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Public Health Nutrition

Denise M Deming, Kathleen C Reidy, Mary Kay Fox, Ronette R Briefel, Emma Jacquier, Alison L Eldridge
OBJECTIVE: To explore eating patterns and snacking among US infants, toddlers and pre-school children. DESIGN: The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008 was a cross-sectional national survey of children aged 6-47 months, weighted to reflect US age and racial/ethnic distributions. Dietary data were collected using one multiple-pass 24h recall. Eating occasions were categorized as meals, snacks or other (comprised of all feedings of breast milk and/or infant formula)...
March 20, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Aaron Reeves, Rachel Loopstra, David Stuckler
OBJECTIVE: Food insecurity has been rising across Europe following the Great Recession, but to varying degrees across countries and over time. The reasons for this increase are not well understood, nor are what factors might protect people's access to food. Here we test the hypothesis that an emerging gap between food prices and wages can explain increases in reported inability to afford protein-rich foods and whether welfare regimes can mitigate its impact. DESIGN: We collected data in twenty-one countries from 2004 to 2012 using two databases: (i) on food prices and deprivation related to food (denoted by reported inability to afford to eat meat, chicken, fish or a vegetarian equivalent every second day) from EuroStat 2015 edition; and (ii) on wages from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2015 edition...
March 20, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Janine S Bruce, Monica M De La Cruz, Gala Moreno, Lisa J Chamberlain
OBJECTIVE: To examine a library-based approach to addressing food insecurity through a child and adult summer meal programme. The study examines: (i) risk of household food insecurity among participants; (ii) perspectives on the library meal programme; and (iii) barriers to utilizing other community food resources. DESIGN: Quantitative surveys with adult participants and qualitative semi-structured interviews with a sub-sample of adult participants. SETTING: Ten libraries using public and private funding to serve meals to children and adults for six to eight weeks in low-income Silicon Valley communities (California, USA) during summer 2015...
March 20, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Gerard Fh Kramer, Marcelo Tyszler, Pieter Van't Veer, Hans Blonk
OBJECTIVE: To find diets optimised on nutrition and environmental impact close to the current Dutch diet and to identify the most effective and acceptable options for mitigating environmental impact. DESIGN: Linear programming was used to optimise diets of Dutch men and women aged 9-69 years, divided into ten age-gender groups. The analysis included nutrient composition, a metric for popularity and life cycle assessments of 207 food products. Greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy use and land occupation were used to calculate a weighted score for the overall environmental impact...
March 20, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Tashara M Leak, Alison Swenson, Aaron Rendahl, Zata Vickers, Elton Mykerezi, Joseph P Redden, Traci Mann, Marla Reicks
OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility of implementing nine behavioural economics-informed strategies, or 'nudges', that aimed to encourage home dinner vegetable intake among low-income children. DESIGN: Caregivers were assigned six of nine strategies and implemented one new strategy per week (i.e. 6 weeks) during three dinner meals. Caregivers recorded child dinner vegetable intake on the nights of strategy implementation and rated the level of difficulty for assigned strategies...
March 15, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Astrid Merkx, Marlein Ausems, Raymond de Vries, Marianne J Nieuwenhuijze
OBJECTIVE: Gaining too much or too little weight in pregnancy (according to Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines) negatively affects both mother and child, but many women find it difficult to manage their gestational weight gain (GWG). Here we describe the use of the intervention mapping protocol to design 'Come On!', an intervention to promote adequate GWG among healthy pregnant women. DESIGN: We used the six steps of intervention mapping: (i) needs assessment; (ii) formulation of change objectives; (iii) selection of theory-based methods and practical strategies; (iv) development of the intervention programme; (v) development of an adoption and implementation plan; and (vi) development of an evaluation plan...
March 15, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Kristine Hansen Vinje, Linh Thi Hong Phan, Tuan Thanh Nguyen, Sigrun Henjum, Lovise Omoijuanfo Ribe, Roger Mathisen
OBJECTIVE: To review regulations and to perform a media audit of promotion of products under the scope of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes ('the Code') in South-East Asia. DESIGN: We reviewed national regulations relating to the Code and 800 clips of editorial content, 387 advertisements and 217 Facebook posts from January 2015 to January 2016. We explored the ecological association between regulations and market size, and between the number of advertisements and market size and growth of milk formula...
March 15, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Keiko Asakura, Satoshi Sasaki
OBJECTIVE: The role of school lunches in diet quality has not been well studied. Here, we aimed to determine the contribution of school lunches to overall nutrient intake in Japanese schoolchildren. DESIGN: The study was conducted nationwide under a cross-sectional design. A non-consecutive, three-day diet record was performed on two school days and a non-school day separately. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake was estimated for intakes on one of the school days and the non-school day, and for daily habitual intake estimated by the best-power method...
March 15, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Aurélie Affret, Gianluca Severi, Courtney Dow, Grégoire Rey, Cyrille Delpierre, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, Guy Fagherazzi
OBJECTIVE: To identify individual and contextual socio-economic factors associated with a healthy diet. DESIGN: Dietary data from a large cohort study were used to derive two mutually exclusive dietary patterns through a latent class analysis. Associations between dietary patterns and socio-economic factors were studied with logistic regression. SETTING: E3N, a French prospective cohort study composed of women recruited from a national health insurance plan covering people working in the national education system...
March 13, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Zach Conrad, Micaela Karlsen, Kenneth Chui, Lisa Jahns
OBJECTIVE: To compare diet quality scores between adult non-meat eaters and meat eaters, and to compare the consumption of diet components across quintiles of diet quality. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. The Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) and Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010) were used to assess mean diet quality. Differences in consumption of diet components between quintiles of diet quality were tested using post hoc Wald tests and z tests...
March 8, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Jennifer Scott, Caroline Marquer, Fatou Berthe, Eric-Alain Ategbo, Rebecca F Grais, Céline Langendorf
OBJECTIVE: The current qualitative study aimed to identify gender, social and cultural influences on the management and use of unconditional cash transfers as part of a prospective intervention study in Niger. DESIGN: In February to March 2012, focus group discussions and semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with female caregivers of children aged 6 to 23 months who received unconditional cash transfers. Discussion and interview transcripts were analysed using content thematic analysis...
March 6, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Teresa M Smith, Casey Blaser, Cristy Geno Rasmussen, Julie Shuell, Catherine Plumlee, Amy L Yaroch
OBJECTIVE: The National Early Care and Education Learning Collaboratives (ECELC) Project aims to promote healthy physical activity and nutrition environments, policies and practices in early care and education (ECE) programmes across multiple states. The present pilot study sought to assess changes to the physical activity and nutrition practices in a sub-sample of ECE programmes participating in the ECELC using the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO). Additionally, it sought to compare results with the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC)...
March 6, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Amada Flores, Mario Flores, Nayeli Macias, Lucía Hernández-Barrera, Marta Rivera, Alejandra Contreras, Salvador Villalpando
OBJECTIVE: To assess vitamin D dietary sources, intake and 25-hydroxyvitamin D status and their association with individual and sociodemographic characteristics in Mexican children. DESIGN: Data obtained from 2695 children aged 1-11 years from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (2012) were analysed. Diet was assessed by a 141-item FFQ. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D was measured by a chemiluminescent assay. RESULTS: Mean vitamin D intake was 3·38 (se 0·09) µg/d (135·2 (se 3·6) IU/d) among pre-school children and 2·85 (se 0·06) µg/d (114·0 (se 2·4) IU/d) in school-age children...
February 28, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Rachael W Taylor, Ella Iosua, Anne-Louise M Heath, Andrew R Gray, Barry J Taylor, Julie A Lawrence, Maha Hanna, Sonya L Cameron, Rachel Sayers, Barbara Galland
OBJECTIVE: Eating less frequently is associated with increased obesity risk in older children but data are potentially confounded by reverse causation, where bigger children eat less often in an effort to control their weight. Longitudinal data, particularly in younger children, are scarce. We aimed to determine whether eating frequency (meals and snacks) at 2 years of age is associated with past, current or subsequent BMI. DESIGN: Cohort analysis of a randomised controlled trial...
February 27, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Maree Scully, Belinda Morley, Philippa Niven, David Crawford, Iain S Pratt, Melanie Wakefield
OBJECTIVE: To examine demographic and behavioural correlates of high consumption of soft drinks (non-alcoholic sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks excluding energy drinks) among Australian adolescents and to explore the associations between high consumption and soft drink perceptions and accessibility. DESIGN: Cross-sectional self-completion survey and height and weight measurements. SETTING: Australian secondary schools. SUBJECTS: Students aged 12-17 years participating in the 2012-13 National Secondary Students' Diet and Activity (NaSSDA) survey (n 7835)...
February 27, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Héctor E Alcalá, Mienah Z Sharif
OBJECTIVE: To determine if the association between soda consumption and obesity is uniform among Asian-American population subgroups. DESIGN: We conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses on odds of being obese among seven Asian subgroups and by place of birth using data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey. SETTING: An omnibus population-based health survey. SUBJECTS: Non-institutionalized adults, aged 18 years or over, residing in California (n 36 271)...
February 24, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Nadine Budd, Jayne K Jeffries, Jessica Jones-Smith, Anna Kharmats, Ann Yelmokas McDermott, Joel Gittelsohn
OBJECTIVE: Small food store interventions show promise to increase healthy food access in under-resourced areas. However, none have tested the impact of price discounts on healthy food supply and demand. We tested the impact of store-directed price discounts and communications strategies, separately and combined, on the stocking, sales and prices of healthier foods and on storeowner psychosocial factors. DESIGN: Factorial design randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Twenty-four corner stores in low-income neighbourhoods of Baltimore City, MD, USA...
February 22, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Craig Gundersen, Emily E Engelhard, Amy S Crumbaugh, Hilary K Seligman
OBJECTIVE: To facilitate the introduction of food insecurity screening into clinical settings, we examined the test performance of two-item screening questions for food insecurity against the US Department of Agriculture's Core Food Security Module. DESIGN: We examined sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of various two-item combinations of questions assessing food insecurity in the general population and high-risk population subgroups. SETTING: 2013 Current Population Survey December Supplement, a population-based US survey...
February 20, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Geraldine McNeill, Lindsey F Masson, Jennie I Macdiarmid, Leone Ca Craig, Wendy J Wills, Catherine Bromley
OBJECTIVE: To investigate socio-economic differences in children's diet, activity and inactivity and changes in these differences over 4 years during which new policies on food in schools were introduced. DESIGN: Two cross-sectional surveys in which diet was assessed by FFQ and physical activity and inactivity were assessed by interviewer-administered questionnaire. Socio-economic status was assessed by the area-based Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation. SETTING: Scotland, 2006 and 2010...
February 20, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
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