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Xiaona Yan, Min Tian, Fen Liu, Caixia Wang, Ying Zhang
With the goal of evaluating the factors that may be influencing the reproductive success of an endangered, terrestrial orchid Cypripedium japonicum Thunb., the anatomical and morphological characteristics of seed development were assessed, as were the levels of endogenous hormones to investigate the possible relationship between hormones and seed development. The results showed that morphological characteristics of seeds were changing from milky white and filiform to brown and fusiform. The development of ovule that initiated on the fertile valves only began after pollination, and a mature embryo sac was produced at 40 days after pollination (DAP)...
May 27, 2017: Protoplasma
Kunihide Kito, Koichi Tsutsumi, Vandna Rai, Cattarin Theerawitaya, Suriyan Cha-Um, Nana Yamada-Kato, Shota Sakakibara, Yoshito Tanaka, Teruhiro Takabe
The present study investigated the significance of serine biosynthetic genes for salt stress in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris). We isolated a total of four genes, two each encoding D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (BvPGDHa and BvPGDHb) and serine hydroxymethyl transferase (BvSHMTa and BvSHMTb). mRNA transcriptional expression for BvPGDHa was significantly enhanced under salt stress conditions in both leaves and roots of sugar beet, whereas it was reduced for BvPGDHb. On the other hand, BvSHMTa was expressed transiently in leaves and roots under salt stress, whereas expression level of BvSHMTb was not altered...
May 26, 2017: Protoplasma
Viktoria Tröster, Tabea Setzer, Thomas Hirth, Anna Pecina, Andreas Kortekamp, Peter Nick
The causative agent of Grapevine Downy Mildew, the oomycete Plasmopara viticola, poses a serious threat to viticulture. In the current work, the contractile vacuole of the zoospore is analysed as potential target for novel plant protection strategies. Using a combination of electron microscopy, spinning disc confocal microscopy, and video differential interference contrast microscopy, we have followed the genesis and dynamics of this vacuole required during the search for the stomata, when the non-walled zoospore is exposed to hypotonic conditions...
May 26, 2017: Protoplasma
Priyanka Varun, S A Ranade, Sangeeta Saxena
Papaya leaf curl disease (PaLCuD) caused by papaya leaf curl virus (PaLCuV) not only affects yield but also plant growth and fruit size and quality of papaya and is one of the most damaging and economically important disease. Management of PaLCuV is a challenging task due to diversity of viral strains, the alternate hosts, and the genomic complexities of the viruses. Several management strategies currently used by plant virologists to broadly control or eliminate the viruses have been discussed. In the absence of such strategies in the case of PaLCuV at present, the few available options to control the disease include methods like removal of affected plants from the field, insecticide treatments against the insect vector (Bemisia tabaci), and gene-specific control through transgenic constructs...
May 25, 2017: Protoplasma
Bi-Li Cao, Lili Wang, Song Gao, Jie Xia, Kun Xu
Plants frequently experience drought stress. It is well known that silicon (Si) facilitates recovery from drought stress by improving drought resistance in plants. However, the effects of Si on the roots associated with the drought resistance in plants remain elusive. In this study, tomato (cv. 'Jinpeng 1(#)') was adopted to study the silicon-mediated drought avoidance and drought tolerance. The results showed that exogenous Si evidently influenced the drought-induced changes of the related indicators. Roots added with Si were more adaptable to drought stress...
May 23, 2017: Protoplasma
Peter Nick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Protoplasma
Bartosz J Płachno, Piotr Świątek, Małgorzata Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Zbigniew Szeląg, Piotr Stolarczyk
Members of the genera Hieracium and Pilosella are model plants that are used to study the mechanisms of apomixis. In order to have a proper understanding of apomixis, knowledge about the relationship between the maternal tissue and the gametophyte is needed. In the genus Pilosella, previous authors have described the specific process of the "liquefaction" of the integument cells that surround the embryo sac. However, these observations were based on data only at the light microscopy level. The main aim of our paper was to investigate the changes in the integument cells at the ultrastructural level in Pilosella officinarum and Hieracium alpinum...
May 15, 2017: Protoplasma
Andrzej Kaźmierczak, Magdalena Doniak, Anita Kunikowska
Programmed cell death (PCD) is a crucial process in plant development. In this paper, proteolytically related aspects of kinetin-induced PCD in cortex cells of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings were examined using morphological, fluorometric, spectrophotometric, and fluorescence microscopic analyses. Cell viability estimation after 46 μM kinetin treatment of seedling roots showed that the number of dying cortex cells increased with treatment duration, reaching maximum after 72 h. Weight of the apical root segments increased with time and was about 2...
May 13, 2017: Protoplasma
Kristen D Felt, Makayla B Lagerman, Nigel A Ravida, Lu Qian, Samantha R Powers, Leocadia V Paliulis
In meiosis I, homologous chromosomes combine to form bivalents, which align on the metaphase plate. Homologous chromosomes then separate in anaphase I. Univalent sex chromosomes, on the other hand, are unable to segregate in the same way as homologous chromosomes of bivalents due to their lack of a homologous pairing partner in meiosis I. Here, we studied univalent segregation in a Hemipteran insect: the spittlebug Philaenus spumarius. We determined the chromosome number and sex determination mechanism in our population of P...
May 6, 2017: Protoplasma
Xiangjing Yin, Li Huang, Xiuming Zhang, Chunlei Guo, Hao Wang, Zhi Li, Xiping Wang
Resveratrol is a stilbene compound that is synthesized by plants in response to biotic stress and has been linked to health benefits associated with the consumption of certain foods and food products, such as grapes and wine. The final step in the biosynthesis of resveratrol is catalyzed by the enzyme stilbene synthase (STS). Here, we assessed the expression of two STS genes (VqSTS36 and VpSTS36) from the wild grape species Vitis quinquangularis (accession 'Shang-24'; powdery mildew (PM) resistant) and Vitis pseudoreticulata (accession 'Hunan-1'; PM susceptible) following infection by Uncinula necator (Schw...
May 4, 2017: Protoplasma
Pavel Dráber, Agustin Legido, Peter W Baas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Protoplasma
Min Jiao, Chenglong Tan, Long Wang, Jia Guo, Hongchang Zhang, Zhensheng Kang, Jun Guo
Stripe rust (Yellow rust) caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is a major disease of wheat worldwide. The use of resistant cultivars to control Pst has been very effective, low-cost, and ecologically sound. However, virulence patterns of Pst can quickly change, which may render resistant cultivars susceptible. The discovery of infection of Berberis spp. by basidiospores of Pst in 2010 raised important concerns about the evolution of new virulent races of the pathogen. Little is known about the infection process of Berberis spp...
April 29, 2017: Protoplasma
Madhusmita Pradhan, Ranjan Kumar Sahoo, Chinmay Pradhan, Narendra Tuteja, Santanu Mohanty
The present investigation analyzes the in vitro P solubilization [Ca-P, Al-P, Fe(II)-P, and Fe(III)-P] efficiency of native PSB strains from acid soils of Odisha and exploitation of the same through biofertilization in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) growth and P acquisition. One hundred six numbers of soil samples with pH ≤ 5.50 were collected from five districts of Odisha viz., Balasore, Cuttack, Khordha, Keonjhar, and Mayurbhanj. One bacterial isolate from each district were selected and analyzed for their P solubilization efficiency in National Botanical Research Institute Phosphate broths with Ca, Al, and Fe-complexed phosphates...
April 28, 2017: Protoplasma
Valeria Barbierato, Tea Sala, Paola Rinaldi, Laura Bassolino, Lorenzo Barchi, Giuseppe Leonardo Rotino, Laura Toppino
Endogenous housekeeping genes are traditionally employed to normalize the expression of target genes in RT-qPCR studies. Assuming that a perfect housekeeping suitable for every condition does not exist, expression stability of the chosen reference gene should be evaluated at every new experiment. The housekeeping selection process reveals furthermore complicated and time-consuming when different conditions have to be compared in the same experimental dataset. As an alternative strategy, we spiked an external reference transcript (ERT) into all RNA samples of our dataset (eggplant roots subjected to different biotic stresses), and used it to normalize the expression levels of native candidate housekeeping...
April 21, 2017: Protoplasma
Paola Pérez-Flores, Eduardo Valencia-Cantero, Josué Altamirano-Hernández, Ramón Pelagio-Flores, José López-Bucio, Perla García-Juárez, Lourdes Macías-Rodríguez
Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria stimulate plant growth and development via different mechanisms. In this study, we characterized the effect of volatiles from Bacillus methylotrophicus M4-96 isolated from the maize rhizosphere on root and shoot development, and auxin homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Phytostimulation occurred after 4 days of interaction between M4-96 and Arabidopsis grown on opposite sides of divided Petri plates, as revealed by enhanced primary root growth, root branching, leaf formation, and shoot biomass accumulation...
April 12, 2017: Protoplasma
Saška Lipovšek, Franc Janžekovič, Tone Novak
The herald moths, Scoliopteryx libatrix, overwinter in hypogean habitats. The ultrastructure of their fat body (FB) cells and Malpighian tubule (MT) epithelial cells was studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and essential biometric and biochemical measurements were performed. The FB was composed of adipocytes and sparse urocytes. The ultrastructure of both cells did not change considerably during this natural starvation period, except for rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) which became more abundant in March females...
April 11, 2017: Protoplasma
Stella M Solís, Lucía M Zini, Valeria V González, María S Ferrucci
We investigated the morphology and structure of the floral nectary in 11 Neotropical genera belonging to the subfamilies Dodonaeoideae and Paullinioideae (Sapindaceae) from southern South America representing three tribes (Dodonaeaeae, Paullinieae, and Melicocceae), in relation to other floral traits in species with contrasting morphological flower characteristics. Nectary organization was analyzed under light, stereoscopic, and scanning electron microscopes; Diplokeleba floribunda N.E. Br. was also observed using transmission electron microscopy...
April 10, 2017: Protoplasma
Renata Minuzzo Hartmann, Francielli Licks, Elizângela Gonçalves Schemitt, Josieli Raskopf Colares, Mariana do Couto Soares, Gilmara Pandolfo Zabot, Henrique Sarubbi Fillmann, Norma Possa Marroni
Intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) causes cellular and tissue damage to the intestine and remote organs such as the liver. Increased production of ROS and nitric oxide and dysregulation of cytoprotective enzymes may be involved in intestinal I/R. The aim was to evaluate the protective effects of glutamine on the intestine and liver of rats with intestinal I/R injury. Twenty male Wistar rats (300 g) were divided into four groups: sham-operated (SO), glutamine + SO (G + SO), I/R, and glutamine + I/R (G + I/R)...
April 5, 2017: Protoplasma
Arshid Hussain Ganie, Altaf Ahmad, Peerzada Yasir Yousuf, Renu Pandey, Sayeed Ahmad, Ibrahim M Aref, Muhammad Iqbal
Sustainable development of cellular organisms depends on a precise coordination between the carbon and nitrogen metabolisms within the living system. Inorganic N is assimilated into amino acids which serve as an important N source for various regulatory metabolic pathways in plants. This study investigates the role of amino acids in C/N balance by examining changes in amino acid profile in the leaves and roots of low-N-tolerant (PHEM-2) and low-N-sensitive (HM-4) maize genotypes grown hydroponically under N-sufficient (4...
March 31, 2017: Protoplasma
Nicola Vitulo, Luisa Dalla Valle, Tatjana Skobo, Giorgio Valle, Lorenzo Alibardi
Amputated tails of lizards regenerate while limbs form scars which histological structure is very different from the original organs. Lizards provide useful information for regenerative medicine and some hypotheses on the loss of regeneration in terrestrial vertebrates. Analysis of tail and limb transcriptomes shows strong downregulation in the tail blastema for immunoglobulins and surface B and T receptors, cell function, and metabolism. In contrast, in the limb blastema genes for myogenesis, muscle and cell function, and extracellular matrix deposition but not immunity are variably downregulated...
March 29, 2017: Protoplasma
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