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Protoplasma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620698/potential-disease-biomarkers-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-and-fibroblast-activation-protein
#1
REVIEW
Roger Yazbeck, Simone E Jaenisch, Catherine A Abbott
The importance of the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) gene family in regulating critical biochemical pathways continues to emerge. The two most well-studied members of the family, DPP4 and fibroblast activation protein (FAP), have been investigated both as therapeutic targets for disease and as diagnostic biomarkers. The interest in DPP4 and FAP as potential disease biomarkers has been driven primarily by observations of altered expression profiles in inflammatory diseases and cancer. Furthermore, the stability and persistence of soluble DPP4 and FAP in the serum make them attractive candidate serology markers...
June 16, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620697/calreticulin-localizes-to-plant-intra-extracellular-peripheries-of-highly-specialized-cells-involved-in-pollen-pistil-interactions
#2
Piotr Wasąg, Anna Suwińska, Przemysław Zakrzewski, Jakub Walczewski, Robert Lenartowski, Marta Lenartowska
Calcium (Ca(2+)) plays essential roles in generative reproduction of angiosperms, but the sites and mechanisms of Ca(2+) storage and mobilization during pollen-pistil interactions have not been fully defined. Both external and internal Ca(2+) stores are likely important during male gametophyte communication with the sporophytic and gametophytic cells within the pistil. Given that calreticulin (CRT), a Ca(2+)-buffering protein, is able to bind Ca(2+) reversibly, it can serve as a mobile store of easily releasable Ca(2+) (so called an exchangeable Ca(2+)) in eukaryotic cells...
June 15, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612274/fine-structure-of-the-midgut-epithelium-in-the-millipede-telodeinopus-aoutii-myriapoda-diplopoda-with-special-emphasis-on-epithelial-regeneration
#3
M M Rost-Roszkowska, M Kszuk-Jendrysik, A Marchewka, I Poprawa
The midgut of millipedes is composed of a simple epithelium that rests on a basal lamina, which is surrounded by visceral muscles and hepatic cells. As the material for our studies, we chose Telodeinopus aoutii (Demange, 1971) (Kenyan millipede) (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida), which lives in the rain forests of Central Africa. This commonly reared species is easy to obtain from local breeders and easy to culture in the laboratory. During our studies, we used transmission and scanning electron microscopes and light and fluorescent microscopes...
June 14, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602011/differences-in-the-fruit-structure-and-the-location-and-content-of-bioactive-substances-in-viburnum-opulus-and-viburnum-lantana-fruits
#4
Agata Konarska, Marcin Domaciuk
Many Viburnum species are popular ornamental shrubs and, simultaneously, highly valued medicinal plants as a source of many bioactive compounds, including antioxidants. Viburnum bark, flowers, and fruits are widely used in traditional and folk medicine, and the fruits of some species are used as cooking ingredients. The knowledge of the microstructure of Viburnum fruits and the accumulation sites of bioactive substances in these organs is rather poor. Comparative analyses of the microstructure of ripe Viburnum opulus and Viburnum lantana drupes were carried out using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopes...
June 10, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573335/combined-effect-of-24-epibrassinolide-and-salicylic-acid-mitigates-lead-pb-toxicity-by-modulating-various-metabolites-in-brassica-juncea-l-seedlings
#5
Sukhmeen Kaur Kohli, Neha Handa, Anket Sharma, Vandana Gautam, Saroj Arora, Renu Bhardwaj, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Leonard Wijaya, Parvaiz Ahmad
The present study demonstrated the combined effect of 24-epibrassinolide and salicylic acid against lead (Pb, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 mM) toxicity in Brassica juncea seedlings. Various parameters including water status, metal uptake, total water- and lipid-soluble antioxidants, metal chelator content (total thiols, protein-bound thiols, and non-protein-bound thiols), phenolic compounds (flavonoids, anthocyanins, and polyphenols), and organic acids were studied in 10-day-old seedlings. Dry matter content and the heavy metal tolerance index were reduced by 42...
June 1, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551700/macroautophagy-occurs-in-distal-tmv-uninfected-root-tip-tissue-of-tomato-taking-place-systemic-pcd
#6
Shumin Zhou, Qiang Hong, Yang Li, Qi Li, Ruisha Li, Hongli Zhang, Mao Wang, Xiaojun Yuan
Autophagy is an important mechanism for recycling cell materials upon encountering stress conditions. Our previous studies had shown that TMV infection could lead to systemic PCD in the distal uninfected tissues, including root tip and shoot tip tissues. But it is not clear whether there is autophagy in the distal apical meristem of TMV-induced plants. To better understand the autophagy process during systemic PCD, here we investigated the formation and type of autophagy in the root meristem cells occurring PCD...
May 27, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550470/hormonal-and-morphological-changes-during-seed-development-of-cypripedium-japonicum
#7
Xiaona Yan, Min Tian, Fen Liu, Caixia Wang, Ying Zhang
With the goal of evaluating the factors that may be influencing the reproductive success of an endangered, terrestrial orchid Cypripedium japonicum Thunb., the anatomical and morphological characteristics of seed development were assessed, as were the levels of endogenous hormones to investigate the possible relationship between hormones and seed development. The results showed that morphological characteristics of seeds were changing from milky white and filiform to brown and fusiform. The development of ovule that initiated on the fertile valves only began after pollination, and a mature embryo sac was produced at 40 days after pollination (DAP)...
May 27, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550469/isolation-and-functional-characterization-of-3-phosphoglycerate-dehydrogenase-involved-in-salt-responses-in-sugar-beet
#8
Kunihide Kito, Koichi Tsutsumi, Vandna Rai, Cattarin Theerawitaya, Suriyan Cha-Um, Nana Yamada-Kato, Shota Sakakibara, Yoshito Tanaka, Teruhiro Takabe
The present study investigated the significance of serine biosynthetic genes for salt stress in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris). We isolated a total of four genes, two each encoding D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (BvPGDHa and BvPGDHb) and serine hydroxymethyl transferase (BvSHMTa and BvSHMTb). mRNA transcriptional expression for BvPGDHa was significantly enhanced under salt stress conditions in both leaves and roots of sugar beet, whereas it was reduced for BvPGDHb. On the other hand, BvSHMTa was expressed transiently in leaves and roots under salt stress, whereas expression level of BvSHMTb was not altered...
May 26, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550468/probing-the-contractile-vacuole-as-achilles-heel-of-the-biotrophic-grapevine-pathogen-plasmopara-viticola
#9
Viktoria Tröster, Tabea Setzer, Thomas Hirth, Anna Pecina, Andreas Kortekamp, Peter Nick
The causative agent of Grapevine Downy Mildew, the oomycete Plasmopara viticola, poses a serious threat to viticulture. In the current work, the contractile vacuole of the zoospore is analysed as potential target for novel plant protection strategies. Using a combination of electron microscopy, spinning disc confocal microscopy, and video differential interference contrast microscopy, we have followed the genesis and dynamics of this vacuole required during the search for the stomata, when the non-walled zoospore is exposed to hypotonic conditions...
May 26, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540512/a-molecular-insight-into-papaya-leaf-curl-a-severe-viral-disease
#10
REVIEW
Priyanka Varun, S A Ranade, Sangeeta Saxena
Papaya leaf curl disease (PaLCuD) caused by papaya leaf curl virus (PaLCuV) not only affects yield but also plant growth and fruit size and quality of papaya and is one of the most damaging and economically important disease. Management of PaLCuV is a challenging task due to diversity of viral strains, the alternate hosts, and the genomic complexities of the viruses. Several management strategies currently used by plant virologists to broadly control or eliminate the viruses have been discussed. In the absence of such strategies in the case of PaLCuV at present, the few available options to control the disease include methods like removal of affected plants from the field, insecticide treatments against the insect vector (Bemisia tabaci), and gene-specific control through transgenic constructs...
May 25, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536765/silicon-mediated-changes-in-radial-hydraulic-conductivity-and-cell-wall-stability-are-involved-in-silicon-induced-drought-resistance-in-tomato
#11
Bi-Li Cao, Lili Wang, Song Gao, Jie Xia, Kun Xu
Plants frequently experience drought stress. It is well known that silicon (Si) facilitates recovery from drought stress by improving drought resistance in plants. However, the effects of Si on the roots associated with the drought resistance in plants remain elusive. In this study, tomato (cv. 'Jinpeng 1(#)') was adopted to study the silicon-mediated drought avoidance and drought tolerance. The results showed that exogenous Si evidently influenced the drought-induced changes of the related indicators. Roots added with Si were more adaptable to drought stress...
May 23, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512682/causa-formalis-detail-matters
#12
EDITORIAL
Peter Nick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508157/integument-cell-gelatinisation-the-fate-of-the-integumentary-cells-in-hieracium-and-pilosella-asteraceae
#13
Bartosz J Płachno, Piotr Świątek, Małgorzata Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Zbigniew Szeląg, Piotr Stolarczyk
Members of the genera Hieracium and Pilosella are model plants that are used to study the mechanisms of apomixis. In order to have a proper understanding of apomixis, knowledge about the relationship between the maternal tissue and the gametophyte is needed. In the genus Pilosella, previous authors have described the specific process of the "liquefaction" of the integument cells that surround the embryo sac. However, these observations were based on data only at the light microscopy level. The main aim of our paper was to investigate the changes in the integument cells at the ultrastructural level in Pilosella officinarum and Hieracium alpinum...
May 15, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501974/proteolytic-activities-in-cortex-of-apical-parts-of-vicia-faba-ssp-minor-seedling-roots-during-kinetin-induced-programmed-cell-death
#14
Andrzej Kaźmierczak, Magdalena Doniak, Anita Kunikowska
Programmed cell death (PCD) is a crucial process in plant development. In this paper, proteolytically related aspects of kinetin-induced PCD in cortex cells of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings were examined using morphological, fluorometric, spectrophotometric, and fluorescence microscopic analyses. Cell viability estimation after 46 μM kinetin treatment of seedling roots showed that the number of dying cortex cells increased with treatment duration, reaching maximum after 72 h. Weight of the apical root segments increased with time and was about 2...
May 13, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478487/segregation-of-the-amphitelically-attached-univalent-x-chromosome-in-the-spittlebug-philaenus-spumarius
#15
Kristen D Felt, Makayla B Lagerman, Nigel A Ravida, Lu Qian, Samantha R Powers, Leocadia V Paliulis
In meiosis I, homologous chromosomes combine to form bivalents, which align on the metaphase plate. Homologous chromosomes then separate in anaphase I. Univalent sex chromosomes, on the other hand, are unable to segregate in the same way as homologous chromosomes of bivalents due to their lack of a homologous pairing partner in meiosis I. Here, we studied univalent segregation in a Hemipteran insect: the spittlebug Philaenus spumarius. We determined the chromosome number and sex determination mechanism in our population of P...
May 6, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470373/expression-patterns-and-promoter-characteristics-of-the-vitis-quinquangularis-vqsts36-gene-involved-in-abiotic-and-biotic-stress-response
#16
Xiangjing Yin, Li Huang, Xiuming Zhang, Chunlei Guo, Hao Wang, Zhi Li, Xiping Wang
Resveratrol is a stilbene compound that is synthesized by plants in response to biotic stress and has been linked to health benefits associated with the consumption of certain foods and food products, such as grapes and wine. The final step in the biosynthesis of resveratrol is catalyzed by the enzyme stilbene synthase (STS). Here, we assessed the expression of two STS genes (VqSTS36 and VpSTS36) from the wild grape species Vitis quinquangularis (accession 'Shang-24'; powdery mildew (PM) resistant) and Vitis pseudoreticulata (accession 'Hunan-1'; PM susceptible) following infection by Uncinula necator (Schw...
May 4, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462481/obituary-for-christos-katsetos
#17
Pavel Dráber, Agustin Legido, Peter W Baas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456866/basidiospores-of-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-tritici-succeed-to-infect-barberry-while-urediniospores-are-blocked-by-non-host-resistance
#18
Min Jiao, Chenglong Tan, Long Wang, Jia Guo, Hongchang Zhang, Zhensheng Kang, Jun Guo
Stripe rust (Yellow rust) caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is a major disease of wheat worldwide. The use of resistant cultivars to control Pst has been very effective, low-cost, and ecologically sound. However, virulence patterns of Pst can quickly change, which may render resistant cultivars susceptible. The discovery of infection of Berberis spp. by basidiospores of Pst in 2010 raised important concerns about the evolution of new virulent races of the pathogen. Little is known about the infection process of Berberis spp...
April 29, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455550/contribution-of-native-phosphorous-solubilizing-bacteria-of-acid-soils-on-phosphorous-acquisition-in-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-l
#19
Madhusmita Pradhan, Ranjan Kumar Sahoo, Chinmay Pradhan, Narendra Tuteja, Santanu Mohanty
The present investigation analyzes the in vitro P solubilization [Ca-P, Al-P, Fe(II)-P, and Fe(III)-P] efficiency of native PSB strains from acid soils of Odisha and exploitation of the same through biofertilization in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) growth and P acquisition. One hundred six numbers of soil samples with pH ≤ 5.50 were collected from five districts of Odisha viz., Balasore, Cuttack, Khordha, Keonjhar, and Mayurbhanj. One bacterial isolate from each district were selected and analyzed for their P solubilization efficiency in National Botanical Research Institute Phosphate broths with Ca, Al, and Fe-complexed phosphates...
April 28, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429149/a-spiking-strategy-facilitates-housekeeping-selection-for-rt-qpcr-analysis-under-different-biotic-stresses-in-eggplant
#20
Valeria Barbierato, Tea Sala, Paola Rinaldi, Laura Bassolino, Lorenzo Barchi, Giuseppe Leonardo Rotino, Laura Toppino
Endogenous housekeeping genes are traditionally employed to normalize the expression of target genes in RT-qPCR studies. Assuming that a perfect housekeeping suitable for every condition does not exist, expression stability of the chosen reference gene should be evaluated at every new experiment. The housekeeping selection process reveals furthermore complicated and time-consuming when different conditions have to be compared in the same experimental dataset. As an alternative strategy, we spiked an external reference transcript (ERT) into all RNA samples of our dataset (eggplant roots subjected to different biotic stresses), and used it to normalize the expression levels of native candidate housekeeping...
April 21, 2017: Protoplasma
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