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Nature Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218917/delayed-stabilization-and-individualization-in-connectome-development-are-related-to-psychiatric-disorders
#1
Tobias Kaufmann, Dag Alnæs, Nhat Trung Doan, Christine Lycke Brandt, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
The brain functional connectome constitutes a unique fingerprint allowing identification of individuals among a pool of people. Here we establish that the connectome develops into a more stable, individual wiring pattern during adolescence and demonstrate that a delay in this network tuning process is associated with reduced mental health in the formative years of late neurodevelopment.
February 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218916/hippocampal-awake-replay-in-fear-memory-retrieval
#2
Chun-Ting Wu, Daniel Haggerty, Caleb Kemere, Daoyun Ji
Hippocampal place cells are key to episodic memories. How these cells participate in memory retrieval remains unclear. After rats acquired a fear memory by receiving mild footshocks in a shock zone on a track, we analyzed place cells when the animals were placed on the track again and displayed an apparent memory retrieval behavior: avoidance of the shock zone. We found that place cells representing the shock zone were reactivated, despite the fact that the animals did not enter the shock zone. This reactivation occurred in ripple-associated awake replay of place cell sequences encoding the paths from the animal's current positions to the shock zone but not in place cell sequences within individual cycles of theta oscillation...
February 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218915/one-step-optogenetics-with-multifunctional-flexible-polymer-fibers
#3
Seongjun Park, Yuanyuan Guo, Xiaoting Jia, Han Kyoung Choe, Benjamin Grena, Jeewoo Kang, Jiyeon Park, Chi Lu, Andres Canales, Ritchie Chen, Yeong Shin Yim, Gloria B Choi, Yoel Fink, Polina Anikeeva
Optogenetic interrogation of neural pathways relies on delivery of light-sensitive opsins into tissue and subsequent optical illumination and electrical recording from the regions of interest. Despite the recent development of multifunctional neural probes, integration of these modalities in a single biocompatible platform remains a challenge. We developed a device composed of an optical waveguide, six electrodes and two microfluidic channels produced via fiber drawing. Our probes facilitated injections of viral vectors carrying opsin genes while providing collocated neural recording and optical stimulation...
February 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218914/persistently-active-neurons-in-human-medial-frontal-and-medial-temporal-lobe-support-working-memory
#4
Jan Kamiński, Shannon Sullivan, Jeffrey M Chung, Ian B Ross, Adam N Mamelak, Ueli Rutishauser
Persistent neural activity is a putative mechanism for the maintenance of working memories. Persistent activity relies on the activity of a distributed network of areas, but the differential contribution of each area remains unclear. We recorded single neurons in the human medial frontal cortex and medial temporal lobe while subjects held up to three items in memory. We found persistently active neurons in both areas. Persistent activity of hippocampal and amygdala neurons was stimulus-specific, formed stable attractors and was predictive of memory content...
February 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192396/metabotropic-action-of-postsynaptic-kainate-receptors-triggers-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation
#5
Milos M Petrovic, Silvia Viana da Silva, James P Clement, Ladislav Vyklicky, Christophe Mulle, Inmaculada M González-González, Jeremy M Henley
Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the rat hippocampus is the most extensively studied cellular model for learning and memory. Induction of classical LTP involves an NMDA-receptor- and calcium-dependent increase in functional synaptic AMPA receptors, mediated by enhanced recycling of internalized AMPA receptors back to the postsynaptic membrane. Here we report a physiologically relevant NMDA-receptor-independent mechanism that drives increased AMPA receptor recycling and LTP. This pathway requires the metabotropic action of kainate receptors and activation of G protein, protein kinase C and phospholipase C...
February 13, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192395/cadherins-mediate-cocaine-induced-synaptic-plasticity-and-behavioral-conditioning
#6
Fergil Mills, Andrea K Globa, Shuai Liu, Catherine M Cowan, Mahsan Mobasser, Anthony G Phillips, Stephanie L Borgland, Shernaz X Bamji
Drugs of abuse alter synaptic connections in the reward circuitry of the brain, which leads to long-lasting behavioral changes that underlie addiction. Here we show that cadherin adhesion molecules play a critical role in mediating synaptic plasticity and behavioral changes driven by cocaine. We demonstrate that cadherin is essential for long-term potentiation in the ventral tegmental area and is recruited to the synaptic membranes of excitatory synapses onto dopaminergic neurons following cocaine-mediated behavioral conditioning...
February 13, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192394/retinal-origin-of-direction-selectivity-in-the-superior-colliculus
#7
Xuefeng Shi, Jad Barchini, Hector Acaron Ledesma, David Koren, Yanjiao Jin, Xiaorong Liu, Wei Wei, Jianhua Cang
Detecting visual features in the environment, such as motion direction, is crucial for survival. The circuit mechanisms that give rise to direction selectivity in a major visual center, the superior colliculus (SC), are entirely unknown. We optogenetically isolate the retinal inputs that individual direction-selective SC neurons receive and find that they are already selective as a result of precisely converging inputs from similarly tuned retinal ganglion cells. The direction-selective retinal input is linearly amplified by intracollicular circuits without changing its preferred direction or level of selectivity...
February 13, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192393/nusinersen-an-antisense-oligonucleotide-drug-for-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#8
David R Corey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166220/neuronal-activity-modifies-the-chromatin-accessibility-landscape-in-the-adult-brain
#9
Yijing Su, Jaehoon Shin, Chun Zhong, Sabrina Wang, Prith Roychowdhury, Jongseuk Lim, David Kim, Guo-Li Ming, Hongjun Song
Neuronal activity-induced gene expression modulates the function and plasticity of the nervous system. It is unknown whether and to what extent neuronal activity may trigger changes in chromatin accessibility, a major mode of epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Here we compared chromatin accessibility landscapes of adult mouse dentate granule neurons in vivo before and after synchronous neuronal activation using an assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq). We found genome-wide changes 1 h after activation, with enrichment of gained-open sites at active enhancer regions and at binding sites for AP1-complex components, including c-Fos...
February 6, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166219/identification-of-diverse-astrocyte-populations-and-their-malignant-analogs
#10
Chia-Ching John Lin, Kwanha Yu, Asante Hatcher, Teng-Wei Huang, Hyun Kyoung Lee, Jeffrey Carlson, Matthew C Weston, Fengju Chen, Yiqun Zhang, Wenyi Zhu, Carrie A Mohila, Nabil Ahmed, Akash J Patel, Benjamin R Arenkiel, Jeffrey L Noebels, Chad J Creighton, Benjamin Deneen
Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the brain, where they perform a wide array of functions, yet the nature of their cellular heterogeneity and how it oversees these diverse roles remains shrouded in mystery. Using an intersectional fluorescence-activated cell sorting-based strategy, we identified five distinct astrocyte subpopulations present across three brain regions that show extensive molecular diversity. Application of this molecular insight toward function revealed that these populations differentially support synaptogenesis between neurons...
February 6, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135243/hormonal-gain-control-of-a-medial-preoptic-area-social-reward-circuit
#11
Jenna A McHenry, James M Otis, Mark A Rossi, J Elliott Robinson, Oksana Kosyk, Noah W Miller, Zoe A McElligott, Evgeny A Budygin, David R Rubinow, Garret D Stuber
Neural networks that control reproduction must integrate social and hormonal signals, tune motivation, and coordinate social interactions. However, the neural circuit mechanisms for these processes remain unresolved. The medial preoptic area (mPOA), an essential node for social behaviors, comprises molecularly diverse neurons with widespread projections. Here we identify a steroid-responsive subset of neurotensin (Nts)-expressing mPOA neurons that interface with the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to form a socially engaged reward circuit...
January 30, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135241/-18-f-fdg-pet-signal-is-driven-by-astroglial-glutamate-transport
#12
Eduardo R Zimmer, Maxime J Parent, Débora G Souza, Antoine Leuzy, Clotilde Lecrux, Hyoung-Ihl Kim, Serge Gauthier, Luc Pellerin, Edith Hamel, Pedro Rosa-Neto
Contributions of glial cells to neuroenergetics have been the focus of extensive debate. Here we provide positron emission tomography evidence that activation of astrocytic glutamate transport via the excitatory amino acid transporter GLT-1 triggers widespread but graded glucose uptake in the rodent brain. Our results highlight the need for a reevaluation of the interpretation of [(18)F]FDG positron emission tomography data, whereby astrocytes would be recognized as contributing to the [(18)F]FDG signal.
January 30, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135239/hypothalamic-crfr1-is-essential-for-hpa-axis-regulation-following-chronic-stress
#13
Assaf Ramot, Zhiying Jiang, Jin-Bin Tian, Tali Nahum, Yael Kuperman, Nicholas Justice, Alon Chen
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a pivotal component of an organism's response to stressful challenges, and dysfunction of this neuroendocrine axis is associated with a variety of physiological and psychological pathologies. We found that corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus is an important central component of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation that prepares the organism for successive exposure to stressful stimuli.
January 30, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114296/inhibitory-suppression-of-heterogeneously-tuned-excitation-enhances-spatial-coding-in-ca1-place-cells
#14
Christine Grienberger, Aaron D Milstein, Katie C Bittner, Sandro Romani, Jeffrey C Magee
Place cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus express location-specific firing despite receiving a steady barrage of heterogeneously tuned excitatory inputs that should compromise output dynamic range and timing. We examined the role of synaptic inhibition in countering the deleterious effects of off-target excitation. Intracellular recordings in behaving mice demonstrate that bimodal excitation drives place cells, while unimodal excitation drives weaker or no spatial tuning in interneurons. Optogenetic hyperpolarization of interneurons had spatially uniform effects on place cell membrane potential dynamics, substantially reducing spatial selectivity...
January 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114295/an-inhibitory-pull-push-circuit-in-frontal-cortex
#15
Pablo Garcia-Junco-Clemente, Taruna Ikrar, Elaine Tring, Xiangmin Xu, Dario L Ringach, Joshua T Trachtenberg
Push-pull is a canonical computation of excitatory cortical circuits. By contrast, we identify a pull-push inhibitory circuit in frontal cortex that originates in vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-expressing interneurons. During arousal, VIP cells rapidly and directly inhibit pyramidal neurons; VIP cells also indirectly excite these pyramidal neurons via parallel disinhibition. Thus, arousal exerts a feedback pull-push influence on excitatory neurons-an inversion of the canonical push-pull of feedforward input...
January 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114294/circuit-specificity-in-the-inhibitory-architecture-of-the-vta-regulates-cocaine-induced-behavior
#16
Nicholas J Edwards, Hugo A Tejeda, Marco Pignatelli, Shiliang Zhang, Ross A McDevitt, Jocelyn Wu, Caroline E Bass, Bernhard Bettler, Marisela Morales, Antonello Bonci
Afferent inputs to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) control reward-related behaviors through regulation of dopamine neuron activity. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) provides one of the most prominent projections to the VTA; however, recent studies have provided conflicting evidence regarding the function of these inhibitory inputs. Using optogenetics, cell-specific ablation, whole cell patch-clamp and immuno-electron microscopy, we found that NAc inputs synapsed directly onto dopamine neurons, preferentially activating GABAB receptors...
January 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092659/rem-sleep-selectively-prunes-and-maintains-new-synapses-in-development-and-learning
#17
Wei Li, Lei Ma, Guang Yang, Wen-Biao Gan
The functions and underlying mechanisms of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep remain unclear. Here we show that REM sleep prunes newly formed postsynaptic dendritic spines of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the mouse motor cortex during development and motor learning. This REM sleep-dependent elimination of new spines facilitates subsequent spine formation during development and when a new motor task is learned, indicating a role for REM sleep in pruning to balance the number of new spines formed over time. Moreover, REM sleep also strengthens and maintains newly formed spines, which are critical for neuronal circuit development and behavioral improvement after learning...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166221/a-molecular-census-of-arcuate-hypothalamus-and-median-eminence-cell-types
#18
John N Campbell, Evan Z Macosko, Henning Fenselau, Tune H Pers, Anna Lyubetskaya, Danielle Tenen, Melissa Goldman, Anne M J Verstegen, Jon M Resch, Steven A McCarroll, Evan D Rosen, Bradford B Lowell, Linus T Tsai
The hypothalamic arcuate-median eminence complex (Arc-ME) controls energy balance, fertility and growth through molecularly distinct cell types, many of which remain unknown. To catalog cell types in an unbiased way, we profiled gene expression in 20,921 individual cells in and around the adult mouse Arc-ME using Drop-seq. We identify 50 transcriptionally distinct Arc-ME cell populations, including a rare tanycyte population at the Arc-ME diffusion barrier, a new leptin-sensing neuron population, multiple agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) subtypes, and an orexigenic somatostatin neuron population...
March 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135242/overlearning-hyperstabilizes-a-skill-by-rapidly-making-neurochemical-processing-inhibitory-dominant
#19
Kazuhisa Shibata, Yuka Sasaki, Ji Won Bang, Edward G Walsh, Maro G Machizawa, Masako Tamaki, Li-Hung Chang, Takeo Watanabe
Overlearning refers to the continued training of a skill after performance improvement has plateaued. Whether overlearning is beneficial is a question in our daily lives that has never been clearly answered. Here we report a new important role: overlearning in humans abruptly changes neurochemical processing, to hyperstabilize and protect trained perceptual learning from subsequent new learning. Usually, learning immediately after training is so unstable that it can be disrupted by subsequent new learning until after passive stabilization occurs hours later...
March 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135240/pericyte-degeneration-leads-to-neurovascular-uncoupling-and-limits-oxygen-supply-to-brain
#20
Kassandra Kisler, Amy R Nelson, Sanket V Rege, Anita Ramanathan, Yaoming Wang, Ashim Ahuja, Divna Lazic, Philbert S Tsai, Zhen Zhao, Yi Zhou, David A Boas, Sava Sakadžić, Berislav V Zlokovic
Pericytes are perivascular mural cells of brain capillaries. They are positioned centrally in the neurovascular unit between endothelial cells, astrocytes and neurons. This position allows them to regulate key neurovascular functions of the brain. The role of pericytes in the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neurovascular coupling remains, however, under debate. Using loss-of-function pericyte-deficient mice, here we show that pericyte degeneration diminishes global and individual capillary CBF responses to neuronal stimuli, resulting in neurovascular uncoupling, reduced oxygen supply to the brain and metabolic stress...
March 2017: Nature Neuroscience
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