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Journal of Clinical Densitometry

Adam J Zemski, Karen Hind, Shelley E Keating, Elizabeth M Broad, Damian J Marsh, Gary J Slater
The application of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in sport science settings is gaining popularity due to its ability to assess body composition. The International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) recommends application of the least significant change (LSC) to interpret meaningful and true change. This is calculated from same-day consecutive scans, thus accounting for technical error. However, this approach does not capture biological variation, which is pertinent when interpreting longitudinal measurements, and could be captured from consecutive-day scans...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Scott J Dankel, Takashi Abe, Zachary W Bell, Matthew B Jessee, Samuel L Buckner, Kevin T Mattocks, J Grant Mouser, Jeremy P Loenneke
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: To determine the influence of ultrasound probe tilt on reliability and overall changes in muscle thickness and echo-intensity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six individuals had a total of 15 images taken on both the biceps brachii and tibialis anterior muscles. These images were taken in 2° increments with the probe tilted either upward (U) or downward (D) from perpendicular (0°) to the muscle (U6°, U4°, U2°, 0°, D2°, D4°, and D6°)...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
M Drey, M Henkel, S Petermeise, S Weiß, U Ferrari, M Rottenkolber, R Schmidmaier
The loss of bone and muscle mass increases the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) loses sensitivity in older age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone and muscle measurements of peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) in a geriatric cohort with osteoporosis. Bone mineral density and muscle area of 168 patients aged 65 years and older (76.3 ± 6.5) were measured with pQCT at distal forearm additionally to an osteoporosis assessment consisting of anamnesis, blood test and DXA of lumbar spine and hip...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Ahmet Cemal Pazarli, Timur Ekiz, Handan İnönü Köseoğlu
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This study was designed as a cross-sectional and observational study. Patients who underwent polysomnography evaluation were classified as normal, mild, moderate, severe, or position-dependent OSAS, and OSAS + obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). BMD was measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method at the femur and lumbar spine...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Daniel G Whitney, Harshvardhan Singh, Chuan Zhang, Freeman Miller, Christopher M Modlesky
BACKGROUND: Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) are at increased risk for obesity and obesity-related complications. Studies of total body fat in those with CP are inconsistent and studies of abdominal fat are lacking in children with CP. The objective of this study was to determine if ambulatory children with spastic CP have greater central adiposity compared to typically developing children. METHODOLOGY: Eighteen ambulatory children with spastic CP (n = 5 girls; 8...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
E Michael Lewiecki, John P Bilezikian, Lora Giangregorio, Susan L Greenspan, Sundeep Khosla, Paul Kostenuik, Kelly Krohn, Michael R McClung, Paul D Miller, Roberto Pacifici
The Santa Fe Bone Symposium is an annual meeting devoted to clinical applications of recent advances in skeletal research. The 19th Santa Fe Bone Symposium convened August 3-4, 2018, in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Attendees included physicians of many specialties, fellows in training, advanced practice providers, clinical researchers, and bone density technologists. The format consisted of lectures, case presentations by endocrinology fellows, and panel discussions, with all involving extensive interactive discussions...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Andy K O Wong, Eva Szabo, Marta Erlandson, Marshall S Sussman, Sravani Duggina, Anny Song, Shannon Reitsma, Hana Gillick, Jonathan D Adachi, Angela M Cheung
The accumulation of INTERmuscular fat and INTRAmuscular fat (IMF) has been a hallmark of individuals with diabetes, those with mobility impairments such as spinal cord injuries and is known to increase with aging. An elevated amount of IMF has been associated with fractures and frailty, but the imprecision of IMF measurement has so far limited the ability to observe more consistent clinical associations. Magnetic resonance imaging has been recognized as the gold standard for portraying these features, yet reliable methods for quantifying IMF on magnetic resonance imaging is far from standardized...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Abdel-Jalil Berro, Nathalie Al Rassy, Said Ahmaidi, Patchina Sabbagh, Anthony Khawaja, Ghassan Maalouf, Rawad El Hage
The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between physical performance variables and bone parameters such as bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content, hip geometry indices, and trabecular bone score in a group of young overweight and obese adult women. Sixty-eight overweight/obese (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 ; 25.5-42.4 kg/m2 ) young women whose ages range from 18 to 35 yr participated in this study. Body composition and bone outcomes were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max, in liter per minute) was determined indirectly using a progressive shuttle run test...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Wenmin Guan, Wei Yu, Qiang Lin, Zaizhu Zhang, Guiying Du, Junping Tian, Ying Xu, Evelyn Hsieh
INTRODUCTION: Bone mineral density measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard for diagnosis of osteoporosis. However, DXA interpretation can be influenced by analytic errors which can, in turn, interfere with diagnostic accuracy. One such source of potential error is the accurate identification of specific lumbar vertebrae on lumbar spine DXA images. Although the International Society for Clinical Densitometry has introduced several approaches to aid with this process, there remain individuals whose lumbar vertebrae cannot be labeled with certainty using these approaches...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
D Krueger, E Shives, E Siglinsky, J Libber, B Buehring, K E Hansen, N Binkley
OBJECTIVE: High quality dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) acquisition, analysis, and reporting demands technical and interpretive excellence. We hypothesized that DXA errors are common and of such magnitude that incorrect clinical decisions might result. In this 2-phase study, we evaluated DXA technical and interpretation error rates in a clinical population and subsequently assessed if implementing an interpretation template reduced errors. METHODS: In phase 1, DXA scans of 345 osteoporosis clinic referrals were reviewed by International Society for Clinical Densitometry-certified technologists (n = 3) and physicians (n = 3)...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Grant M Tinsley, Michael Lane Moore, Austin J Graybeal
BACKGROUND: Offset scanning procedures, such as reflection scanning, allow for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition assessment of individuals who are too broad for standard scanning dimensions. However, limited information is available concerning the precision of this procedure, particularly in athletes. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-seven muscular athletes (n = 17 males, BMI: 28.8 ± 2.0 kg/m2 , DXA body fat: 12.5 ± 2.7%; n = 10 females, BMI: 22...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Jenifer Freitas Campos, Aline Gomes Hidalgo Mierzwa, Mariana Freitas-Jesus, Marise Lazaretti-Castro, Keico Okino Nonaka, Rejane Daniele Reginato
INTRODUCTION: Intermittent 1-34 parathyroid hormone (iPTH) administration, a bone-forming treatment, is widely used as a therapy for severe osteoporosis. It can only be used for a maximum of 24 mo and must be followed by an antiresorptive drug to retain the new formed tissue. Mechanical load, in the form of low-intensity and high-frequency vibration, has received considerable attention due to its ability to prevent bone loss. AIM: To investigate the ability of whole body mechanical vibration (MV) to potentiate the anabolic effects of iPTH and to inhibit bone resorption following discontinuation of iPTH treatment in estrogen-deficient rats...
September 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Yunkoo Kang, Sowon Park, Seung Kim, Hong Koh
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide in adolescents. Metabolic syndrome is a systemic disease that is likely to be associated with other diseases. Studies have shown a relationship between muscle strength, muscle quality, and metabolic syndrome. Handgrip strength is known as a simple tool to measure muscle strength. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between handgrip strength and metabolic syndrome and each metabolic syndrome features in adolescents. Data were obtained from 1050 adolescents (574 boys, 476 girls; age 10-18 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
September 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Mirko Rehberg, Renaud Winzenrieth, Heike Hoyer-Kuhn, Ibrahim Duran, Eckhard Schoenau, Oliver Semler
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta is a hereditary connective tissue disorder, resulting in low bone mass and high bone fragility. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and in adulthood also the trabecular bone score (TBS) are well established to assess bone health and fracture risk. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the usefulness of TBS in respect to different treatment regimes in children with osteogenesis imperfecta. Changes of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and TBS using DXA scans of children treated with antiresorptive therapies were evaluated...
September 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Ehab I Mohamed, Radwa A Meshref, Samir M Abdel-Mageed, Moustafa H Moustafa, Mohamed I Badawi, Samy H Darwish
One of the best methods for diagnosing bone disease in humans is site-specific and total bone mineral density (BMD) measurements by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) machines. The basic disadvantage of this technology is inconsistent BMD measurements among different DXA machines from different manufacturers due to different image analysis algorithms. The objective of the present study was to apply artificial neural networks (ANNs) to estimate total BMD for diagnosing a population of Egyptians with and without pathology, using extracted features from DXA-DICOM images based on the Histogram and Binary algorithms as compared to reference BMD measurements by DXA machine...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Hana Choi, Jun-Ii Yoo
The purpose of this study is comparing the hip-structure analysis (HSA) variables with the skeletal muscle index (SMI) in elderly patients with sarcopenia using nationwide representative data on the Republic of Korea (ROK). The survey data were collected from household interviews and direct standardized physical examinations conducted in specially equipped mobile examination centers. The data were collected in 2008 from 9744 participants. Patients under 65years of age who were without data on the skeletal-muscle-mass and HSA variables were excluded...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
WeiWei Hu, Jinwei He, Wenzhen Fu, Chun Wang, Hue Yue, Jiemei Gu, Hao Zhang, Zhenlin Zhang
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a member of the endocrine FGF subfamily and an important metabolic regulator that has multiple beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. However, it was unclear whether FGF21 would induce bone defects in humans. This study evaluated the associations of FGF21 levels, bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporotic fracture, and bone turnover marks (BTMs) in postmenopausal women. A total of 1342 postmenopausal Chinese Han women (511 cases of fragility fracture in the case group and 831 cases in nonfragility fracture group) were enrolled...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
B Thomas, N Binkley, P A Anderson, D Krueger
INTRODUCTION: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is increasingly being performed. Distal femur periprosthetic fracture is a potentially catastrophic complication following TKA and existing data document substantial distal femur bone mineral density (BMD) loss following TKA. However, distal femur BMD is virtually never measured clinically as no consensus approach exists. This pilot study's purpose was to define regional BMD variation throughout the femur, suggest standard dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) regions of interest (ROIs) and evaluate BMD reproducibility at these ROIs...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
M B Maldonado-Pérez, L Castro-Laria, A Caunedo-Álvarez, M J Montoya-García, M Giner-García, F Argüelles-Arias, M Romero-Gómez, M Á Vázquez-Gámez
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture risk are extraintestinal manifestations of the inflammatory bowel disease, whose etiopathogenic mechanisms have not been determined yet. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α are used in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but it is unknown if they play a role in osteoporotic fracture prevention. The objective of this study was to know if anti-TNF decreases fracture risk or modifies bone mineral density. To determine the possible risk factors associated with fractures, and assess the incidence of vertebral fractures in IBD patients...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Hui Tong, He-Xiang Zong, Sheng-Qian Xu, Xin-Rong Wang, Xun Gong, Jian-Hua Xu, Mengming Cheng
Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) is an indicator for assessing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of OSTA index on predicting osteoporosis in elderly Chinese patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 320 patients with RA and 158 normal individuals were recruited from January 2015 to October 2017. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the femur and lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RA group and control group were divided into low risk (values≥-1), medium risk (values between -4 and -1), and high risk (values ≤-4) group according to the value of OSTA index...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
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