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Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129796/comprehensive-profiling-of-prostaglandins-in-human-ovarian-follicular-fluid-using-mass-spectrometry
#1
Bruce Pier, Johnathan W Edmonds, Landon Wilson, Alireza Arabshahi, Ray Moore, G Wright Bates, Jeevan K Prasain, Michael A Miller
Prostaglandins are formed by enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms. They have been detected in human ovarian follicular fluid (HFF), a medium rich in growth factors and nutrients important for oocyte growth and fertility. However, the comprehensive identification of HFF prostaglandins has not been addressed. Here we use hybrid triple quadrupole time-of-flight and triple quadrupole mass spectrometers to comprehensively analyze prostaglandins in HFF. We identified PGE1, PGE2, PGF2α, and other prostaglandins synthesized via prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (i...
November 9, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113951/editorial-special-issue-of-the-6th-european-workshop-on-lipid-mediators
#2
EDITORIAL
Dieter Steinhilber, Sönmez Uydeş Doğan, Gökçe Topal, Joan Clària, Xavier Norel, Nils Helge Schebb, Gerard Bannenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104159/physiological-and-pathophysiological-implications-of-pge2-and-the-pge2-synthases-in-the-kidney
#3
REVIEW
Jing Wang, Min Liu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Guangrui Yang, Lihong Chen
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most abundant prostanoid synthesized in the kidney and plays an important role in renal function. Physiologically, PGE2 regulates renal hemodynamics, water and sodium metabolism, blood pressure, and so on. As a well-known proinflammatory lipid mediator, PGE2 also substantially mediates renal injury under many pathophysiological conditions. Multiple enzymes are involved in renal PGE2 biosynthesis, including the three main PGE2 terminal synthases, i.e. microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1), mPGES-2 and cytosolic PGE2 synthase (cPGES)...
November 2, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107024/relaxant-effect-of-the-prostacyclin-analogue-iloprost-on-isolated-human-radial-artery-an-approach-for-the-reversal-of-graft-spasm
#4
Ersoy Engin, F İlkay Alp Yildirim, Deniz Kalelі Durman, Suat Nail Ömeroğlu, Deniz Göksedef, Önder Teskіn, Ozan Onur Balkanay, Gökhan İpek, B Sönmez Uydeş Doğan
Radial artery graft spasm in the perioperative or postoperative period of coronary bypass surgery necessitates urgent treatment due to risk of graft failure and mortality. Herein, we evaluated the effect of iloprost, a prostacyclin (PGI2) analogue, against the contractions produced by noradrenaline and potassium chloride on isolated human radial artery. Following the determination of endothelial and vascular relaxing capacities of the arteries, iloprost (10(-9)M-10(-6)M) was cumulatively applied on rings precontracted submaximally with the spasmogens...
October 26, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107023/intermittent-hypoxia-alters-dose-dependent-caffeine-effects-on-renal-prostanoids-and-receptors-in-neonatal-rats
#5
Kay D Beharry, Charles L Cai, Kultida Soontarapornchai, Taimur Ahmad, Gloria B Valencia, Jacob V Aranda
Caffeine, one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in preterm neonates, is given in standard or suprapharmacologic doses. Although known as a diuretic, its effects in the neonatal kidneys are not well studied. We tested the hypothesis that neonatal intermittent hypoxia (IH) and high caffeine doses (HCD) alter renal regulators of vasomotor tone and water balance. Newborn rats were randomized to room air, hyperoxia, or IH and treated with standard or high caffeine doses; or placebo saline. Renal prostanoids; histopathology; and cyclooxygenase (COX), prostanoid receptor, and aquaporin (AQP) immunoreactivity were determined...
October 26, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042181/opposing-roles-of-pgd2-in-gbm
#6
Matthew Thomas Ferreira, Renata Nascimento Gomes, Alexandros Theodoros Panagopoulos, Fernando Gonçalves de Almeida, José Carlos Esteves Veiga, Alison Colquhoun
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization classifies glioblastoma (GBM) as a grade IV astrocytoma. Despite the advances in chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation treatments that improve a patient's length of survival, the overall trajectory of the disease remains unchanged. GBM cells produce significant levels of various types of bioactive lipids. Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) influences both pro- and anti-tumorigenic activities in the cell; however, its role in GBM is unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the impact of PGD2 on GBM cell activities in vitro...
October 16, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031792/control-of-myogenic-tone-and-agonist-induced-contraction-of-intramural-coronary-resistance-arterioles-by-cannabinoid-type-1-receptors-and-endocannabinoids
#7
Mária Szekeres, György L Nádasy, Eszter Soltész-Katona, László Hunyady
It was tested whether intrinsic CB1R activation modifies myogenic and agonist induced contraction of intramural coronary resistance arteries of the rat. CB1R protein was detected by immuno-histochemistry and by Western blot, its mRNA by qRT-PCR in their wall. Microsurgically prepared cylindrical coronary segments (∼100-150μm) developed myogenic contraction (∼20% of relaxed luminal diameter), from which a substantial relaxation (∼15%) in response to WIN55212 (a specific agonist of the CB1Rs) has been found...
October 16, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951260/selective-inhibition-of-20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic-acid-lowers-blood-pressure-in-a-rat-model-of-preeclampsia
#8
Jessica L Faulkner, Nicole L Plenty, Kedra Wallace, Lorena M Amaral, Mark W Cunningham, Sydney Murphy, Babbette LaMarca
Little is currently known of the role(s) of the vasoconstrictor 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in hypertensive pregnancies. We hypothesized that specific inhibition of 20-HETE would attenuate increases in blood pressure in the reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) rat model of preeclampsia. Specific 20-HETE synthesis inhibitor HET0016 (1mg/kg) was administered daily to RUPP rats from gestational days 14-18. Blood pressure (BP) increased in RUPP rats and was decreased with HET0016 administration...
September 22, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942325/effects-of-stimulation-technique-anatomical-region-and-time-on-human-sweat-lipid-mediator-profiles
#9
Karan Agrawal, Justin D Waller, Theresa L Pedersen, John W Newman
Few studies compare sampling protocol effect on sweat composition. Here we evaluate the impact of sweat stimulation mode and site of collection on lipid mediator composition. Sweat from healthy males (n=7) was collected weekly for three weeks from the volar forearm following either pilocarpine iontophoresis or exercise, and from the forearm, back and thigh following pilocarpine iontophoresis only. Sweat content of over 150 lipid mediators were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Seventy lipid mediators were routinely detected, including prostanoids, alcohols, diols, epoxides, ketones, nitrolipids, N-acylethanolamides, monoacylglycerols, and ceramides...
September 21, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923362/human-retinal-endothelial-cells-and-astrocytes-cultured-on-3-d-scaffolds-for-ocular-drug-discovery-and-development
#10
Kay D Beharry, Charles L Cai, Gloria B Valencia, Douglas Lazzaro, Arwin M Valencia, Fabrizio Salomone, Jacob V Aranda
Topical ocular ketorolac improves the outcomes of severe retinopathy of prematurity and when administered with systemic caffeine, decreases the severity of oxygen-induced retinopathy. We tested the hypothesis that co-cultures of human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) and human retinal astrocytes (HRAs) on 3-dimensional (3-D) hydrogel scaffolds is a more representative biomimetic paradigm of the blood-retinal-barrier (BRB) than 2-D cultures, and should be utilized for preclinical drug discovery and development...
September 18, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917610/low-dose-dha-induced-astrocyte-proliferation-can-be-attenuated-by-insufficient-expression-of-blbp-in-vitro
#11
Haoming Li, Qingqing Yang, Xiao Han, Xuefeng Tan, Jianbing Qin, Guohua Jin
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that is involved in a wide range of cellular processes in human cells. Brain lipid binding protein (BLBP) exhibits a high affinity for n-3 PUFAs, especially DHA, but the precise functional contributions of DHA and BLBP in astrocytes are not clear. We analyzed cell viability and the ratio of Ki67 positive cells after manipulating DHA and/or BLBP levels in cultured astrocytes, and found that low-dose DHA stimulated proliferation of astrocytes, whereas this proliferative effect could be attenuated by downregulation of BLBP...
September 13, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916261/differential-involvement-of-l-and-t-type-ca-2-channels-store-operated-calcium-channel-trpc-and-rho-kinase-signaling-pathway-s-in-pgf2%C3%AE-induced-contractions-in-myometrium-of-non-pregnant-and-pregnant-buffaloes-bubalus-bubalis
#12
Abhishek Sharma, Udayraj P Nakade, Pooja Jaitley, Vipin Sharma, Soumen Choudhury, Satish Kumar Garg
This study unravels the differential involvement of calcium signaling pathway(s) in PGF2α-induced contractions in myometrium of non-pregnant and pregnant buffaloes. Compared to the myometrium of pregnant animals, myometrium of non-pregnant buffaloes was more sensitive to PGF2α-induced contractile effect as manifested by the changes in mean integral tension (MIT) and tonicity. However, phasic contraction was significantly more in myometrium of pregnant animals. The uterotonic effect of PGF2α was dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) and its influx through nifedipine-sensitive L-type Ca(2+) channels both in non-pregnant and pregnant animals, but T-type Ca(2+) channels play an additional role during pregnancy...
September 12, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873340/personalized-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-as-a-potential-adjunctive-treatment-for-anorexia-nervosa
#13
P Betty Shih, Christophe Morisseau, Thu Le, Blake Woodside, J Bruce German
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex psychiatric disorder with high morbidity and mortality rates. While many individuals make full recoveries, up to a third of patients develop a chronic, treatment-resistant form of the illness that leads to a premature death in 15-20% of those affected. There have been few advances in treatment, both in terms of psychological or pharmacologic treatment over the last 30 years. Food aversion is commonly cited by patients with AN as a barrier to normalizing eating and weight. Our group has a keen interest in examining factors that might allow this to be addressed, thus improving treatment outcomes through personalized dietary plans or nutritional supplementation related to underlying genetic status...
September 2, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847566/modulation-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-are-key-mechanisms-for-the-wide-ranging-actions-of-epoxy-fatty-acids-and-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-inhibitors
#14
REVIEW
Bora Inceoglu, Ahmed Bettaieb, Fawaz G Haj, Aldrin V Gomes, Bruce D Hammock
The arachidonic acid cascade is arguably the most widely known biologic regulatory pathway. Decades after the seminal discoveries involving its cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase branches, studies of this cascade remain an active area of research. The third and less widely known branch, the cytochrome P450 pathway leads to highly active oxygenated lipid mediators, epoxy fatty acids (EpFAs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), which are of similar potency to prostanoids and leukotrienes. Unlike the COX and LOX branches, no pharmaceuticals currently are marketed targeting the P450 branch...
August 25, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928099/wec-2016-special-issue-editorial
#15
EDITORIAL
Dipak Panigrahy, Darryl C Zeldin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450270/pro-resolution-therapeutics-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Justin Heinz, Michael Marinello, Gabrielle Fredman
Studies over the last couple of decades suggest that failed resolution of a chronic inflammatory response is an important driving force in the progression of atherosclerosis. Resolution of inflammation is mediated in part by lipid-derived specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) such as lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins. The major functions of SPMs are to quell inflammation and repair tissue damage in a manner that does not compromise host defense. An imbalance between SPMs and pro-inflammatory mediators like leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are associated with several prevalent human diseases, including atherosclerosis...
September 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259546/who-is-the-real-12-hetre
#17
REVIEW
Jennifer Yeung, Michael Holinstat
Oxygenases, including lipoxygenases and cytochrome P450s, generate an array of structurally diverse oxylipins that modulate distinct biological responses in mammals. Depending on the source of tissues and enzymes, distinct oxylipins are generated with inherent cellular function. Here, we report structurally different forms of 12-HETrE, with distinct biological function in tissues as well as their derived enzymatic source.
September 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232135/integrating-multi-omics-biomarkers-and-postprandial-metabolism-to-develop-personalized-treatment-for-anorexia-nervosa
#18
Pei-An Betty Shih
BACKGROUND: Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a serious mental illness characterized by emaciation, an intense fear of gaining weight despite being underweight, and distorted body image. Few treatments reverse the core symptoms in AN such as profound aversion to food and food avoidance. Consequently, AN has a chronic and relapsing course and the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric illness. A more complete understanding of the disease pathogenesis is needed in order to develop better treatments and improve AN outcome...
September 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108282/hyperfiltration-associated-biomechanical-forces-in-glomerular-injury-and-response-potential-role-for-eicosanoids
#19
REVIEW
Mukut Sharma, Ram Sharma, Ellen T McCarthy, Virginia J Savin, Tarak Srivastava
Hyperfiltration is a well-known risk factor in progressive loss of renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD) secondary to various diseases. A reduced number of functional nephrons due to congenital or acquired cause(s) results in hyperfiltration in the remnant kidney. Hyperfiltration-associated increase in biomechanical forces, namely pressure-induced tensile stress and fluid flow-induced shear stress (FFSS) determine cellular injury and response. We believe the current treatment of CKD yields limited success because it largely attenuates pressure-induced tensile stress changes but not the effect of FFSS on podocytes...
September 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104457/genetic-deletion-of-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-provides-cardioprotective-responses-following-myocardial-infarction-in-aged-mice
#20
REVIEW
K Lockhart Jamieson, Victor Samokhvalov, Maria K Akhnokh, Kyra Lee, Woo Jung Cho, Abhijit Takawale, Xiuhua Wang, Zamaneh Kassiri, John M Seubert
BACKGROUND: Pathophysiological responses, including cardiovascular complications, often alter with age. Cardioprotective effects of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) toward acute myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury have been well documented. However, biological relevance of EET-evoked cardioprotection in the ageing myocardium remains unknown. EETs are metabolized to less active metabolites by the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). This study uses permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) in young and aged sEH null and WT mice to compare cardiac and mitochondrial function following ischemic injury...
September 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
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