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Emilia Brzezicka, Małgorzata Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno
Available documentation about the development of the female gametophyte of Crassulaceae is very limited. The aim of this study was to extend the embryological knowledge of Crassulaceae by analysing the development of the embryo sac in Sedum sediforme. Transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy including Nomarski optics (DIC) were used to observe individual stages of female gametophyte development. Cytochemical staining enabled detection of lipids, insoluble polysaccharides and proteins in gametophyte cells during their formation...
October 15, 2018: Protoplasma
Sumira Jan, Nazia Abbas, Muhammad Ashraf, Parvaiz Ahmad
Plant leaves offer an exclusive windowpane to uncover the changes in organs, tissues, and cells as they advance towards the process of senescence and death. Drought-induced leaf senescence is an intricate process with remarkably coordinated phases of onset, progression, and completion implicated in an extensive reprogramming of gene expression. Advancing leaf senescence remobilizes nutrients to younger leaves thereby contributing to plant fitness. However, numerous mysteries remain unraveled concerning leaf senescence...
October 11, 2018: Protoplasma
Wei Yih Hee, Leila M Blackman, Adrienne R Hardham
Mastigonemes, tripartite tubular hairs on the anterior flagellum of Phytophthora zoospores, are instrumental for disease dissemination to new host plants. A previous study showed that PnMas2 was part of the tubular shaft of Phytophthora parasitica mastigonemes. In the current study, genes encoding two related proteins, PnMas1 and PnMas3, were identified in the genome of P. parasitica. PnMas1 interacts with PnMas2 and also occurs along the mastigoneme shaft. RNA-Seq analyses indicate that PnMas1 and PnMas2 genes have similar expression profiles both in vitro and in planta but that PnMas3 is expressed temporally prior to PnMas1 and PnMas2 during asexual development and plant infection...
October 9, 2018: Protoplasma
Pratishtha Vedalankar, Baishnab C Tripathy
The nonhomologous enzymes, the light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase (DPOR) and the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (LPOR), catalyze the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide) in the penultimate step of biosynthesis of chlorophyll (Chl) required for photosynthetic light absorption and energy conversion. The two enzymes differ with respect to the requirement of light for catalysis and oxygen sensitivity. DPOR and LPOR initially evolved in the ancestral prokaryotic genome perhaps at different times...
October 6, 2018: Protoplasma
Indre Lapeikaite, Ugne Dragunaite, Vilmantas Pupkis, Osvaldas Ruksenas, Vilma Kisnieriene
Effect of amino acid L-asparagine on electrical signalling of single Nitellopsis obtusa (Characeaen) cell was investigated using glass-microelectrode technique in current-clamp and voltage-clamp modes. Cell exposure for 30 min to 0.1 mM and 1 mM of asparagine resulted in changes of electrically stimulated action potential (AP) parameters in comparison to standard conditions. Results indicate that asparagine acts in dose-dependent manner: increases AP amplitude by hyperpolarizing AP threshold potential (Eth ), prolongs action potential repolarization, increases maximum Cl- efflux amplitude along with the increase of activation and inactivation durations...
October 5, 2018: Protoplasma
Cesar Flores-Herrera, Gisela Preciado-Linares, Israel Gonzalez-Vizueth, Norma Corona de la Peña, Manuel Gutiérrez-Aguilar
Pollen tubes require functional mitochondria in order to achieve fast and sustained growth. In addition, cell wall expansion requires a calcium gradient in the tube apex formed by a dedicated array of calcium pumps and channels. Most studies have traditionally focused on the molecular aspects of calcium interactions and transport across the pollen tube plasmalemma. However, calcium transients across mitochondrial membranes from pollen tubes are beginning to be studied. Here, we report the presence of a ruthenium red-sensitive mitochondrial calcium uniporter-like activity in tobacco pollen tubes with functional oxidative phosphorylation...
October 4, 2018: Protoplasma
Wanderleia De Vargas, Ana Paula Fortuna-Perez, Gwilym Peter Lewis, Tayeme Cristina Piva, Mohammad Vatanparast, Silvia Rodrigues Machado
In the original version of this article unfortunately some symbols did not appear in the plates caused by technical problems of the journal. We apologize for any inconvenience caused.
October 3, 2018: Protoplasma
Ling-Yun Jia, Jing-Yue Bai, Kun Sun, Rong-Fang Wang, Han-Qing Feng
In the present work, by using tobacco cell suspension and wheat seedlings, we studied that eATP (extracellular ATP) released by copper (Cu) stress could act as diffusible signal in alleviating the Cu stress-induced cell death. A semipermeable membrane was fixed in the middle of a plastic box to divide the box into two equal compartments (A and B, respectively). This semipermeable membrane can prevent direct cell-to-cell (or seedling-to-seedling) contact and the diffusion of the macromolecules [such as ATPase (adenosine 5'-triphosphatase)] between these two compartments...
September 24, 2018: Protoplasma
Zhong-Guang Li, Ying Xu, Li-Kang Bai, Shu-Yan Zhang, Yue Wang
Melatonin (MT), derived from tryptophan, is an amazing signaling molecule with multiple functions in plants. Heat stress (HS) induced by high temperature is a major stress factor that limits metabolism, growth, development, and productivity of plants. However, whether MT could enhance the thermotolerance of maize seedlings and the underlying mechanisms is not completely known. In this study, treatment of maize seedlings with MT enhanced the survival percentage of maize seedlings under HS conditions, mitigated an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA, product of membrane lipid peroxidation) and electrolyte leakage, and improved tissue vitality compared with the control without MT treatment, indicating that MT treatment could enhance the theromotolerance of maize seedlings...
September 22, 2018: Protoplasma
Erhard Rhiel, Lars Wöhlbrand, Ralf Rabus
Trichocyst-enriched fractions were isolated from the dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina and subjected to protein staining and lectin-binding studies, to dissociation experiments using heat, and to solubilization/reconstitution experiments using 6 M guanidine hydrochloride. The trichocysts could be stained by Alcian Blue and became labeled by the lectin Concanavalin A, but not by wheat germ agglutinin. The trichocysts did not dissociate when the fractions were heated for 5 min at 40 or 50 °C. Heating at 60 °C resulted in the dissociation of trichocysts into irregular filamentous structures...
September 17, 2018: Protoplasma
Vetcha Aswani, Pidakala Rajsheel, Ramesh B Bapatla, Bobba Sunil, Agepati S Raghavendra
Oxidative stress can occur in different parts of plant cells. We employed two oxidants that induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in different intracellular compartments: methyl viologen (MV, in chloroplasts) and menadione (MD, in mitochondria). The responses of pea (Pisum sativum) leaf discs to MV or MD after 4-h incubation in dark or moderate (300 μE m-2  s-1 ) or high light (1200 μE m-2  s-1 ) were examined. Marked increase in ROS levels was observed, irrespective of compartment targeted. The levels of proline, a compatible solute, increased markedly much more than that of ascorbate or glutathione during oxidative/photo-oxidative stress, emphasizing the importance of proline...
September 11, 2018: Protoplasma
Wanderleia De Vargas, Ana Paula Fortuna-Perez, Gwilym Peter Lewis, Tayeme Cristina Piva, Mohammad Vatanparast, Silvia Rodrigues Machado
The subtribe Cajaninae of papilionoid legumes has a pantropical distribution and comprises approximately 490 species. These species have diversified throughout dry environments where there are high temperatures and strong light. The subtribe stands out because all its representatives have vesicular glands. In addition, bulbous-based and capitate trichomes are important secretory structures present in all genera of the Cajaninae. We analyzed the ultrastructure and histochemistry of these glandular trichome types in leaflets of the three species of the subtribe...
September 10, 2018: Protoplasma
Łukasz Baranowski, Elżbieta Różańska, Izabela Sańko-Sawczenko, Mateusz Matuszkiewicz, Ewa Znojek, Marcin Filipecki, Florian M W Grundler, Mirosław Sobczak
Plant parasitic cyst nematodes induce specific hypermetabolic syncytial nurse cell structures in host roots. A characteristic feature of syncytia is the lack of the central vacuole and the formation of numerous small and larger vesicles. We show that these structures are formed de novo via widening of ER cisternae during the entire development of syncytium, whereas in advanced stages of syncytium development, larger vacuoles are also formed via fusion of vesicles/tubules surrounding organelle-free pre-vacuole regions...
September 5, 2018: Protoplasma
Xiuhua Chen, Xuefen Duan, Shuai Wang, Weiyuan Wu, Xichun Zhang
Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a method for transiently silencing genes in dicot and monocot plants. To evaluate the effects of chilling injury on activity of the MYB80 gene in Solanum lycopersicum, an investigation was conducted by VIGS using TRV-GFP (a modified TRV vector) to silence the target gene. During the chilling treatment (4/12 °C, 8/16-h dark/light photoperiod, with 60% humidity), the leaves were collected to analyze the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, soluble sugar content, free proline levels, and relative electric conductivity (REC)...
September 5, 2018: Protoplasma
Piotr Pawlicki, Anna Hejmej, Agnieszka Milon, Krzysztof Lustofin, Bartosz J Płachno, Waclaw Tworzydlo, Ewelina Gorowska-Wojtowicz, Bernadetta Pawlicka, Malgorzata Kotula-Balak, Barbara Bilinska
Telocytes (TCs), a novel type of interstitial cells, are involved in tissue homeostasis maintenance. This study aimed to investigate TC presence in the interstitium of mouse testis. Additionally, inactivation of the G-coupled membrane estrogen receptor (GPER) in the testis was performed to obtain insight into TC function, regulation, and interaction with other interstitial cells. Mice were injected with a GPER antagonist (G-15; 50 μg/kg bw), and the GPER-signaling effect on TC distribution, ultrastructure, and function, as well as the interstitial tissue interaction of GPER with estrogen-related receptors (ERRs), was examined...
September 5, 2018: Protoplasma
Huida Lian, Cheng Qin, Li Zhang, Cong Zhang, Hongbing Li, Suiqi Zhang
Here, we examined the effects of La3+ on growth, photosynthetic ability, and phosphorus-use efficiency (PUE) in various organs of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) seedlings. La3+ substantially alleviated P-deficiency symptoms. Treatment of young seedlings with La3+ at 150 mg L-1 effectively improved PUE in roots, stems, and leaves via the regulation of root elongation and activation of root physiological responses to P-deficiency, e.g., root activity and acid phosphatase (APase) activity. Root hydraulic conductivity (Lp ) was also examined to elucidate the role of La3+ in the relationship between water and nutrition transport...
August 30, 2018: Protoplasma
Cengiz Kaya, Muhammad Ashraf
A study was carried out to assess the mitigation mechanism of exogenously applied sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) as a donor of H2 S on strawberry seedlings under iron deficiency. The ameliorative effects of NaHS on oxidative damage, ion hemostasis and uptake, and availability of Fe were investigated by spraying solution of 0.2 mM NaHS or 0.2 mM NaHS plus 0.2 mM hypotaurine (HT), a scavenger of H2 S to plant leaves. Iron deficiency was created using 0.1 mM FeSO4 instead of 0.1 mM EDTA-Fe in Hoagland's nutrient solution...
August 29, 2018: Protoplasma
Yong-Xin Wang, Rui-Min Teng, Wen-Li Wang, Ying Wang, Wei Shen, Jing Zhuang
Lignin is a complex aromatic heteropolymer that plays essential roles in mechanical support, water transport, and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The tea plant is a leaf-type beverage crop, which serves as a resource for non-alcoholic beverage tea. The content and distribution of lignin in tea plant leaves seriously affect the quality of tea. However, the biosynthetic pathways of lignin remain to be characterized in the tea plant. In the present study, lignin accumulation was investigated in tea plant leaves and stems at three developmental stages...
August 18, 2018: Protoplasma
Andreas Giannopoulos, Panagiota Bresta, Dimosthenis Nikolopoulos, Georgios Liakopoulos, Costas Fasseas, George Karabourniotis
In many plant species, carbon-calcium inclusion (calcium oxalate crystals or cystoliths containing calcium carbonate) formation is a fundamental part of their physiology even necessary for normal growth and development. Despite the long-standing studies on carbon-calcium inclusions, the alterations in their properties during leaf development and their possible association with the maturation of the photosynthetic machinery have not been previously examined. In order to acquire more insights into this subject, we examined three of the most common species bearing abundant inclusions of different types, i...
August 17, 2018: Protoplasma
Chakkree Lekklar, Supachitra Chadchawan, Preeda Boon-Long, Wolfgang Pfeiffer, Anchalee Chaidee
How many subcellular targets of the beneficial silicon effect do exist in salt-stressed rice? Here, we investigate the effects of silicon on the different components of salt stress, i.e., osmotic stress, sodium, and chloride toxicity. These components are separated by multivariate analysis of 18 variables measured in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.). Multivariate analysis can dissect vectors and extract targets as principal components, given the regressions between all variables are known. Consequently, the exploration of 153 correlations and 306 regression models between all variables is essential, and regression parameters for variables of shoot (silicon, sodium, chloride, carotenoids, chlorophylls a and b, and relative growth rate) and variables of shoot and root (hydrogen peroxide, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), fresh weight, dry weight, root-to-shoot ratio) are determined...
August 10, 2018: Protoplasma
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