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Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549801/methanolic-extract-of-boswellia-serrata-exhibits-anti-cancer-activities-by-targeting-microsomal-prostaglandin-e-synthase-1-in-human-colon-cancer-cells
#1
Tayebe Ranjbarnejad, Massoud Saidijam, Shirin Moradkhani, Rezvan Najafi
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common cancer. A proper method to reduce mortality of CRC is chemoprevention to prevent initiation and promotion of intestinal tumorgenesis. One of the promising and developing chemopreventive agents is natural compounds found in plants. Frankincense, the resin extract from the Boswellia specious, has been used in traditional and modern medicine for treating various diseases with very minimal side effects. In the current study, we investigated the anti-cancer activity of methanolic extract of Boswellia serrata (B...
May 23, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535956/highly-unsaturated-fatty-acids-hufa-mediate-and-monitor-food-s-impact-on-health
#2
REVIEW
Bill Lands
A hyperbolic, saturable, competitive dynamic of ligand binding to metabolic enzymes and lipid mediator receptors gives non-linear dose-response interactions that need careful management when planning or interpreting nutrient-based interventions. Relatively indiscriminate metabolism during accumulation of HUFA from n-3 and n-6 nutrients allows the amounts of n-3 and n-6 nutrients to determine the HUFA balance accumulated in tissue phospholipids. However, when HUFA-based eicosanoid actions are more intense with n-6 than n-3 mediators, they cause healthy physiology to shift toward pathophysiology...
May 20, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506876/role-of-prostacyclin-synthase-in-carcinogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Yuka Sasaki, Tsubasa Ochiai, Masaya Takamura, Yukihiro Kondo, Chieko Yokoyama, Shuntaro Hara
Prostacyclin (PGI2) synthase (PGIS) and microsomal prostaglandin (PG) E synthase-1 (PGES-1) functionally couple with inducible cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as their upstream enzymes to produce PGI2 and PGE2, respectively. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs exert their pharmacological effects including antitumor effects by the inhibition of COX-2 and thereby suppress this PG biosynthesis. PGIS is abundantly expressed in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells and was shown to be critical for the regulation of platelet aggregation and vascular tone...
May 12, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473204/inhibition-of-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-reduces-portal-pressure-by-protecting-mesenteric-artery-myogenic-responses-in-cirrhotic-rats
#4
Yijun Huang, Jun Qin, Dong Sun, Houli Jiang, Lei Zheng, Yue He, Liang Gui, Binbin Qian, Chihao Zhang, Meng Luo
Hyperdynamic circulation contributes to the progress of portal hypertension in liver cirrhosis. We investigated the effects of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibition on portal pressure and the myogenic response of mesenteric arteries isolated from cirrhotic rats using the sEH inhibitor t-TUCB (trans-4-{4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ureido] cyclohexyloxy} benzoic acid). Cirrhotic tissues had a higher ratio of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) following increased CYP2C11 expression, which may be a protective response...
May 1, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450270/pro-resolution-therapeutics-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Justin Heinz, Michael Marinello, Gabrielle Fredman
Studies over the last couple of decades suggest that failed resolution of a chronic inflammatory response is an important driving force in the progression of atherosclerosis. Resolution of inflammation is mediated in part by lipid-derived specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) such as lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins. The major functions of SPMs are to quell inflammation and repair tissue damage in a manner that does not compromise host defense. An imbalance between SPMs and pro-inflammatory mediators like leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are associated with several prevalent human diseases, including atherosclerosis...
April 24, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442442/prostaglandins-and-other-lipid-mediators-polm-special-issue-of-the-6th-european-workshop-on-lipid-mediators-role-of-m%C3%A3-ller-cell-cytochrome-p450-2c44-in-murine-retinal-angiogenesis
#6
Jiong Hu, Alexandra Geyer, Sarah Dziumbla, Khader Awwad, Darryl C Zeldin, Wolf-Hagen Schunck, Rüdiger Popp, Timo Frömel, Ingrid Fleming
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and their cytochrome P450 (CYP450) metabolites have been linked to angiogenesis and vessel homeostasis. However, the role of individual CYP isoforms and their endogenous metabolites in those processes are not clear. Here, we focused on the role of Cyp2c44 in postnatal retinal angiogenesis and report that Cyp2c44 is highly expressed in Müller glial cells in the retina. The constitutive as well as inducible postnatal genetic deletion of Cyp2c44 resulted in an increased vessel network density without affecting vessel radial expansion during the first postnatal week...
April 22, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347710/prostanoids-in-the-pathophysiology-of-human-coronary-artery
#7
REVIEW
Gulsev Ozen, Xavier Norel
Coronary artery disease is one of the leading causes of death in wordwide. There is growing evidence that prostanoids are involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of the human coronary artery by controlling vascular tone, remodelling of the vascular wall or angiogenesis. In this review, the production of prostanoids and the expression of prostanoid receptors in human coronary artery in health or disease are described. In addition, the interactions between sex hormones and prostanoids, their participations in the development of coronary artery diseases have been addressed...
March 24, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389370/prostaglandin-e2-stimulates-the-expression-of-cumulus-expansion-related-genes-in-pigs-the-role-of-protein-kinase-b
#8
Milan Blaha, Radek Prochazka, Katerina Adamkova, Jan Nevoral, Lucie Nemcova
The production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) seems to play an important role in the ovulation process. PGE2 was found to induce cumulus expansion and meiosis resumption in mice, but little is known about its role in pigs. The goals of this study were (a) to assess the effect of PGE2 on the expression levels of cumulus expansion-related genes, (b) to define the signaling pathways that drive the PGE2-stimulated expression of cumulus expansion-related genes, (c) to measure the effect of PGE2 on the activation of key signaling molecules (MAPK3/1, PKB) and on hyaluronan production in cumulus cells, and (d) to assess the effect of PGE2 on meiosis resumption...
May 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385509/effect-of-central-and-peripheral-injection-of-prostaglandin-e2-and-f2%C3%AE-on-feeding-and-the-crop-emptying-rate-in-chicks
#9
Tetsuya Tachibana, Yasua Nakai, Ryosuke Makino, Md Sakirul Islam Khan, Mark A Cline
Prostaglandins (PGs) have been shown to cause several physiological changes in mammals including anorexia, awakening and sleeping, change in digestive function, and activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis. However, there is a paucity of information about the effect of PGs on physiological parameters in birds. The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether intracerebroventricular (ICV) and intraperitoneal (IP) injections of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) affect feeding, voluntary movement, crop-emptying rate, and corticosterone release in chicks (Gallus gallus)...
May 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377281/novel-sphingosine-kinase-1-inhibitor-lcl351-reduces-immune-responses-in-murine-dss-induced-colitis
#10
Michael J Pulkoski-Gross, Joachim D Uys, K Alexa Orr-Gandy, Nicolas Coant, Agnieszka B Bialkowska, Zdzislaw M Szulc, Aiping Bai, Alicja Bielawska, Danyelle M Townsend, Yusuf A Hannun, Lina M Obeid, Ashley J Snider
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a biologically active sphingolipid metabolite which has been implicated in many diseases including cancer and inflammatory diseases. Recently, sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1), one of the isozymes which generates S1P, has been implicated in the development and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Based on our previous work, we set out to determine the efficacy of a novel SK1 selective inhibitor, LCL351, in a murine model of IBD. LCL351 selectively inhibits SK1 both in vitro and in cells...
May 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323197/postprandial-effects-of-wine-consumption-on-platelet-activating-factor-metabolic-enzymes
#11
Chrysa Argyrou, Ioanna Vlachogianni, George Stamatakis, Constantinos A Demopoulos, Smaragdi Antonopoulou, Elizabeth Fragopoulou
Platelet Activating factor (PAF) is a potent inflammatory mediator that is involved in the initiation and the prolongation of atherosclerosis. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of wine consumption on the activity of PAF metabolic enzymes and on IL-6 levels as a cytokine inflammatory marker. Healthy men participated in 4 daily trials and consumed a standardized meal along with Robola wine (trial R), or Cabernet Sauvignon (trial CS), or ethanol solution (trial E), or water (trial W). A significant trial effect was found in the activity of lyso-PAF acetyltransferase (Lyso-PAF AT) (ptrial=0...
May 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263859/improvement-of-metabolic-disorders-by-an-ep-2-receptor-agonist-via-restoration-of-the-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-in-pulmonary-emphysema
#12
Takao Tsuji, Kazuhiro Yamaguchi, Ryota Kikuchi, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Ryoichi Misaka, Atsushi Nagai, Kazutetsu Aoshiba
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with co-morbidities. Metabolic disorders like hyperlipidemia and diabetes occur also in underweight COPD patients, although the mechanism is uncertain. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) plays an important role in energy homeostasis, since restricted capacity to increase fat cell number with increase in fat cell size occurring instead, is associated with lipotoxicity and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study is to show the protective role of SAT for the metabolic disorders in pulmonary emphysema of a murine model...
May 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238887/coenzyme-a-thioester-formation-of-11-and-15-oxo-eicosatetraenoic-acid
#13
Clementina Mesaros, Alejandro D Arroyo, Ian A Blair, Nathaniel W Snyder
Release of arachidonic acid (AA) by cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), followed by metabolism through cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), results in the formation of the eicosanoids 11-oxo- and 15-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (oxo-ETE). Both 11-oxo- and 15-oxo-ETE have been identified in human biospecimens but their function and further metabolism is poorly described. The oxo-ETEs contain an α,β-unsaturated ketone and a free carboxyclic acid, and thus may form Michael adducts with a nucleophile or a thioester with the free thiol of Coenzyme A (CoA)...
May 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215784/comparison-of-derivatization-ionization-techniques-for-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-analysis-of-oxylipins
#14
Sven W Meckelmann, Stefan Hellhake, Maryvonne Steuck, Michael Krohn, Nils Helge Schebb
The performance of two derivatization and ionization techniques for the quantitative reversed phase liquid chromatography (LC)- mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of hydroxy fatty acids (OH-PUFA) in plasma was evaluated: One used AMPP (N-(4-aminomethylphenyl)pyridinium chloride) leading to a positive charged amid-derivate which can be detected by electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS. Second yielded penta fluorobenzyl bromide (PFB) ester derivates allowing detection in electron capture atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (ecAPCI)-MS...
May 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259546/who-is-the-real-12-hetre
#15
REVIEW
Jennifer Yeung, Michael Holinstat
Oxygenases, including lipoxygenases and cytochrome P450s, generate an array of structurally diverse oxylipins that modulate distinct biological responses in mammals. Depending on the source of tissues and enzymes, distinct oxylipins are generated with inherent cellular function. Here, we report structurally different forms of 12-HETrE, with distinct biological function in tissues as well as their derived enzymatic source.
March 1, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232135/integrating-multi-omics-biomarkers-and-postprandial-metabolism-to-develop-personalized-treatment-for-anorexia-nervosa
#16
Pei-An Betty Shih
BACKGROUND: Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a serious mental illness characterized by emaciation, an intense fear of gaining weight despite being underweight, and distorted body image. Few treatments reverse the core symptoms in AN such as profound aversion to food and food avoidance. Consequently, AN has a chronic and relapsing course and the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric illness. A more complete understanding of the disease pathogenesis is needed in order to develop better treatments and improve AN outcome...
February 21, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108282/hyperfiltration-associated-biomechanical-forces-in-glomerular-injury-and-response-potential-role-for-eicosanoids
#17
REVIEW
Mukut Sharma, Ram Sharma, Ellen T McCarthy, Virginia J Savin, Tarak Srivastava
Hyperfiltration is a well-known risk factor in progressive loss of renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD) secondary to various diseases. A reduced number of functional nephrons due to congenital or acquired cause(s) results in hyperfiltration in the remnant kidney. Hyperfiltration-associated increase in biomechanical forces, namely pressure-induced tensile stress and fluid flow-induced shear stress (FFSS) determine cellular injury and response. We believe the current treatment of CKD yields limited success because it largely attenuates pressure-induced tensile stress changes but not the effect of FFSS on podocytes...
January 17, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104457/genetic-deletion-of-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-provides-cardioprotective-responses-following-myocardial-infarction-in-aged-mice
#18
REVIEW
K Lockhart Jamieson, Victor Samokhvalov, Maria Akhnokh, Kyra Lee, Woo Jung Cho, Abhijit Takawale, Xiuhua Wang, Zamaneh Kassiri, John M Seubert
BACKGROUND: Pathophysiological responses, including cardiovascular complications, often alter with age. Cardioprotective effects of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) toward acute myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury have been well documented. However, biological relevance of EET-evoked cardioprotection in the ageing myocardium remains unknown. EETs are metabolized to less active metabolites by the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). This study uses permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) in young and aged sEH null and WT mice to compare cardiac and mitochondrial function following ischemic injury...
January 16, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089732/alox15-as-a-suppressor-of-inflammation-and-cancer-lost-in-the-link
#19
REVIEW
Rui Tian, Xiangsheng Zuo, Jonathan Jaoude, Fei Mao, Jennifer Colby, Imad Shureiqi
Mounting evidence supports a mechanistic link between inflammation and cancer, especially colon cancer. ALOX15 (15-lipoxygenase-1) plays an important role in the formation of key lipid mediators (e.g., lipoxins and resolvins) to terminate inflammation. ALOX15 expression is downregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC). Intestinally-targeted transgenic expression of ALOX15 in mice inhibited dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis from promoting azoxymethane- induced colorectal tumorigenesis, demonstrating that ALOX15 can suppress inflammation-driven promotion of carcinogen-induced colorectal tumorigenesis and therefore ALOX15 downregulation during tumorigenesis is likely to enhance the link between colitis and colorectal tumorigenesis...
January 12, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167220/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-cytochrome-p450-derived-eicosanoids-in-cardiovascular-diseases-which-actions-and-interactions-modulate-hemodynamics
#20
REVIEW
Sara Bonafini, Cristiano Fava
Increasing interest is focused on omega-3 fatty acids (FA) because of their potential beneficial effects, particularly in cardiovascular disease prevention. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), two major omega-3 FA, are mainly consumed through diet, particularly from fish and seafood intake, whereas alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is present in high amounts in leafy green vegetables, nuts and seeds. The hypothesis of a cardiovascular protective action of omega-3 FA derives mainly from observational studies, whereas the evidence from interventional studies is not always consistent...
January 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
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