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Peter Nick
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February 19, 2018: Protoplasma
Sara Reis, Ivo Pavia, Ana Carvalho, José Moutinho-Pereira, Carlos Correia, José Lima-Brito
Currently, the biofortification of crops like wheat with micronutrients such as iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) is extremely important due to the deficiencies of these micronutrients in the human diet and in soils. Agronomic biofortification with Fe and Zn can be done through different exogenous strategies such as soil application, foliar spraying, and seed priming. However, the excess of these micronutrients can be detrimental to the plants. Therefore, in the last decade, a high number of studies focused on the evaluation of their phytotoxic effects to define the best strategies for biofortification of bread wheat...
February 16, 2018: Protoplasma
Walid Ben-Romdhane, Rania Ben-Saad, Donaldo Meynard, Nabil Zouari, Ali Mahjoub, Lotfi Fki, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Abdullah Al-Doss, Afif Hassairi
Herein, we report isolation of the AlTMP2 gene from the halophytic C4 grass Aeluropus littoralis. The subcellular localization suggested that AlTMP2 is a plasma membrane protein. In A. littoralis exposed to salt and osmotic stresses, the AlTMP2 gene was induced early and at a high rate, but was upregulated relatively later in response to abscisic acid and cold treatments. Expression of AlTMP2 in tobacco conferred improved tolerance against salinity, osmotic, H 2 O 2 , heat, and freezing stresses at the germination and seedling stages...
February 15, 2018: Protoplasma
Tanya Biswas, Shiv Shanker Pandey, Deepamala Maji, Vikrant Gupta, Alok Kalra, Manju Singh, Archana Mathur, A K Mathur
Dual metabolite, i.e., ginsenoside and anthocyanin, co-accumulating cell suspensions of Panax sikkimensis were subjected to elicitation with culture filtrates of Serratia marcescens (SD 21), Bacillus subtilis (FL11), Trichoderma atroviridae (TA), and T. harzianum (TH) at 1.25% and 2.5% v/v for 1- and 3-week duration. The fungal-derived elicitors (TA and TH) did not significantly affect biomass accumulation; however, bacterial elicitors (SD 21 and FL11), especially SD 21, led to comparable loss in biomass growth...
February 15, 2018: Protoplasma
Bartosz J Płachno, Piotr Świątek, Małgorzata Stpiczyńska, Vitor Fernandes Oliveira Miranda
In the genus Genlisea as well as in its sister genus Utricularia, the palate probably plays a key role in providing the colour, mechanical and olfactory stimuli to attract insect pollinators and to guide them to the generative structures and the nectary spur. However, information about the micro-morphology of the palate of Genlisea is scarce. This study aims to examine the structure of the palate in Genlisea hispidula in detail as well as the palate from other five species from the subgenus Genlisea. In particular, its aim is to ascertain whether these palates function as an area for the osmophores in the flower or whether they produce nectar...
February 14, 2018: Protoplasma
Jana Majerská, Petra Procházková Schrumpfová, Ladislav Dokládal, Šárka Schořová, Karel Stejskal, Michal Obořil, David Honys, Lucie Kozáková, Pavla Sováková Polanská, Eva Sýkorová
In the published online version, the affiliations were mixed up. Corrected affiliation section is shown below. Also, the update has also been reflected in the author group section above.
February 14, 2018: Protoplasma
Arkajo Majumdar, Rup Kumar Kar
Plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase and NADPH oxidase (NOX) are two key enzymes responsible for cell wall relaxation during elongation growth through apoplastic acidification and production of ˙OH radical via O2˙-, respectively. Our experiments revealed a putative feed-forward loop between these enzymes in growing roots of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek seedlings. Thus, NOX activity was found to be dependent on proton gradient generated across PM by H+-ATPase as evident from pharmacological experiments using carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP; protonophore) and sodium ortho-vanadate (PM H+-ATPase inhibitor)...
February 12, 2018: Protoplasma
Lu Liu, Bao-Zhen Hua
The larvae of Bittacidae, a cosmopolitan family in Mecoptera, have an interesting habit of spraying the body surface with soil through the anus after hatching, and each molts. The fine structure of Malpighian tubules, however, remains largely unknown in the larvae of Bittacidae to date. Here, we studied the ultrastructure of the larval Malpighian tubules in the hangingfly Terrobittacus implicatus (Huang & Hua) using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The larvae of T. implicatus have six elongate Malpighian tubules at the junction of the midgut and hindgut...
February 10, 2018: Protoplasma
Qian-Yu Liu, Guang-Sheng Guo, Zhen-Fei Qiu, Xiao-Dan Li, Bing-Shan Zeng, Chun-Jie Fan
Gibberellins (GAs) play a key role in plant growth and development including cell elongation, cell expansion, and xylem differentiation. Eucalyptus are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees providing fiber and energy. However, the roles of GAs in Eucalyptus remain unclear and their effects on xylem development remain to be determined. In this study, E. grandis plants were treated with 0.10 mg L-1 GA3 and/or paclobutrazol (PAC, a GA inhibitor). The growth of shoot and root were recorded, transverse sections of roots and stems were stained using toluidine blue, and expression levels of genes related to hormone response and secondary cell wall biosynthesis were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR...
February 8, 2018: Protoplasma
Dian-Jun Xiang, Li-Li Man, Chun-Lan Zhang, Peng-Liu, Zhi-Gang Li, Gen-Chang Zheng
Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are closely related to abiotic stress tolerance of plants. In the present study, we identified a novel Em-like gene from lettuce, termed LsEm1, which could be classified into group 1 LEA proteins, and shared high homology with Cynara cardunculus Em protein. The LsEm1 protein contained three different 20-mer conserved elements (C-element, N-element, and M-element) in the C-termini, N-termini, and middle-region, respectively. The LsEm1 mRNAs were accumulated in all examined tissues during the flowering and mature stages, with a little accumulation in the roots and leaves during the seedling stage...
February 7, 2018: Protoplasma
Massimo Malerba, Raffaella Cerana
Temperatures above the optimum are sensed as heat stress (HS) by all living organisms and represent one of the major environmental challenges for plants. Plants can cope with HS by activating specific defense mechanisms to minimize damage and ensure cellular functionality. One of the most common effects of HS is the overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). The role of ROS and RNS in the regulation of many plant physiological processes is well established. On the contrary, in plants very little is known about the physiological role of peroxynitrite (ONOO-), the RNS species generated by the interaction between NO and O2-...
February 6, 2018: Protoplasma
Liya Mathew, Andrew McLachlan, Rubina Jibran, David J Burritt, Ranjith Pathirana
Cryopreservation is a reliable and cost-effective method for the long-term preservation of clonally propagated species. The number of vegetatively propagated species conserved by cryopreservation is increasing through development of vitrification-based methods; droplet vitrification in particular is becoming the preferred method for many species, as it ensures fast freezing and thawing rates. This research investigated if cold, antioxidant and osmotic pre-treatments could maintain the structural integrity of cells, thence aid in developing a droplet vitrification protocol for kiwifruit using Actinidia chinensis var...
February 5, 2018: Protoplasma
Bartosz J Płachno, Małgorzata Stpiczyńska, Lubomír Adamec, Vitor Fernandes Oliveira Miranda, Piotr Świątek
In Utricularia, the flower spur is a nectary and in this organ, nectar is produced and stored. This study aimed to examine the structure of the nectary trichomes in four Utricularia species (Utricularia vulgaris L., U. australis R.Br., U. bremii Heer and U. foliosa L.) from the generic section Utricularia. We have investigated whether species with different spur morphology had similar spur anatomy and nectary trichome structure. In Utricularia flowers, nectar is produced by spur capitate trichomes (sessile or stalked)...
February 5, 2018: Protoplasma
Chao Li, Cheng Li, Bingbing Wang, Runqi Zhang, Kaiyong Fu, William J Gale, Chunyan Li
Drought frequently occurs during wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain filling. The objectives of this study were (i) to investigate the effect of post-anthesis drought on programmed cell death (PCD) in wheat endosperm cells and (ii) to examine the role of ethylene (ETH) receptors and abscisic acid (ABA) in regulating wheat endosperm PCD. Two winter wheat cultivars ('Xindong 18' and 'Xindong 22') were used in this study. Grain samples were collected from normal and drought stressed plants at 5-day intervals between 5 and 35 days post-anthesis...
January 29, 2018: Protoplasma
Imad Shams, Olga Raskina
Transposable elements (TE) and tandem repeats (TR) compose the largest fraction of the plant genome. The abundance and repatterning of repetitive DNA underlie intrapopulation polymorphisms and intraspecific diversification; however, the dynamics of repetitive elements in ontogenesis is not fully understood. Here, we addressed the genotype-specific and tissue-specific abundances and dynamics of the Ty1-copia, Ty3-gypsy, and LINE retrotransposons and species-specific Spelt1 tandem repeat in wild diploid goatgrass, Aegilops speltoides Tausch...
January 27, 2018: Protoplasma
Changjuan Shan, Shengli Zhang, Xingqi Ou
This paper investigated the roles of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the possible relationship between them in regulating the AsA-GSH cycle in wheat leaves under drought stress (DS). Results showed that DS markedly increased the production of H2S and H2O2, the transcript levels and activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR); malondialdehyde (MDA) content; and electrolyte leakage (EL)...
January 25, 2018: Protoplasma
Takashi Yamano, Chihana Toyokawa, Hideya Fukuzawa
Many aquatic algae induce a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) associated with active inorganic carbon transport to maintain high photosynthetic affinity using dissolved inorganic carbon even in low-CO2 (LC) conditions. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a Ca2+-binding protein CAS was identified as a novel factor regulating the expression of CCM-related proteins including bicarbonate transporters. Although previous studies revealed that CAS associates with the thylakoid membrane and changes its localization in response to CO2 and light availability, its detailed localization in the chloroplast has not been examined in vivo...
January 25, 2018: Protoplasma
Jindřiška Angelini, Stanislav Vosolsobě, Petr Skůpa, Angela Yeuan Yen Ho, Erica Bellinvia, Olga Valentová, Jan Marc
The dynamic microtubule cytoskeleton plays fundamental roles in the growth and development of plants including regulation of their responses to environmental stress. Plants exposed to hyper-osmotic stress commonly acclimate, acquiring tolerance to variable stress levels. The underlying cellular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we show, for the first time, by in vivo imaging approach that linear patterns of phospholipase Dδ match the localization of microtubules in various biological systems, validating previously predicted connection between phospholipase Dδ and microtubules...
January 24, 2018: Protoplasma
Daqiu Zhao, Menglin Cheng, Wenhui Tang, Ding Liu, Siyu Zhou, Jiasong Meng, Jun Tao
Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is a popular high-grade cut flower because of higher ornamental value. However, its short flowering time severely restricts the production and application of cut P. lactiflora flowers. In this study, nano-silver (NS) was applied to prolong the vase life of cut P. lactiflora flowers. Under the NS treatment, related physiological indices including relative electrical conductivity (REC), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide anion free radical (O2·-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and free proline contents, and protective enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX) all increased in cut P...
January 22, 2018: Protoplasma
Ichiro Mine, Urara Kinoshita, Shigetaka Kawashima, Satoko Sekida
The cells in the foliose thallus of trebouxiophycean alga Prasiola japonica apparently develop into 2 × 2 cell groups composed of two two-celled groups, each of which is a pair of derivative cells of the latest cell division. In the present study, the structural features of cell walls of the alga P. japonica concerning the formation of the cell groups were investigated using histochemical methods. Thin cell layers stained by Calcofluor White appeared to envelope the two-celled and four-celled groups separately and, hence, separated them from neighboring cell groups, and the Calcofluor White-negative gaps between neighboring four-celled groups were specifically stained by lectins, such as soybean agglutinin, jacalin, and Vicia villosa lectin conjugated with fluorescein...
January 22, 2018: Protoplasma
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