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Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators

Sheuli Afroz, Ayano Yagi, Kouki Fujikawa, M Motiur Rahman, Katsuya Morito, Tatsuya Fukuta, Shiro Watanabe, Emi Kiyokage, Kazunori Toida, Taro Shimizu, Tatsuhiro Ishida, Kentaro Kogure, Akira Tokumura, Tamotsu Tanaka
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive phospholipid that induces diverse biological responses. Recently, we found that LPA ameliorates NSAIDs-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Here, we quantified LPA in 21 medicinal herbs used for treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. We found that half of them contained LPA at relatively high levels (40-240 μg/g) compared to soybean seed powder (4.6 μg/g), which we previously identified as an LPA-rich food. The LPA in peony (Paeonia lactiflora) root powder is highly concentrated in the lipid fraction that ameliorates indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice...
February 17, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Rajnish Kumar Yadav, Manjari Singh, Subhadeep Roy, Mohd Nazam Ansari, Abdulaziz S Saeedan, Gaurav Kaithwas
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA's) are majorly classified as ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids. The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, ω-3:20-5), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, ω-3:22-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, ω-3:18-3) are known ω-3 fatty acids, extracted from animal (e.g fish oil) and plant sources (e.g flaxseed oil). Furthermore, linoleic acid (LA, ω-6:18-2) is recognized as ω-6 fatty acid and the most prominent biological fatty acid with a pro-inflammatory response. Flaxseed oil has variety of biological roles, due to a significant amount of ω-3/ω-6 fatty acids...
February 13, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Ravjibhai K Chaudhari, Ajit Singh Mahla, Amit Kumar Singh, Sanjay Kumar Singh, Abhijit M Pawde, G V P P S Ravi Kumar, GyanendraSingh, Mihir Sarkar, Harendra Kumar, Krishnaswamy Narayanan
Recently, we showed that dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFA rich fish oil (FO) decreased the metabolites of serum prostaglandin (PG) F 2α and E 2 during the window of pregnancy recognition in the doe. In this study, we investigated its effect on the changes on endometrial PG production in vitro. Cycling does (n = 12) of Rohilkhand region were divided into two equal groups and fed a concentrate diet supplemented with either FO containing 26% n-3 PUFA (TRT; n = 6) or palm oil (CON; n = 6) @ 0.6 mL/kg body weight for 57 days...
February 8, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Ahmed A Elmarakby, Mohamed Katary, Jennifer S Pollock, Jennifer C Sullivan
We previously reported that female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have greater cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the renal medulla and enhanced urinary excretion of prostaglandin (PG) E2 (PGE2) metabolites compared to male SHR. Based on the role of COX-2-derived prostanoids in the regulation of cardiovascular health, the aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that blood pressure (BP) in female SHR is more sensitive to COX-2 inhibition than in males. Seven week old male and female SHR were implanted with telemetry transmitters for continuous BP recording...
February 6, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Pranav R Buch, Isha Desai, Suresh Balakrishnan
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an important mediator of the immune response. It is found upregulated after pathogen invasion or tissue injury and also in many cancers. Of the lesser known functions of this enzyme is its role in effecting epimorphic regeneration. We have previously shown that COX-2 activity is essential for proper regeneration of tail in lizard Hemidactylus flaviviridis; however, the pattern of its activity and expression during the early stages of regeneration was unknown. The present work provides the first report of the trend in COX-2 activity and expression during the wound healing in epimorphic regeneration...
January 30, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Mai M Helmy, Amel A Hashim, Samar M Mouneir
OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated for the first time the possible beneficial effect of zileuton, a selective 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor (5-LOX), against cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. METHODOLOGY: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (180-200 g) were administered cisplatin once (5 mg/kg, i.p.) alone or combined with oral zileuton (10 mg/kg, given twice; 1 hour before and 12 hours after cisplatin). RESULTS: Compared with control rats, acute cisplatin administration caused significant increases of BUN (33...
January 17, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Ji-Hye Ahn, Kyung-Tae Lee, Youn Seok Choi, Jung-Hye Choi
Recent studies have shown that a bioactive lipid prostacyclin (PGI2) plays a role in various cancers, including lung cancer. However, the specific function of PGI2 in ovarian cancer progression has not been determined. This study investigated the effects of PGI2 on cell growth, migration, and invasion in ovarian cancer cells using iloprost, a stable PGI2 analog. Iloprost significantly inhibited migration and invasion, but not cell growth, in a dose-dependent manner in human ovarian cancer cells (A2780 and SKOV3)...
December 29, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Xiang Li, Ying Zhang, Bo Zhang, Xia Liu, Lan Hong, Li-Ping Liu, Cheng-Zhe Wu, Xun Cui
Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) play important roles in cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, effects of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) on L-PGDS and PPARγ protein levels and its role in hypoxia-induced atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion are unclear. In perfused beating rat atria, we observed that hypoxia significantly increased HIF-1α protein levels and stimulated ANP secretion, while upregulating L-PGDS. Hypoxia-induced ANP secretion was clearly attenuated by HIF-1α antagonist 2-methoxyestradiol, downregulating both HIF-1α and L-PGDS protein levels...
December 26, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
H Chen
Thromboxane A2 (TxA2 ) plays a very important role in various cardiovascular diseases through its action on platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, and proliferation. The present article focuses on the role of TxA2 signaling in endothelium-dependent contractions of arteries. Arachidonic acid (AA) is metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX) to form the unstable prostaglandin H2 which is further converted into TxA2 . After being produced by thromboxane synthase (TxAS), TxA2 ultimately stimulates TxA2 /prostanoid (TP) receptor to induce vasoconstriction...
January 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Nan Wang, Kimberly C Vendrov, Brian P Simmons, Robert N Schuck, George A Stouffer, Craig R Lee
Cyclooxygenase-derived thromboxane (TxA2) and prostacyclin (PGI2) regulate atherogenesis in preclinical models. However, the relationship between TxA2 and PGI2 biosynthesis, vascular inflammation, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) progression in humans remains unclear. The association between stable urine metabolites of thromboxane (TxA2-M) and prostacyclin (PGI2-M), circulating levels of cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs: E-selectin, P-selectin), chemokines and C-reactive protein, and the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were evaluated in 120 patients with stable ASCVD on aspirin therapy...
January 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Yasuhiro Watanabe, Takashi Yamaguchi, Noriko Ishihara, Shoko Nakamura, Sho Tanaka, Rena Oka, Haruki Imamura, Yuta Sato, Noriko Ban, Hidetoshi Kawana, Masahiro Ohira, Naomi Shimizu, Atsuhito Saiki, Ichiro Tatsuno
7-Ketocholesterol (7-KCHO) is a highly proinflammatory oxysterol and plays an important role in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Lipoxygenases (LOXs) and cyclooxygenases (COXs) are also involved in the development of DN. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of 7-KCHO on mRNA expression of LOXs and COXs as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines in human mesangial cells (HMC). We evaluated cell viability by WST-8 assay and measured mRNA expression by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
January 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Bruce Pier, Johnathan W Edmonds, Landon Wilson, Alireza Arabshahi, Ray Moore, G Wright Bates, Jeevan K Prasain, Michael A Miller
Prostaglandins are formed by enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms. They have been detected in human ovarian follicular fluid (HFF), a medium rich in growth factors and nutrients important for oocyte growth and fertility. However, the comprehensive identification of HFF prostaglandins has not been addressed. Here we use hybrid triple quadrupole time-of-flight and triple quadrupole mass spectrometers to comprehensively analyze prostaglandins in HFF. We identified PGE1, PGE2, PGF2α, and other prostaglandins synthesized via prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (i...
January 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Jing Wang, Min Liu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Guangrui Yang, Lihong Chen
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) is the most abundant prostanoid synthesized in the kidney and plays an important role in renal function. Physiologically, PGE2 regulates renal hemodynamics, water and sodium metabolism, blood pressure, and so on. As a well-known proinflammatory lipid mediator, PGE2 also substantially mediates renal injury under many pathophysiological conditions. Multiple enzymes are involved in renal PGE2 biosynthesis, including the three main PGE2 terminal synthases, i.e. microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1), mPGES-2 and cytosolic PGE2 synthase (cPGES)...
January 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Matthew Thomas Ferreira, Renata Nascimento Gomes, Alexandros Theodoros Panagopoulos, Fernando Gonçalves de Almeida, José Carlos Esteves Veiga, Alison Colquhoun
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization classifies glioblastoma (GBM) as a grade IV astrocytoma. Despite the advances in chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation treatments that improve a patient's length of survival, the overall trajectory of the disease remains unchanged. GBM cells produce significant levels of various types of bioactive lipids. Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2 ) influences both pro- and anti-tumorigenic activities in the cell; however, its role in GBM is unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the impact of PGD2 on GBM cell activities in vitro...
January 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Dieter Steinhilber, B Sönmez Uydeş-Doğan, Gökçe Topal, Joan Clària, Xavier Norel, Nils Helge Schebb, Gerard Bannenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Ersoy Engin, F İlkay Alp Yildirim, Deniz Kalelі Durman, Suat Nail Ömeroğlu, Deniz Göksedef, Önder Teskіn, Ozan Onur Balkanay, Gökhan İpek, B Sönmez Uydeş Doğan
Radial artery graft spasm in the perioperative or postoperative period of coronary bypass surgery necessitates urgent treatment due to risk of graft failure and mortality. Herein, we evaluated the effect of iloprost, a prostacyclin (PGI2 ) analogue, against the contractions produced by noradrenaline and potassium chloride on isolated human radial artery. Following the determination of endothelial and vascular relaxing capacities of the arteries, iloprost (10-9 M-10-6 M) was cumulatively applied on rings precontracted submaximally with the spasmogens...
November 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
P Betty Shih, Christophe Morisseau, Thu Le, Blake Woodside, J Bruce German
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex psychiatric disorder with high morbidity and mortality rates. While many individuals make full recoveries, up to a third of patients develop a chronic, treatment-resistant form of the illness that leads to a premature death in 15-20% of those affected. There have been few advances in treatment, both in terms of psychological or pharmacologic treatment over the last 30 years. Food aversion is commonly cited by patients with AN as a barrier to normalizing eating and weight. Our group has a keen interest in examining factors that might allow this to be addressed, thus improving treatment outcomes through personalized dietary plans or nutritional supplementation related to underlying genetic status...
November 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Bora Inceoglu, Ahmed Bettaieb, Fawaz G Haj, Aldrin V Gomes, Bruce D Hammock
The arachidonic acid cascade is arguably the most widely known biologic regulatory pathway. Decades after the seminal discoveries involving its cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase branches, studies of this cascade remain an active area of research. The third and less widely known branch, the cytochrome P450 pathway leads to highly active oxygenated lipid mediators, epoxy fatty acids (EpFAs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), which are of similar potency to prostanoids and leukotrienes. Unlike the COX and LOX branches, no pharmaceuticals currently are marketed targeting the P450 branch...
November 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Armond Daci, Gülsev Özen, İmran Uyar, Erkan Civelek, F İlkay Alp Yildirim, Deniz Kaleli Durman, Önder Teskin, Xavier Norel, B Sönmez Uydeş-Doğan, Gökce Topal
Dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been reported to have beneficial cardiovascular effects. However, little is known about the effect of EPA and DHA on human vascular tone. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of EPA and DHA on vascular tone of the human saphenous vein (SV) obtained from patients undergoing coronary bypass operation under normal and inflammatory conditions. Moreover, we aimed to investigate the effect of EPA and DHA on the release of inflammatory mediators from SV...
November 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Katharina Jandl, Akos Heinemann
Prostaglandin (PG) D2 has been in the focus of research for quite a long time, but its biological effects and its roles in human disease are still not fully characterized. When in 2001 a second major PGD2 receptor termed chemoattractant receptor homologue expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2; alternative name DP2) was discovered, diverse investigations started to shed more light on the complex and often controversial actions of the prostaglandin. With various immunomodulating effects, such as induction of migration, activation, and cytokine release of leukocytes observed both in vivo and in vitro, CRTH2 has emerged as a promising target for the treatment of allergic diseases...
November 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
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