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December 6, 2018: Protoplasma
Erica Fadón, María Herrero, Javier Rodrigo
Anther and pollen development is a highly conserved process in angiosperms, but while pollen formation in annual plants occurs in a few days, in temperate woody perennials, it requires several months. How anther and pollen development is framed in terms of seasonality plays a clear part in reproductive success. In this study, seasonal anther and pollen development is characterized in two sweet cherry cultivars over 2 years, paying special attention to the period of dormancy and unveiling the role of starch in this process...
November 30, 2018: Protoplasma
Tetsuhiro Asada
In some plant tissue types, new cross-walls tend to divide parental cells equally and to meet parental walls at right angles while tending to have minimal surface area. A previously proposed model that I call the reach model suggests that this feature originates from the tendency of premitotic division-plane selection or of the positioning of microtubule preprophase bands (PPBs) which predict the cortical division site, and that default division-plane selection involves nuclear centering and subsequent PPB microtubule assembly on the cell wall parts closest to the nucleus...
November 26, 2018: Protoplasma
Belén Araceli Kettler, Stella Maris Solís, María Silvia Ferrucci
The morpho-anatomical structure of nectaries, osmophores, and elaiophores, and the anatomical and micromorphological features of floral pieces of Cohniella cepula Hoffmans. and Cohniella jonesiana Rchb.f. were comparatively analyzed. In both species, bracteal and sepal nectaries are structured, i.e., they present a secretory epidermis, secretory parenchyma, and vascular bundles. Nectar secretion is released through stomata. The anatomical and micromorphological traits are similar in both nectaries, which can be detected only if the nectar drops are secreted...
November 23, 2018: Protoplasma
Ana Silvia Gimenes Garcia, Elton Luiz Scudeler, Patricia Fernanda Felipe Pinheiro, Daniela Carvalho Dos Santos
Novel biological control methods and integrated pest management strategies are basic requirements for the development of sustainable agriculture. As a result, there is a growing demand for research on the use of plant extracts and natural enemies such as the green lacewing, Ceraeochrysa claveri, as natural pest control methods. Studies have shown that although natural compounds such as neem oil (Azadirachta indica) are effective as pest control strategies, they also cause sublethal effects on nontarget insects, such as C...
November 20, 2018: Protoplasma
Anupam Tiwari, Prabhakar Singh, Sk Riyazat Khadim, Ankit Kumar Singh, Urmilesh Singh, Priyanka Singh, Ravi Kumar Asthana
The present study was aimed at understanding the effects of heat stress on selected physiological and biochemical parameters of a model cyanobacterium, Anabaena PCC 7120 in addition to amelioration strategy using exogenous Ca2+ . A comparison of the cells exposed to heat stress (0-24 h) in the presence or absence of Ca2+ clearly showed reduction in colony-forming ability and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to loss in the viability of cells of Ca2+ -deficient cultures. There was higher level of saturation in membrane lipids of the cells supplemented with Ca2+ along with higher accumulation of proline...
November 19, 2018: Protoplasma
Uiara C Rezende, João Custódio F Cardoso, Vinícius C Kuster, Letícia A Gonçalves, Denis C Oliveira
Insect-induced galls usually develop nutritional cells, which they induce and consume directly, and any metabolic modification of those cells may reflect changes of the insect's own metabolism. The system Palaeomystella oligophaga (Lepidoptera)-Macairea radula (Melastomataceae) presents a series of natural enemies, including parasitoids and cecidophages that can function as a natural experiment, respectively removing the specific galling feeding stimulus and providing a nonspecific one. Considering that the process of induction and maintenance of gall tissues strictly depends on the constant specific stimulus of galling, question I:What kind of metabolic changes these different groups of natural enemies can promote in chemical and structural composition of these galls? II: How the specialized tissues are metabolically dependent on the constant specific stimulus of galling in latter stages of gall development? Galls without natural enemies, with parasitoids or cecidophages in larvae or pupae stages were analyzed through histochemistry and cytological profiles and all compared to galls in natural senescence state...
November 16, 2018: Protoplasma
Gülcan Şenel, Mustafa Kemal Akbulut, Şenay Süngü Şeker
In this research, anatomical, leaf micromorphological features of the samples belonging to 25 taxa (Anacamptis Rich., Cephalanthera Rich., Dactylorhiza Necker ex Nevski, Gymnadenia R.Br., Himantoglossum Spreng., Limodorum Boehm., Ophrys L., Orchis L., Platanthera Rich., Serapias L., Spiranthes Rich. and Steveniella Schltr.) spread in the Karadeniz Region have been evaluated comparatively. In anatomical studies, the transverse section from root, stem and leaf, and surface section from leaves of plants were examined...
November 6, 2018: Protoplasma
Luisa Moysset, Esther Llambrich, Esther Simón
Potassium pyroantimonate precipitation, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray microanalysis were used to investigate the subcellular localization of loosely bound calcium in Robinia pseudoacacia pulvinar motor cells during phytochrome-mediated nyctinastic closure. Calcium localization was carried out in pulvini collected in white light 2 h after the beginning of the photoperiod, immediately after a red light or a far-red light pulse applied 2 h after the beginning of the photoperiod and after 15 or 25 min of darkness respectively...
October 31, 2018: Protoplasma
Ernesto Vázquez-Chimalhua, León Francisco Ruíz-Herrera, Salvador Barrera-Ortiz, Eduardo Valencia-Cantero, José López-Bucio
Chemical communication underlies major adaptive traits in plants and shapes the root microbiome. An increasing number of diffusible and/or volatile organic compounds released by bacteria have been identified, which play phytostimulant or protective functions, including dimethyl-hexa-decylamine (DMHDA), a volatile biosynthesized by Arthrobacter agilis UMCV2 that induces jasmonic acid (JA) signaling in Arabidopsis. Here, he found that the growth repressing effects of both DMHDA and JA are antagonized by kinetin and correlated with an inhibition of cytokinin-related ARR5::GUS and TCS::GFP expression in Arabidopsis primary roots...
October 31, 2018: Protoplasma
Kinga Skieresz-Szewczyk, Hanna Jackowiak, Marlena Ratajczak
The parakeratinized epithelium is a common and widespread type of keratinized epithelium in the oral cavity in adult birds. In contrast to orthokeratinized epithelium, which mostly covers mechanical papillae and the lingual nail, parakeratinized epithelium covers almost the entire dorsal surface of the tongue in birds. The characteristic feature of parakeratinized epithelium is the presence of nuclei in the keratinized layer. The present study aimed to investigate for the first time the micro- and ultrastructural changes of parakeratinized epithelium during embryonic development and to assess the readiness of the epithelium to serve protective functions during food transport to the esophagus...
October 31, 2018: Protoplasma
Karl J Niklas, Randy Wayne, Mariana Benítez, Stuart A Newman
Organisms as diverse as bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals manifest a property called "polarity." The literature shows that polarity emerges as a consequence of different mechanisms in different lineages. However, across all unicellular and multicellular organisms, polarity is evident when cells, organs, or organisms manifest one or more of the following: orientation, axiation, and asymmetry. Here, we review the relationships among these three features in the context of cell division and the evolution of multicellular polarity primarily in plants (defined here to include the algae)...
October 27, 2018: Protoplasma
Diego Silva Batista, Andréa Dias Koehler, Elisson Romanel, Vinícius Cairus de Souza, Tatiane Dulcineia Silva, Maíra Carolina Almeida, Talles Elisson F Maciel, Perácio Rafael Bueno Ferreira, Sérgio Heitor Sousa Felipe, Cleber Witt Saldanha, Joseila Maldaner, Leonardo Lucas Carnevalli Dias, Reginaldo Alves Festucci-Buselli, Wagner Campos Otoni
Pfaffia glomerata is a medically important species because it produces the phytoecdysteroid 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E). However, there has been no ready-to-use transcriptome data available in the literature for this plant. Here, we present de novo transcriptome sequencing of RNA from P. glomerata in order to investigate the 20-E production as well as to understand the biochemical pathway of secondary metabolites in this non-model species. We then analyze the effect of photoautotrophy on the production of 20-E genes phylogenetically identified followed by expression analysis...
October 25, 2018: Protoplasma
Nina Gabarayeva, Svetlana Polevova, Valentina Grigorjeva, Elena Severova, Olga Volkova, Stephen Blackmore
By a detailed ontogenetic study of Ambrosia trifida pollen, tracing each stage of development with TEM, we aim to understand the establishment of the pollen wall and to unravel the mechanisms underlying sporoderm development. The main steps of exine ontogeny in Ambrosia trifida, observed in the microspore periplasmic space, are as follows: spherical units, gradually transforming into columns, then to rod-like units; the appearance of the initial reticulate tectum; growth of columellae under the tectum and initial sporopollenin accumulation on them; the appearance of the endexine lamellae, first in fragments, then in long laminae; the cessation of the glycocalyx growth and its detachment from the plasma membrane, resulting in the appearance of gaps; massive accumulation of sporopollenin on the tectum, columellae, and endexine, and the appearance of the foot layer at the young post-tetrad stage, accompanied by establishment of caveae in sites of the former gaps; and final massive sporopollenin accumulation...
October 19, 2018: Protoplasma
Małgorzata Pierzchalska, Małgorzata Panek, Maja Grabacka
The method of organoid culture has become a tool widely used in gastrointestinal research, but so far, the migration of organoids derived from gut epithelium and formed in 3D Matrigel matrix has not been reported and studied. The intestinal epithelial tissue derived from 19-day-old chicken embryo was cultured in Matrigel and the dynamic properties of the forming organoids were analyzed by time-lapse image analysis. It was observed that about one in ten organoids actively moved through the matrix, at a speed of 10-20 μm/h...
October 16, 2018: Protoplasma
Emilia Brzezicka, Małgorzata Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno
Available documentation about the development of the female gametophyte of Crassulaceae is very limited. The aim of this study was to extend the embryological knowledge of Crassulaceae by analysing the development of the embryo sac in Sedum sediforme. Transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy including Nomarski optics (DIC) were used to observe individual stages of female gametophyte development. Cytochemical staining enabled detection of lipids, insoluble polysaccharides and proteins in gametophyte cells during their formation...
October 15, 2018: Protoplasma
Sumira Jan, Nazia Abbas, Muhammad Ashraf, Parvaiz Ahmad
Plant leaves offer an exclusive windowpane to uncover the changes in organs, tissues, and cells as they advance towards the process of senescence and death. Drought-induced leaf senescence is an intricate process with remarkably coordinated phases of onset, progression, and completion implicated in an extensive reprogramming of gene expression. Advancing leaf senescence remobilizes nutrients to younger leaves thereby contributing to plant fitness. However, numerous mysteries remain unraveled concerning leaf senescence...
October 11, 2018: Protoplasma
Wei Yih Hee, Leila M Blackman, Adrienne R Hardham
Mastigonemes, tripartite tubular hairs on the anterior flagellum of Phytophthora zoospores, are instrumental for disease dissemination to new host plants. A previous study showed that PnMas2 was part of the tubular shaft of Phytophthora parasitica mastigonemes. In the current study, genes encoding two related proteins, PnMas1 and PnMas3, were identified in the genome of P. parasitica. PnMas1 interacts with PnMas2 and also occurs along the mastigoneme shaft. RNA-Seq analyses indicate that PnMas1 and PnMas2 genes have similar expression profiles both in vitro and in planta but that PnMas3 is expressed temporally prior to PnMas1 and PnMas2 during asexual development and plant infection...
October 9, 2018: Protoplasma
Pratishtha Vedalankar, Baishnab C Tripathy
The nonhomologous enzymes, the light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase (DPOR) and the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (LPOR), catalyze the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide) in the penultimate step of biosynthesis of chlorophyll (Chl) required for photosynthetic light absorption and energy conversion. The two enzymes differ with respect to the requirement of light for catalysis and oxygen sensitivity. DPOR and LPOR initially evolved in the ancestral prokaryotic genome perhaps at different times...
October 6, 2018: Protoplasma
Indre Lapeikaite, Ugne Dragunaite, Vilmantas Pupkis, Osvaldas Ruksenas, Vilma Kisnieriene
Effect of amino acid L-asparagine on electrical signalling of single Nitellopsis obtusa (Characeaen) cell was investigated using glass-microelectrode technique in current-clamp and voltage-clamp modes. Cell exposure for 30 min to 0.1 mM and 1 mM of asparagine resulted in changes of electrically stimulated action potential (AP) parameters in comparison to standard conditions. Results indicate that asparagine acts in dose-dependent manner: increases AP amplitude by hyperpolarizing AP threshold potential (Eth ), prolongs action potential repolarization, increases maximum Cl- efflux amplitude along with the increase of activation and inactivation durations...
October 5, 2018: Protoplasma
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