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Nature Neuroscience

Nina Dedic, Claudia Kühne, Mira Jakovcevski, Jakob Hartmann, Andreas J Genewsky, Karina S Gomes, Elmira Anderzhanova, Max L Pöhlmann, Simon Chang, Adam Kolarz, Annette M Vogl, Julien Dine, Michael W Metzger, Bianca Schmid, Rafael C Almada, Kerry J Ressler, Carsten T Wotjak, Valery Grinevich, Alon Chen, Mathias V Schmidt, Wolfgang Wurst, Damian Refojo, Jan M Deussing
The interplay between corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and the dopaminergic system has predominantly been studied in addiction and reward, while CRH-dopamine interactions in anxiety are scarcely understood. We describe a new population of CRH-expressing, GABAergic, long-range-projecting neurons in the extended amygdala that innervate the ventral tegmental area and alter anxiety following chronic CRH depletion. These neurons are part of a distinct CRH circuit that acts anxiolytically by positively modulating dopamine release...
May 21, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Frances A Champagne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
John H Wittig, Anthony I Jang, John B Cocjin, Sara K Inati, Kareem A Zaghloul
We identify a memory-specific attention mechanism in the human anterior temporal lobe, an area implicated in semantic processing and episodic memory formation. Spiking neuron activity is suppressed and becomes more reliable in preparation for verbal memory formation. Intracranial electroencephalography signals implicate this region as a source of executive control for attentional selection. Consistent with this interpretation, its surgical removal causes significant memory impairment for attended words relative to unattended words...
May 21, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Ping Jun Zhu, Chien-Ju Chen, Jacqunae Mays, Loredana Stoica, Mauro Costa-Mattioli
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) has been reported to be necessary for metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated long-term depression (mGluR-LTD). Here we found that mTORC1-deficient mice exhibit normal hippocampal mGluR-LTD and associated behaviors. Moreover, rapamycin blocks mGluR-LTD in mTORC1-deficient mice. However, both rapamycin and mGluR activation regulate mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) activity, and mTORC2-deficient mice show impaired mGluR-LTD and associated behaviors. Thus, mTORC2 is a major regulator of mGluR-LTD...
May 21, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Adil G Khan, Jasper Poort, Angus Chadwick, Antonin Blot, Maneesh Sahani, Thomas D Mrsic-Flogel, Sonja B Hofer
How learning enhances neural representations for behaviorally relevant stimuli via activity changes of cortical cell types remains unclear. We simultaneously imaged responses of pyramidal cells (PYR) along with parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) inhibitory interneurons in primary visual cortex while mice learned to discriminate visual patterns. Learning increased selectivity for task-relevant stimuli of PYR, PV and SOM subsets but not VIP cells. Strikingly, PV neurons became as selective as PYR cells, and their functional interactions reorganized, leading to the emergence of stimulus-selective PYR-PV ensembles...
May 21, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Jane X Wang, Zeb Kurth-Nelson, Dharshan Kumaran, Dhruva Tirumala, Hubert Soyer, Joel Z Leibo, Demis Hassabis, Matthew Botvinick
Over the past 20 years, neuroscience research on reward-based learning has converged on a canonical model, under which the neurotransmitter dopamine 'stamps in' associations between situations, actions and rewards by modulating the strength of synaptic connections between neurons. However, a growing number of recent findings have placed this standard model under strain. We now draw on recent advances in artificial intelligence to introduce a new theory of reward-based learning. Here, the dopamine system trains another part of the brain, the prefrontal cortex, to operate as its own free-standing learning system...
May 14, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Kimberly M Huber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Michelle C D Bridi, Roberto de Pasquale, Crystal L Lantz, Yu Gu, Andrew Borrell, Se-Young Choi, Kaiwen He, Trinh Tran, Su Z Hong, Andrew Dykman, Hey-Kyoung Lee, Elizabeth M Quinlan, Alfredo Kirkwood
Models of firing rate homeostasis such as synaptic scaling and the sliding synaptic plasticity modification threshold predict that decreasing neuronal activity (for example, by sensory deprivation) will enhance synaptic function. Manipulations of cortical activity during two forms of visual deprivation, dark exposure (DE) and binocular lid suture, revealed that, contrary to expectations, spontaneous firing in conjunction with loss of visual input is necessary to lower the threshold for Hebbian plasticity and increase miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) amplitude...
May 14, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Joshua D Berke
Dopamine is a critical modulator of both learning and motivation. This presents a problem: how can target cells know whether increased dopamine is a signal to learn or to move? It is often presumed that motivation involves slow ('tonic') dopamine changes, while fast ('phasic') dopamine fluctuations convey reward prediction errors for learning. Yet recent studies have shown that dopamine conveys motivational value and promotes movement even on subsecond timescales. Here I describe an alternative account of how dopamine regulates ongoing behavior...
May 14, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Sinisa Hrvatin, Daniel R Hochbaum, M Aurel Nagy, Marcelo Cicconet, Keiramarie Robertson, Lucas Cheadle, Rapolas Zilionis, Alex Ratner, Rebeca Borges-Monroy, Allon M Klein, Bernardo L Sabatini, Michael E Greenberg
In the version of this article initially published, the x-axis labels in Fig. 3c read Vglut, Gad1/2, Aldh1l1 and Pecam1; they should have read Vglut+ , Gad1/2+ , Aldh1l1+ and Pecam1+ . In Fig. 4, the range values were missing from the color scales; they are, from left to right, 4-15, 0-15, 4-15 and 0-15 in Fig. 4a and 4-15, 4-15 and 4-8 in Fig. 4h. In the third paragraph of the main text, the phrase reading "Previous approaches have analyzed a limited number of inhibitory cell types, thus masking the full diversity of excitatory populations" should have read "Previous approaches have analyzed a limited number of inhibitory cell types and masked the full diversity of excitatory populations...
May 11, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Zikai Zhou, An Liu, Shuting Xia, Celeste Leung, Junxia Qi, Yanghong Meng, Wei Xie, Pojeong Park, Graham L Collingridge, Zhengping Jia
In the version of this article initially published, the wrong version of Supplementary Fig. 10 was posted and the city for affiliation 4, the Co-innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, was given as Nanjing instead of Nantong. The errors have been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.
May 11, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Stephen V Mahler
In the version of this article initially published, paragraph 8 mentioned intra-accumbens administration of SB334867. This should have read systemic (intraperitoneal) administration. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.
May 11, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Sandra Sanchez-Roige, Pierre Fontanillas, Sarah L Elson, Anita Pandit, Ellen M Schmidt, Johanna R Foerster, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Joshua C Gray, Harriet de Wit, Lea K Davis, James MacKillop, Abraham A Palmer
In the version of this article initially published, the consortium authorship was not presented correctly. The 23andMe Research Team was listed as the last author, rather than the fourth, and a line directing readers to the Supplementary Note for a list of members did appear but was not directly associated with the consortium name. Also, the Supplementary Note description stated that both member names and affiliations were included; in fact, only names are given. Finally, the URL for S-PrediXcan was given in the Methods as https://github...
May 11, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Aleksandra Deczkowska, Ido Amit, Michal Schwartz
Microglia differentiate from progenitors that infiltrate the nascent CNS during early embryonic development. They then remain in this unique immune-privileged environment throughout life. Multiple immune mechanisms, which we collectively refer to as microglial checkpoints, ensure efficient and tightly regulated microglial responses to perturbations in the CNS milieu. Such mechanisms are essential for proper CNS development and optimal physiological function. However, in chronic disease or aging, when a robust immune response is required, such checkpoint mechanisms may limit the ability of microglia to protect the CNS...
May 7, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Taka-Aki Koshimizu, Kenji Honda, Sachi Nagaoka-Uozumi, Atsuhiko Ichimura, Ikuo Kimura, Michio Nakaya, Nobuya Sakai, Katsushi Shibata, Kentarou Ushijima, Akio Fujimura, Akira Hirasawa, Hitoshi Kurose, Gozoh Tsujimoto, Akito Tanoue, Yukio Takano
Chronic morphine exposure upregulates adenylate cyclase signaling and reduces analgesic efficacy, a condition known as opioid tolerance. Nonopioid neurotransmitters can enhance morphine tolerance, but the mechanism for this is poorly understood. We show that morphine tolerance was delayed in mice lacking vasopressin 1b receptors (V1bRs) or after administration of V1bR antagonist into the rostral ventromedial medulla, where transcripts for V1bRs and μ-opioid receptors are co-localized. Vasopressin increased morphine-binding affinity in cells expressing both V1bR and μ-opioid receptors...
April 30, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Alan R Mardinly, Ian Antón Oldenburg, Nicolas C Pégard, Savitha Sridharan, Evan H Lyall, Kirill Chesnov, Stephen G Brohawn, Laura Waller, Hillel Adesnik
Understanding brain function requires technologies that can control the activity of large populations of neurons with high fidelity in space and time. We developed a multiphoton holographic approach to activate or suppress the activity of ensembles of cortical neurons with cellular resolution and sub-millisecond precision. Since existing opsins were inadequate, we engineered new soma-targeted (ST) optogenetic tools, ST-ChroME and IRES-ST-eGtACR1, optimized for multiphoton activation and suppression. Employing a three-dimensional all-optical read-write interface, we demonstrate the ability to simultaneously photostimulate up to 50 neurons distributed in three dimensions in a 550 × 550 × 100-µm3 volume of brain tissue...
April 30, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Jennifer A Erwin, Apuã C M Paquola, Tatjana Singer, Iryna Gallina, Mark Novotny, Carolina Quayle, Tracy A Bedrosian, Francisco I A Alves, Cheyenne R Butcher, Joseph R Herdy, Anindita Sarkar, Roger S Lasken, Alysson R Muotri, Fred H Gage
In the version of this article initially published, NIH grant U01 MH106882 to F.H.G. was missing from the Acknowledgments. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.
April 27, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Kimberly L Stachenfeld, Matthew M Botvinick, Samuel J Gershman
In the version of this article initially published, equation (7) read.
April 25, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Martin Häring, Amit Zeisel, Hannah Hochgerner, Puneet Rinwa, Jon E T Jakobsson, Peter Lönnerberg, Gioele La Manno, Nilesh Sharma, Lotta Borgius, Ole Kiehn, Malin C Lagerström, Sten Linnarsson, Patrik Ernfors
The dorsal horn of the spinal cord is critical to processing distinct modalities of noxious and innocuous sensation, but little is known of the neuronal subtypes involved, hampering efforts to deduce principles governing somatic sensation. Here we used single-cell RNA sequencing to classify sensory neurons in the mouse dorsal horn. We identified 15 inhibitory and 15 excitatory molecular subtypes of neurons, equaling the complexity in cerebral cortex. Validating our classification scheme in vivo and matching cell types to anatomy of the dorsal horn by spatial transcriptomics reveals laminar enrichment for each of the cell types...
April 23, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Jing Huang, Erika Polgár, Hans Jürgen Solinski, Santosh K Mishra, Pang-Yen Tseng, Noboru Iwagaki, Kieran A Boyle, Allen C Dickie, Mette C Kriegbaum, Hendrik Wildner, Hanns Ulrich Zeilhofer, Masahiko Watanabe, John S Riddell, Andrew J Todd, Mark A Hoon
In the version of this article initially published online, the labels were switched for the right-hand pair of bars in Fig. 4e. The left one of the two should be Chloroquine + veh, the right one Chloroquine + CNO. The error has been corrected in the print, HTML and PDF versions of the article.
April 19, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
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