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Nature Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504673/a-fluoro-nissl-dye-identifies-pericytes-as-distinct-vascular-mural-cells-during-in-vivo-brain-imaging
#1
Eyiyemisi C Damisah, Robert A Hill, Lei Tong, Katie N Murray, Jaime Grutzendler
Pericytes and smooth muscle cells are integral components of the brain microvasculature. However, no techniques exist to unambiguously identify these cell types, greatly limiting their investigation in vivo. Here we show that the fluorescent Nissl dye NeuroTrace 500/525 labels brain pericytes with specificity, allowing high-resolution optical imaging in the live mouse. We demonstrate that capillary pericytes are a population of mural cells with distinct morphological, molecular and functional features that do not overlap with precapillary or arteriolar smooth muscle actin-expressing cells...
May 15, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504672/identification-of-a-motor-to-auditory-pathway-important-for-vocal-learning
#2
Todd F Roberts, Erin Hisey, Masashi Tanaka, Matthew G Kearney, Gaurav Chattree, Cindy F Yang, Nirao M Shah, Richard Mooney
Learning to vocalize depends on the ability to adaptively modify the temporal and spectral features of vocal elements. Neurons that convey motor-related signals to the auditory system are theorized to facilitate vocal learning, but the identity and function of such neurons remain unknown. Here we identify a previously unknown neuron type in the songbird brain that transmits vocal motor signals to the auditory cortex. Genetically ablating these neurons in juveniles disrupted their ability to imitate features of an adult tutor's song...
May 15, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504671/reduced-sensory-synaptic-excitation-impairs-motor-neuron-function-via-kv2-1-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#3
Emily V Fletcher, Christian M Simon, John G Pagiazitis, Joshua I Chalif, Aleksandra Vukojicic, Estelle Drobac, Xiaojian Wang, George Z Mentis
Behavioral deficits in neurodegenerative diseases are often attributed to the selective dysfunction of vulnerable neurons via cell-autonomous mechanisms. Although vulnerable neurons are embedded in neuronal circuits, the contributions of their synaptic partners to disease process are largely unknown. Here we show that, in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a reduction in proprioceptive synaptic drive leads to motor neuron dysfunction and motor behavior impairments. In SMA mice or after the blockade of proprioceptive synaptic transmission, we observed a decrease in the motor neuron firing that could be explained by the reduction in the expression of the potassium channel Kv2...
May 15, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481350/cell-specific-pallidal-intervention-induces-long-lasting-motor-recovery-in-dopamine-depleted-mice
#4
Kevin J Mastro, Kevin T Zitelli, Amanda M Willard, Kimberly H Leblanc, Alexxai V Kravitz, Aryn H Gittis
The identification of distinct cell types in the basal ganglia has been critical to our understanding of basal ganglia function and the treatment of neurological disorders. The external globus pallidus (GPe) is a key contributor to motor suppressing pathways in the basal ganglia, yet its neuronal heterogeneity has remained an untapped resource for therapeutic interventions. Here we demonstrate that optogenetic interventions that dissociate the activity of two neuronal populations in the GPe, elevating the activity of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing GPe neurons over that of Lim homeobox 6 (Lhx6)-expressing GPe neurons, restores movement in dopamine-depleted mice and attenuates pathological activity of basal ganglia output neurons for hours beyond stimulation...
May 8, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481348/cortical-gamma-band-synchronization-through-somatostatin-interneurons
#5
Julia Veit, Richard Hakim, Monika P Jadi, Terrence J Sejnowski, Hillel Adesnik
Gamma band rhythms may synchronize distributed cell assemblies to facilitate information transfer within and across brain areas, yet their underlying mechanisms remain hotly debated. Most circuit models postulate that soma-targeting parvalbumin-positive GABAergic neurons are the essential inhibitory neuron subtype necessary for gamma rhythms. Using cell-type-specific optogenetic manipulations in behaving animals, we show that dendrite-targeting somatostatin (SOM) interneurons are critical for a visually induced, context-dependent gamma rhythm in visual cortex...
May 8, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481349/thalamic-projections-sustain-prefrontal-activity-during-working-memory-maintenance
#6
Scott S Bolkan, Joseph M Stujenske, Sebastien Parnaudeau, Timothy J Spellman, Caroline Rauffenbart, Atheir I Abbas, Alexander Z Harris, Joshua A Gordon, Christoph Kellendonk
The mediodorsal thalamus (MD) shares reciprocal connectivity with the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and decreased MD-PFC connectivity is observed in schizophrenia patients. Patients also display cognitive deficits including impairments in working memory, but a mechanistic link between thalamo-prefrontal circuit function and working memory is missing. Using pathway-specific inhibition, we found directional interactions between mouse MD and medial PFC (mPFC), with MD-to-mPFC supporting working memory maintenance and mPFC-to-MD supporting subsequent choice...
May 3, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459442/moral-transgressions-corrupt-neural-representations-of-value
#7
Molly J Crockett, Jenifer Z Siegel, Zeb Kurth-Nelson, Peter Dayan, Raymond J Dolan
Moral systems universally prohibit harming others for personal gain. However, we know little about how such principles guide moral behavior. Using a task that assesses the financial cost participants ascribe to harming others versus themselves, we probed the relationship between moral behavior and neural representations of profit and pain. Most participants displayed moral preferences, placing a higher cost on harming others than themselves. Moral preferences correlated with neural responses to profit, where participants with stronger moral preferences had lower dorsal striatal responses to profit gained from harming others...
May 1, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459441/mural-lymphatic-endothelial-cells-regulate-meningeal-angiogenesis-in-the-zebrafish
#8
Neil I Bower, Katarzyna Koltowska, Cathy Pichol-Thievend, Isaac Virshup, Scott Paterson, Anne K Lagendijk, Weili Wang, Benjamin W Lindsey, Stephen J Bent, Sungmin Baek, Maria Rondon-Galeano, Daniel G Hurley, Naoki Mochizuki, Cas Simons, Mathias Francois, Christine A Wells, Jan Kaslin, Benjamin M Hogan
Mural cells of the vertebrate brain maintain vascular integrity and function, play roles in stroke and are involved in maintenance of neural stem cells. However, the origins, diversity and roles of mural cells remain to be fully understood. Using transgenic zebrafish, we identified a population of isolated mural lymphatic endothelial cells surrounding meningeal blood vessels. These meningeal mural lymphatic endothelial cells (muLECs) express lymphatic endothelial cell markers and form by sprouting from blood vessels...
May 1, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436982/delay-activity-of-specific-prefrontal-interneuron-subtypes-modulates-memory-guided-behavior
#9
Tsukasa Kamigaki, Yang Dan
Memory-guided behavior requires maintenance of task-relevant information without sensory input, but the underlying circuit mechanism remains unclear. Calcium imaging in mice performing a delayed Go or No-Go task revealed robust delay activity in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, with different pyramidal neurons signaling Go and No-Go action plans. Inhibiting pyramidal neurons by optogenetically activating somatostatin- or parvalbumin-positive interneurons, even transiently during the delay, impaired task performance, primarily by increasing inappropriate Go responses...
April 24, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436981/identification-of-spinal-circuits-involved-in-touch-evoked-dynamic-mechanical-pain
#10
Longzhen Cheng, Bo Duan, Tianwen Huang, Yan Zhang, Yangyang Chen, Olivier Britz, Lidia Garcia-Campmany, Xiangyu Ren, Linh Vong, Bradford B Lowell, Martyn Goulding, Yun Wang, Qiufu Ma
Mechanical hypersensitivity is a debilitating symptom for millions of chronic pain patients. It exists in distinct forms, including brush-evoked dynamic and filament-evoked punctate hypersensitivities. We reduced dynamic mechanical hypersensitivity induced by nerve injury or inflammation in mice by ablating a group of adult spinal neurons defined by developmental co-expression of VGLUT3 and Lbx1 (VT3(Lbx1) neurons): the mice lost brush-evoked nocifensive responses and conditional place aversion. Electrophysiological recordings show that VT3(Lbx1) neurons form morphine-resistant polysynaptic pathways relaying inputs from low-threshold Aβ mechanoreceptors to lamina I output neurons...
April 24, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436980/amygdala-inputs-to-prefrontal-cortex-guide-behavior-amid-conflicting-cues-of-reward-and-punishment
#11
Anthony Burgos-Robles, Eyal Y Kimchi, Ehsan M Izadmehr, Mary Jane Porzenheim, William A Ramos-Guasp, Edward H Nieh, Ada C Felix-Ortiz, Praneeth Namburi, Christopher A Leppla, Kara N Presbrey, Kavitha K Anandalingam, Pablo A Pagan-Rivera, Melodi Anahtar, Anna Beyeler, Kay M Tye
Orchestrating appropriate behavioral responses in the face of competing signals that predict either rewards or threats in the environment is crucial for survival. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) and prelimbic (PL) medial prefrontal cortex have been implicated in reward-seeking and fear-related responses, but how information flows between these reciprocally connected structures to coordinate behavior is unknown. We recorded neuronal activity from the BLA and PL while rats performed a task wherein competing shock- and sucrose-predictive cues were simultaneously presented...
April 24, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414333/dynamic-hidden-states-underlying-working-memory-guided-behavior
#12
Michael J Wolff, Janina Jochim, Elkan G Akyürek, Mark G Stokes
Recent theoretical models propose that working memory is mediated by rapid transitions in 'activity-silent' neural states (for example, short-term synaptic plasticity). According to the dynamic coding framework, such hidden state transitions flexibly configure memory networks for memory-guided behavior and dissolve them equally fast to allow forgetting. We developed a perturbation approach to measure mnemonic hidden states in an electroencephalogram. By 'pinging' the brain during maintenance, we show that memory-item-specific information is decodable from the impulse response, even in the absence of attention and lingering delay activity...
April 17, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414332/comprehensive-transcriptome-analysis-of-neocortical-layers-in-humans-chimpanzees-and-macaques
#13
Zhisong He, Dingding Han, Olga Efimova, Patricia Guijarro, Qianhui Yu, Anna Oleksiak, Shasha Jiang, Konstantin Anokhin, Boris Velichkovsky, Stefan Grünewald, Philipp Khaitovich
While human cognitive abilities are clearly unique, underlying changes in brain organization and function remain unresolved. Here we characterized the transcriptome of the cortical layers and adjacent white matter in the prefrontal cortexes of humans, chimpanzees and rhesus macaques using unsupervised sectioning followed by RNA sequencing. More than 20% of detected genes were expressed predominantly in one layer, yielding 2,320 human layer markers. While the bulk of the layer markers were conserved among species, 376 switched their expression to another layer in humans...
April 17, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414331/a-new-fate-mapping-system-reveals-context-dependent-random-or-clonal-expansion-of-microglia
#14
Tuan Leng Tay, Dominic Mai, Jana Dautzenberg, Francisco Fernández-Klett, Gen Lin, Sagar, Moumita Datta, Anne Drougard, Thomas Stempfl, Alberto Ardura-Fabregat, Ori Staszewski, Anca Margineanu, Anje Sporbert, Lars M Steinmetz, J Andrew Pospisilik, Steffen Jung, Josef Priller, Dominic Grün, Olaf Ronneberger, Marco Prinz
Microglia constitute a highly specialized network of tissue-resident immune cells that is important for the control of tissue homeostasis and the resolution of diseases of the CNS. Little is known about how their spatial distribution is established and maintained in vivo. Here we establish a new multicolor fluorescence fate mapping system to monitor microglial dynamics during steady state and disease. Our findings suggest that microglia establish a dense network with regional differences, and the high regional turnover rates found challenge the universal concept of microglial longevity...
April 17, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394324/abnormal-wiring-of-cck-basket-cells-disrupts-spatial-information-coding
#15
Isabel Del Pino, Jorge R Brotons-Mas, André Marques-Smith, Aline Marighetto, Andreas Frick, Oscar Marín, Beatriz Rico
The function of cortical GABAergic interneurons is largely determined by their integration into specific neural circuits, but the mechanisms controlling the wiring of these cells remain largely unknown. This is particularly true for a major population of basket cells that express the neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK). Here we found that the tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB4 was required for the normal integration into cortical circuits of basket cells expressing CCK and vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGlut3)...
April 10, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394323/sharp-wave-ripples-during-learning-stabilize-the-hippocampal-spatial-map
#16
Lisa Roux, Bo Hu, Ronny Eichler, Eran Stark, György Buzsáki
Cognitive representation of the environment requires a stable hippocampal map, but the mechanisms maintaining a given map are unknown. Because sharp wave-ripples (SPW-R) orchestrate both retrospective and prospective spatial information, we hypothesized that disrupting neuronal activity during SPW-Rs affects spatial representation. Mice learned new sets of three goal locations daily in a multiwell maze. We used closed-loop SPW-R detection at goal locations to trigger optogenetic silencing of a subset of CA1 pyramidal neurons...
April 10, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394322/the-neural-correlates-of-dreaming
#17
Francesca Siclari, Benjamin Baird, Lampros Perogamvros, Giulio Bernardi, Joshua J LaRocque, Brady Riedner, Melanie Boly, Bradley R Postle, Giulio Tononi
Consciousness never fades during waking. However, when awakened from sleep, we sometimes recall dreams and sometimes recall no experiences. Traditionally, dreaming has been identified with rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep, characterized by wake-like, globally 'activated', high-frequency electroencephalographic activity. However, dreaming also occurs in non-REM (NREM) sleep, characterized by prominent low-frequency activity. This challenges our understanding of the neural correlates of conscious experiences in sleep...
April 10, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288126/manipulating-fear-associations-via-optogenetic-modulation-of-amygdala-inputs-to-prefrontal-cortex
#18
Oded Klavir, Matthias Prigge, Ayelet Sarel, Rony Paz, Ofer Yizhar
Fear-related disorders are thought to reflect strong and persistent fear memories. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) form strong reciprocal synaptic connections that play a key role in acquisition and extinction of fear memories. While synaptic contacts of BLA cells onto mPFC neurons are likely to play a crucial role in this process, the BLA connects with several additional nuclei within the fear circuit that could relay fear-associated information to the mPFC, and the contribution of direct monosynaptic BLA-mPFC inputs is not yet clear...
March 13, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263302/whole-genome-sequencing-resource-identifies-18-new-candidate-genes-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Ryan K C Yuen, Daniele Merico, Matt Bookman, Jennifer L Howe, Bhooma Thiruvahindrapuram, Rohan V Patel, Joe Whitney, Nicole Deflaux, Jonathan Bingham, Zhuozhi Wang, Giovanna Pellecchia, Janet A Buchanan, Susan Walker, Christian R Marshall, Mohammed Uddin, Mehdi Zarrei, Eric Deneault, Lia D'Abate, Ada J S Chan, Stephanie Koyanagi, Tara Paton, Sergio L Pereira, Ny Hoang, Worrawat Engchuan, Edward J Higginbotham, Karen Ho, Sylvia Lamoureux, Weili Li, Jeffrey R MacDonald, Thomas Nalpathamkalam, Wilson W L Sung, Fiona J Tsoi, John Wei, Lizhen Xu, Anne-Marie Tasse, Emily Kirby, William Van Etten, Simon Twigger, Wendy Roberts, Irene Drmic, Sanne Jilderda, Bonnie MacKinnon Modi, Barbara Kellam, Michael Szego, Cheryl Cytrynbaum, Rosanna Weksberg, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Marc Woodbury-Smith, Jessica Brian, Lili Senman, Alana Iaboni, Krissy Doyle-Thomas, Ann Thompson, Christina Chrysler, Jonathan Leef, Tal Savion-Lemieux, Isabel M Smith, Xudong Liu, Rob Nicolson, Vicki Seifer, Angie Fedele, Edwin H Cook, Stephen Dager, Annette Estes, Louise Gallagher, Beth A Malow, Jeremy R Parr, Sarah J Spence, Jacob Vorstman, Brendan J Frey, James T Robinson, Lisa J Strug, Bridget A Fernandez, Mayada Elsabbagh, Melissa T Carter, Joachim Hallmayer, Bartha M Knoppers, Evdokia Anagnostou, Peter Szatmari, Robert H Ring, David Glazer, Mathew T Pletcher, Stephen W Scherer
We are performing whole-genome sequencing of families with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to build a resource (MSSNG) for subcategorizing the phenotypes and underlying genetic factors involved. Here we report sequencing of 5,205 samples from families with ASD, accompanied by clinical information, creating a database accessible on a cloud platform and through a controlled-access internet portal. We found an average of 73.8 de novo single nucleotide variants and 12.6 de novo insertions and deletions or copy number variations per ASD subject...
March 6, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263300/a-distinct-entorhinal-cortex-to-hippocampal-ca1-direct-circuit-for-olfactory-associative-learning
#20
Yiding Li, Jiamin Xu, Yafeng Liu, Jia Zhu, Nan Liu, Wenbo Zeng, Ning Huang, Malte J Rasch, Haifei Jiang, Xiang Gu, Xiang Li, Minhua Luo, Chengyu Li, Junlin Teng, Jianguo Chen, Shaoqun Zeng, Longnian Lin, Xiaohui Zhang
Lateral and medial parts of entorhinal cortex (EC) convey nonspatial 'what' and spatial 'where' information, respectively, into hippocampal CA1, via both the indirect EC layer 2→ hippocampal dentate gyrus→CA3→CA1 and the direct EC layer 3→CA1 paths. However, it remains elusive how the direct path transfers distinct information and contributes to hippocampal learning functions. Here we report that lateral EC projection neurons selectively form direct excitatory synapses onto a subpopulation of morphologically complex, calbindin-expressing pyramidal cells (PCs) in the dorsal CA1 (dCA1), while medial EC neurons uniformly innervate all dCA1 PCs...
March 6, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
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