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Protoplasma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213650/alleviation-of-water-and-osmotic-stress-induced-changes-in-nitrogen-metabolizing-enzymes-in-triticum-aestivum-l-cultivars-by-potassium
#1
Mohammad Abass Ahanger, Megha Tittal, Rayees Ahmad Mir, R M Agarwal
Present communication reports laboratory and pot experiments conducted to study the influence of water and osmotic stress on nitrogen uptake and metabolism in two wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars with and without potassium supplementation. Polyethylene glycol 6000-induced osmotic stress/restricted irrigation caused a considerable decline in the activity of nitrate reductase, glutamate synthase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, and glutamate dehydrogenase. Potassium considerably improved nitrogen metabolism under normal water supply conditions and also resulted in amelioration of the negative impact of water and osmotic stresses indicating that potassium supplementation can be used as a potential tool for enhancing the nitrogen use efficiency in wheat for exploiting its genetic potential...
February 17, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204899/three-dimensional-ultrastructure-of-feeding-tubes-and-interconnected-endoplasmic-reticulum-in-root-knot-nematode-induced-giant-cells-in-rose-balsam
#2
Nao Miyashita, Hironori Koga
We investigated the three-dimensional ultrastructure of feeding tubes and the surrounding region in giant cells induced in rose balsam (Impatiens balsamina L.) roots by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, using osmium maceration coupled with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). In the roots of 35-day-old galled rose balsam plants, adult nematodes induced the formation of giant cells containing feeding tubes and numerous organelles, including tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER), cisternal ER, and mitochondria...
February 15, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188396/how-to-obtain-good-morphology-and-antigen-detection-in-the-same-tissue-section
#3
Daša Zupančič, Marjeta Terčelj, Bojan Štrus, Peter Veranič
Most human and animal biopsy samples are routinely embedded in paraffin since this enables the pathologist or researcher to obtain excellent morphology and simplifies storage. Nevertheless, in many cases, the antigen of interest cannot be detected in paraffin section. The alternative available for good immunohistochemistry is preparation of cryosections, which usually provide decent antigen preservation and are frequently used for immunofluorescence. However, cryosections often do not provide efficient morphological details of tissues and cells for pathologic evaluation...
February 10, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176001/multilayer-gyroid-cubic-membrane-organization-in-green-alga-zygnema
#4
Ting Zhan, Wenhua Lv, Yuru Deng
Biological cubic membranes (CM), which are fluid membranes draped onto the 3D periodic parallel surface geometries with cubic symmetry, have been observed within subcellular organelles, including mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and thylakoids. CM transition tends to occur under various stress conditions; however, multilayer CM organizations often appear associated with light stress conditions. This report is about the characterization of a projected gyroid CM in a transmission electron microscopy study of the chloroplast membranes within green alga Zygnema (LB923) whose lamellar form of thylakoid membrane started to fold into multilayer gyroid CM in the culture at the end of log phase of cell growth...
February 7, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168518/mechanics-of-mystery
#5
EDITORIAL
Peter Nick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154963/cytological-analysis-of-ginseng-carpel-development
#6
Jeniffer Silva, Yu-Jin Kim, Dexin Xiao, Johan Sukweenadhi, Tingting Hu, Woo-Saeng Kwon, Jianping Hu, Deok-Chun Yang, Dabing Zhang
Panax ginseng Meyer, commonly known as ginseng, is considered one of the most important herbs with pharmaceutical values due to the presence of ginsenosides and is cultivated for its highly valued root for medicinal purposes. Recently, it has been recognized that ginseng fruit contains high contents of triterpene such as ginsenoside Re as pharmaceutical compounds. However, it is unclear how carpel, the female reproductive tissue of flowers, is formed during the three-year-old growth before fruit is formed in ginseng plants...
February 2, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150048/lymphocytes-and-macrophages-in-adipose-tissue-in-obesity-markers-or-makers-of-subclinical-inflammation
#7
REVIEW
Anna Cinkajzlová, Miloš Mráz, Martin Haluzík
Obesity is accompanied by the development of chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue. The presence of chronic inflammatory response along with metabolically harmful factors released by adipose tissue into the circulation is associated with several metabolic complications of obesity such as type 2 diabetes mellitus or accelerated atherosclerosis. The present review is focused on macrophages and lymphocytes and their possible role in low-grade inflammation in fat. Both macrophages and lymphocytes respond to obesity-induced adipocyte hypertrophy by their migration into adipose tissue...
February 1, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133703/erratum-to-toward-establishing-a-morphological-and-ultrastructural-characterization-of-proembryogenic-masses-and-early-somatic-embryos-of-araucaria-angustifolia-bert-o-kuntze
#8
Neusa Steiner, Francine L Farias-Soares, Éder C Schmidt, Maria L T Pereira, Bruna Scheid, Gladys D Rogge-Renner, Zenilda L Bouzon, Daniela Schmitz, Sara Maldonado, Miguel P Guerra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124741/analysis-of-the-shapes-of-coelomocytes-of-aphelasterias-japonica-in-vitro-echinodermata-asteroidea
#9
Yu Karetin, I I Pushchin
A description and formal classification of in vitro spreading coelomocytes from the Aphelasterias japonica sea star was performed using 39 parameters of linear and nonlinear morphometry based on the correlation, factor, and cluster analysis. The comparison of a variety of clustering models revealed the optimum classification parameters and algorithms. As a result, four morphological types of spreading cells significantly differing in a number of structural parameters were identified. This approach may be an important alternative or addition to classical methods of classification of polymorphic, irregularly shaped cells, in particular, cell elements of the invertebrate immune system...
January 26, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120101/virus-induced-gene-silencing-in-rauwolfia-species
#10
Cyrielle Corbin, Florent Lafontaine, Liuda Johana Sepúlveda, Ines Carqueijeiro, Martine Courtois, Arnaud Lanoue, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Sébastien Besseau, Gaëlle Glévarec, Nicolas Papon, Lucia Atehortúa, Nathalie Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Marc Clastre, Benoit St-Pierre, Audrey Oudin, Vincent Courdavault
Elucidation of the monoterpene indole alkaloid biosynthesis has recently progressed in Apocynaceae through the concomitant development of transcriptomic analyses and reverse genetic approaches performed by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). While most of these tools have been primarily adapted for the Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), the VIGS procedure has scarcely been used on other Apocynaceae species. For instance, Rauwolfia sp. constitutes a unique source of specific and valuable monoterpene indole alkaloids such as the hypertensive reserpine but are also well recognized models for studying alkaloid metabolism, and as such would benefit from an efficient VIGS procedure...
January 24, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168519/pcna-is-recruited-to-irradiated-chromatin-in-late-s-phase-and-is-most-pronounced-in-g2-phase-of-the-cell-cycle
#11
Eva Bártová, Jana Suchánková, Soňa Legartová, Barbora Malyšková, Matúš Hornáček, Magdalena Skalníková, Martin Mašata, Ivan Raška, Stanislav Kozubek
DNA repair is a complex process that prevents genomic instability. Many proteins play fundamental roles in regulating the optimal repair of DNA lesions. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a key factor that initiates recombination-associated DNA synthesis after injury. Here, in very early S-phase, we show that the fluorescence intensity of mCherry-tagged PCNA after local micro-irradiation was less than the fluorescence intensity of non-irradiated mCherry-PCNA-positive replication foci. However, PCNA protein accumulated at locally irradiated chromatin in very late S-phase of the cell cycle, and this effect was more pronounced in the following G2 phase...
January 20, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101692/the-assembly-and-function-of-perinuclear-actin-cap-in-migrating-cells
#12
Miloslava Maninova, Josef Caslavsky, Tomas Vomastek
Stress fibers are actin bundles encompassing actin filaments, actin-crosslinking, and actin-associated proteins that represent the major contractile system in the cell. Different types of stress fibers assemble in adherent cells, and they are central to diverse cellular processes including establishment of the cell shape, morphogenesis, cell polarization, and migration. Stress fibers display specific cellular organization and localization, with ventral fibers present at the basal side, and dorsal fibers and transverse actin arcs rising at the cell front from the ventral to the dorsal side and toward the nucleus...
January 18, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093607/osmopriming-induced-salt-tolerance-during-seed-germination-of-alfalfa-most-likely-mediates-through-h2o2-signaling-and-upregulation-of-heme-oxygenase
#13
Rayhaneh Amooaghaie, Fatemeh Tabatabaie
The present study showed that osmopriming or pretreatment with low H2O2 doses (2 mM) for 6 h alleviated salt-reduced seed germination. The NADPH oxidase activity was the main source, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity might be a secondary source of H2O2 generation during osmopriming or H2O2 pretreatment. Hematin pretreatment similar to osmopriming improved salt-reduced seed germination that was coincident with the enhancement of heme oxygenase (HO) activity. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed that osmopriming or H2O2 pretreatment was able to upregulate heme oxygenase HO-1 transcription, while the application of N,N-dimethyl thiourea (DMTU as trap of endogenous H2O2) and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI as inhibitor of NADPHox) not only blocked the upregulation of HO but also reversed the osmopriming-induced salt attenuation...
January 16, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083653/developmental-and-ultrastructural-characters-of-the-pollen-grains-and-tapetum-in-species-of-nymphaea-subgenus-hydrocallis
#14
Lucía Melisa Zini, Beatriz Gloria Galati, Gabriela Zarlavsky, María Silvia Ferrucci
Variations in pollen characters and tapetum behavior were recently acknowledged in the early-divergent family Nymphaeaceae and even within the genus Nymphaea, which probably is not monophyletic; some traits such as infratectum and tapetum type are also a matter of different interpretations. In this study, developmental characters of the pollen grains and tapetum in Nymphaea subgenus Hydrocallis are provided for the first time. Observations were made in N. amazonum, N. gardneriana, and N. prolifera using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy...
January 12, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078440/alternative-intronic-promoters-in-development-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Tomas Vacik, Ivan Raska
Approximately 20,000 mammalian genes are estimated to encode between 250 thousand and 1 million different proteins. This enormous diversity of the mammalian proteome is caused by the ability of a single-gene locus to encode multiple protein isoforms. Protein isoforms encoded by one gene locus can be functionally distinct, and they can even have antagonistic functions. One of the mechanisms involved in creating this proteome complexity is alternative promoter usage. Alternative intronic promoters are located downstream from their canonical counterparts and drive the expression of alternative RNA isoforms that lack upstream exons...
January 11, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074287/responses-triggered-in-chloroplast-of-chlorella-variabilis-nc64a-by-long-term-association-with-paramecium-bursaria
#16
Ekaterina Minaeva, Elena Ermilova
The unicellular green alga Chlorella variabilis NC64A is an endosymbiont of the ciliate Paramecium bursaria. The host's control, including the transfer of biochemical substrates from P. bursaria to C. variabilis, is involved in symbiotic relationships. C. variabilis NC64A that had been re-infected to P. bursaria for more than 1 year and isolated from the host showed higher chlorophyll levels compared to those in free-living cells. Unlike the host, the expression of C. variabilis NC64A heat shock 70 kDa protein was independent of establishment of endosymbiosis...
January 11, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074286/regulation-of-microtubule-nucleation-mediated-by-%C3%AE-tubulin-complexes
#17
REVIEW
Vadym Sulimenko, Zuzana Hájková, Anastasiya Klebanovych, Pavel Dráber
The microtubule cytoskeleton is critically important for spatio-temporal organization of eukaryotic cells. The nucleation of new microtubules is typically restricted to microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) and requires γ-tubulin that assembles into multisubunit complexes of various sizes. γ-Tubulin ring complexes (TuRCs) are efficient microtubule nucleators and are associated with large number of targeting, activating and modulating proteins. γ-Tubulin-dependent nucleation of microtubules occurs both from canonical MTOCs, such as spindle pole bodies and centrosomes, and additional sites such as Golgi apparatus, nuclear envelope, plasma membrane-associated sites, chromatin and surface of pre-existing microtubules...
January 10, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066876/the-terrestrial-green-macroalga-prasiola-calophylla-trebouxiophyceae-chlorophyta-ecophysiological-performance-under-water-limiting-conditions
#18
Andreas Holzinger, Klaus Herburger, Kathrin Blaas, Louise A Lewis, Ulf Karsten
The phylogenetic placement of Prasiola calophylla, from an anthropogenic habitat previously shown to contain a novel UV sunscreen compound, was confirmed by analysis of its rbcL gene. This alga has the capacity to tolerate strong water-limiting conditions. The photosynthetic performance and ultrastructural changes under desiccation and osmotic stress were investigated. Freshly harvested thalli showed an effective quantum yield of PSII [Y(II)] of 0.52 ± 0.06 that decreased to ∼60% of the initial value at 3000 mM sorbitol, and 4000 mM sorbitol led to a complete loss of Y(II)...
January 9, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064339/ultrastructure-of-the-midgut-in-heteroptera-hemiptera-with-different-feeding-habits
#19
Helen Pinto Santos, Magdalena Rost-Roszkowska, Jitka Vilimova, José Eduardo Serrão
Heteroptera have diverse feeding habits with phytophagous, zoophagous, and haematophagous species. This dietary diversity associated with the monophyly of Heteroptera makes these insects a good object for comparative studies of the digestive tract. This work compares the ultrastructure of the middle midgut region in the phytophagous Coptosoma scutellatum (Plataspidae), Graphosoma lineatum (Pentatomidae), Kleidocerys resedae (Lygaeidae), and zoophagous Rhynocoris iracundus (Reduviidae), Nabis rugosus (Nabidae), and Himacerus apterus (Nabidae), to verify if diet affects midgut cells in phylogenetically related insects...
January 7, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054232/retraction-note-to-coordinated-response-of-sulfate-transport-cysteine-biosynthesis-and-glutathione-mediated-antioxidant-defense-in-lentil-lens-culinaris-medik-genotypes-exposed-to-arsenic
#20
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