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Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators

Qiong-Feng Chen, Hua Hao, Xiao-Dong Kuang, Quan-Dong Hu, Yong-Hong Huang, Xiao-Yan Zhou
BACKGROUND: The renin angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and lipoxins (LXs) have similar roles in many processes. We previously reported that BML-111, a Lipoxin receptor agonist, inhibited chronic injury hepatic fibrosis by regulating RAAS, but whether LXs are involved in BML-111-mediated protection from acute injury is unclear still. METHODS: We established models of acute liver/lung injury and confirmed them with histopathology and myeloperoxidase (MPO) measurements...
November 6, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Mohammad Shahidur Rahman, Pinky Karim Syeda, Michael N N Nartey, Md Mazharul Islam Chowdhury, Hidehisa Shimizu, Kohji Nishimura, Mitsuo Jisaka, Fumiaki Shono, Kazushige Yokota
Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is relatively unstable and dehydrated non-enzymatically into PGJ2 derivatives, which are known to serve as pro-adipogenic factors by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, a master regulator of adipogenesis. 11-Deoxy-11-methylene-PGD2 (11d-11m-PGD2 ) is a novel, chemically stable, isosteric analogue of PGD2 in which the 11-keto group is replaced by an exocyclic methylene. Here we attempted to investigate pro-adipogenic effects of PGD2 and 11d-11m-PGD2 and to compare the difference in their ways during the maturation phase of cultured adipocytes...
October 26, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Katherine N Theken
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most commonly used agents for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. However, it has long been recognized that there is substantial inter-individual variability in the analgesic response to NSAIDs, reflecting the complex interplay between mechanisms of pain, differences between distinct NSAIDs, and patient-specific factors such as genetic variation. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding how these factors contribute to variability in the analgesic response to NSAIDs...
October 25, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Jia Peng, Xiang-Ping Li
Apolipoprotein A-IV is lipid-binding protein, which is synthesized by the intestine and secreted into mesenteric lymph. ApoA-IV is correlated with chylomicrons and high density lipoprotein, but a large portion is free-lipoprotein, in circulation. Studies showed that apoA-IV has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties, and is able to mediate reverse cholesterol transport, which suggest that it may has anti-atherosclerotic effects and be related to protection from atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease...
October 22, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Cristiano Fava, Sara Bonafini
Metabolites of arachidonic acid via CYP450 such as epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), have vasoactive and natriuretic properties and have been implicated in BP homeostasis and the incidence of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases in animal studies. In humans, genetic studies considering genes implicated in arachidonic acids metabolism (CYP4F2, CYP4A11, CYP2J2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2A1/2, EPHX2) can offer a hint to understand their role, if any, in hypertension development and its deleterious cardiovascular effects...
October 5, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Sean S Davies, Linda S May-Zhang
Isolevuglandins are 4-ketoaldehydes formed by peroxidation of arachidonic acid. Isolevuglandins react rapidly with primary amines including the lysyl residues of proteins to form irreversible covalent modifications. This review highlights evidence for the potential role of isolevuglandin modification in the disease processes, especially atherosclerosis, and some of the tools including small molecule dicarbonyl scavengers utilized to assess their contributions to disease.
October 5, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Meiyan Dai, Lujin Wu, Ling Tu, Xizhen Xu, Dao Wen Wang
Macrophages in adipose tissue are associated with obesity-induced low-grade inflammation, which contributed to insulin resistance and the related metabolic diseases. Macrophages display phenotypic plasticity, and polarize under the condition of obesity. Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids (EETs) are lipid mediators that are involved in the regulation of inflammatory cascades and glucose homeostasis. In this mini-review, we briefly summarize the macrophages recruitment, infiltration and polarization in obese mice, and also discuss the immune-metabolic regulatory role of EETs in this process (See Fig...
October 5, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Liang Xiao, David M Patrick, Luul A Aden, Annet Kirabo
Inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and recent evidence suggests that isolevuglandin (IsoLG)-protein adducts play a role. Several hypertensive stimuli contribute to formation of IsoLG-protein adducts including excess dietary salt and catecholamines. The precise intracellular mechanisms by which these hypertensive stimuli lead to IsoLG-protein adduct formation are still not well understood; however, there is now evidence implicating NADPH-oxidase derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this process...
September 29, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Reheman Adili, Megan Hawley, Michael Holinstat
Thrombosis is the most common underlying pathology responsible for morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation play central roles in hemostasis; however, the same process may also cause thrombosis and vessel occlusion at the site of ruptured atherosclerotic lesions leading to heart attack and stroke. ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are an essential component of the platelet phospholipid membrane and play a major role in many aspects of platelet function...
September 25, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Daniela Wojcik-Baszko, Karol Charkiewicz, Piotr Laudanski
Preeclampsia is a complex disorder and the pathogenesis of it is still not fully understood. The most commonly accepted theory of pathogenesis assumes that there occurs impaired trophoblastic invasion and failure in spiral artery remodeling. Nowadays, obesity becomes one of the most important, modifiable risk factors for the development of preeclampsia. Despite research into the condition, predicting which women with risk factors will develop preeclampsia remains problematic. Emerging evidence suggests that dysregulation of maternal and placental lipid metabolism are involved in the pathogenesis of the condition...
September 21, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Ana Carolina Araújo, Xiao Tang, Jesper Z Haeggström
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an asymptomatic dilatation of the vessel wall exceeding the normal vessel diameter by 50%, accompanied by intramural thrombus formation. Since the aneurysm can rupture, AAA is a life-threatening vascular disease, which may be amenable to surgical repair. At present, no pharmacological therapy for AAA is available. The 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism leads to biosynthesis of leukotrienes (LTs), potent lipid mediators with pro-inflammatory biological actions...
September 21, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
J T Toguri, E Leishman, A M Szczesniak, R B Laprairie, O Oehler, A J Straiker, M E M Kelly, H B Bradshaw
Uveitis is inflammation of the uvea which consists of the iris, ciliary body and the choroid of the eye. Uveitis can lead to impaired vision and is responsible for 10% of all cases of blindness globally. Using an endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) rodent model, our previous data implicated the endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS) in the amelioration of many of the components of the inflammatory response. Here, we test the hypothesis that the reduction in inflammatory mediators in the EIU model by the CB2 agonist, HU308, is associated with changes in ECS endogenous ligands as well as related lipids, prostaglandins (PGs), 2-acyl glycerols, and lipoamines...
September 16, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Rong Rong, Gaizun Hu, Wanting Wang, Yoshikazu Muroya, Takahiro Miura, Yoshiko Ogawa, Masahiro Kohzuki, Osamu Ito
Angiotensin II (AngII) stimulates the renal production and release of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (20-HETE), which is a major metabolite of arachidonic acid catalyzed by CYP4A isoforms. However, the effects of AngII on CYP4A isoform expression in the kidney and its mechanism remains unclear. To clarify the regulation of CYP4A isoform expression by AngII, we examined the chronic effects of AngII and AngII type 1 receptor (AT1-R) blockade on CYP4A isoform expression. Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with vehicle or AngII for 1 week, and the AngII-infused rats were also treated with or without the AT1-R blocker, candesartan...
September 15, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Xuan Fang, Wenbin Cai, Qian Cheng, Ding Ai, Xian Wang, Bruce D Hammock, Yi Zhu, Xu Zhang
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation is a recommended preventive approach against cardiovascular diseases, but its mechanism of protection against myocardial infarction (MI) injury is not fully understood. Eicosanoid metabolomics demonstrated an abnormal eicosanoid profile was in the plasma of mice receiving MI surgery. 19,20-EDP, 17,18-EEQ, 14,15-EET and 9,10-EpOME were decreased, and PGE2 was increased by the surgery. N-3 PUFA-rich diets feeding or transgene of Fat-1 shifted the eicosanoid profile to an n-3 PUFA dominant style and attenuated the myocardial infarction injury...
September 14, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Michał Biernacki, Barbara Malinowska, Magdalena Timoszuk, Martek Toczek, Anna Jastrząb, Patryk Remiszewski, Elżbieta Skrzydlewska
The interaction between the endocannabinoid and ROS signaling systems has been demonstrated in different organs. Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the key enzyme responsible for degradation of the endocannabinoid anandamide, are postulated to possess anti-hypertensive potential. Here, we compared the effects of hypertension and chronic FAAH inhibition by URB597 on the endocannabinoid system and redox balance in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and hypertensive deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt rats...
September 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Akinyemi Oni-Orisan, Sharon Cresci, Philip G Jones, Katherine N Theken, John A Spertus, Craig R Lee
Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH, EPHX2) elicits potent cardiovascular protective effects in preclinical models of ischemic cardiovascular disease (CVD), and genetic polymorphisms in EPHX2 have been associated with developing ischemic CVD in humans. However, it remains unknown whether EPHX2 variants are associated with prognosis following an ischemic CVD event. We evaluated the association between EPHX2 p.Lys55Arg and p.Arg287Gln genotype with survival in 667 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients...
September 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Irene Håkansson, Sandra Gouveia-Figueira, Jan Ernerudh, Magnus Vrethem, Nazdar Ghafouri, Bijar Ghafouri, Malin Nording
Although oxylipins are involved in inflammation, data on these lipid mediators in multiple sclerosis are sparse. In this study, a panel of oxylipins were analysed swith liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 41 treatment naïve patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) and 22 healthy controls. CSF levels of 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE) and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) were significantly higher in patients than in healthy controls (9-HODE median 380 nM (interquartile range 330-450 nM) in patients and 290 nM (interquartile range 250-340 nM) in controls, 13-HODE median 930 nM (interquartile range 810-1080 nM) in patients and 690 nM (interquartile range 570-760 nM) in controls, p < 0...
August 15, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Lin Yang, Cui Ma, Lixin Zhang, Min Zhang, Fei Li, Chen Zhang, Xiufeng Yu, Xiaoying Wang, Siyu He, Daling Zhu, Yinli Song
15-Lipoxygenase-2 (15-LOX-2) and 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE) have been considered as latent mediators of diverse biological processes including cancer. However, their functions in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) are unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine whether 15-LOX-2/15(S)-HETE is involved in the proliferation and migration of A549 cells and to identify the signaling pathways that participate in this process. We used immunohistochemistry to identify the expression levels of 15-LOX-2 in lung cancer tissue samples...
August 12, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Sindhu G, Shyni G L, Chithra K Pushpan, Bala Nambisan, Helen A
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease characterized by synovial proliferation and tissue destruction. Pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) play a key role in the disease process and elevate energy expenditure, which further increases the joint pain and stiffness. The present study was undertaken to explore the anti-arthritic potential of fenugreek mucilage in adjuvant induced arthritic rats. In the present study, paw volume was measured on the 7th , 14th and 21st day...
August 11, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Yuan Cao, Xiaoyan Zhou, Zixiao Yin, Xinbo Yu, Qing Yang, Qikun Guo, Duxue Tian, Xiaoliang Xiong, Guogang Xu, Xiaodong Kuang
The aim of this study is to investigate whether the lipoxin receptor agonist BML-111 exerts a protective effect against inflammation in a mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by regulating NLRP3 inflammasome activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In this study, mice were randomly divided into the following five groups: control group (Control), COPD model group (Model), BML-111 low-dose group (Low-BML), BML-111 high-dose group (High-BML) and Dexamethasone group (Dex)...
August 10, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
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