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Nature Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319610/capillary-k-sensing-initiates-retrograde-hyperpolarization-to-increase-local-cerebral-blood-flow
#1
Thomas A Longden, Fabrice Dabertrand, Masayo Koide, Albert L Gonzales, Nathan R Tykocki, Joseph E Brayden, David Hill-Eubanks, Mark T Nelson
Blood flow into the brain is dynamically regulated to satisfy the changing metabolic requirements of neurons, but how this is accomplished has remained unclear. Here we demonstrate a central role for capillary endothelial cells in sensing neural activity and communicating it to upstream arterioles in the form of an electrical vasodilatory signal. We further demonstrate that this signal is initiated by extracellular K(+) -a byproduct of neural activity-which activates capillary endothelial cell inward-rectifier K(+) (KIR2...
March 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319609/developmental-alterations-in-huntington-s-disease-neural-cells-and-pharmacological-rescue-in-cells-and-mice
#2
(no author information available yet)
Neural cultures derived from Huntington's disease (HD) patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells were used for 'omics' analyses to identify mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. RNA-seq analysis identified genes in glutamate and GABA signaling, axonal guidance and calcium influx whose expression was decreased in HD cultures. One-third of gene changes were in pathways regulating neuronal development and maturation. When mapped to stages of mouse striatal development, the profiles aligned with earlier embryonic stages of neuronal differentiation...
March 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319608/cerebellar-granule-cells-acquire-a-widespread-predictive-feedback-signal-during-motor-learning
#3
Andrea Giovannucci, Aleksandra Badura, Ben Deverett, Farzaneh Najafi, Talmo D Pereira, Zhenyu Gao, Ilker Ozden, Alexander D Kloth, Eftychios Pnevmatikakis, Liam Paninski, Chris I De Zeeuw, Javier F Medina, Samuel S-H Wang
Cerebellar granule cells, which constitute half the brain's neurons, supply Purkinje cells with contextual information necessary for motor learning, but how they encode this information is unknown. Here we show, using two-photon microscopy to track neural activity over multiple days of cerebellum-dependent eyeblink conditioning in mice, that granule cell populations acquire a dense representation of the anticipatory eyelid movement. Initially, granule cells responded to neutral visual and somatosensory stimuli as well as periorbital airpuffs used for training...
March 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288128/%C3%AE-synuclein-promotes-dilation-of-the-exocytotic-fusion-pore
#4
Todd Logan, Jacob Bendor, Chantal Toupin, Kurt Thorn, Robert H Edwards
The protein α-synuclein has a central role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Like that of other proteins that accumulate in neurodegenerative disease, however, the function of α-synuclein remains unknown. Localization to the nerve terminal suggests a role in neurotransmitter release, and overexpression inhibits regulated exocytosis, but previous work has failed to identify a clear physiological defect in mice lacking all three synuclein isoforms. Using adrenal chromaffin cells and neurons, we now find that both overexpressed and endogenous synuclein accelerate the kinetics of individual exocytotic events, promoting cargo discharge and reducing pore closure ('kiss-and-run')...
March 13, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288127/the-effect-of-face-patch-microstimulation-on-perception-of-faces-and-objects
#5
Sebastian Moeller, Trinity Crapse, Le Chang, Doris Y Tsao
What is the range of stimuli encoded by face-selective regions of the brain? We asked how electrical microstimulation of face patches in macaque inferotemporal cortex affects perception of faces and objects. We found that microstimulation strongly distorted face percepts and that this effect depended on precise targeting to the center of face patches. While microstimulation had no effect on the percept of many non-face objects, it did affect the percept of some, including non-face objects whose shape is consistent with a face (for example, apples) as well as somewhat facelike abstract images (for example, cartoon houses)...
March 13, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288126/manipulating-fear-associations-via-optogenetic-modulation-of-amygdala-inputs-to-prefrontal-cortex
#6
Oded Klavir, Matthias Prigge, Ayelet Sarel, Rony Paz, Ofer Yizhar
Fear-related disorders are thought to reflect strong and persistent fear memories. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) form strong reciprocal synaptic connections that play a key role in acquisition and extinction of fear memories. While synaptic contacts of BLA cells onto mPFC neurons are likely to play a crucial role in this process, the BLA connects with several additional nuclei within the fear circuit that could relay fear-associated information to the mPFC, and the contribution of direct monosynaptic BLA-mPFC inputs is not yet clear...
March 13, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288125/regulatory-t-cells-promote-myelin-regeneration-in-the-central-nervous-system
#7
Yvonne Dombrowski, Thomas O'Hagan, Marie Dittmer, Rosana Penalva, Sonia R Mayoral, Peter Bankhead, Samara Fleville, George Eleftheriadis, Chao Zhao, Michelle Naughton, Rachel Hassan, Jill Moffat, John Falconer, Amanda Boyd, Peter Hamilton, Ingrid V Allen, Adrien Kissenpfennig, Paul N Moynagh, Emma Evergren, Bernard Perbal, Anna C Williams, Rebecca J Ingram, Jonah R Chan, Robin J M Franklin, Denise C Fitzgerald
Regeneration of CNS myelin involves differentiation of oligodendrocytes from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. In multiple sclerosis, remyelination can fail despite abundant oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, suggesting impairment of oligodendrocyte differentiation. T cells infiltrate the CNS in multiple sclerosis, yet little is known about T cell functions in remyelination. We report that regulatory T cells (Treg) promote oligodendrocyte differentiation and (re)myelination. Treg-deficient mice exhibited substantially impaired remyelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation, which was rescued by adoptive transfer of Treg...
March 13, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288124/c1-neurons-mediate-a-stress-induced-anti-inflammatory-reflex-in-mice
#8
Chikara Abe, Tsuyoshi Inoue, Mabel A Inglis, Kenneth E Viar, Liping Huang, Hong Ye, Diane L Rosin, Ruth L Stornetta, Mark D Okusa, Patrice G Guyenet
C1 neurons, located in the medulla oblongata, mediate adaptive autonomic responses to physical stressors (for example, hypotension, hemorrhage and presence of lipopolysaccharides). We describe here a powerful anti-inflammatory effect of restraint stress, mediated by C1 neurons: protection against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Restraint stress or optogenetic C1 neuron (C1) stimulation (10 min) protected mice from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The protection was reproduced by injecting splenic T cells that had been preincubated with noradrenaline or splenocytes harvested from stressed mice...
March 13, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263302/whole-genome-sequencing-resource-identifies-18-new-candidate-genes-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Ryan K C Yuen, Daniele Merico, Matt Bookman, Jennifer L Howe, Bhooma Thiruvahindrapuram, Rohan V Patel, Joe Whitney, Nicole Deflaux, Jonathan Bingham, Zhuozhi Wang, Giovanna Pellecchia, Janet A Buchanan, Susan Walker, Christian R Marshall, Mohammed Uddin, Mehdi Zarrei, Eric Deneault, Lia D'Abate, Ada J S Chan, Stephanie Koyanagi, Tara Paton, Sergio L Pereira, Ny Hoang, Worrawat Engchuan, Edward J Higginbotham, Karen Ho, Sylvia Lamoureux, Weili Li, Jeffrey R MacDonald, Thomas Nalpathamkalam, Wilson W L Sung, Fiona J Tsoi, John Wei, Lizhen Xu, Anne-Marie Tasse, Emily Kirby, William Van Etten, Simon Twigger, Wendy Roberts, Irene Drmic, Sanne Jilderda, Bonnie MacKinnon Modi, Barbara Kellam, Michael Szego, Cheryl Cytrynbaum, Rosanna Weksberg, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Marc Woodbury-Smith, Jessica Brian, Lili Senman, Alana Iaboni, Krissy Doyle-Thomas, Ann Thompson, Christina Chrysler, Jonathan Leef, Tal Savion-Lemieux, Isabel M Smith, Xudong Liu, Rob Nicolson, Vicki Seifer, Angie Fedele, Edwin H Cook, Stephen Dager, Annette Estes, Louise Gallagher, Beth A Malow, Jeremy R Parr, Sarah J Spence, Jacob Vorstman, Brendan J Frey, James T Robinson, Lisa J Strug, Bridget A Fernandez, Mayada Elsabbagh, Melissa T Carter, Joachim Hallmayer, Bartha M Knoppers, Evdokia Anagnostou, Peter Szatmari, Robert H Ring, David Glazer, Mathew T Pletcher, Stephen W Scherer
We are performing whole-genome sequencing of families with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to build a resource (MSSNG) for subcategorizing the phenotypes and underlying genetic factors involved. Here we report sequencing of 5,205 samples from families with ASD, accompanied by clinical information, creating a database accessible on a cloud platform and through a controlled-access internet portal. We found an average of 73.8 de novo single nucleotide variants and 12.6 de novo insertions and deletions or copy number variations per ASD subject...
March 6, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263301/dopamine-reward-prediction-errors-reflect-hidden-state-inference-across-time
#10
Clara Kwon Starkweather, Benedicte M Babayan, Naoshige Uchida, Samuel J Gershman
Midbrain dopamine neurons signal reward prediction error (RPE), or actual minus expected reward. The temporal difference (TD) learning model has been a cornerstone in understanding how dopamine RPEs could drive associative learning. Classically, TD learning imparts value to features that serially track elapsed time relative to observable stimuli. In the real world, however, sensory stimuli provide ambiguous information about the hidden state of the environment, leading to the proposal that TD learning might instead compute a value signal based on an inferred distribution of hidden states (a 'belief state')...
March 6, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263300/a-distinct-entorhinal-cortex-to-hippocampal-ca1-direct-circuit-for-olfactory-associative-learning
#11
Yiding Li, Jiamin Xu, Yafeng Liu, Jia Zhu, Nan Liu, Wenbo Zeng, Ning Huang, Malte J Rasch, Haifei Jiang, Xiang Gu, Xiang Li, Minhua Luo, Chengyu Li, Junlin Teng, Jianguo Chen, Shaoqun Zeng, Longnian Lin, Xiaohui Zhang
Lateral and medial parts of entorhinal cortex (EC) convey nonspatial 'what' and spatial 'where' information, respectively, into hippocampal CA1, via both the indirect EC layer 2→ hippocampal dentate gyrus→CA3→CA1 and the direct EC layer 3→CA1 paths. However, it remains elusive how the direct path transfers distinct information and contributes to hippocampal learning functions. Here we report that lateral EC projection neurons selectively form direct excitatory synapses onto a subpopulation of morphologically complex, calbindin-expressing pyramidal cells (PCs) in the dorsal CA1 (dCA1), while medial EC neurons uniformly innervate all dCA1 PCs...
March 6, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253233/differentiation-of-human-and-murine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-microglia-like-cells
#12
Hetal Pandya, Michael J Shen, David M Ichikawa, Andrea B Sedlock, Yong Choi, Kory R Johnson, Gloria Kim, Mason A Brown, Abdel G Elkahloun, Dragan Maric, Colin L Sweeney, Selamawit Gossa, Harry L Malech, Dorian B McGavern, John K Park
Microglia are resident inflammatory cells of the CNS and have important roles in development, homeostasis and a variety of neurologic and psychiatric diseases. Difficulties in procuring human microglia have limited their study and hampered the clinical translation of microglia-based treatments shown to be effective in animal disease models. Here we report the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) into microglia-like cells by exposure to defined factors and co-culture with astrocytes...
March 2, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250409/ontogenetic-establishment-of-order-specific-nuclear-organization-in-the-mammalian-thalamus
#13
Wei Shi, Anjin Xianyu, Zhi Han, Xing Tang, Zhizhong Li, Haining Zhong, Tianyi Mao, Kun Huang, Song-Hai Shi
The thalamus connects the cortex with other brain regions and supports sensory perception, movement, and cognitive function via numerous distinct nuclei. However, the mechanisms underlying the development and organization of diverse thalamic nuclei remain largely unknown. Here we report an intricate ontogenetic logic of mouse thalamic structures. Individual radial glial progenitors in the developing thalamus actively divide and produce a cohort of neuronal progeny that shows striking spatial configuration and nuclear occupation related to functionality...
February 27, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250408/video-rate-volumetric-functional-imaging-of-the-brain-at-synaptic-resolution
#14
Rongwen Lu, Wenzhi Sun, Yajie Liang, Aaron Kerlin, Jens Bierfeld, Johannes D Seelig, Daniel E Wilson, Benjamin Scholl, Boaz Mohar, Masashi Tanimoto, Minoru Koyama, David Fitzpatrick, Michael B Orger, Na Ji
Neurons and neural networks often extend hundreds of micrometers in three dimensions. Capturing the calcium transients associated with their activity requires volume imaging methods with subsecond temporal resolution. Such speed is a challenge for conventional two-photon laser-scanning microscopy, because it depends on serial focal scanning in 3D and indicators with limited brightness. Here we present an optical module that is easily integrated into standard two-photon laser-scanning microscopes to generate an axially elongated Bessel focus, which when scanned in 2D turns frame rate into volume rate...
February 27, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218917/delayed-stabilization-and-individualization-in-connectome-development-are-related-to-psychiatric-disorders
#15
Tobias Kaufmann, Dag Alnæs, Nhat Trung Doan, Christine Lycke Brandt, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
The brain functional connectome constitutes a unique fingerprint allowing identification of individuals among a pool of people. Here we establish that the connectome develops into a more stable, individual wiring pattern during adolescence and demonstrate that a delay in this network tuning process is associated with reduced mental health in the formative years of late neurodevelopment.
February 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218916/hippocampal-awake-replay-in-fear-memory-retrieval
#16
Chun-Ting Wu, Daniel Haggerty, Caleb Kemere, Daoyun Ji
Hippocampal place cells are key to episodic memories. How these cells participate in memory retrieval remains unclear. After rats acquired a fear memory by receiving mild footshocks in a shock zone on a track, we analyzed place cells when the animals were placed on the track again and displayed an apparent memory retrieval behavior: avoidance of the shock zone. We found that place cells representing the shock zone were reactivated, despite the fact that the animals did not enter the shock zone. This reactivation occurred in ripple-associated awake replay of place cell sequences encoding the paths from the animal's current positions to the shock zone but not in place cell sequences within individual cycles of theta oscillation...
February 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218915/one-step-optogenetics-with-multifunctional-flexible-polymer-fibers
#17
Seongjun Park, Yuanyuan Guo, Xiaoting Jia, Han Kyoung Choe, Benjamin Grena, Jeewoo Kang, Jiyeon Park, Chi Lu, Andres Canales, Ritchie Chen, Yeong Shin Yim, Gloria B Choi, Yoel Fink, Polina Anikeeva
Optogenetic interrogation of neural pathways relies on delivery of light-sensitive opsins into tissue and subsequent optical illumination and electrical recording from the regions of interest. Despite the recent development of multifunctional neural probes, integration of these modalities in a single biocompatible platform remains a challenge. We developed a device composed of an optical waveguide, six electrodes and two microfluidic channels produced via fiber drawing. Our probes facilitated injections of viral vectors carrying opsin genes while providing collocated neural recording and optical stimulation...
February 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218914/persistently-active-neurons-in-human-medial-frontal-and-medial-temporal-lobe-support-working-memory
#18
Jan Kamiński, Shannon Sullivan, Jeffrey M Chung, Ian B Ross, Adam N Mamelak, Ueli Rutishauser
Persistent neural activity is a putative mechanism for the maintenance of working memories. Persistent activity relies on the activity of a distributed network of areas, but the differential contribution of each area remains unclear. We recorded single neurons in the human medial frontal cortex and medial temporal lobe while subjects held up to three items in memory. We found persistently active neurons in both areas. Persistent activity of hippocampal and amygdala neurons was stimulus-specific, formed stable attractors and was predictive of memory content...
February 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192396/metabotropic-action-of-postsynaptic-kainate-receptors-triggers-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation
#19
Milos M Petrovic, Silvia Viana da Silva, James P Clement, Ladislav Vyklicky, Christophe Mulle, Inmaculada M González-González, Jeremy M Henley
Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the rat hippocampus is the most extensively studied cellular model for learning and memory. Induction of classical LTP involves an NMDA-receptor- and calcium-dependent increase in functional synaptic AMPA receptors, mediated by enhanced recycling of internalized AMPA receptors back to the postsynaptic membrane. Here we report a physiologically relevant NMDA-receptor-independent mechanism that drives increased AMPA receptor recycling and LTP. This pathway requires the metabotropic action of kainate receptors and activation of G protein, protein kinase C and phospholipase C...
February 13, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192395/cadherins-mediate-cocaine-induced-synaptic-plasticity-and-behavioral-conditioning
#20
Fergil Mills, Andrea K Globa, Shuai Liu, Catherine M Cowan, Mahsan Mobasser, Anthony G Phillips, Stephanie L Borgland, Shernaz X Bamji
Drugs of abuse alter synaptic connections in the reward circuitry of the brain, which leads to long-lasting behavioral changes that underlie addiction. Here we show that cadherin adhesion molecules play a critical role in mediating synaptic plasticity and behavioral changes driven by cocaine. We demonstrate that cadherin is essential for long-term potentiation in the ventral tegmental area and is recruited to the synaptic membranes of excitatory synapses onto dopaminergic neurons following cocaine-mediated behavioral conditioning...
February 13, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
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