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Nature Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092663/neural-regulation-of-immunity-molecular-mechanisms-and-clinical-translation
#1
REVIEW
Valentin A Pavlov, Kevin J Tracey
Studies bridging neuroscience and immunology have identified neural pathways that regulate immunity and inflammation. Recent research using methodological advances in molecular genetics has improved our understanding of the neural control of immunity. Here we outline mechanistic insights, focusing on translational relevance and conceptual developments. We also summarize findings from recent clinical studies of bioelectronic neuromodulation in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092662/neuroimmune-communication
#2
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092661/interactions-between-the-microbiota-immune-and-nervous-systems-in-health-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Thomas C Fung, Christine A Olson, Elaine Y Hsiao
The diverse collection of microorganisms that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract, collectively called the gut microbiota, profoundly influences many aspects of host physiology, including nutrient metabolism, resistance to infection and immune system development. Studies investigating the gut-brain axis demonstrate a critical role for the gut microbiota in orchestrating brain development and behavior, and the immune system is emerging as an important regulator of these interactions. Intestinal microbes modulate the maturation and function of tissue-resident immune cells in the CNS...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092660/the-role-of-peripheral-immune-cells-in-the-cns-in-steady-state-and-disease
#4
REVIEW
Marco Prinz, Josef Priller
The CNS is protected by the immune system, including cells that reside directly within the CNS and help to ensure proper neural function, as well as cells that traffic into the CNS with disease. The CNS-resident immune system is comprised mainly of innate immune cells and operates under homeostatic conditions. These myeloid cells in the CNS parenchyma and at CNS-periphery interfaces are highly specialized but also extremely plastic cells that immediately react to any changes in CNS homeostasis and become reactive in the context of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092659/rem-sleep-selectively-prunes-and-maintains-new-synapses-in-development-and-learning
#5
Wei Li, Lei Ma, Guang Yang, Wen-Biao Gan
The functions and underlying mechanisms of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep remain unclear. Here we show that REM sleep prunes newly formed postsynaptic dendritic spines of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the mouse motor cortex during development and motor learning. This REM sleep-dependent elimination of new spines facilitates subsequent spine formation during development and when a new motor task is learned, indicating a role for REM sleep in pruning to balance the number of new spines formed over time. Moreover, REM sleep also strengthens and maintains newly formed spines, which are critical for neuronal circuit development and behavioral improvement after learning...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067905/stream-dependent-development-of-higher-visual-cortical-areas
#6
Ikuko T Smith, Leah B Townsend, Ruth Huh, Hongtu Zhu, Spencer L Smith
Multiple cortical areas contribute to visual processing in mice. However, the functional organization and development of higher visual areas are unclear. Here we used intrinsic signal optical imaging and two-photon calcium imaging to map visual responses in adult and developing mice. We found that visually driven activity was well correlated among higher visual areas within two distinct subnetworks resembling the dorsal and ventral visual streams. Visual response magnitude in dorsal stream areas slowly increased over the first 2 weeks of visual experience...
January 9, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067904/prefrontal-cortical-control-of-a-brainstem-social-behavior-circuit
#7
Tamara B Franklin, Bianca A Silva, Zinaida Perova, Livia Marrone, Maria E Masferrer, Yang Zhan, Angie Kaplan, Louise Greetham, Violaine Verrechia, Andreas Halman, Sara Pagella, Alexei L Vyssotski, Anna Illarionova, Valery Grinevich, Tiago Branco, Cornelius T Gross
The prefrontal cortex helps adjust an organism's behavior to its environment. In particular, numerous studies have implicated the prefrontal cortex in the control of social behavior, but the neural circuits that mediate these effects remain unknown. Here we investigated behavioral adaptation to social defeat in mice and uncovered a critical contribution of neural projections from the medial prefrontal cortex to the dorsal periaqueductal gray, a brainstem area vital for defensive responses. Social defeat caused a weakening of functional connectivity between these two areas, and selective inhibition of these projections mimicked the behavioral effects of social defeat...
January 9, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067903/modulation-of-excitation-on-parvalbumin-interneurons-by-neuroligin-3-regulates-the-hippocampal-network
#8
Jai S Polepalli, Hemmings Wu, Debanjan Goswami, Casey H Halpern, Thomas C Südhof, Robert C Malenka
Hippocampal network activity is generated by a complex interplay between excitatory pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons. Although much is known about the molecular properties of excitatory synapses on pyramidal cells, comparatively little is known about excitatory synapses on interneurons. Here we show that conditional deletion of the postsynaptic cell adhesion molecule neuroligin-3 in parvalbumin interneurons causes a decrease in NMDA-receptor-mediated postsynaptic currents and an increase in presynaptic glutamate release probability by selectively impairing the inhibition of glutamate release by presynaptic Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors...
January 9, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067902/separate-elements-of-episodic-memory-subserved-by-distinct-hippocampal-prefrontal-connections
#9
Gareth R I Barker, Paul J Banks, Hannah Scott, G Scott Ralph, Kyriacos A Mitrophanous, Liang-Fong Wong, Zafar I Bashir, James B Uney, E Clea Warburton
Episodic memory formation depends on information about a stimulus being integrated within a precise spatial and temporal context, a process dependent on the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Investigations of putative functional interactions between these regions are complicated by multiple direct and indirect hippocampal-prefrontal connections. Here application of a pharmacogenetic deactivation technique enabled us to investigate the mnemonic contributions of two direct hippocampal-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pathways, one arising in the dorsal CA1 (dCA1) and the other in the intermediate CA1 (iCA1)...
January 9, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024159/developmental-broadening-of-inhibitory-sensory-maps
#10
Kathleen B Quast, Kevin Ung, Emmanouil Froudarakis, Longwen Huang, Isabella Herman, Angela P Addison, Joshua Ortiz-Guzman, Keith Cordiner, Peter Saggau, Andreas S Tolias, Benjamin R Arenkiel
Sensory maps are created by networks of neuronal responses that vary with their anatomical position, such that representations of the external world are systematically and topographically organized in the brain. Current understanding from studying excitatory maps is that maps are sculpted and refined throughout development and/or through sensory experience. Investigating the mouse olfactory bulb, where ongoing neurogenesis continually supplies new inhibitory granule cells into existing circuitry, we isolated the development of sensory maps formed by inhibitory networks...
December 26, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024158/emotional-brain-states-carry-over-and-enhance-future-memory-formation
#11
Arielle Tambini, Ulrike Rimmele, Elizabeth A Phelps, Lila Davachi
Emotional arousal can produce lasting, vivid memories for emotional experiences, but little is known about whether emotion can prospectively enhance memory formation for temporally distant information. One mechanism that may support prospective memory enhancements is the carry-over of emotional brain states that influence subsequent neutral experiences. Here we found that neutral stimuli encountered by human subjects 9-33 min after exposure to emotionally arousing stimuli had greater levels of recollection during delayed memory testing compared to those studied before emotional and after neutral stimulus exposure...
December 26, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991901/distinct-neural-mechanisms-for-the-control-of-thirst-and-salt-appetite-in-the-subfornical-organ
#12
Takashi Matsuda, Takeshi Y Hiyama, Fumio Niimura, Taiji Matsusaka, Akiyoshi Fukamizu, Kenta Kobayashi, Kazuto Kobayashi, Masaharu Noda
Body fluid conditions are continuously monitored in the brain to regulate thirst and salt-appetite sensations. Angiotensin II drives both thirst and salt appetite; however, the neural mechanisms underlying selective water- and/or salt-intake behaviors remain unknown. Using optogenetics, we show that thirst and salt appetite are driven by distinct groups of angiotensin II receptor type 1a-positive excitatory neurons in the subfornical organ. Neurons projecting to the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis control water intake, while those projecting to the ventral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis control salt intake...
December 19, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991900/molecular-interrogation-of-hypothalamic-organization-reveals-distinct-dopamine-neuronal-subtypes
#13
Roman A Romanov, Amit Zeisel, Joanne Bakker, Fatima Girach, Arash Hellysaz, Raju Tomer, Alán Alpár, Jan Mulder, Frédéric Clotman, Erik Keimpema, Brian Hsueh, Ailey K Crow, Henrik Martens, Christian Schwindling, Daniela Calvigioni, Jaideep S Bains, Zoltán Máté, Gábor Szabó, Yuchio Yanagawa, Ming-Dong Zhang, Andre Rendeiro, Matthias Farlik, Mathias Uhlén, Peer Wulff, Christoph Bock, Christian Broberger, Karl Deisseroth, Tomas Hökfelt, Sten Linnarsson, Tamas L Horvath, Tibor Harkany
The hypothalamus contains the highest diversity of neurons in the brain. Many of these neurons can co-release neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in a use-dependent manner. Investigators have hitherto relied on candidate protein-based tools to correlate behavioral, endocrine and gender traits with hypothalamic neuron identity. Here we map neuronal identities in the hypothalamus by single-cell RNA sequencing. We distinguished 62 neuronal subtypes producing glutamatergic, dopaminergic or GABAergic markers for synaptic neurotransmission and harboring the ability to engage in task-dependent neurotransmitter switching...
December 19, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991899/subiculum-neurons-map-the-current-axis-of-travel
#14
Jacob M Olson, Kanyanat Tongprasearth, Douglas A Nitz
Flexible navigation demands knowledge of boundaries, routes and their relationships. Within a multi-path environment, a subpopulation of subiculum neurons robustly encoded the axis of travel. The firing of axis-tuned neurons peaked bimodally, at head orientations 180° apart. Environmental manipulations showed these neurons to be anchored to environmental boundaries but to lack axis tuning in an open arena. Axis-tuned neurons thus provide a powerful mechanism for mapping relationships between routes and the larger environmental context...
December 19, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991898/an-independent-landmark-dominated-head-direction-signal-in-dysgranular-retrosplenial-cortex
#15
Pierre-Yves Jacob, Giulio Casali, Laure Spieser, Hector Page, Dorothy Overington, Kate Jeffery
We investigated how landmarks influence the brain's computation of head direction and found that in a bidirectionally symmetrical environment, some neurons in dysgranular retrosplenial cortex showed bidirectional firing patterns. This indicates dominance of neural activity by local environmental cues even when these conflicted with the global head direction signal. It suggests a mechanism for associating landmarks to or dissociating them from the head direction signal, according to their directional stability and/or utility...
December 19, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991897/pregnancy-leads-to-long-lasting-changes-in-human-brain-structure
#16
Elseline Hoekzema, Erika Barba-Müller, Cristina Pozzobon, Marisol Picado, Florencio Lucco, David García-García, Juan Carlos Soliva, Adolf Tobeña, Manuel Desco, Eveline A Crone, Agustín Ballesteros, Susanna Carmona, Oscar Vilarroya
Pregnancy involves radical hormone surges and biological adaptations. However, the effects of pregnancy on the human brain are virtually unknown. Here we show, using a prospective ('pre'-'post' pregnancy) study involving first-time mothers and fathers and nulliparous control groups, that pregnancy renders substantial changes in brain structure, primarily reductions in gray matter (GM) volume in regions subserving social cognition. The changes were selective for the mothers and highly consistent, correctly classifying all women as having undergone pregnancy or not in-between sessions...
December 19, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941790/a-cortical-hippocampal-cortical-loop-of-information-processing-during-memory-consolidation
#17
Gideon Rothschild, Elad Eban, Loren M Frank
Hippocampal replay during sharp-wave ripple events (SWRs) is thought to drive memory consolidation in hippocampal and cortical circuits. Changes in neocortical activity can precede SWR events, but whether and how these changes influence the content of replay remains unknown. Here we show that during sleep there is a rapid cortical-hippocampal-cortical loop of information flow around the times of SWRs. We recorded neural activity in auditory cortex (AC) and hippocampus of rats as they learned a sound-guided task and during sleep...
December 12, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941789/manipulating-stored-phonological-input-during-verbal-working-memory
#18
Gregory B Cogan, Asha Iyer, Lucia Melloni, Thomas Thesen, Daniel Friedman, Werner Doyle, Orrin Devinsky, Bijan Pesaran
Verbal working memory (vWM) involves storing and manipulating information in phonological sensory input. An influential theory of vWM proposes that manipulation is carried out by a central executive while storage is performed by two interacting systems: a phonological input buffer that captures sound-based information and an articulatory rehearsal system that controls speech motor output. Whether, when and how neural activity in the brain encodes these components remains unknown. Here we read out the contents of vWM from neural activity in human subjects as they manipulated stored speech sounds...
December 12, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941788/small-molecule-inhibition-of-stoml3-oligomerization-reverses-pathological-mechanical-hypersensitivity
#19
Christiane Wetzel, Simone Pifferi, Cristina Picci, Caglar Gök, Diana Hoffmann, Kiran K Bali, André Lampe, Liudmila Lapatsina, Raluca Fleischer, Ewan St John Smith, Valérie Bégay, Mirko Moroni, Luc Estebanez, Johannes Kühnemund, Jan Walcher, Edgar Specker, Martin Neuenschwander, Jens Peter von Kries, Volker Haucke, Rohini Kuner, James F A Poulet, Jan Schmoranzer, Kate Poole, Gary R Lewin
The skin is equipped with specialized mechanoreceptors that allow the perception of the slightest brush. Indeed, some mechanoreceptors can detect even nanometer-scale movements. Movement is transformed into electrical signals via the gating of mechanically activated ion channels at sensory endings in the skin. The sensitivity of Piezo mechanically gated ion channels is controlled by stomatin-like protein-3 (STOML3), which is required for normal mechanoreceptor function. Here we identify small-molecule inhibitors of STOML3 oligomerization that reversibly reduce the sensitivity of mechanically gated currents in sensory neurons and silence mechanoreceptors in vivo...
December 12, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918529/hsd2-neurons-in-the-hindbrain-drive-sodium-appetite
#20
Brooke C Jarvie, Richard D Palmiter
Sodium-depleted animals develop an appetite for aversive concentrations of sodium. Here we show that chemogenetic activation of aldosterone-sensitive neurons that express 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2) in the nucleus of the solitary tract is sufficient to drive consumption of sodium-containing solutions in mice, independently of thirst or hunger. These HSD2-positive neurons are necessary for full expression of sodium appetite and have distinct downstream targets that are activated during sodium depletion...
December 5, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
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