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Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323197/postprandial-effects-of-wine-consumption-on-platelet-activating-factor-metabolic-enzymes
#1
Chrysa Argyrou, Ioanna Vlachogianni, George Stamatakis, Constantinos A Demopoulos, Smaragdi Antonopoulou, Elizabeth Fragopoulou
Platelet Activating factor (PAF) is a potent inflammatory mediator that is involved in the initiation and the prolongation of atherosclerosis. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of wine consumption on the activity of PAF metabolic enzymes and on IL-6 levels as a cytokine inflammatory marker. Healthy men participated in 4 daily trials and consumed a standardized meal along with Robola wine (trial R), or Cabernet Sauvignon (trial CS), or ethanol solution (trial E), or water (trialW). A significant trial effect was found in the activity of lyso-PAF acetyltransferase (Lyso-PAF AT) (ptrial=0...
March 16, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263859/improvement-of-metabolic-disorders-by-an-ep-2-receptor-agonist-via-restoration-of-the-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-in-pulmonary-emphysema
#2
Takao Tsuji, Kazuhiro Yamaguchi, Ryota Kikuchi, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Ryoichi Misaka, Atsushi Nagai, Kazutetsu Aoshiba
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with co-morbidities. Metabolic disorders like hyperlipidemia and diabetes occur also in underweight COPD patients, although the mechanism is uncertain. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) plays an important role in energy homeostasis, since restricted capacity to increase fat cell number with increase in fat cell size occurring instead, is associated with lipotoxicity and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study is to show the protective role of SAT for the metabolic disorders in pulmonary emphysema of a murine model...
March 2, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259546/who-is-the-real-12-hetre
#3
REVIEW
Jennifer Yeung, Michael Holinstat
Oxygenases, including lipoxygenases and cytochrome P450s, generate an array of structurally diverse oxylipins that modulate distinct biological responses in mammals. Depending on the source of tissues and enzymes, distinct oxylipins are generated with inherent cellular function. Here, we report structurally different forms of 12-HETrE, with distinct biological function in tissues as well as their derived enzymatic source.
March 1, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238887/coenzyme-a-thioester-formation-of-11-and-15-oxo-eicosatetraenoic-acid
#4
Clementina Mesaros, Alejandro D Arroyo, Ian A Blair, Nathaniel W Snyder
Release of arachidonic acid (AA) by cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), followed by metabolism through cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), results in the formation of the eicosanoids 11-oxo- and 15-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (oxo-ETE). Both 11-oxo- and 15-oxo-ETE have been identified in human biospecimens but their function and further metabolism is poorly described. The oxo-ETEs contain an α,β-unsaturated ketone and a free carboxyclic acid, and thus may form Michael adducts with a nucleophile or a thioester with the free thiol of Coenzyme A (CoA)...
February 24, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232135/integrating-multi-omics-biomarkers-and-postprandial-metabolism-to-develop-personalized-treatment-for-anorexia-nervosa
#5
Pei-An Betty Shih
BACKGROUND: Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a serious mental illness characterized by emaciation, an intense fear of gaining weight despite being underweight, and distorted body image. Few treatments reverse the core symptoms in AN such as profound aversion to food and food avoidance. Consequently, AN has a chronic and relapsing course and the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric illness. A more complete understanding of the disease pathogenesis is needed in order to develop better treatments and improve AN outcome...
February 21, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215784/comparison-of-derivatization-ionization-techniques-for-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-analysis-of-oxylipins
#6
Sven W Meckelmann, Stefan Hellhake, Maryvonne Steuck, Michael Krohn, Nils Helge Schebb
The performance of two derivatization and ionization techniques for the quantitative reversed phase liquid chromatography (LC)- mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of hydroxy fatty acids (OH-PUFA) in plasma was evaluated: One used AMPP (N-(4-aminomethylphenyl)pyridinium chloride) leading to a positive charged amid-derivate which can be detected by electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS. Second yielded penta fluorobenzyl bromide (PFB) ester derivates allowing detection in electron capture atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (ecAPCI)-MS...
February 17, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108282/hyperfiltration-associated-biomechanical-forces-in-glomerular-injury-and-response-potential-role-for-eicosanoids
#7
REVIEW
Mukut Sharma, Ram Sharma, Ellen T McCarthy, Virginia J Savin, Tarak Srivastava
Hyperfiltration is a well-known risk factor in progressive loss of renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD) secondary to various diseases. A reduced number of functional nephrons due to congenital or acquired cause(s) results in hyperfiltration in the remnant kidney. Hyperfiltration-associated increase in biomechanical forces, namely pressure-induced tensile stress and fluid flow-induced shear stress (FFSS) determine cellular injury and response. We believe the current treatment of CKD yields limited success because it largely attenuates pressure-induced tensile stress changes but not the effect of FFSS on podocytes...
January 17, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104457/genetic-deletion-of-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-provides-cardioprotective-responses-following-myocardial-infarction-in-aged-mice
#8
REVIEW
K Lockhart Jamieson, Victor Samokhvalov, Maria Akhnokh, Kyra Lee, Woo Jung Cho, Abhijit Takawale, Xiuhua Wang, Zamaneh Kassiri, John M Seubert
BACKGROUND: Pathophysiological responses, including cardiovascular complications, often alter with age. Cardioprotective effects of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) toward acute myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury have been well documented. However, biological relevance of EET-evoked cardioprotection in the ageing myocardium remains unknown. EETs are metabolized to less active metabolites by the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). This study uses permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) in young and aged sEH null and WT mice to compare cardiac and mitochondrial function following ischemic injury...
January 16, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089732/alox15-as-a-suppressor-of-inflammation-and-cancer-lost-in-the-link
#9
REVIEW
Rui Tian, Xiangsheng Zuo, Jonathan Jaoude, Fei Mao, Jennifer Colby, Imad Shureiqi
Mounting evidence supports a mechanistic link between inflammation and cancer, especially colon cancer. ALOX15 (15-lipoxygenase-1) plays an important role in the formation of key lipid mediators (e.g., lipoxins and resolvins) to terminate inflammation. ALOX15 expression is downregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC). Intestinally-targeted transgenic expression of ALOX15 in mice inhibited dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis from promoting azoxymethane- induced colorectal tumorigenesis, demonstrating that ALOX15 can suppress inflammation-driven promotion of carcinogen-induced colorectal tumorigenesis and therefore ALOX15 downregulation during tumorigenesis is likely to enhance the link between colitis and colorectal tumorigenesis...
January 12, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049021/chemistry-and-biology-of-%C3%AF-3-pufa-peroxidation-derived-compounds
#10
REVIEW
Weicang Wang, Haixia Yang, David Johnson, Catherine Gensler, Eric Decker, Guodong Zhang
The ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are among the most popular dietary supplements in the US, but they are chemically unstable and highly prone to lipid peroxidation. Many studies performed in different countries demonstrate that the majority of ω-3 PUFA products on the market are oxidized, suggesting that the resulting ω-3 PUFA peroxidation-derived compounds could be widely consumed by the general public. Therefore, it is of practical importance to understand the effects of these oxidized lipid compounds on human health...
December 31, 2016: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167220/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-cytochrome-p450-derived-eicosanoids-in-cardiovascular-diseases-which-actions-and-interactions-modulate-hemodynamics
#11
REVIEW
Sara Bonafini, Cristiano Fava
Increasing interest is focused on omega-3 fatty acids (FA) because of their potential beneficial effects, particularly in cardiovascular disease prevention. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), two major omega-3 FA, are mainly consumed through diet, particularly from fish and seafood intake, whereas alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is present in high amounts in leafy green vegetables, nuts and seeds. The hypothesis of a cardiovascular protective action of omega-3 FA derives mainly from observational studies, whereas the evidence from interventional studies is not always consistent...
January 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163121/-epigallocatechin-gallate-synergistically-potentiates-prostaglandin-e2-stimulated-osteoprotegerin-synthesis-in-osteoblasts
#12
Gen Kuroyanagi, Haruhiko Tokuda, Naohiro Yamamoto, Shingo Kainuma, Kazuhiko Fujita, Reou Ohguchi, Tetsu Kawabata, Go Sakai, Rie Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Atsushi Harada, Osamu Kozawa, Takanobu Otsuka
(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most abundant flavonoid in green tea, and chlorogenic acid, the main polyphenol found in coffee, attract significant attention owing to health benefits. We have previously demonstrated that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulates osteoprotegerin synthesis through the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of EGCG or chlorogenic acid on the PGE2-stimulated osteoprotegerin synthesis in MC3T3-E1 cells...
January 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043888/uterine-and-placental-expression-of-hpgd-in-cows-during-pregnancy-and-release-of-fetal-membranes
#13
Jessica von Hof, Nele Sprekeler, Gerhard Schuler, Alois Boos, Mariusz P Kowalewski
15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD) plays a key role in prostaglandins (PGs) catabolism. Its expression and activity appear to be regulated by progesterone (P4). We investigated the HPGD mRNA-expression and protein localization in placentomes and interplacental uterine sites throughout gestation (Study I), and after fetal membranes retention (RFM) compared with normally delivered fetal membranes (DFM) (Study II). Furthermore, we analyzed the influence of aglepristone (AP), dexamethasone (GC) or cloprostenol (CP), on HPGD expression in bovine placentomes (Study III)...
January 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039059/recent-advances-in-lipidomics-analytical-and-clinical-perspectives
#14
REVIEW
Sumit Sethi, Elisa Brietzke
Lipidomics or lipid-profiling is a lipid-targeted metabolomics approach aiming at comprehensive analysis of lipids in biological systems. The extent of information in the genomic and proteomic fields is greater than that in the lipidomics field, because of the complex nature of lipids and the limitations of tools for analysis. Modern technological advances in mass spectrometry and chromatography have greatly improved the developments and applications of metabolic profiling of diverse lipids in complex biological samples...
January 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025036/decreased-eicosapentaenoic-acid-levels-in-acne-vulgaris-reveals-the-presence-of-a-proinflammatory-state
#15
İbrahim Aslan, Filiz Özcan, Taner Karaarslan, Ebru Kıraç, Mutay Aslan
This study aimed to determine circulating levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and measure circulating protein levels of angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3), ANGPTL4, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in patients with acne vulgaris. Serum from 21 control subjects and 31 acne vulgaris patients were evaluated for levels of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n- 6), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, C20:3n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3)...
January 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913146/effects-of-high-fat-diet-on-plasma-profiles-of-eicosanoid-metabolites-in-mice
#16
Weicang Wang, Jun Yang, Haixia Yang, Katherine Z Sanidad, Bruce D Hammock, Daeyoung Kim, Guodong Zhang
Obesity is a serious health problem in the US and is associated with increased risks of various human diseases. To date, the mechanisms by which obesity increases the risks of a wide range of human diseases are not well understood. Here we used a LC-MS/MS-based lipidomics, which can analyze >100 bioactive lipid mediators produced by cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 enzymes, to analyze plasma profiles of lipid mediators in high-fat diet induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice. Our results show that the plasma concentrations of epoxyoctadecenoic acids (EpOMEs, also termed as leukotoxins) are significantly increased in plasma of high-fat diet-fed mice, in addition, EpOMEs are among the most abundant lipid mediators detected in mouse plasma...
December 2016: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871801/lipid-profiling-of-polarized-human-monocyte-derived-macrophages
#17
J Rafael Montenegro-Burke, Jessica A Sutton, Lisa M Rogers, Ginger L Milne, John A McLean, David M Aronoff
The highly orchestrated transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming during activation drastically transforms the main functions and physiology of human macrophages across the polarization spectrum. Lipids, for example, can modify protein function by acting remotely as signaling molecules but also locally by altering the physical properties of cellular membranes. These changes play key roles in the functions of highly plastic immune cells due to their involvement in inflammation, immune responses, phagocytosis and wound healing processes...
December 2016: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825971/eicosanoids-emerging-contributors-in-stem-cell-mediated-wound-healing
#18
REVIEW
Elizabeth Berry, Yanzhou Liu, Li Chen, Austin M Guo
Eicosanoids are bioactive lipid products primarily derived from the oxidation of arachidonic acid (AA). The individual contributions of eicosanoids and stem cells to wound healing have been of great interest. This review focuses on how stem cells work in concert with eicosanoids to create a beneficial environment in the wound bed and in the promotion of wound healing. Stem cells contribute to wound healing through modulating inflammation, differentiating into skin cells or endothelial cells, and exerting paracrine effects by releasing various potent growth factors...
November 5, 2016: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554058/cytosolic-phospholipase-a2%C3%AE-increases-proliferation-and-de-differentiation-of-human-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells
#19
John R Montford, Allison M B Lehman, Micah S Scobey, Mary C M Weiser-Evans, Raphael A Nemenoff, Seth B Furgeson
The group IVA calcium-dependent cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α) enzyme controls the release of arachidonic acid from membrane bound phospholipids and is the rate-limiting step in production of eicosanoids. A variety of different kidney injuries activate cPLA2α, therefore we hypothesized that cPLA2α activity would regulate pathologic processes in HK-2 cells, a human renal tubular epithelial cell line, by regulating cell phenotype and proliferation. In two lentiviral cPLA2α-silenced knockdowns, we observed decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis compared to control HK-2 cells...
November 2016: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649858/functional-screening-for-g-protein-coupled-receptor-targets-of-14-15-epoxyeicosatrienoic-acid
#20
Xuehong Liu, Zu-Yuan Qian, Fuchun Xie, Wei Fan, Jonathan W Nelson, Xiangshu Xiao, Sanjiv Kaul, Anthony P Barnes, Nabil J Alkayed
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are potent vasodilators that play important roles in cardiovascular physiology and disease, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological actions of EETs are not fully understood. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the actions of EETs are in part mediated via G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, but the identity of such a receptor has remained elusive. We sought to identify 14,15-EET-responsive GPCRs. A set of 105 clones were expressed in Xenopus oocyte and screened for their ability to activate cAMP-dependent chloride current...
September 17, 2016: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
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