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Chao Chen, Yang Yu, Xiaodong Ding, Beidong Liu, Huizi Duanmu, Dan Zhu, Xiaoli Sun, Lei Cao, Zaib-Un-Nisa, Qiang Li, Yanming Zhu
Protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs) belong to the largest protein phosphatase family in plants. Some members have been described as being negative modulators of plant growth and development, as well as responses to hormones and environmental stimuli. However, little is known about the members of PP2C clade D, which may be involved in the regulation of signaling pathways, especially in response to saline and alkali stresses. Here, we identified 13 PP2C orthologs from the wild soybean (Glycine soja) genome. We examined the sequence characteristics, chromosome locations and duplications, gene structures, and promoter cis-elements of the PP2C clade D genes in Arabidopsis and wild soybean...
October 19, 2017: Protoplasma
Geniane Schneider, Paulo Antunes Horta, Emiliano Nicolas Calderon, Clovis Castro, Adalto Bianchini, Camilla Reis Augusto da Silva, Isabel Brandalise, José Bonomi Barufi, João Silva, Ana Claudia Rodrigues
Coastal areas face high variability of seawater pH. Ocean acidification (OA) and local stressors are enhancing this variability, which poses a threat to marine life. However, these organisms present potential phenotypic plasticity that can offer physiological and structural tools to survive in these extreme conditions. In this study, we evaluated the effects of elevated CO2 levels and consequent pH reduction on the physiology, anatomy and ultrastructure of the seagrass Halodule wrightii. A mesocosm study was conducted in an open system during a 30-day experiment, where different concentrations of CO2 were simulated following the natural variability observed in coastal reef systems...
October 18, 2017: Protoplasma
E Stempien, M-L Goddard, Y Leva, M Bénard-Gellon, H Laloue, S Farine, F Kieffer-Mazet, C Tarnus, C Bertsch, J Chong
Grapevine trunk diseases (Eutypa dieback, esca and Botryosphaeria dieback) are caused by a complex of xylem-inhabiting fungi, which severely reduce yields in vineyards. Botryosphaeria dieback is associated with Botryosphaeriaceae. In order to develop effective strategies against Botryosphaeria dieback, we investigated the molecular basis of grapevine interactions with a virulent species, Neofusicoccum parvum, and a weak pathogen, Diplodia seriata. We investigated defenses induced by purified secreted fungal proteins within suspension cells of Vitis (Vitis rupestris and Vitis vinifera cv...
October 17, 2017: Protoplasma
Peter Nick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2017: Protoplasma
Alireza Einali
The effect of propyl gallate (PG), a synthetic antioxidant, on antioxidant responses and salinity tolerance was investigated in the cells of the green microalga, Dunaliella bardawil. Algal suspensions grown at three salinity levels of 1, 2, and 3 M NaCl were incubated with 1 mM of PG. The number of cells was significantly lower in all PG-treated cells compared to untreated controls. Despite PG-induced cell death, the fresh weight of all PG-treated cells was considerably higher than controls. PG-treated cells had enhanced antioxidant capacity because of increased levels of Chlorophyll a, β-carotene, reduced ascorbate, protein, and enzymatic activities, but accumulated lower levels of malonyldialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide compared to untreated cells...
October 8, 2017: Protoplasma
Wagner Gonzaga Gonçalves, Kenner Morais Fernandes, Weyder Cristiano Santana, Gustavo Ferreira Martins, José Cola Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão
The honeybee Apis mellifera has ecological and economic importance; however, it experiences a population decline, perhaps due to exposure to toxic compounds, which are excreted by Malpighian tubules. During metamorphosis of A. mellifera, the Malpighian tubules degenerate and are formed de novo. The objective of this work was to verify the cellular events of the Malpighian tubule renewal in the metamorphosis, which are the gradual steps of cell remodeling, determining different cell types and their roles in the excretory activity in A...
October 7, 2017: Protoplasma
Susheel Kumar Singh, Sunita Singh Dhawan
Mucuna pruriens is a well-known legume for the itching attributes of the trichome and a valuable medicinal herb that is used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, sexual debilities, etc. Its cultivation was deprived due to its itching behavior. The wild genotype of M. pruriens have the largest trichome length (2015 ± 29 μm) compared to other genotype and mutants. The white-seeded variety of M. pruriens was found to be the most suitable for large-scale cultivation due to the small trichome size and less trichome density on the pod...
October 3, 2017: Protoplasma
Małgorzata Stpiczyńska, Bartosz J Płachno, Kevin L Davies
Although many Orchidaceae have deceit flowers that produce no reward, the most common reward, when present, is nectar. Bulbophyllum, however, is unusual in that the labellar secretions of most species investigated to date lack sugars, and, therefore, cannot be considered true nectar. The African species Bulbophyllum saltatorium is an exception in that it produces not only nectar but also possesses specialized, capitate oleiferous trichomes. The nectary of B. saltatorium is borne on the labellum and is represented by a deep, narrow, median longitudinal groove, having a small aperture, and flanked by trichomes...
September 24, 2017: Protoplasma
Deepika Kandoi, Sasmita Mohanty, Baishnab C Tripathy
The plastidic C4 Zea mays NADP-malate dehydrogenase (ZmNADP-MDH), responsible for catalysis of oxaloacetate to malate, was overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana to assess its impact on photosynthesis and tolerance to salinity stress. Different transgenic lines were produced having ~3-6-fold higher MDH protein abundance and NADP-MDH enzyme activity than vector control. The overexpressors had similar chlorophyll, carotenoid, and protein content as that of vector control. Their photosynthetic electron transport rates, carbon assimilation rate, and consequently fresh weight and dry weight were almost similar...
September 24, 2017: Protoplasma
Elizabeth Kordyum, Ninel Bilyavska
Epidermal cells of leaf petioles, pedicles, and sepals in Caragana arborescens L. are characterized with a unique biogenesis of intracellular bodies, the presence of which continues during 10-12 days in spring, from budding till flowering and fruit inception. Initially, a nuclear body is formed as a derivative of the nucleolus at the beginning of elongation of the protodermal cells, whereas a cytoplasmic body is formed in the proximity of the nuclear envelope later. Nuclear bodies and cytoplasmic bodies do not contain DNA, lipids, and starch, and they consist of RNA tightly packaged with proteins mainly in the form of short thin fibrils with thickness of 6 nm...
September 19, 2017: Protoplasma
Lovely Mahawar, Rajesh Kumar, Gyan Singh Shekhawat
Research on heme oxygenase in plants has received consideration in recent years due to its several roles in development, defense, and metabolism during various environmental stresses. In the current investigation, the role of heme oxygenase (HO) 1 was evaluated in reducing heavy metal (Cd and Ni) uptake and alleviating Cd and Ni toxicity effects in the hydroponically grown seedlings of Vigna radiata var. PDM 54. Seedlings were subjected to Cd- and Ni-induced oxidative stress independently at different concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 μM...
September 18, 2017: Protoplasma
Ketpin Chong, Zakaria A Almsherqi, Han-Ming Shen, Yuru Deng
Cubic membranes (CM) are highly organized membrane structures found in biological systems. They are mathematically well defined and reveal a three-dimensional nano-periodic structure with cubic symmetry. These membrane arrangements are frequently induced in cells under stress, disease conditions, or upon viral infection. In this study, we investigated CM formation in the mitochondria of amoeba Chaos carolinense and observed a striking correlation between the organism's ability to generate CM and the cell survival under starvation...
September 15, 2017: Protoplasma
Natalia Wiśniewska, Agnieszka K Kowalkowska, Małgorzata Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Agnieszka T Krawczyńska, Jerzy Bohdanowicz
Two representatives of section Lepidorhiza, previously sometimes considered conspecific, Bulbophyllum levanae and Bulbophyllum nymphopolitanum, demonstrated both similarities and differences in floral features. There were significant differences in the length of sepals and micromorphological features of the labellum. In both species, osmophores are located on the extended apices of sepals and possibly on petals. An abundance of proteins in tepals is probably associated with the unpleasant scent of the flowers, whereas the thin wax layers on the epidermis are probably involved in the maintenance of the brilliance of floral tepals, which strongly attracts flies...
September 14, 2017: Protoplasma
Marina M Gotelli, Beatriz G Galati, Gabriela Zarlavsky, Diego Medan
The ultrastructure of the style and pollen tube pathway before, during and after anthesis were studied in 13 species belonging to the tribes Pomaderreae, Paliureae, Colletieae and Gouanieae (Ziziphoid clade) and Rhamneae (Rhamnoid clade) using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The aim of this study is to provide new morphological characters useful for phylogenetic analysis at suprageneric level in Rhamnaceae. The patterns of pollen tube growth and the ultrastructural changes undergone by cells of the style were also described...
September 14, 2017: Protoplasma
Shagun Bali, Parminder Kaur, Anket Sharma, Puja Ohri, Renu Bhardwaj, M N Alyemeni, Leonard Wijaya, Parvaiz Ahmad
Plant parasitic nematodes cause severe damage to cultivated crops globally. Management of nematode population is a major concern as chemicals used as nematicides have negative impact on the environment. Natural plant products can be safely used for the control of nematodes. Among various plant metabolites, plant hormones play an essential role in developmental and physiological processes and also assist the plants to encounter stressful conditions. Keeping this in mind, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) on the growth, pigments, polyphenols, antioxidants, osmolytes, and organic acids under nematode infection in tomato seedlings...
September 13, 2017: Protoplasma
Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Mohammad Abass Ahanger, Leonard Wijaya, Pravej Alam, Renu Bhardwaj, Parvaiz Ahmad
Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the role of selenium in alleviating cadmium stress in Solanum lycopersicum seedlings. Cadmium (150 mg L(-1)) treatment caused a significant reduction in growth in terms of height and biomass accumulation and affected chlorophyll pigments, gas exchange parameters, and chlorophyll fluorescence. Selenium (10 μM) application mitigated the adverse effects of cadmium on growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, leaf relative water content, and other physiological attributes...
September 12, 2017: Protoplasma
Inna E Pristyazhnyuk, Aleksei G Menzorov
Ring chromosomes (RCs) are circular DNA molecules, which occur rarely in eukaryotic nuclear genomes. Lilian Vaughan Morgan first described them in the fruit fly. Human embryos very seldom have RCs, about 1:50,000. Carriers of RCs may have varying degrees of symptoms, from healthy phenotype to serious pathologies in physical and intellectual development. Many authors describe common symptoms of RC presence: short stature and some developmental delay that could be described as a "ring chromosome syndrome." As a rule, RCs arise de novo through the end-joining of two DNA double-strand breaks, telomere-subtelomere junction, or inv dup del rearrangement in both meiosis and mitosis...
September 12, 2017: Protoplasma
Joanna Majka, Zbigniew Zwierzykowski, Maciej Majka, Arkadiusz Kosmala
Many different processes have an impact on the shape of plant karyotype. Recently, cytogenetic examination of Lolium species has revealed the occurrence of spontaneous fragile sites (FSs) associated with 35S rDNA regions. The FSs are defined as the chromosomal regions that are sensitive to forming gaps or breaks on chromosomes. The shape of karyotype can also be determined by interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs), what was recognized for the first time in this paper in chromosomes of Festuca pratensis × Lolium perenne hybrids...
September 7, 2017: Protoplasma
Justyna Nawrocka, U Małolepsza, K Szymczak, M Szczech
In the present study, the spread of Rhizoctonia solani-induced disease was limited when cucumber plants were pretreated with Trichoderma atroviride TRS25. The systemic disease suppression was related to TRS25-induced resistance (TISR) induction with simultaneous plant growth promotion. Protection of cucumber was related to enhanced activity of defense enzymes, e.g., guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), syringaldazine peroxidase (SPX), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) as well as phenolic (PC) concentration increases in the conditions of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation, resulting in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) decrease...
September 6, 2017: Protoplasma
Thomas Cavalier-Smith
In 1981 I established kingdom Chromista, distinguished from Plantae because of its more complex chloroplast-associated membrane topology and rigid tubular multipartite ciliary hairs. Plantae originated by converting a cyanobacterium to chloroplasts with Toc/Tic translocons; most evolved cell walls early, thereby losing phagotrophy. Chromists originated by enslaving a phagocytosed red alga, surrounding plastids by two extra membranes, placing them within the endomembrane system, necessitating novel protein import machineries...
September 5, 2017: Protoplasma
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