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Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators

Rong Rong, Wanting Wang, Yoshikazu Muroya, Gaizun Hu, Takahiro Miura, Yoshiko Ogawa, Masahiro Kohzuki, Osamu Ito
Angiotensin II (AngII) stimulates the renal production and release of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (20-HETE), which is a major metabolite of arachidonic acid catalyzed by CYP4 A isoforms. However, the effects of AngII on CYP4 A isoform expression in the kidney and its mechanism remains unclear. To clarify the regulation of CYP4 A isoform expression by AngII, we examined the chronic effects of AngII and AngII type 1 receptor (AT1-R) blockade on CYP4 A isoform expression. Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with vehicle or AngII for 1 week, and the AngII-infused rats were also treated with or without the AT1-R blocker, candesartan...
September 15, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Xuan Fang, Wenbin Cai, Qian Cheng, Ding Ai, Xian Wang, Bruce D Hammock, Yi Zhu, Xu Zhang
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation is a recommended preventive approach against cardiovascular diseases, but its mechanism of protection against myocardial infarction (MI) injury is not fully understood. Eicosanoid metabolomics demonstrated an abnormal eicosanoid profile was in the plasma of mice receiving MI surgery. 19,20-EDP, 17,18-EEQ, 14,15-EET and 9,10-EpOME were decreased, and PGE2 was increased by the surgery. N-3 PUFA-rich diets feeding or transgene of Fat-1 shifted the eicosanoid profile to an n-3 PUFA dominant style and attenuated the myocardial infarction injury...
September 14, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Michał Biernacki, Barbara Malinowska, Magdalena Timoszuk, Martek Toczek, Anna Jastrząb, Patryk Remiszewski, Elżbieta Skrzydlewska
The interaction between the endocannabinoid and ROS signaling systems has been demonstrated in different organs. Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the key enzyme responsible for degradation of the endocannabinoid anandamide, are postulated to possess anti-hypertensive potential. Here, we compared the effects of hypertension and chronic FAAH inhibition by URB597 on the endocannabinoid system and redox balance in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and hypertensive deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt rats...
September 7, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Irene Håkansson, Sandra Gouveia-Figueira, Jan Ernerudh, Magnus Vrethem, Nazdar Ghafouri, Bijar Ghafouri, Malin Nording
Although oxylipins are involved in inflammation, data on these lipid mediators in multiple sclerosis are sparse. In this study, a panel of oxylipins were analysed swith liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 41 treatment naïve patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) and 22 healthy controls. CSF levels of 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE) and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) were significantly higher in patients than in healthy controls (9-HODE median 380 nM (interquartile range 330-450 nM) in patients and 290 nM (interquartile range 250-340 nM) in controls, 13-HODE median 930 nM (interquartile range 810-1080 nM) in patients and 690 nM (interquartile range 570-760 nM) in controls, p < 0...
August 15, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Lin Yang, Cui Ma, Lixin Zhang, Min Zhang, Fei Li, Chen Zhang, Xiufeng Yu, Xiaoying Wang, Siyu He, Daling Zhu, Yinli Song
15-Lipoxygenase-2 (15-LOX-2) and 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE) have been considered as latent mediators of diverse biological processes including cancer. However, their functions in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) are unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine whether 15-LOX-2/15(S)-HETE is involved in the proliferation and migration of A549 cells and to identify the signaling pathways that participate in this process. We used immunohistochemistry to identify the expression levels of 15-LOX-2 in lung cancer tissue samples...
August 12, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Sindhu G, Shyni G L, Chithra K Pushpan, Bala Nambisan, Helen A
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease characterized by synovial proliferation and tissue destruction. Pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) play a key role in the disease process and elevate energy expenditure, which further increases the joint pain and stiffness. The present study was undertaken to explore the anti-arthritic potential of fenugreek mucilage in adjuvant induced arthritic rats. In the present study, paw volume was measured on the 7th , 14th and 21st day...
August 11, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Yuan Cao, Xiaoyan Zhou, Zixiao Yin, Xinbo Yu, Qing Yang, Qikun Guo, Duxue Tian, Xiaoliang Xiong, Guogang Xu, Xiaodong Kuang
The aim of this study is to investigate whether the lipoxin receptor agonist BML-111 exerts a protective effect against inflammation in a mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by regulating NLRP3 inflammasome activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In this study, mice were randomly divided into the following five groups: control group (Control), COPD model group (Model), BML-111 low-dose group (Low-BML), BML-111 high-dose group (High-BML) and Dexamethasone group (Dex)...
August 10, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Akinyemi Oni-Orisan, Sharon Cresci, Philip G Jones, Katherine N Theken, John A Spertus, Craig R Lee
Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH, EPHX2) elicits potent cardiovascular protective effects in preclinical models of ischemic cardiovascular disease (CVD), and genetic polymorphisms in EPHX2 have been associated with developing ischemic CVD in humans. However, it remains unknown whether EPHX2 variants are associated with prognosis following an ischemic CVD event. We evaluated the association between EPHX2 p.Lys55Arg and p.Arg287Gln genotype with survival in 667 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients...
August 7, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Lu Liu, Nitin Puri, Marco Raffaele, Joseph Schragenheim, Shailendra P Singh, J Alyce Bradbury, Lars Bellner, Luca Vanella, Darryl C Zeldin, Jian Cao, Nader G Abraham
We have shown that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), specifically 11,12- and 14,15-EETs, reduce adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells and mouse preadipocytes (3T-3L1). In this study, we explore the effects of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) deletion on various aspects of adipocyte-function, including programing for white vs. beige-like fat, and mitochondrial and thermogenic gene-expressions. We further hypothesize that EETs and heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) form a synergistic, functional module whose effects on adipocyte and vascular function is greater than the effects of sEH deletion alone...
July 21, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Lai Wang, Gan Luo, Long-Fei Zhang, Hui-Xia Geng
Eicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are a class of intermediates produced during arachidonic acid metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases that exert multiple physiological effects on the nervous system. EETs promote three metabolic processes, including esterification, hydrolysis and degradation or extension. EETs are hydrolyzed by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to form corresponding diols, thereby reducing their biological activity. Strategies regulating sEH expression or activity affect EET hydrolysis and alter relative cell concentrations, thus influencing EET function...
July 18, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Xiaofan Zhang, Nagat El Demerdash, John R Falck, Sailu Munnuri, Raymond C Koehler, Zeng-Jin Yang
20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A/4F-derived metabolite of arachidonic acid, directly contributes to ischemic neuronal injury. However, little is known about mediators of 20-HETE neurotoxicity after ischemia. Here, we focus on the role of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) in 20-HETE-induced neurotoxicity. Our results showed that TRPV1 and CYP4A immunoreactivity were colocalized in neurons. TRPV1 inhibition attenuated 20-HETE mimetic 20-5,14-HEDGE-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and neuronal injury in cultured neurons and protected ischemic neurons in vitro and in vivo...
July 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Alexandros Theodoros Panagopoulos, Renata Nascimento Gomes, Fernando Gonçalves Almeida, Felipe da Costa Souza, José Carlos Esteves Veiga, Anna Nicolaou, Alison Colquhoun
Prostanoids derived from the activity of cyclooxygenases and their respective synthases contribute to both active inflammation and immune response in the tumor microenvironment. Their synthesis, deactivation and role in glioma biology have not yet been fully explored and require further study. Using quantitative real time PCR, gas chromatography/ electron impact mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/ electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, we have further characterized the prostanoid pathway in grade IV glioblastoma (GBM)...
July 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Tetsuya Tachibana, Yasua Nakai, Ryosuke Makino, Md Sakirul Islam Khan, Mark A Cline
Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is associated with a diverse array of functions in mammals including regulation of appetite, body temperature, sleep, and immune responses. Although much is known about the effects of PGD2 in mammals, there is a lack of information about its effects in birds. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine if intracerebroventricular (ICV) and intraperitoneal (IP) injections of PGD2 affect feeding, voluntary movement, crop-emptying rate, corticosterone release, and cloacal temperature in chicks (Gallus gallus)...
July 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Karolina Serhan, Allison Gartung, Dipak Panigrahy
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy among women. Due to the heterogeneity and complexity of the disease, as well as the insidious onset of symptoms, timely diagnosis remains extremely challenging. Despite recent advances in chemotherapy regimens for ovarian cancer patients, many still suffer from recurrence and ultimately succumb to the disease; thus, there is an urgent need for the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Within this rapidly evolving field, the role of platelets in the ovarian cancer tumor microenvironment has garnered increased attention...
July 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Joseph Schragenheim, Lars Bellner, Jian Cao, Shailendra P Singh, David Bamshad, John A McClung, Omri Maayan, Aliza Meissner, Ilana Grant, Charles T Stier, Nader G Abraham
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) has multiple beneficial effects on renal and adipose tissue function, in addition to its vasodilatory action; it increases insulin sensitivity and inhibits inflammation. In an examination of the signaling mechanisms by which EET reduces renal and peri-renal fat function, we hypothesized that EET ameliorates obesity-induced renal dysfunction by improving sodium excretion, reducing the sodium-chloride cotransporter NCC, lowering blood pressure, and enhancing mitochondrial and thermogenic gene levels in PGC-1α dependent mice...
July 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Fen Xu, Xiaoyan Zhou, Jian Hao, Hua Dai, Jian Zhang, Yuanqiao He, Hua Hao
Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and migration play an important role in tumor progression, and lipoxin (LX), the 'stop signal' for inflammation, has been studied in basic research for its anti-inflammatory or inflammatory pro-resolving properties. Here, in the in vitro experiment, we showed that LXA4 could inhibit the EMT and migration in phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or activated conditioned medium (ACM)-stimulated Hep3B cells by downregulation of integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a pseudokinase in cytoplasm and these effects were via inhibiting the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β...
July 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Karan Agrawal, Rémy Bosviel, Brian D Piccolo, John W Newman
Sweat contains a variety of lipid mediators, but whether they originate from the plasma filtrate or from the cutaneous sweat glandular tissues themselves is unknown. To explore this knowledge gap, we collected plasma and sweat from healthy men (n = 9) immediately before and 0.5, 2 and 4 h after oral administration of 400 mg ibuprofen. Of the over 100 lipid mediators assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, ∼45 were detected in both plasma and sweat, and 36 were common to both matrices...
July 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Johan Kolmert, Sergio Piñeiro-Hermida, Mats Hamberg, Joshua A Gregory, Icíar P López, Alexander Fauland, Craig E Wheelock, Sven-Erik Dahlén, José G Pichel, Mikael Adner
The profile of activation of lipid mediator (LM) pathways in asthmatic airway inflammation remains unclear. This experimental study quantified metabolite levels of ω3-, ω6- and ω9-derived polyunsaturated fatty acids in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) after 4-weeks of repeated house dust mite (HDM) exposure in a murine (C57BL/6) asthma model. The challenge induced airway hyperresponsiveness, pulmonary eosinophil infiltration, but with low and unchanged mast cell numbers. Of the 112 screened LMs, 26 were increased between 2 to >25-fold in BALF with HDM treatment (p < 0...
July 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
John P Caron, Jeffrey C Gandy, Jennifer L Brown, Lorraine M Sordillo
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation has demonstrated beneficial effects in a number of inflammatory diseases. Increasingly, important contributions to its favorable effects are attributed downstream metabolites called docosanoids. Herein, we investigated the role of DHA-derived oxidized lipid metabolites on inflammatory mediator expression by RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Specifically, macrophage incorporation of DHA, and the resultant biosynthesis of selected pro-resolving docosanoids was quantified...
May 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
S Abhilash, R Siviyasankar, P Binu, P Arathi, R Harikumaran Nair
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) obtained from fish and plant sources is an essential dietary fatty acid and an important cell membrane structural component. The acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) drug arsenic trioxide (As2 O3 ), causes hepatotoxicity. We evaluated the protective potential of DHA as pre/combination/post-administration patterns against As2 O3 induced toxicity. The therapeutic concentration of As2 O3 (10 μM) resulted in cytotoxicity with a significant (p < 0.05) variation from the control group...
May 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
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