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Nature Neuroscience

Anubhuti Goel, Daniel A Cantu, Janna Guilfoyle, Gunvant R Chaudhari, Aditi Newadkar, Barbara Todisco, Diego de Alba, Nazim Kourdougli, Lauren M Schmitt, Ernest Pedapati, Craig A Erickson, Carlos Portera-Cailliau
The original and corrected Acknowledgements are shown in the accompanying Author Correction.
November 15, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Huriye Atilgan, Alex C Kwan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Tomoki Kurikawa, Tatsuya Haga, Takashi Handa, Rie Harukuni, Tomoki Fukai
In the brain, decision making is instantiated in dedicated neural circuits. However, there is considerable individual variability in decision-making behavior, particularly under uncertainty. The origins of decision variability within these conserved neural circuits are not known. Here we demonstrate in the rat medial frontal cortex (MFC) that individual variability is a consequence of altered stability in neuronal populations. In a sensory-guided choice task, rats trained on familiar stimuli were exposed to unfamiliar stimuli, resulting in variable choice responses across individuals...
November 12, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Erik Ellwardt, Gautam Pramanik, Dirk Luchtman, Tanja Novkovic, Eduardo Rosales Jubal, Johannes Vogt, Isabelle Arnoux, Christina Francisca Vogelaar, Shibajee Mandal, Melanie Schmalz, Zeke Barger, Inigo Ruiz de Azua, Tanja Kuhlmann, Beat Lutz, Thomas Mittmann, Stefan Bittner, Frauke Zipp, Albrecht Stroh
In the version of this article initially published, Inigo Ruiz de Azua's name was miscategorized. His given name is Inigo and his surname is Ruiz de Azua. This has been corrected in the HTML coding.
November 7, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Ying Cheng, Zhi-Meng Wang, Weiqi Tan, Xiaona Wang, Yujing Li, Bing Bai, Yuxin Li, Shuang-Feng Zhang, Hai-Liang Yan, Zuo-Lun Chen, Chang-Mei Liu, Ting-Wei Mi, Shuting Xia, Zikai Zhou, An Liu, Gang-Bin Tang, Cong Liu, Zhi-Jie Dai, Ying-Ying Wang, Hong Wang, Xusheng Wang, Yunhee Kang, Li Lin, Zhenping Chen, Nina Xie, Qinmiao Sun, Wei Xie, Junmin Peng, Dahua Chen, Zhao-Qian Teng, Peng Jin
Genetic analyses have linked microRNA-137 (MIR137) to neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. miR-137 plays important roles in neurogenesis and neuronal maturation, but the impact of miR-137 loss-of-function in vivo remains unclear. Here we show the complete loss of miR-137 in the mouse germline knockout or nervous system knockout (cKO) leads to postnatal lethality, while heterozygous germline knockout and cKO mice remain viable. Partial loss of miR-137 in heterozygous cKO mice results in dysregulated synaptic plasticity, repetitive behavior, and impaired learning and social behavior...
November 5, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Emanuele Formento, Karen Minassian, Fabien Wagner, Jean Baptiste Mignardot, Camille G Le Goff-Mignardot, Andreas Rowald, Jocelyne Bloch, Silvestro Micera, Marco Capogrosso, Gregoire Courtine
Epidural electrical stimulation (EES) of the spinal cord restores locomotion in animal models of spinal cord injury but is less effective in humans. Here we hypothesized that this interspecies discrepancy is due to interference between EES and proprioceptive information in humans. Computational simulations and preclinical and clinical experiments reveal that EES blocks a significant amount of proprioceptive input in humans, but not in rats. This transient deafferentation prevents modulation of reciprocal inhibitory networks involved in locomotion and reduces or abolishes the conscious perception of leg position...
October 31, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Chet Moritz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Jiwei Yao, Quanchao Zhang, Xiang Liao, Qianwei Li, Shanshan Liang, Xianping Li, Yalun Zhang, Xiangning Li, Haoyu Wang, Han Qin, Meng Wang, Jingcheng Li, Jianxiong Zhang, Wenjing He, Wen Zhang, Tong Li, Fuqiang Xu, Hui Gong, Hongbo Jia, Xiaohong Xu, Junan Yan, Xiaowei Chen
Urination (also called micturition) is thought to be regulated by a neural network that is distributed in both subcortical and cortical regions. Previously, urination-related neurons have been identified in subcortical structures such as the pontine micturition center (also known as Barrington's nucleus). However, the origin of the descending cortical pathway and how it interfaces with this subcortical circuit to permit voluntary initiation of urination remain elusive. Here we identified a small cluster of layer 5 neurons in the primary motor cortex whose activities tightly correlate with the onset of urination in freely behaving mice and increase dramatically during territorial marking...
November 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Zheyi Ni, Hailan Hu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Mu Zhou, Zhihui Liu, Maxwell D Melin, Yi Han Ng, Wei Xu, Thomas C Südhof
The formation and retrieval of conditioned fear memories critically depend on the amygdala. Here we identify an inhibitory projection from somatostatin-positive neurons in the central amygdala to parvalbumin-positive neurons in the zona incerta that is required for both recent and remote fear memories. Thus, the amygdala inhibitory input to parvalbumin-positive neurons in the zona incerta, a nucleus not previously implicated in fear memory, is an essential component of the fear memory circuitry.
November 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Jason M Samonds, Wilson S Geisler, Nicholas J Priebe
Humans and other primates sample the visual environment using saccadic eye movements that shift a high-resolution fovea toward regions of interest to create a clear perception of a scene across fixations. Many mammals, however, like mice, lack a fovea, which raises the question of why they make saccades. Here we describe and test the hypothesis that saccades are matched to natural scene statistics and to the receptive field sizes and adaptive properties of neural populations. Specifically, we determined the minimum amplitude of saccades in natural scenes necessary to provide uncorrelated inputs to model neural populations...
November 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Alissa M D'Gama, Christopher A Walsh
Traditionally, we have considered genetic mutations that cause neurodevelopmental diseases to be inherited or de novo germline mutations. Recently, we have come to appreciate the importance of de novo somatic mutations, which occur postzygotically and are thus present in only a subset of the cells of an affected individual. The advent of next-generation sequencing and single-cell sequencing technologies has shown that somatic mutations contribute to normal and abnormal human brain development. Somatic mutations are one important cause of neuronal migration and brain overgrowth disorders, as suggested by visible focal lesions...
November 2018: Nature Neuroscience
John Widloski, David J Foster
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Gordon B Smith, Bettina Hein, David E Whitney, David Fitzpatrick, Matthias Kaschube
The principles governing the functional organization and development of long-range network interactions in the neocortex remain poorly understood. Using in vivo widefield and two-photon calcium imaging of spontaneous activity patterns in mature ferret visual cortex, we find widespread modular correlation patterns that accurately predict the local structure of visually evoked orientation columns several millimeters away. Longitudinal imaging demonstrates that long-range spontaneous correlations are present early in cortical development before the elaboration of horizontal connections and predict mature network structure...
November 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Sarah J Marzi, Szi Kay Leung, Teodora Ribarska, Eilis Hannon, Adam R Smith, Ehsan Pishva, Jeremie Poschmann, Karen Moore, Claire Troakes, Safa Al-Sarraj, Stephan Beck, Stuart Newman, Katie Lunnon, Leonard C Schalkwyk, Jonathan Mill
We quantified genome-wide patterns of lysine H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac) in entorhinal cortex samples from Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases and matched controls using chromatin immunoprecipitation and highly parallel sequencing. We observed widespread acetylomic variation associated with AD neuropathology, identifying 4,162 differential peaks (false discovery rate < 0.05) between AD cases and controls. Differentially acetylated peaks were enriched in disease-related biological pathways and included regions annotated to genes involved in the progression of amyloid-β and tau pathology (for example, APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, and MAPT), as well as regions containing variants associated with sporadic late-onset AD...
November 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Ferenc Mátyás, Gergely Komlósi, Ákos Babiczky, Kinga Kocsis, Péter Barthó, Boglárka Barsy, Csaba Dávid, Vivien Kanti, Cesar Porrero, Aletta Magyar, Iván Szűcs, Francisco Clasca, László Acsády
Sleep cycles consist of rapid alterations between arousal states, including transient perturbation of sleep rhythms, microarousals, and full-blown awake states. Here we demonstrate that the calretinin (CR)-containing neurons in the dorsal medial thalamus (DMT) constitute a key diencephalic node that mediates distinct levels of forebrain arousal. Cell-type-specific activation of DMT/CR+ cells elicited active locomotion lasting for minutes, stereotyped microarousals, or transient disruption of sleep rhythms, depending on the parameters of the stimulation...
November 2018: Nature Neuroscience
James G Heys, Daniel A Dombeck
The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) is known to contain spatial encoding neurons that likely contribute to encoding spatial aspects of episodic memories. However, little is known about the role MEC plays in encoding temporal aspects of episodic memories, particularly during immobility. Here using a virtual 'Door Stop' task for mice, we show that MEC contains a representation of elapsed time during immobility, with individual time-encoding neurons activated at a specific moment during the immobile interval. This representation consisted of a sequential activation of time-encoding neurons and displayed variations in progression speed that correlated with variations in mouse timing behavior...
November 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Marcelo G Mattar, Nathaniel D Daw
To make decisions, animals must evaluate candidate choices by accessing memories of relevant experiences. Yet little is known about which experiences are considered or ignored during deliberation, which ultimately governs choice. We propose a normative theory predicting which memories should be accessed at each moment to optimize future decisions. Using nonlocal 'replay' of spatial locations in hippocampus as a window into memory access, we simulate a spatial navigation task in which an agent accesses memories of locations sequentially, ordered by utility: how much extra reward would be earned due to better choices...
November 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Nathaniel D Daw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Ramón A Piñol, Sebastian H Zahler, Chia Li, Atreyi Saha, Brandon K Tan, Vojtěch Škop, Oksana Gavrilova, Cuiying Xiao, Michael J Krashes, Marc L Reitman
Bombesin-like receptor 3 (BRS3) is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor that regulates energy homeostasis and heart rate. We report that acute activation of Brs3-expressing neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMHBrs3 ) increased body temperature (Tb), brown adipose tissue temperature, energy expenditure, heart rate, and blood pressure, with no effect on food intake or physical activity. Conversely, activation of Brs3 neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus had no effect on Tb or energy expenditure, but suppressed food intake...
November 2018: Nature Neuroscience
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