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Nature Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311747/studying-and-modifying-brain-function-with-non-invasive-brain-stimulation
#1
REVIEW
Rafael Polanía, Michael A Nitsche, Christian C Ruff
In the past three decades, our understanding of brain-behavior relationships has been significantly shaped by research using non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques. These methods allow non-invasive and safe modulation of neural processes in the healthy brain, enabling researchers to directly study how experimentally altered neural activity causally affects behavior. This unique property of NIBS methods has, on the one hand, led to groundbreaking findings on the brain basis of various aspects of behavior and has raised interest in possible clinical and practical applications of these methods...
January 8, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311746/hexadirectional-coding-of-visual-space-in-human-entorhinal-cortex
#2
Matthias Nau, Tobias Navarro Schröder, Jacob L S Bellmund, Christian F Doeller
Entorhinal grid cells map the local environment, but their involvement beyond spatial navigation remains elusive. We examined human functional MRI responses during a highly controlled visual tracking task and show that entorhinal cortex exhibited a sixfold rotationally symmetric signal encoding gaze direction. Our results provide evidence for a grid-like entorhinal code for visual space and suggest a more general role of the entorhinal grid system in coding information along continuous dimensions.
January 8, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311745/human-entorhinal-cortex-represents-visual-space-using-a-boundary-anchored-grid
#3
Joshua B Julian, Alexandra T Keinath, Giulia Frazzetta, Russell A Epstein
When participants performed a visual search task, functional MRI responses in entorhinal cortex exhibited a sixfold periodic modulation by gaze-movement direction. The orientation of this modulation was determined by the shape and orientation of the bounded search space. These results indicate that human entorhinal cortex represents visual space using a boundary-anchored grid, analogous to that used by rodents to represent navigable space.
January 8, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311744/mutations-in-vps15-perturb-neuronal-migration-in-mice-and-are-associated-with-neurodevelopmental-disease-in-humans
#4
Thomas Gstrein, Andrew Edwards, Anna Přistoupilová, Ines Leca, Martin Breuss, Sandra Pilat-Carotta, Andi H Hansen, Ratna Tripathy, Anna K Traunbauer, Tobias Hochstoeger, Gavril Rosoklija, Marco Repic, Lukas Landler, Viktor Stránecký, Gerhard Dürnberger, Thomas M Keane, Johannes Zuber, David J Adams, Jonathan Flint, Tomas Honzik, Marta Gut, Sergi Beltran, Karl Mechtler, Elliott Sherr, Stanislav Kmoch, Ivo Gut, David A Keays
The formation of the vertebrate brain requires the generation, migration, differentiation and survival of neurons. Genetic mutations that perturb these critical cellular events can result in malformations of the telencephalon, providing a molecular window into brain development. Here we report the identification of an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mouse mutant characterized by a fractured hippocampal pyramidal cell layer, attributable to defects in neuronal migration. We show that this is caused by a hypomorphic mutation in Vps15 that perturbs endosomal-lysosomal trafficking and autophagy, resulting in an upregulation of Nischarin, which inhibits Pak1 signaling...
January 8, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311743/tdp-43-pathology-disrupts-nuclear-pore-complexes-and-nucleocytoplasmic-transport-in-als-ftd
#5
Ching-Chieh Chou, Yi Zhang, Mfon E Umoh, Spencer W Vaughan, Ileana Lorenzini, Feilin Liu, Melissa Sayegh, Paul G Donlin-Asp, Yu Han Chen, Duc M Duong, Nicholas T Seyfried, Maureen A Powers, Thomas Kukar, Chadwick M Hales, Marla Gearing, Nigel J Cairns, Kevin B Boylan, Dennis W Dickson, Rosa Rademakers, Yong-Jie Zhang, Leonard Petrucelli, Rita Sattler, Daniela C Zarnescu, Jonathan D Glass, Wilfried Rossoll
The cytoplasmic mislocalization and aggregation of TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is a common histopathological hallmark of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia disease spectrum (ALS/FTD). However, the composition of aggregates and their contribution to the disease process remain unknown. Here we used proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) to interrogate the interactome of detergent-insoluble TDP-43 aggregates and found them enriched for components of the nuclear pore complex and nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery...
January 8, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311742/simple-integration-of-fast-excitation-and-offset-delayed-inhibition-computes-directional-selectivity-in-drosophila
#6
Eyal Gruntman, Sandro Romani, Michael B Reiser
A neuron that extracts directionally selective motion information from upstream signals lacking this selectivity must compare visual responses from spatially offset inputs. Distinguishing among prevailing algorithmic models for this computation requires measuring fast neuronal activity and inhibition. In the Drosophila melanogaster visual system, a fourth-order neuron-T4-is the first cell type in the ON pathway to exhibit directionally selective signals. Here we use in vivo whole-cell recordings of T4 to show that directional selectivity originates from simple integration of spatially offset fast excitatory and slow inhibitory inputs, resulting in a suppression of responses to the nonpreferred motion direction...
January 8, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311741/social-transmission-and-buffering-of-synaptic-changes-after-stress
#7
Toni-Lee Sterley, Dinara Baimoukhametova, Tamás Füzesi, Agnieszka A Zurek, Nuria Daviu, Neilen P Rasiah, David Rosenegger, Jaideep S Bains
Stress can trigger enduring changes in neural circuits and synapses. The behavioral and hormonal consequences of stress can also be transmitted to others, but whether this transmitted stress has similar effects on synapses is not known. We found that authentic stress and transmitted stress in mice primed paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons, enabling the induction of metaplasticity at glutamate synapses. In female mice that were subjected to authentic stress, this metaplasticity was diminished following interactions with a naive partner...
January 8, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29292378/generalizable-representations-of-pain-cognitive-control-and-negative-emotion-in-medial-frontal-cortex
#8
Philip A Kragel, Michiko Kano, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Huynh Giao Ly, Patrick Dupont, Amandine Rubio, Chantal Delon-Martin, Bruno L Bonaz, Stephen B Manuck, Peter J Gianaros, Marta Ceko, Elizabeth A Reynolds Losin, Choong-Wan Woo, Thomas E Nichols, Tor D Wager
The medial frontal cortex, including anterior midcingulate cortex, has been linked to multiple psychological domains, including cognitive control, pain, and emotion. However, it is unclear whether this region encodes representations of these domains that are generalizable across studies and subdomains. Additionally, if there are generalizable representations, do they reflect a single underlying process shared across domains or multiple domain-specific processes? We decomposed multivariate patterns of functional MRI activity from 270 participants across 18 studies into study-specific, subdomain-specific, and domain-specific components and identified latent multivariate representations that generalized across subdomains but were specific to each domain...
January 1, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263407/author-correction-synuclein-and-dopamine-the-bonnie-and-clyde-of-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Subhojit Roy
In the version of this article initially published, the molecular mass of synuclein was given as 140 kDa instead of ~14 kDa. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.
December 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263406/publisher-correction-viewpoints-how-the-hippocampus-contributes-to-memory-navigation-and-cognition
#10
John Lisman, György Buzsáki, Howard Eichenbaum, Lynn Nadel, Charan Ranganath, A David Redish
In the version of this article initially published, author Charan Ranganath's last name was misspelled Rangananth in the author list. Also, A. David Redish (redish@umn.edu) has been added as a corresponding author. The error has been corrected, and the corresponding author added, in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.
December 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255166/publisher-correction-an-interactive-framework-for-whole-brain-maps-at-cellular-resolution
#11
Daniel Fürth, Thomas Vaissière, Ourania Tzortzi, Yang Xuan, Antje Märtin, Iakovos Lazaridis, Giada Spigolon, Gilberto Fisone, Raju Tomer, Karl Deisseroth, Marie Carlén, Courtney A Miller, Gavin Rumbaugh, Konstantinos Meletis
In the version of this article initially published online, Daniel Fürth was not listed as a corresponding author. The error has been corrected in the print, PDF and HTML versions of this article.
December 18, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230059/genome-wide-association-study-of-delay-discounting-in-23-217-adult-research-participants-of-european-ancestry
#12
Sandra Sanchez-Roige, Pierre Fontanillas, Sarah L Elson, Anita Pandit, Ellen M Schmidt, Johanna R Foerster, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Joshua C Gray, Harriet de Wit, Lea K Davis, James MacKillop, Abraham A Palmer
Delay discounting (DD), the tendency to discount the value of delayed versus current rewards, is elevated in a constellation of diseases and behavioral conditions. We performed a genome-wide association study of DD using 23,127 research participants of European ancestry. The most significantly associated single-nucleotide polymorphism was rs6528024 (P = 2.40 × 10-8), which is located in an intron of the gene GPM6B. We also showed that 12% of the variance in DD was accounted for by genotype and that the genetic signature of DD overlapped with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, major depression, smoking, personality, cognition and body weight...
December 11, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230054/single-cell-analysis-of-experience-dependent-transcriptomic-states-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#13
Sinisa Hrvatin, Daniel R Hochbaum, M Aurel Nagy, Marcelo Cicconet, Keiramarie Robertson, Lucas Cheadle, Rapolas Zilionis, Alex Ratner, Rebeca Borges-Monroy, Allon M Klein, Bernardo L Sabatini, Michael E Greenberg
Activity-dependent transcriptional responses shape cortical function. However, a comprehensive understanding of the diversity of these responses across the full range of cortical cell types, and how these changes contribute to neuronal plasticity and disease, is lacking. To investigate the breadth of transcriptional changes that occur across cell types in the mouse visual cortex after exposure to light, we applied high-throughput single-cell RNA sequencing. We identified significant and divergent transcriptional responses to stimulation in each of the 30 cell types characterized, thus revealing 611 stimulus-responsive genes...
December 11, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230053/stress-induced-unfolded-protein-response-contributes-to-zika-virus-associated-microcephaly
#14
Ivan Gladwyn-Ng, Lluís Cordón-Barris, Christian Alfano, Catherine Creppe, Thérèse Couderc, Giovanni Morelli, Nicolas Thelen, Michelle America, Bettina Bessières, Férechté Encha-Razavi, Maryse Bonnière, Ikuo K Suzuki, Marie Flamand, Pierre Vanderhaeghen, Marc Thiry, Marc Lecuit, Laurent Nguyen
Accumulating evidence support a causal link between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during gestation and congenital microcephaly. However, the mechanism of ZIKV-associated microcephaly remains unclear. We combined analyses of ZIKV-infected human fetuses, cultured human neural stem cells and mouse embryos to understand how ZIKV induces microcephaly. We show that ZIKV triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response in the cerebral cortex of infected postmortem human fetuses as well as in cultured human neural stem cells...
December 11, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230052/regulation-of-developing-myelin-sheath-elongation-by-oligodendrocyte-calcium-transients-in-vivo
#15
Anna M Krasnow, Marc C Ford, Leonardo E Valdivia, Stephen W Wilson, David Attwell
How action potentials regulate myelination by oligodendrocytes is uncertain. We show that neuronal activity raises [Ca2+]i in developing oligodendrocytes in vivo and that myelin sheath elongation is promoted by a high frequency of [Ca2+]i transients and prevented by [Ca2+]i buffering. Sheath elongation occurs ~1 h after [Ca2+]i elevation. Sheath shortening is associated with a low frequency of [Ca2+]i transients but with longer duration [Ca2+]i bursts. Thus, [Ca2+]i controls myelin sheath development.
December 11, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203898/an-interactive-framework-for-whole-brain-maps-at-cellular-resolution
#16
Daniel Fürth, Thomas Vaissière, Ourania Tzortzi, Yang Xuan, Antje Märtin, Iakovos Lazaridis, Giada Spigolon, Gilberto Fisone, Raju Tomer, Karl Deisseroth, Marie Carlén, Courtney A Miller, Gavin Rumbaugh, Konstantinos Meletis
To deconstruct the architecture and function of brain circuits, it is necessary to generate maps of neuronal connectivity and activity on a whole-brain scale. New methods now enable large-scale mapping of the mouse brain at cellular and subcellular resolution. We developed a framework to automatically annotate, analyze, visualize and easily share whole-brain data at cellular resolution, based on a scale-invariant, interactive mouse brain atlas. This framework enables connectivity and mapping projects in individual laboratories and across imaging platforms, as well as multiplexed quantitative information on the molecular identity of single neurons...
December 4, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203897/flexible-timing-by-temporal-scaling-of-cortical-responses
#17
Jing Wang, Devika Narain, Eghbal A Hosseini, Mehrdad Jazayeri
Musicians can perform at different tempos, speakers can control the cadence of their speech, and children can flexibly vary their temporal expectations of events. To understand the neural basis of such flexibility, we recorded from the medial frontal cortex of nonhuman primates trained to produce different time intervals with different effectors. Neural responses were heterogeneous, nonlinear, and complex, and they exhibited a remarkable form of temporal invariance: firing rate profiles were temporally scaled to match the produced intervals...
December 4, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203896/proteomic-analysis-of-postsynaptic-proteins-in-regions-of-the-human-neocortex
#18
Marcia Roy, Oksana Sorokina, Nathan Skene, Clémence Simonnet, Francesca Mazzo, Ruud Zwart, Emanuele Sher, Colin Smith, J Douglas Armstrong, Seth G N Grant
The postsynaptic proteome of excitatory synapses comprises ~1,000 highly conserved proteins that control the behavioral repertoire, and mutations disrupting their function cause >130 brain diseases. Here, we document the composition of postsynaptic proteomes in human neocortical regions and integrate it with genetic, functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography imaging, and behavioral data. Neocortical regions show signatures of expression of individual proteins, protein complexes, biochemical and metabolic pathways...
December 4, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180748/altered-responses-to-social-chemosignals-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Yaara Endevelt-Shapira, Ofer Perl, Aharon Ravia, Daniel Amir, Ami Eisen, Vered Bezalel, Liron Rozenkrantz, Eva Mishor, Liron Pinchover, Timna Soroka, Danielle Honigstein, Noam Sobel
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impaired social communication, often attributed to misreading of emotional cues. Why individuals with ASD misread emotions remains unclear. Given that terrestrial mammals rely on their sense of smell to read conspecific emotions, we hypothesized that misreading of emotional cues in ASD partially reflects altered social chemosignaling. We found no difference between typically developed (TD) and cognitively able adults with ASD at explicit detection and perception of social chemosignals...
November 27, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180747/accumbal-d2-cells-orchestrate-innate-risk-avoidance-according-to-orexin-signals
#20
Craig Blomeley, Celia Garau, Denis Burdakov
Excitation of accumbal D2 cells governs vital actions, including avoidance of learned risks, but the origins of this excitation and roles of D2 cells in innate risk-avoidance are unclear. Hypothalamic neurons producing orexins (also called hypocretins) enhance innate risk-avoidance via poorly understood neurocircuits. We describe a direct orexin→D2 excitatory circuit and show that D2 cell activity is necessary for orexin-dependent innate risk-avoidance in mice, thus revealing an unsuspected hypothalamus-accumbens interplay in action selection...
November 27, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
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