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Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807746/20-hete-regulated-psmb5-expression-via-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-signaling-pathway
#1
Guangrui Lai, Ru Sun, Jingjing Wu, Bijun Zhang, Yanyan Zhao
We previously found that 20-hydroxyeicosatetraeonic acid (20-HETE) showed an effect on proteasome activity in cytochrome P450 F2 (CYP4F2) transgenic mice. Proteasome subunit β5 (PSMB5) is a primary subunit of the proteasome. In the current study, we examine whether 20-HETE has any affect on PSMB5. We found that PSMB5 was upregulated in the liver, but downregulated in the kidney of transgenic mice, when compared with wild-type mice. Luciferase reporter gene experiments and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) suggested that Smad3 directly associated with the putative Smad binding element (SBE) of the Psmb5 promoter...
August 11, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803964/tgf%C3%AE-smad-signalling-modulates-mll-and-mll-af4-mediated-5-lipoxygenase-promoter-activation
#2
Meike J Saul, Florian Groher, Anett B Hegewald, Michaela Müller-McNicoll, Rolf Marschalek, Beatrix Suess, Dieter Steinhilber
5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) catalyzes the initial two steps of the conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes which represent a group of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators involved in immune defense reactions as well as inflammation, allergy and cancer. Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) and calcitriol strongly upregulate 5-LO expression during myeloid cell differentiation and MLL-AF4 has been shown to strongly activate the 5-LO promoter. Here, we investigated the role of TGFβ/SMAD signalling in 5-LO promoter activation...
August 10, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802571/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-improve-endothelial-function-in-humans-at-risk-for-atherosclerosis-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Kayla R Zehr, Mary K Walker
Epidemiology studies and clinical trials show that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can prevent atherosclerotic morbidity and evidence suggests this may be mediated by improving endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by reduced vasodilation and a pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic state, and is an early pathological event in the development of atherosclerosis. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a gold standard for assessing endothelial dysfunction, is a predictor of future cardiovascular events and coronary heart disease risk...
August 9, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797636/modulating-effect-of-inositol-hexaphosphate-on-arachidonic-acid-dependent-pathways-in-colon-cancer-cells
#4
Małgorzata Kapral, Joanna Wawszczyk, Stanisław Sośnicki, Katarzyna Jesse, Ludmiła Węglarz
Cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) are key enzymes of arachidonic acid metabolism. Their products, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), a naturally occurring phytochemical, on the expression of genes encoding COX and LOX isoforms and synthesis of their products (PGE2 and LTB4) in colon cancer cell line Caco-2 stimulated with pro-inflammatory agents (IL-1β/TNFα)...
August 8, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789919/identification-of-long-and-very-long-chain-fatty-acids-plasmalogen-c16-0-and-phytanic-acid-as-new-lipid-biomarkers-in-tunisian-coronary-artery-disease-patients
#5
Samia Hadj Ahmed, Nadia Koubaa, Wafa Kharroubi, Amira Zarrouk, Amira Mnari, Fethi Batbout, Habib Gamra, Sonia Hammami, Gérard Lizard, Mohamed Hammami
Long and very long chain fatty acids (LCFAs and VLCFAs) may play an active role in coronary artery diseases (CAD) etiology. Our aim was to evaluate the associations between LCPUFAs (C20:4n-6; C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3) and VLCSFAs (C22:0, C24:0; and C26:0), as well as markers of peroxisomal integrity evaluated by phytanic acid and plasmalogen-C16:0 (PL-C16:0) in addition to the markers of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA] and conjugated dienes [CD]) and inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) with vascular severity evaluated by Gensini score in order to determine their possible effects on CAD in Tunisian population...
August 5, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760712/glucose-impairs-aspirin-inhibition-in-platelets-through-a-nad-p-h-oxidase-signaling-pathway
#6
Gennadi Kobzar, Vilja Mardla, Nigulas Samel
Hyperglycemia has been suggested to play a role in the increased platelet resistance to antiplatelet therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. Exposure to high glucose impairs platelet inhibition by aspirin. It has been found that antioxidant agents reduce the effect of glucose, confirming the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the effect of glucose. The aim of the study was to examine the mechanism of ROS increase by high glucose in aspirin-treated platelets. Platelet aggregation was measured by the optical method, and the production of ROS was detected using luminol-dependent horseradish peroxidase-enhanced chemiluminescence...
July 29, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736329/cord-blood-eicosanoid-signatures-and-newborn-gestational-age
#7
Sandra Gouveia-Figueira, Dries S Martens, Tim S Nawrot, Malin L Nording
Beyond prostaglandins, the function of eicosanoids and other oxylipins in pregnancy and labor is poorly understood. In contrast to earlier work focusing on preterm infants, we investigated how oxylipin levels in newborns (measured in cord blood) vary during the last weeks of pregnancy in 190 mother-newborns (≥37 weeks of gestation) of the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, Belgium. We found increased levels of PGE2 (p=0.003), PGF2α (p=0.042), 8,9-DHET (p=0.037), 11-HETE (p=0.034), and 15-HETrE (p=0.008) associated with full term pregnancy compared to early term labor...
July 20, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729091/phosphatase-activity-of-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase
#8
REVIEW
Jan Kramer, Ewgenij Proschak
Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a bifunctional enzyme that exhibits lipid epoxide hydrolase (sEH-H) and lipid phosphatase activity (sEH-P), with each being located in its own distinct domain. While the epoxide hydrolase activity is well-investigated, the role of the phosphatase domain remains unclear. This article briefly summarizes the evolution, structure and SNPs of the human sEH, with a special focus on the function and postulated role of the N-terminal domain of sEH. Furthermore, the article provides an overview of tools to study sEH-P...
July 17, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709878/differential-tbxa2-receptor-transcript-stability-is-dependent-on-the-c924t-polymorphism
#9
Vincenzo De Iuliis, Sebastiano Ursi, Alfonso Pennelli, Marika Caruso, Angela Nunziata, Antonio Marino, Vincenzo Flati, Francesco Cipollone, Maria Adele Giamberardino, Gianfranco Vitullo, Elena Toniato, Pio Conti, Stefano Martinotti
BACKGROUND: In order to better characterize the molecular mechanisms involved in processing mutated transcripts, we investigated the post-transcriptional role of the C924T polymorphism (rs4523) located in the 3' region of the TBXA2R gene. METHODS: and RESULTS: Experiments of dose response with Actinomycin D on MEG-01 human cell line showed a significant decrease on cell viability that was more evident on cells treated for 24h. In addition, we showed that treatments with 5-10μM, 15μM and 20μM of actinomycin D reduced cell viability by 44%, 72% and 75%, respectively, compared to the control group...
July 11, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647317/associations-of-systemic-sphingolipids-with-measures-of-hepatic-function-in-liver-cirrhosis-are-related-to-cholesterol
#10
Sabrina Krautbauer, Reiner Wiest, Gerhard Liebisch, Christa Buechler
Lipoprotein particles are composed of various lipid classes including cholesterol and sphingolipids, and are low in serum of patients with liver cirrhosis. Hepatic decompensation is associated with a further decline of lipoproteins. Aim of the present work was to evaluate whether ceramide and sphingomyelin species are similarly changed in patients with liver cirrhosis and whether these variations are related to systemic cholesterol levels. In a cohort of 45 patients suffering from liver cirrhosis, cholesteryl ester species and subsequently total cholesterol were identified to be negatively associated with model of end stage liver disease (MELD) score...
June 21, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610769/insight-into-the-contribution-of-isoprostanoids-to-the-health-effects-of-omega-3-pufas
#11
REVIEW
Laurie Joumard-Cubizolles, Jetty Chung-Yung Lee, Claire Vigor, Ho Hang Leung, Justine Bertrand-Michel, Jean-Marie Galano, André Mazur, Thierry Durand, Cecile Gladine
Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been reported to confer beneficial health effects notably in the field of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. The current knowledge suggests a significant portion of the effects of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are mediated by their oxygenated metabolites. This review attempts to cover the current literature about the contribution of specific omega 3 oxygenated metabolites, namely omega 3 isoprostanoids, which are produced through free-radical mediated oxidation...
June 10, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602942/the-novel-lipid-mediator-pd1n-3-dpa-an-overview-of-the-structural-elucidation-synthesis-biosynthesis-and-bioactions
#12
REVIEW
Trond Vidar Hansen, Jesmond Dalli, Charles N Serhan
Resolvins, protectins and maresins are individual families of specialized pro-resolving mediators biosynthesized from the dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. These enzymatically oxygenated polyunsaturated lipid mediators were first elucidated during the resolution phase of acute inflammation in animal models of self-limited inflammation. Specialized pro-resolving mediators display potent bioactions when administrated in vivo. Biosynthetic pathway studies have revealed that individual lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenase-2 converts eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid into distinct families of the resolvins, protectins and maresins...
June 7, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583889/a-diet-rich-in-omega-3-fatty-acids-enhances-expression-of-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-in-murine-brain
#13
Annika Irmgard Ostermann, Martina Reutzel, Nicole Hartung, Nicole Franke, Laura Kutzner, Kirsten Schoenfeld, Karsten-Henrich Weylandt, Gunter Peter Eckert, Nils Helge Schebb
Several studies suggest that intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFA) beneficially influences cognitive function. However, effects on the adult brain are not clear. Little is known about the impact of dietary intervention on the fatty acid profile in adult brain, the modulation in the expression of enzymes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism as well as changes in resulting oxylipins. These questions were addressed in the present study in two independent n3-PUFA feeding experiments in mice...
June 3, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583890/cd200-selectively-upregulates-prostaglandin-e2-and-d2-synthesis-in-lps-treated-bone-marrow-derived-macrophages
#14
Katharina Kern, Sandra Pierre, Yannick Schreiber, Carlo Angioni, Dominique Thomas, Nerea Ferreirós, Gerd Geisslinger, Klaus Scholich
The CD200/CD200R signalling pathway downregulates the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators and induces the synthesis of antiinflammatory mediators in macrophages and microglia. However, very little is known about the effect of this immunosuppressive pathway on the synthesis of lipid mediators. Therefore, we determined the synthesis of 35 lipids spanning 5 different lipid families in bone marrow-derived macrophages, which were treated with interleukin (IL) 4, IL10, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or interferon γ (IFNγ) in absence and presence of CD200...
June 2, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559164/pomegranate-seed-oil-influences-the-fatty-acids-profile-and-reduces-the-activity-of-desaturases-in-livers-of-sprague-dawley-rats
#15
Agnieszka Białek, Agnieszka Stawarska, Joanna Bodecka, Małgorzata Białek, Andrzej Tokarz
The aim of our study was to compare the influence of diet supplementation with pomegranate seed oil - as conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA) source, or conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and to examine the mechanism of their activity. The content of fatty acids, levels of biomarkers of lipids' oxidation and the activity of key enzymes catalyzing lipids metabolism were measured. Obtained results revealed that conjugated fatty acids significantly decrease the activity of Δ5-desaturase (p=0.0001) and Δ6-desaturase (p=0...
May 27, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549801/methanolic-extract-of-boswellia-serrata-exhibits-anti-cancer-activities-by-targeting-microsomal-prostaglandin-e-synthase-1-in-human-colon-cancer-cells
#16
Tayebeh Ranjbarnejad, Massoud Saidijam, Shirin Moradkhani, Rezvan Najafi
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common cancer. A proper method to reduce mortality of CRC is chemoprevention to prevent initiation and promotion of intestinal tumorgenesis. One of the promising and developing chemopreventive agents is natural compounds found in plants. Frankincense, the resin extract from the Boswellia specious, has been used in traditional and modern medicine for treating various diseases with very minimal side effects. In the current study, we investigated the anti-cancer activity of methanolic extract of Boswellia serrata (B...
May 24, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535956/highly-unsaturated-fatty-acids-hufa-mediate-and-monitor-food-s-impact-on-health
#17
REVIEW
Bill Lands
A hyperbolic, saturable, competitive dynamic of ligand binding to metabolic enzymes and lipid mediator receptors gives non-linear dose-response interactions that need careful management when planning or interpreting nutrient-based interventions. Relatively indiscriminate metabolism during accumulation of HUFA from n-3 and n-6 nutrients allows the amounts of n-3 and n-6 nutrients to determine the HUFA balance accumulated in tissue phospholipids. However, when HUFA-based eicosanoid actions are more intense with n-6 than n-3 mediators, they cause healthy physiology to shift toward pathophysiology...
May 20, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506876/role-of-prostacyclin-synthase-in-carcinogenesis
#18
REVIEW
Yuka Sasaki, Tsubasa Ochiai, Masaya Takamura, Yukihiro Kondo, Chieko Yokoyama, Shuntaro Hara
Prostacyclin (PGI2) synthase (PGIS) and microsomal prostaglandin (PG) E synthase-1 (PGES-1) functionally couple with inducible cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as their upstream enzymes to produce PGI2 and PGE2, respectively. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs exert their pharmacological effects including antitumor effects by the inhibition of COX-2 and thereby suppress this PG biosynthesis. PGIS is abundantly expressed in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells and was shown to be critical for the regulation of platelet aggregation and vascular tone...
May 12, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473204/inhibition-of-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-reduces-portal-pressure-by-protecting-mesenteric-artery-myogenic-responses-in-cirrhotic-rats
#19
Yijun Huang, Jun Qin, Dong Sun, Houli Jiang, Lei Zheng, Yue He, Liang Gui, Binbin Qian, Chihao Zhang, Meng Luo
Hyperdynamic circulation contributes to the progress of portal hypertension in liver cirrhosis. We investigated the effects of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibition on portal pressure and the myogenic response of mesenteric arteries isolated from cirrhotic rats using the sEH inhibitor t-TUCB (trans-4-{4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ureido]cyclohexyloxy}benzoic acid). Cirrhotic tissues had a higher ratio of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) following increased CYP2C11 expression, which may be a protective response...
May 1, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389370/prostaglandin-e2-stimulates-the-expression-of-cumulus-expansion-related-genes-in-pigs-the-role-of-protein-kinase-b
#20
Milan Blaha, Radek Prochazka, Katerina Adamkova, Jan Nevoral, Lucie Nemcova
The production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) seems to play an important role in the ovulation process. PGE2 was found to induce cumulus expansion and meiosis resumption in mice, but little is known about its role in pigs. The goals of this study were (a) to assess the effect of PGE2 on the expression levels of cumulus expansion-related genes, (b) to define the signaling pathways that drive the PGE2-stimulated expression of cumulus expansion-related genes, (c) to measure the effect of PGE2 on the activation of key signaling molecules (MAPK3/1, PKB) and on hyaluronan production in cumulus cells, and (d) to assess the effect of PGE2 on meiosis resumption...
May 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
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