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Helena Vlašínová, Vilem Neděla, Biljana Đorđević, Ladislav Havel
Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is an important biotechnological technique used for the propagation of many pine species in vitro. However, in bog pine, one of the most endangered tree species in the Czech Republic, limitations were observed, which negatively influenced the development and further germination of somatic embryos. Although initiation frequency was very low-0.95 %, all obtained cell lines were subjected to maturation. The best responding cell line (BC1) was used and subjected to six different variants of the maturation media...
October 25, 2016: Protoplasma
Mohammad Abass Ahanger, R M Agarwal
Pot experiments were conducted to find out the effectivity of K on Triticum aestivum L cultivars. Polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) was used as an osmoticum to induce osmotic stress under sand culture setting up the water potential of external solution at -3 and -5 bars. In pots, plants were raised under restricted and normal irrigation and K was applied in varying doses (0, 20, 40, 60 kg ha(-1)) and estimation of different physiological and biochemical parameters was done at two developmental stages, i...
October 25, 2016: Protoplasma
Ishfaq Ahmad Ganaie, Samar Husain Naqvi, Swatantra Kumar Jain, Saima Wajid
Breast cancer is a major global health concern, appealing for precise prognostic approaches. Thus, the need is to have studies focusing on the identification and recognition of preliminary events leading to the disease. The present study reports the tracing of precancerous progression and serum proteomic analysis in a breast cancer model developed as a result of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) administration. Mammary gland histological changes of prime importance were examined by histopathology, and immunohistochemical analysis with Ki-67 was performed to monitor enhanced cell proliferation, right from the onset of hyperplasia till neoplasia...
October 20, 2016: Protoplasma
María Eugenia Brentassi, Ernesto Franco, Pedro Balatti, Rocío Medina, Franco Bernabei, Ana M Marino de Remes Lenicov
In this study, we surveyed the bacteriome-associated microbiota of the corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis by means of histological, ultrastructural, and molecular analyses. Amplification and sequencing of 16S rDNA genes revealed that the endosymbiont "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" (Phylum Bacteroidetes) resides in bacteriomes of D. maidis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequence was closely allied to others found in representatives of the subfamily Deltocephalinae. We failed to amplify other sequences as "Candidatus Nasuia deltocephalinicola," a co-primary symbiont frequently associated to deltocephaline leafhoppers...
October 11, 2016: Protoplasma
Clara Bertel, Peter Schönswetter, Božo Frajman, Andreas Holzinger, Gilbert Neuner
Evolution is driven by natural selection, favouring individuals adapted in phenotypic traits to the environmental conditions at their growing site. To shed light on ecological and (epi-) genetically based differentiation between Heliosperma pusillum and Heliosperma veselskyi, two reciprocally non-monophyletic, but morphologically and ecologically divergent species from the south-eastern Alps, we studied various leaf anatomical traits and investigated chloroplast ultrastructure in leaves of the two species grown either in their natural habitat or in a common garden...
October 7, 2016: Protoplasma
Souvik Mitra, Barend V Burger, Mousumi Poddar-Sarkar
Mosses have an inherent adaptability against different biotic and abiotic stresses. Oxylipins, the volatile metabolites derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), play a key role in the chemical defence strategy of mosses. In the present study, a comparative survey of these compounds, including an investigation into their precursor fatty acids (FAs), was carried out for the first time on the mosses Brachymenium capitulatum (Mitt.) Paris, Hydrogonium consanguineum (Thwaites & Mitt.) Hilp., Barbula hastata Mitt...
October 5, 2016: Protoplasma
Atsuko Tanaka, Yoichiro Hoshino, Chikako Nagasato, Taizo Motomura
Tissue wounds are mainly caused by herbivory, which is a serious threat for macro-algae, and brown algae are known to regenerate branches or buds in response to wounding. In the present paper, we describe a branch regeneration system, induced by sever damage, in the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma. Segmentations of juvenile thalli induced branch regenerations unless explants possessed apical cells. Apical excisions in distinct positions elucidated that disruption of an apical cell or disconnection of tissue with an apical cell triggered the branch regeneration...
October 4, 2016: Protoplasma
Javier Raya-González, Crisanto Velázquez-Becerra, Salvador Barrera-Ortiz, José López-Bucio, Eduardo Valencia-Cantero
Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are natural inhabitants of roots, colonize diverse monocot and dicot species, and affect several functional traits such as root architecture, adaptation to adverse environments, and protect plants from pathogens. N,N-dimethyl-hexadecylamine (C16-DMA) is a rhizobacterial amino lipid that modulates the postembryonic development of several plants, likely as part of volatile blends. In this work, we evaluated the bioactivity of C16-DMA and other related N,N-dimethyl-amines with varied length and found that inhibition of primary root growth was related to the length of the acyl chain...
September 30, 2016: Protoplasma
Luana Dos S Souza, Carmen Simioni, Zenilda L Bouzon, Rosana de Cassia da S Schneider, Pablo Gressler, Maria Cecília Miotto, Marcio J Rossi, Leonardo R Rörig
Chlamydomonas acidophila LAFIC-004 is an acidophilic strain of green microalgae isolated from coal mining drainage. In the present work, this strain was cultivated in acidic medium (pH 3.6) under phototrophic, mixotrophic, and heterotrophic regimes to determine the best condition for growth and lipid production, simultaneously assessing possible morphological and ultrastructural alterations in the cells. For heterotrophic and mixotrophic treatments, two organic carbon sources were tested: 1 % glucose and 1 % sodium acetate...
September 30, 2016: Protoplasma
Peter Nick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2016: Protoplasma
Michaela Czerneková, K Ingemar Jönsson, Lukasz Chajec, Sebastian Student, Izabela Poprawa
Tun formation is an essential morphological adaptation for entering the anhydrobiotic state in tardigrades, but its internal structure has rarely been investigated. We present the structure and ultrastructure of organs and cells in desiccated Richtersius coronifer by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and histochemical methods. A 3D reconstruction of the body organization of the tun stage is also presented. The tun formation during anhydrobiosis of tardigrades is a process of anterior-posterior body contraction, which relocates some organs such as the pharyngeal bulb...
September 27, 2016: Protoplasma
Anastasia Shebanova, Tatiana Ismagulova, Alexei Solovchenko, Olga Baulina, Elena Lobakova, Alexandra Ivanova, Andrey Moiseenko, Konstantin Shaitan, Vladimir Polshakov, Ladislav Nedbal, Olga Gorelova
Vacuole is a multifunctional compartment central to a large number of functions (storage, catabolism, maintenance of the cell homeostasis) in oxygenic phototrophs including microalgae. Still, microalgal cell vacuole is much less studied than that of higher plants although knowledge of the vacuolar structure and function is essential for understanding physiology of nutrition and stress tolerance of microalgae. Here, we combined the advanced analytical and conventional transmission electron microscopy methods to obtain semi-quantitative, spatially resolved at the subcellular level information on elemental composition of the cell vacuoles in several free-living and symbiotic chlorophytes...
September 27, 2016: Protoplasma
Sergey Mursalimov, Elena Deineko
Cytomixis is a poorly studied process of nuclear migration between plant cells, discovered in microsporogenesis of several hundreds of plant species. The chromosomes that migrate between tobacco microsporocytes have been for the first time identified using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and the question whether cytomixis is a random or a targeted process is answered. The distribution of four repetitive sequences used for identifying the tobacco chromosomes-NTRS, 5S rDNA, GRS, and HSR60-has been examined in the migrating chromatin, and the micronuclei formed after cytomixis...
September 27, 2016: Protoplasma
Xiudong Sun, Haifeng Lian, Xingchen Liu, Shumei Zhou, Shiqi Liu
To investigate the relationship between nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) and stress tolerance in garlic, we cloned a NF-Y family gene AsNF-YC8 from garlic, which was largely upregulated at dehydrate stage. Expression pattern analyses in garlic revealed that AsNF-YC8 is induced through abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stresses, such as NaCl and PEG. Compared with wild-type plants, the overexpressing-AsNF-YC8 transgenic tobacco plants showed higher seed germination rates, longer root length and better plant growth under salt and drought stresses...
September 20, 2016: Protoplasma
Michal Goga, Sebastian J Antreich, Martin Bačkor, Wolfram Weckwerth, Ingeborg Lang
Lichen secondary metabolites can function as allelochemicals and affect the development and growth of neighboring bryophytes, fungi, vascular plants, microorganisms, and even other lichens. Lichen overgrowth on bryophytes is frequently observed in nature even though mosses grow faster than lichens, but there is still little information on the interactions between lichens and bryophytes.In the present study, we used extracts from six lichen thalli containing secondary metabolites like usnic acid, protocetraric acid, atranorin, lecanoric acid, nortistic acid, and thamnolic acid...
September 19, 2016: Protoplasma
Zhiping Deng, Zhi-Yong Wang, Ulrich Kutschera
In 2009, the draft genome of the reference inbred line of maize (Zea mays L. spp. mays cv. B73) was published so that, using this specific corn variety, molecular analyses of physiological processes became possible. However, the morphology and developmental patterns of B73 maize, compared with that of the more frequently used hybrid varieties, have not yet been analyzed. Here, we describe organ development in seedlings of B73 maize and in those of six other hybrid cultivars, and document significant morphological as well as quantitative differences between these varieties of Z...
September 15, 2016: Protoplasma
Mohammed Tarique, Manish Chauhan, Renu Tuteja
Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is the major disease burden all over the world. Recently, the situation has deteriorated because the malarial parasites are becoming progressively more resistant to numerous commonly used antimalarial drugs. Thus, there is a critical requirement to find other means to restrict and eliminate malaria. The mismatch repair (MMR) machinery of parasite is quite unique in several ways, and it can be exploited for finding new drug targets. MutL homolog (MLH) is one of the major components of MMR machinery, and along with UvrD, it helps in unwinding the DNA...
September 14, 2016: Protoplasma
Lorenzo Alibardi
Feathers are corneous microramifications of variable complexity derived from the morphogenesis of barb ridges. Histological and ultrastructural analyses on developing and regenerating feathers clarify the three-dimensional organization of cells in barb ridges. Feather cells derive from folds of the embryonic epithelium of feather germs from which barb/barbule cells and supportive cells organize in a branching structure. The following degeneration of supportive cells allows the separation of barbule cells which are made of corneous beta-proteins and of lower amounts of intermediate filament (IF)(alpha) keratins, histidine-rich proteins, and corneous proteins of the epidermal differentiation complex...
September 10, 2016: Protoplasma
Vladimir D Kreslavski, Anatoly A Kosobryukhov, Franz-Josef Schmitt, Galina A Semenova, Galina N Shirshikova, Aleksandra Yu Khudyakova, Suleyman I Allakhverdiev
The reduced content of photoreceptors, such as phytochromes, can decrease the efficiency of photosynthesis and activity of the photosystem II (PSII). For the confirmation of this hypothesis, the effect of deficiency in both phytochromes (Phy) A and B (double mutant, DM) in 7-27-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana plants on the photosynthetic activity was studied in absence and presence of UV-A radiation as a stress factor. The DM with reduced content of apoproteins of PhyA and PhyB and wild type (WT) plants with were grown in white and red light (WL and RL, respectively) of high (130 μmol quanta m(-2) s(-1)) and low (40 μmol quanta m(-2) s(-1)) intensity...
September 1, 2016: Protoplasma
Anca Macovei, Ranjan K Sahoo, Matteo Faè, Alma Balestrazzi, Daniela Carbonera, Narendra Tuteja
Senescence is a very complex process characterized by a highly regulated series of degenerative events which include changes in cell structure, metabolism and gene expression. In animals, one of the indicators of senescence is telomere shortening. In plants, this aspect is more puzzling because telomere shortening is not always correlated with senescence. In some cases, there were no differences in telomere length during plant developmental stages while in other cases both shortening and lengthening have been observed...
September 1, 2016: Protoplasma
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