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Protoplasma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222617/destroy-to-create
#1
EDITORIAL
Peter Nick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204720/effect-of-mercury-on-pollen-germination-and-tube-growth-in-lilium-longiflorum
#2
Thomas Sawidis, Gülriz Baycu, Gül Cevahir-Öz, Elzbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska
Pollen development and germination were adversely affected by the presence of mercury, whereas low-concentrations stimulated the whole procedure. Mercury caused morphological anomalies during the tube growth, characterized by irregularly increasing diameters and swelling tips. The main effect was the anomalous cell wall formation at the tip where a substantial number of organelles were found reducing the secretory vesicles. The dense organelle concentration caused a significant reduction of cytoplasmic movement integrity, and the cytosol streaming was gradually reduced or stopped completely...
December 4, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192339/cytomixis-in-plants-facts-and-doubts
#3
REVIEW
Sergey Mursalimov, Elena Deineko
The migration of nuclei between plant cells (cytomixis) is a mysterious cellular phenomenon frequently observable in the male meiosis of higher plants. Cytomixis attracts attention because of unknown cellular mechanisms underlying migration of nuclei and its potential evolutionary significance, since the genetic material is transferred between the cells that form pollen. Although cytomixis was discovered over a century ago, the advance in our understanding of this process has been rather insignificant because of methodological difficulties...
December 1, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181726/the-inhibition-of-polyamine-biosynthesis-weakens-the-drought-tolerance-in-white-clover-trifolium-repens-associated-with-the-alteration-of-extensive-proteins
#4
Zhou Li, Yan Zhang, Dandan Peng, Yan Peng, Xinquan Zhang, Xiao Ma, Linkai Huang, Yanhong Yan
Changes of endogenous polyamine (PA) levels could be a key adaptive response to drought in plants. White clover pretreated with or without dicyclohexylamine (DCHA), an inhibitor of PA biosynthesis, was subjected to drought stress induced by 18% polyethylene glycol 6000 for 8 days in controlled growth chambers. Results showed that drought stress significantly increased endogenous PA content, whereas DCHA significantly decreased PA accumulation under drought stress. The attenuate PA biosynthesis was unfavorable for plant growth and drought tolerance, as reflected by significantly lower relative water content, relative growth rate, instantaneous water use efficiency, and cell membrane stability in leaves in response to drought...
November 28, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151143/salinity-reduces-2-4-d-efficacy-in-echinochloa-crusgalli-by-affecting-redox-balance-nutrient-acquisition-and-hormonal-regulation
#5
Faisal Islam, Yuan Xie, Muhammad A Farooq, Jian Wang, Chong Yang, Rafaqat A Gill, Jinwen Zhu, Weijun Zhou
Distinct salinity levels have been reported to enhance plants tolerance to different types of stresses. The aim of this research is to assess the interaction of saline stress and the use of 2,4-D as a means of controlling the growth of Echinochloa crusgalli. The resultant effect of such interaction is vital for a sustainable approach of weed management and food production. The results showed that 2,4-D alone treatment reduces the chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic capacity, enhanced MDA, electrolyte leakage, and ROS production (H2O2, O2(·-)) and inhibited the activities of ROS scavenging enzymes...
November 18, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143884/biominerals-and-waxes-of-calamagrostis-epigejos-and-phragmites-australis-leaves-from-post-industrial-habitats
#6
Ewa Talik, Adam Guzik, Eugeniusz Małkowski, Gabriela Woźniak, Edyta Sierka
Vascular plants are able to conduct biomineralization processes and collect synthesized compounds in their internal tissues or to deposit them on their epidermal surfaces. This mechanism protects the plant from fluctuations of nutrient levels caused by different levels of supply and demand for them. The biominerals reflect both the metabolic characteristics of a vascular plant species and the environmental conditions of the plant habitat. The SEM/EDX method was used to examine the surface and cross-sections of the Calamagrostis epigejos and Phragmites australis leaves from post-industrial habitats (coal and zinc spoil heaps)...
November 16, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138939/responses-of-he-ne-laser-on-agronomic-traits-and-the-crosstalk-between-uvr8-signaling-and-phytochrome-b-signaling-pathway-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-subjected-to-supplementary-ultraviolet-b-uv-b-stress
#7
Limei Gao, Yongfeng Li, Zhihua Shen, Rong Han
UV-B acclimation effects and UV-B damage repair induced by a 632.8-nm He-Ne laser were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana plants in response to supplementary UV-B stress. There was an increasing trend in growth parameters in the combination-treated plants with He-Ne laser and UV-B light compared to those stressed with enhanced UV-B light alone during different developmental stages of plants. The photosynthetic efficiency (Pn) and survival rates of seedlings were significantly higher in the combination treatments than UV-B stress alone...
November 14, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138938/jasmonic-acid-induced-no-activates-mek1-2-in-regulating-the-metabolism-of-ascorbate-and-glutathione-in-maize-leaves
#8
Changjuan Shan, Haili Sun
This study investigated the relationship between MEK1/2 and nitric oxide (NO) in jasmonic acid (JA)-regulated metabolism of ascorbate and glutathione in maize leaves. The results showed that JA increased the activities of APX, GR, MDHAR, DHAR, GalLDH, and γ-ECS; the contents of AsA and GSH; and the production of NO. Above increases except for γ-ECS activity and NO production were all suppressed by pre-treatments with MEK1/2 inhibitors PD98059 and U0126. Above increases were all suppressed by pre-treatments with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME and NO scavenger cPTIO...
November 14, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134282/aba-and-iaa-control-microsporogenesis-in-petunia-hybrida-l
#9
L V Kovaleva, A S Voronkov, E V Zakharova, I M Andreev
The formation of fertile male gametophyte is known to require timely degeneration of polyfunctional tapetum tissue. The last process caused by the programmed cell death (PCD) is a part of the anther program maturation which leads to sequential anther tissue destruction coordinated with pollen differentiation. In the present work, distribution of abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in developing anthers of male-fertile and male-sterile lines of petunia (Petunia hybrida L.) was analyzed by using the immunohistochemical method...
November 13, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129002/histological-characterization-of-passiflora-pohlii-mast-root-tips-cryopreserved-using-the-v-cryo-plate-technique
#10
Mariela J Simão, Myriam Collin, Renata O Garcia, Elisabeth Mansur, Georgia Pacheco, Florent Engelmann
Cryopreservation stands out as the main strategy to ensure safe and cost efficient long-term conservation of plant germplasm, especially for biotechnological materials. However, the injuries associated with the procedure may result in structural damage and low recovery rates after cooling. Histological analysis provides useful information on the effects of osmotic dehydration, LN exposure, and recovery conditions on cellular integrity and tissue organization, allowing the determination of the critical steps of the cryopreservation protocol and, thus, the use of optimized treatments...
November 12, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119309/localization-and-transport-of-indole-3-acetic-acid-during-somatic-embryogenesis-in-coffea-canephora
#11
Ruth E Márquez-López, Cleyre Pérez-Hernández, Ángela Ku-González, Rosa María Galaz-Ávalos, Víctor Manuel Loyola-Vargas
Auxin and polar auxin transport have been implicated in controlling zygotic embryo development, but less is known about their role in the development of somatic embryos. The aim of this study was to determine if indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the PIN1 transporter participate in the induction of somatic embryogenesis (SE) and the development of somatic embryos. The results show that IAA levels gradually increase during pre-treatment and accumulate in the chloroplast. During pre-treatment and the globular stage of SE in C...
November 8, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110138/early-plant-growth-and-biochemical-responses-induced-by-azospirillum-brasilense-sp245-lipopolysaccharides-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-seedlings-are-attenuated-by-procyanidin-b2
#12
Juan Vallejo-Ochoa, Mariel López-Marmolejo, Alma Alejandra Hernández-Esquivel, Manuel Méndez-Gómez, Laura Nicolasa Suárez-Soria, Elda Castro-Mercado, Ernesto García-Pineda
This study analyzes the effects of procyanidin B2 on early wheat plant growth and plant biochemical responses promoted by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from the rhizobacteria Azospirillum brasilense Sp245. Measurements of leaf, root length, fresh weight, and dry weight showed in vitro plant growth stimulation 4 days after treatment with A. brasilense as well as LPS. Superoxide anion (O2(·-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels increased in seedling roots treated with LPS (100 μg mL(-1)). The chlorophyll content in leaf decreased while the starch content increased 24 h after treatment in seedling roots...
November 6, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103092/stress-induced-oryza-sativa-ruvbl1a-is-dna-independent-atpase-and-unwinds-dna-duplex-in-3-to-5-direction
#13
Shabnam K Saifi, Nishat Passricha, Renu Tuteja, Narendra Tuteja
RuvB, a member of AAA+ (ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities) superfamily of proteins, is essential, highly conserved and multifunctional in nature as it is involved in DNA damage repair, mitotic assembly, switching of histone variants and assembly of telomerase core complex. RuvB family is widely studied in various systems such as Escherichia coli, yeast, human, Drosophila, Plasmodium falciparum and mouse, but not well studied in plants. We have studied the transcript level of rice homologue of RuvB gene (OsRuvBL1a) under various abiotic stress conditions, and the results suggest that it is upregulated under salinity, cold and heat stress...
November 4, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080994/regenerative-potential-metabolic-profile-and-genetic-stability-of-brachypodium-distachyon-embryogenic-calli-as-affected-by-successive-subcultures
#14
T C Mamedes-Rodrigues, D S Batista, N M Vieira, E M Matos, D Fernandes, A Nunes-Nesi, C D Cruz, L F Viccini, F T S Nogueira, W C Otoni
Brachypodium distachyon, a model species for forage grasses and cereal crops, has been used in studies seeking improved biomass production and increased crop yield for biofuel production purposes. Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is the morphogenetic pathway that supports in vitro regeneration of such species. However, there are gaps in terms of studies on the metabolic profile and genetic stability along successive subcultures. The physiological variables and the metabolic profile of embryogenic callus (EC) and embryogenic structures (ES) from successive subcultures (30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, and 360-day-old subcultures) were analyzed...
October 28, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052008/genome-wide-analysis-and-expression-profiling-of-pp2c-clade-d-under-saline-and-alkali-stresses-in-wild-soybean-and-arabidopsis
#15
Chao Chen, Yang Yu, Xiaodong Ding, Beidong Liu, Huizi Duanmu, Dan Zhu, Xiaoli Sun, Lei Cao, Zaib-Un-Nisa, Qiang Li, Yanming Zhu
Protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs) belong to the largest protein phosphatase family in plants. Some members have been described as being negative modulators of plant growth and development, as well as responses to hormones and environmental stimuli. However, little is known about the members of PP2C clade D, which may be involved in the regulation of signaling pathways, especially in response to saline and alkali stresses. Here, we identified 13 PP2C orthologs from the wild soybean (Glycine soja) genome. We examined the sequence characteristics, chromosome locations and duplications, gene structures, and promoter cis-elements of the PP2C clade D genes in Arabidopsis and wild soybean...
October 19, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043573/structural-and-physiological-responses-of-halodule-wrightii-to-ocean-acidification
#16
Geniane Schneider, Paulo Antunes Horta, Emiliano Nicolas Calderon, Clovis Castro, Adalto Bianchini, Camilla Reis Augusto da Silva, Isabel Brandalise, José Bonomi Barufi, João Silva, Ana Claudia Rodrigues
Coastal areas face high variability of seawater pH. Ocean acidification (OA) and local stressors are enhancing this variability, which poses a threat to marine life. However, these organisms present potential phenotypic plasticity that can offer physiological and structural tools to survive in these extreme conditions. In this study, we evaluated the effects of elevated CO2 levels and consequent pH reduction on the physiology, anatomy and ultrastructure of the seagrass Halodule wrightii. A mesocosm study was conducted in an open system during a 30-day experiment, where different concentrations of CO2 were simulated following the natural variability observed in coastal reef systems...
October 18, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043572/secreted-proteins-produced-by-fungi-associated-with-botryosphaeria-dieback-trigger-distinct-defense-responses-in-vitis-vinifera-and-vitis-rupestris-cells
#17
E Stempien, M-L Goddard, Y Leva, M Bénard-Gellon, H Laloue, S Farine, F Kieffer-Mazet, C Tarnus, C Bertsch, J Chong
Grapevine trunk diseases (Eutypa dieback, esca and Botryosphaeria dieback) are caused by a complex of xylem-inhabiting fungi, which severely reduce yields in vineyards. Botryosphaeria dieback is associated with Botryosphaeriaceae. In order to develop effective strategies against Botryosphaeria dieback, we investigated the molecular basis of grapevine interactions with a virulent species, Neofusicoccum parvum, and a weak pathogen, Diplodia seriata. We investigated defenses induced by purified secreted fungal proteins within suspension cells of Vitis (Vitis rupestris and Vitis vinifera cv...
October 17, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990124/the-induction-of-salt-stress-tolerance-by-propyl-gallate-treatment-in-green-microalga-dunaliella-bardawil-through-enhancing-ascorbate-pool-and-antioxidant-enzymes-activity
#18
Alireza Einali
The effect of propyl gallate (PG), a synthetic antioxidant, on antioxidant responses and salinity tolerance was investigated in the cells of the green microalga, Dunaliella bardawil. Algal suspensions grown at three salinity levels of 1, 2, and 3 M NaCl were incubated with 1 mM of PG. The number of cells was significantly lower in all PG-treated cells compared to untreated controls. Despite PG-induced cell death, the fresh weight of all PG-treated cells was considerably higher than controls. PG-treated cells had enhanced antioxidant capacity because of increased levels of Chlorophyll a, β-carotene, reduced ascorbate, protein, and enzymatic activities, but accumulated lower levels of malonyldialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide compared to untreated cells...
October 8, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988368/post-embryonic-development-of-the-malpighian-tubules-in-apis-mellifera-hymenoptera-workers-morphology-remodeling-apoptosis-and-cell-proliferation
#19
Wagner Gonzaga Gonçalves, Kenner Morais Fernandes, Weyder Cristiano Santana, Gustavo Ferreira Martins, José Cola Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão
The honeybee Apis mellifera has ecological and economic importance; however, it experiences a population decline, perhaps due to exposure to toxic compounds, which are excreted by Malpighian tubules. During metamorphosis of A. mellifera, the Malpighian tubules degenerate and are formed de novo. The objective of this work was to verify the cellular events of the Malpighian tubule renewal in the metamorphosis, which are the gradual steps of cell remodeling, determining different cell types and their roles in the excretory activity in A...
October 7, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975523/analyzing-trichomes-and-spatio-temporal-expression-of-a-cysteine-protease-gene-mucunain-in-mucuna-pruriens-l-dc
#20
Susheel Kumar Singh, Sunita Singh Dhawan
Mucuna pruriens is a well-known legume for the itching attributes of the trichome and a valuable medicinal herb that is used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, sexual debilities, etc. Its cultivation was deprived due to its itching behavior. The wild genotype of M. pruriens have the largest trichome length (2015 ± 29 μm) compared to other genotype and mutants. The white-seeded variety of M. pruriens was found to be the most suitable for large-scale cultivation due to the small trichome size and less trichome density on the pod...
October 3, 2017: Protoplasma
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