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Nature Neuroscience

Stephan J Sanders, Benjamin M Neale, Hailiang Huang, Donna M Werling, Joon-Yong An, Shan Dong, Goncalo Abecasis, P Alexander Arguello, John Blangero, Michael Boehnke, Mark J Daly, Kevin Eggan, Daniel H Geschwind, David C Glahn, David B Goldstein, Raquel E Gur, Robert E Handsaker, Steven A McCarroll, Roel A Ophoff, Aarno Palotie, Carlos N Pato, Chiara Sabatti, Matthew W State, A Jeremy Willsey, Steven E Hyman, Anjene M Addington, Thomas Lehner, Nelson B Freimer
In the version of this article initially published, the consortium authorship and corresponding authors were not presented correctly. In the PDF and print versions, the Whole Genome Sequencing for Psychiatric Disorders (WGSPD) consortium was missing from the author list at the beginning of the paper, where it should have appeared as the seventh author; it was present in the author list at the end of the paper, but the footnote directing readers to the Supplementary Note for a list of members was missing. In the HTML version, the consortium was listed as the last author instead of as the seventh, and the line directing readers to the Supplementary Note for a list of members appeared at the end of the paper under Author Information but not in association with the consortium name itself...
March 16, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Or A Shemesh, Dimitrii Tanese, Valeria Zampini, Changyang Linghu, Kiryl Piatkevich, Emiliano Ronzitti, Eirini Papagiakoumou, Edward S Boyden, Valentina Emiliani
In the supplementary information originally posted online, Supplementary Tables 1-5 and the Supplementary Note were missing. The error has been corrected online.
March 16, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Catherine J Stoodley, Anila M D'Mello, Jacob Ellegood, Vikram Jakkamsetti, Pei Liu, Mary Beth Nebel, Jennifer M Gibson, Elyza Kelly, Fantao Meng, Christopher A Cano, Juan M Pascual, Stewart H Mostofsky, Jason P Lerch, Peter T Tsai
In the version of this article initially published, the Simons Foundation was missing from the list of sources of support to P.T.T. in the Acknowledgments. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.
March 16, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Erica Rodriguez, Katsuyasu Sakurai, Jennie Xu, Yong Chen, Koji Toda, Shengli Zhao, Bao-Xia Han, David Ryu, Henry Yin, Wolfgang Liedtke, Fan Wang
In the version of this article initially published, ORCID links were missing for authors Erica Rodriguez, Koji Toda and Fan Wang. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.
March 16, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Yi Zheng, Wei Shen, Jian Zhang, Bo Yang, Yao-Nan Liu, Huihui Qi, Xia Yu, Si-Yao Lu, Yun Chen, Yu-Zhou Xu, Yun Li, Fred H Gage, Shuangli Mi, Jun Yao
In the version of this article initially published, the affiliation for Jian Zhang and Shuangli Mi was incomplete. In addition to the Key Laboratory of Genomics and Precision Medicine, they are also affiliated with the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. In Supplementary Fig. 1h,l, the molecular mass marker accompanying Snap25 was labeled 58 kDa; the correct value is 25 kDa. In Supplementary Fig. 9b,c, the top panel was labeled Syt1, with molecular mass markers ranging from 46 to 100 kDa; it is actually Snap25, with molecular mass markers ranging from 17 to 46 kDa...
March 15, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Matthew D Golub, Patrick T Sadtler, Emily R Oby, Kristin M Quick, Stephen I Ryu, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Aaron P Batista, Steven M Chase, Byron M Yu
Behavior is driven by coordinated activity across a population of neurons. Learning requires the brain to change the neural population activity produced to achieve a given behavioral goal. How does population activity reorganize during learning? We studied intracortical population activity in the primary motor cortex of rhesus macaques during short-term learning in a brain-computer interface (BCI) task. In a BCI, the mapping between neural activity and behavior is exactly known, enabling us to rigorously define hypotheses about neural reorganization during learning...
March 12, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Aniruddh R Galgali, Valerio Mante
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Luye Qin, Kaijie Ma, Zi-Jun Wang, Zihua Hu, Emmanuel Matas, Jing Wei, Zhen Yan
Haploinsufficiency of the SHANK3 gene is causally linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and ASD-associated genes are also enriched for chromatin remodelers. Here we found that brief treatment with romidepsin, a highly potent class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, alleviated social deficits in Shank3-deficient mice, which persisted for ~3 weeks. HDAC2 transcription was upregulated in these mice, and knockdown of HDAC2 in prefrontal cortex also rescued their social deficits. Nuclear localization of β-catenin, a Shank3-binding protein that regulates cell adhesion and transcription, was increased in Shank3-deficient mice, which induced HDAC2 upregulation and social deficits...
March 12, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Stephen M Fleming, Elisabeth J van der Putten, Nathaniel D Daw
Changing one's mind on the basis of new evidence is a hallmark of cognitive flexibility. To revise our confidence in a previous decision, we should use new evidence to update beliefs about choice accuracy. How this process unfolds in the human brain, however, remains unknown. Here we manipulated whether additional sensory evidence supports or negates a previous motion direction discrimination judgment while recording markers of neural activity in the human brain using fMRI. A signature of post-decision evidence (change in log-odds correct) was selectively observed in the activity of posterior medial frontal cortex...
March 12, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Sae-Geun Park, Yong-Cheol Jeong, Dae-Gun Kim, Min-Hyung Lee, Anna Shin, Geunhong Park, Jia Ryoo, Jiso Hong, Seohui Bae, Cheol-Hu Kim, Phill-Seung Lee, Daesoo Kim
In the version of this article initially published, a sentence in the fifth paragraph of the Results read, "Immunohistochemistry revealed that VGLUT2+ MPA neurons rarely expressed CaMKIIα, which is a putative marker for subcortical glutamatergic neurons." It should have read, "Immunohistochemistry revealed that CaMKIIα+ MPA neurons rarely expressed VGLUT2, which is a putative marker for subcortical glutamatergic neurons." The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article...
March 7, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Bahareh Ajami, Nikolay Samusik, Peter Wieghofer, Peggy P Ho, Andrea Crotti, Zach Bjornson, Marco Prinz, Wendy J Fantl, Garry P Nolan, Lawrence Steinman
Neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration may represent two poles of brain pathology. Brain myeloid cells, particularly microglia, play key roles in these conditions. We employed single-cell mass cytometry (CyTOF) to compare myeloid cell populations in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis, the R6/2 model of Huntington's disease (HD) and the mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (mSOD1) model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We identified three myeloid cell populations exclusive to the CNS and present in each disease model...
March 5, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Raffaella Nativio, Greg Donahue, Amit Berson, Yemin Lan, Alexandre Amlie-Wolf, Ferit Tuzer, Jon B Toledo, Sager J Gosai, Brian D Gregory, Claudio Torres, John Q Trojanowski, Li-San Wang, F Brad Johnson, Nancy M Bonini, Shelley L Berger
Aging is the strongest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The chromatin state, in particular through the mark H4K16ac, has been implicated in aging and thus may play a pivotal role in age-associated neurodegeneration. Here we compare the genome-wide enrichment of H4K16ac in the lateral temporal lobe of AD individuals against both younger and elderly cognitively normal controls. We found that while normal aging leads to H4K16ac enrichment, AD entails dramatic losses of H4K16ac in the proximity of genes linked to aging and AD...
March 5, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Thomas V Wuttke, Foivos Markopoulos, Hari Padmanabhan, Aaron P Wheeler, Venkatesh N Murthy, Jeffrey D Macklis
Repair of complex CNS circuitry requires newly incorporated neurons to become appropriately, functionally integrated. One approach is to direct differentiation of endogenous progenitors in situ, or ex vivo followed by transplantation. Prior studies find that newly incorporated neurons can establish long-distance axon projections, form synapses and functionally integrate in evolutionarily old hypothalamic energy-balance circuitry. We now demonstrate that postnatal neocortical connectivity can be reconstituted with point-to-point precision, including cellular integration of specific, molecularly identified projection neuron subtypes into correct positions, combined with development of appropriate long-distance projections and synapses...
March 5, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Soumya Chatterjee, Heather A Sullivan, Bryan J MacLennan, Ran Xu, YuanYuan Hou, Thomas K Lavin, Nicholas E Lea, Jacob E Michalski, Kelsey R Babcock, Stephan Dietrich, Gillian A Matthews, Anna Beyeler, Gwendolyn G Calhoon, Gordon Glober, Jennifer D Whitesell, Shenqin Yao, Ali Cetin, Julie A Harris, Hongkui Zeng, Kay M Tye, R Clay Reid, Ian R Wickersham
Recombinant rabies viral vectors have proven useful for applications including retrograde targeting of projection neurons and monosynaptic tracing, but their cytotoxicity has limited their use to short-term experiments. Here we introduce a new class of double-deletion-mutant rabies viral vectors that left transduced cells alive and healthy indefinitely. Deletion of the viral polymerase gene abolished cytotoxicity and reduced transgene expression to trace levels but left vectors still able to retrogradely infect projection neurons and express recombinases, allowing downstream expression of other transgene products such as fluorophores and calcium indicators...
March 5, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Thomas B Christophel, Polina Iamshchinina, Chang Yan, Carsten Allefeld, John-Dylan Haynes
Items held in working memory can be either attended or not, depending on their current behavioral relevance. It has been suggested that unattended contents might be solely retained in an activity-silent form. Instead, we demonstrate here that encoding unattended contents involves a division of labor. While visual cortex only maintains attended items, intraparietal areas and the frontal eye fields represent both attended and unattended items.
March 5, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Shogo Tanabe, Toshihide Yamashita
During brain development, the immune system mediates neurogenesis, gliogenesis and synapse formation. However, it remains unclear whether peripheral lymphocytes contribute to brain development. Here we identified the subtypes of lymphocytes that are present in neonatal mouse brains and investigated their functions. We found that B-1a cells, a subtype of B cells, were abundant in the neonatal mouse brain and infiltrated into the brain in a CXCL13-CXCR5-dependent manner. B-1a cells promoted the proliferation of oligodendrocyte-precursor cells (OPCs) in vitro, and depletion of B-1a cells from developing brains resulted in a reduction of numbers of OPCs and mature oligodendrocytes...
March 5, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Tatsuya C Murakami, Tomoyuki Mano, Shu Saikawa, Shuhei A Horiguchi, Daichi Shigeta, Kousuke Baba, Hiroshi Sekiya, Yoshihiro Shimizu, Kenji F Tanaka, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Masamitsu Iino, Hideki Mochizuki, Kazuki Tainaka, Hiroki R Ueda
A three-dimensional single-cell-resolution mammalian brain atlas will accelerate systems-level identification and analysis of cellular circuits underlying various brain functions. However, its construction requires efficient subcellular-resolution imaging throughout the entire brain. To address this challenge, we developed a fluorescent-protein-compatible, whole-organ clearing and homogeneous expansion protocol based on an aqueous chemical solution (CUBIC-X). The expanded, well-cleared brain enabled us to construct a point-based mouse brain atlas with single-cell annotation (CUBIC-Atlas)...
March 5, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Josef Parvizi, Sabine Kastner
Intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG), also known as electrocorticography when using subdural grid electrodes or stereotactic EEG when using depth electrodes, is blossoming in various fields of human neuroscience. In this article, we highlight the potentials of iEEG in exploring functions of the human brain while also considering its limitations. The iEEG signal provides anatomically precise information about the selective engagement of neuronal populations at the millimeter scale and the temporal dynamics of their engagement at the millisecond scale...
March 5, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Sebastian Preissl, Rongxin Fang, Hui Huang, Yuan Zhao, Ramya Raviram, David U Gorkin, Yanxiao Zhang, Brandon C Sos, Veena Afzal, Diane E Dickel, Samantha Kuan, Axel Visel, Len A Pennacchio, Kun Zhang, Bing Ren
In the version of this article initially published online, the accession code was given as GSE1000333. The correct code is GSE100033. The error has been corrected in the print, HTML and PDF versions of the article.
March 1, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Erin Hisey, Matthew Gene Kearney, Richard Mooney
The complex skills underlying verbal and musical expression can be learned without external punishment or reward, indicating their learning is internally guided. The neural mechanisms that mediate internally guided learning are poorly understood, but a circuit comprising dopamine-releasing neurons in the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) and their targets in the basal ganglia are important to externally reinforced learning. Juvenile zebra finches copy a tutor song in a process that is internally guided and, in adulthood, can learn to modify the fundamental frequency (pitch) of a target syllable in response to external reinforcement with white noise...
February 26, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
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