architecture may vary substantially. We use a culture preparation to examine the homeostatic synaptic scaling rules that produce E-I balance and in vivo-like activity. We show that synaptic strength scales with the number of connections K as ∼ , close to the ideal theoretical value. Using optogenetic techniques, we delivered spatiotemporally patterned stimuli to neurons and confirmed key theoretical predictions: E-I balance is maintained, active decorrelation occurs and the spiking correlation increases with firing rate...
October 17, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749826/antagonistic-negative-and-positive-neurons-of-the-basolateral-amygdala
#19
Joshua Kim, Michele Pignatelli, Sangyu Xu, Shigeyoshi Itohara, Susumu Tonegawa
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a site of convergence of negative and positive stimuli and is critical for emotional behaviors and associations. However, the neural substrate for negative and positive behaviors and relationship between negative and positive representations in the basolateral amygdala are unknown. Here we identify two genetically distinct, spatially segregated populations of excitatory neurons in the mouse BLA that participate in valence-specific behaviors and are connected through mutual inhibition...
October 17, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749825/layer-4-fast-spiking-interneurons-filter-thalamocortical-signals-during-active-somatosensation
#20
Jianing Yu, Diego A Gutnisky, S Andrew Hires, Karel Svoboda
We rely on movement to explore the environment, for example, by palpating an object. In somatosensory cortex, activity related to movement of digits or whiskers is suppressed, which could facilitate detection of touch. Movement-related suppression is generally assumed to involve corollary discharges. Here we uncovered a thalamocortical mechanism in which cortical fast-spiking interneurons, driven by sensory input, suppress movement-related activity in layer 4 (L4) excitatory neurons. In mice locating objects with their whiskers, neurons in the ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) fired in response to touch and whisker movement...
October 17, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
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