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Protoplasma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718010/peter-sitte-1929-2015-a-theistic-cell-biologist
#1
EDITORIAL
Ulrich Kutschera, Peter Nick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718009/relative-salinity-tolerance-of-rice-cultivars-native-to-north-east-india-a-physiological-biochemical-and-molecular-perspective
#2
Takhellambam Omisun, Smita Sahoo, Bedabrata Saha, Sanjib Kumar Panda
Salinity is the second most prevalent abiotic stress faced by plants, and rice is not an exception. Through this study, it has been tried upon, to study the relative salinity tolerance of eight local varieties of North East India. Preliminary screening was based on their dose- and time-dependent physiological responses to salinity stress. Among the cultivars, Tampha was found to be relatively more tolerant, whereas MSE9 the most sensitive. To further ascertain their tolerance capacity, MDA and H2O2 content was determined, which also confirmed the tolerance level of the two cultivars...
July 17, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710664/role-of-sodium-ion-transporters-and-osmotic-adjustments-in-stress-alleviation-of-cynodon-dactylon-under-nacl-treatment-a-parallel-investigation-with-rice
#3
Swarnendu Roy, Usha Chakraborty
Comparative analyses of the responses to NaCl in Cynodon dactylon and a sensitive crop species like rice could effectively unravel the salt tolerance mechanism in the former. C. dactylon, a wild perennial chloridoid grass having a wide range of ecological distribution is generally adaptable to varying degrees of salinity stress. The role of salt exclusion mechanism present exclusively in the wild grass was one of the major factors contributing to its tolerance. Salt exclusion was found to be induced at 4 days when the plants were treated with a minimum conc...
July 15, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702759/evaluation-of-dna-damage-in-tobacco-male-meiocytes-involved-in-cytomixis-using-comet-assay
#4
Sergey Mursalimov, Alla Zagorskaya, Elena Deineko
Cytomixis is a process of nuclear migration between plant cells. As a rule, it is detectable in male meiocytes and gives rise to the cells with micronuclei. Examination of the integrity and functional state of migrating chromatin is of great interest, since cytomixis is assumed to change the gamete karyotype. We, for the first time, used comet assay to assess the DNA integrity in the chromatin that migrates between plant meiocytes. As was shown, the cells involved in cytomixis are viable and display no signs of DNA damage...
July 12, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699026/aminolevulinic-acid-and-nitric-oxide-regulate-oxidative-defense-and-secondary-metabolisms-in-canola-brassica-napus-l-under-drought-stress
#5
Nudrat Aisha Akram, Majid Iqbal, Atta Muhammad, Muhammad Ashraf, Fahad Al-Qurainy, Sidra Shafiq
To minimize the damaging effects of stresses, plant growth regulators (PGRs) are widely used to sustain the plant life under stress-prone environments. So, a study was carried out to evaluate the response of two canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars, Dunkeld and Cyclone, to foliar-applied two potential PGRs, nitric oxide (NO) and 5-aminolevulinic acid, under water deficit conditions. In this study, the levels of NO and ALA used were 0.02 and 0.895 mM, respectively. Plants of both canola cultivars were subjected to control (100% field capacity) and water deficit (60% field capacity)...
July 12, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699025/polyamines-increase-nitric-oxide-and-reactive-oxygen-species-in-guard-cells-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-during-stomatal-closure
#6
Srinivas Agurla, Gunja Gayatri, Agepati S Raghavendra
A comprehensive study which was undertaken on the effect of three polyamines (PAs) on stomatal closure was examined in relation to nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in guard cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. Three PAs-putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm)-induced stomatal closure, while increasing the levels of NO as well as ROS in guard cells. The roles of NO and ROS were confirmed by the reversal of closure by cPTIO (NO scavenger) and catalase (ROS scavenger). The presence of L-NAME (NOS-like enzyme inhibitor) reversed PA-induced stomatal closure, suggesting that NOS-like enzyme played a significant role in NO production during stomatal closure...
July 11, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667412/exogenous-salicylic-acid-mediated-modulation-of-arsenic-stress-tolerance-with-enhanced-accumulation-of-secondary-metabolites-and-improved-size-of-glandular-trichomes-in-artemisia-annua-l
#7
Anjana Kumari, Neha Pandey, Shashi Pandey-Rai
The present study was undertaken to find out individual and interactive effects of arsenic (As) and salicylic acid (SA) on an important medicinal plant, Artemisia annua. As uptake and its accumulation was detected and found to be maximum in roots at higher As concentration (150 μM). Under As treatments, H2O2 and MDA content were induced. Biomass and chlorophyll content were negatively affected under As treatments. Furthermore, enzymatic (SOD, CAT, APX, and GR) and non-enzymatic antioxidants were also enhanced under As treatments...
June 30, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667411/symbiotic-microorganisms-in-puto-superbus-leonardi-1907-insecta-hemiptera-coccomorpha-putoidae
#8
Teresa Szklarzewicz, Małgorzata Kalandyk-Kołodziejczyk, Katarzyna Michalik, Władysława Jankowska, Anna Michalik
The scale insect Puto superbus (Putoidae) lives in mutualistic symbiotic association with bacteria. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed that symbionts of P. superbus belong to the gammaproteobacterial genus Sodalis. In the adult females, symbionts occur both in the bacteriocytes constituting compact bacteriomes and in individual bacteriocytes, which are dispersed among ovarioles. The bacteriocytes also house a few small, rod-shaped Wolbachia bacteria in addition to the numerous large, elongated Sodalis-allied bacteria...
June 30, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667410/pollen-wall-ontogeny-in-polemonium-caeruleum-polemoniaceae-and-suggested-underlying-mechanisms-of-development
#9
Valentina V Grigorjeva, Nina Gabarayeva
By a detailed ontogenetic study of Polemonium caeruleum pollen, tracing each stage of development at high TEM resolution, we aim to understand the establishment of the pollen wall and to unravel the mechanisms underlying sporoderm development. The main steps of exine ontogeny in Polemonium caeruleum, observed in the microspore periplasmic space, are spherical units, gradually transforming into columns, then to rod-like units (procolumellae), the appearance of the initial tectum, growth of columellae in height and tectum in thickness and initial sporopollenin accumulation on them, the appearance of the endexine lamellae and of dark-contrasted particles on the tectum, the appearance of a sponge-like layer and of the intine in aperture sites, the appearance of the foot layer on the base of the sponge-like layer and of spinules on the tectum, and massive sporopollenin accumulation...
June 30, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653245/muscadinia-rotundifolia-noble-defense-response-to-plasmopara-viticola-inoculation-by-inducing-phytohormone-mediated-stilbene-accumulation
#10
Chaoxia Wang, Jiao Wu, Yali Zhang, Jiang Lu
Downy mildew (DM), one of the most devastating grape diseases worldwide, is caused by the biotrophic oomycete Plasmopara viticola (Pv). In general, grapevine responds to Pv infection with the accumulation of phytoalexins as part of the innate immune system, and diverse phytoalexins are induced on grapevines with different DM-resistance levels in response to Pv invasion. However, the regulation of phytoalexin biosynthesis during grapevine against Pv is still unclear. Herein, we detected stilbenes by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS and found that resveratrol was accumulated to higher level and earlier in the DM-immune Muscadinia rotundifolia 'Noble' than that in the DM-susceptible Vitis vinifera 'Thompson Seedless' after Pv inoculation...
June 26, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643085/exogenous-application-of-nitric-oxide-modulates-osmolyte-metabolism-antioxidants-enzymes-of-ascorbate-glutathione-cycle-and-promotes-growth-under-cadmium-stress-in-tomato
#11
Parvaiz Ahmad, Mohammed Abass Ahanger, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Leonard Wijaya, Pravej Alam
Experiments were carried out to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in ameliorating the negative effects of cadmium stress in tomato seedlings. Plants treated with cadmium (CdCl2, 150 μM) showed reduced growth, biomass yield, pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and gas exchange parameters. Exogenous application of NO donor (sodium nitroprusside) with nutrient solution protected chlorophyll pigments, restored chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange parameters, and caused significant enhancements in growth and biomass yield...
June 22, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643084/influence-of-knockout-of-at4g20990-gene-encoding-%C3%AE-ca4-on-photosystem-ii-light-harvesting-antenna-in-plants-grown-under-different-light-intensities-and-day-lengths
#12
Natalia N Rudenko, Tatyana P Fedorchuk, Daria V Vetoshkina, Elena M Zhurikova, Lyudmila K Ignatova, Boris N Ivanov
Effect of knockout of the At4g20990 gene encoding α-carbonic anhydrase 4 (α-CA4) in Arabidopsis thaliana in plants grown in low light (LL, 80 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) or in high light (HL, 400 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) under long (LD, 16 h) or short (SD, 8 h) day length was studied. In α-CA4 knockout plants, under all studied conditions, the non-photochemical quenching was lower; the decrease was more pronounced under HL. This pointed to α-CA4 implication in the processes leading to energy dissipation in PSII antenna...
June 22, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620698/potential-disease-biomarkers-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-and-fibroblast-activation-protein
#13
REVIEW
Roger Yazbeck, Simone E Jaenisch, Catherine A Abbott
The importance of the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) gene family in regulating critical biochemical pathways continues to emerge. The two most well-studied members of the family, DPP4 and fibroblast activation protein (FAP), have been investigated both as therapeutic targets for disease and as diagnostic biomarkers. The interest in DPP4 and FAP as potential disease biomarkers has been driven primarily by observations of altered expression profiles in inflammatory diseases and cancer. Furthermore, the stability and persistence of soluble DPP4 and FAP in the serum make them attractive candidate serology markers...
June 16, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620697/calreticulin-localizes-to-plant-intra-extracellular-peripheries-of-highly-specialized-cells-involved-in-pollen-pistil-interactions
#14
Piotr Wasąg, Anna Suwińska, Przemysław Zakrzewski, Jakub Walczewski, Robert Lenartowski, Marta Lenartowska
Calcium (Ca(2+)) plays essential roles in generative reproduction of angiosperms, but the sites and mechanisms of Ca(2+) storage and mobilization during pollen-pistil interactions have not been fully defined. Both external and internal Ca(2+) stores are likely important during male gametophyte communication with the sporophytic and gametophytic cells within the pistil. Given that calreticulin (CRT), a Ca(2+)-buffering protein, is able to bind Ca(2+) reversibly, it can serve as a mobile store of easily releasable Ca(2+) (so called an exchangeable Ca(2+)) in eukaryotic cells...
June 15, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612274/fine-structure-of-the-midgut-epithelium-in-the-millipede-telodeinopus-aoutii-myriapoda-diplopoda-with-special-emphasis-on-epithelial-regeneration
#15
M M Rost-Roszkowska, M Kszuk-Jendrysik, A Marchewka, I Poprawa
The midgut of millipedes is composed of a simple epithelium that rests on a basal lamina, which is surrounded by visceral muscles and hepatic cells. As the material for our studies, we chose Telodeinopus aoutii (Demange, 1971) (Kenyan millipede) (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida), which lives in the rain forests of Central Africa. This commonly reared species is easy to obtain from local breeders and easy to culture in the laboratory. During our studies, we used transmission and scanning electron microscopes and light and fluorescent microscopes...
June 14, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602011/differences-in-the-fruit-structure-and-the-location-and-content-of-bioactive-substances-in-viburnum-opulus-and-viburnum-lantana-fruits
#16
Agata Konarska, Marcin Domaciuk
Many Viburnum species are popular ornamental shrubs and, simultaneously, highly valued medicinal plants as a source of many bioactive compounds, including antioxidants. Viburnum bark, flowers, and fruits are widely used in traditional and folk medicine, and the fruits of some species are used as cooking ingredients. The knowledge of the microstructure of Viburnum fruits and the accumulation sites of bioactive substances in these organs is rather poor. Comparative analyses of the microstructure of ripe Viburnum opulus and Viburnum lantana drupes were carried out using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopes...
June 10, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573335/combined-effect-of-24-epibrassinolide-and-salicylic-acid-mitigates-lead-pb-toxicity-by-modulating-various-metabolites-in-brassica-juncea-l-seedlings
#17
Sukhmeen Kaur Kohli, Neha Handa, Anket Sharma, Vandana Gautam, Saroj Arora, Renu Bhardwaj, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Leonard Wijaya, Parvaiz Ahmad
The present study demonstrated the combined effect of 24-epibrassinolide and salicylic acid against lead (Pb, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 mM) toxicity in Brassica juncea seedlings. Various parameters including water status, metal uptake, total water- and lipid-soluble antioxidants, metal chelator content (total thiols, protein-bound thiols, and non-protein-bound thiols), phenolic compounds (flavonoids, anthocyanins, and polyphenols), and organic acids were studied in 10-day-old seedlings. Dry matter content and the heavy metal tolerance index were reduced by 42...
June 1, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551700/macroautophagy-occurs-in-distal-tmv-uninfected-root-tip-tissue-of-tomato-taking-place-systemic-pcd
#18
Shumin Zhou, Qiang Hong, Yang Li, Qi Li, Ruisha Li, Hongli Zhang, Mao Wang, Xiaojun Yuan
Autophagy is an important mechanism for recycling cell materials upon encountering stress conditions. Our previous studies had shown that TMV infection could lead to systemic PCD in the distal uninfected tissues, including root tip and shoot tip tissues. But it is not clear whether there is autophagy in the distal apical meristem of TMV-induced plants. To better understand the autophagy process during systemic PCD, here we investigated the formation and type of autophagy in the root meristem cells occurring PCD...
May 27, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550470/hormonal-and-morphological-changes-during-seed-development-of-cypripedium-japonicum
#19
Xiaona Yan, Min Tian, Fen Liu, Caixia Wang, Ying Zhang
With the goal of evaluating the factors that may be influencing the reproductive success of an endangered, terrestrial orchid Cypripedium japonicum Thunb., the anatomical and morphological characteristics of seed development were assessed, as were the levels of endogenous hormones to investigate the possible relationship between hormones and seed development. The results showed that morphological characteristics of seeds were changing from milky white and filiform to brown and fusiform. The development of ovule that initiated on the fertile valves only began after pollination, and a mature embryo sac was produced at 40 days after pollination (DAP)...
May 27, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550469/isolation-and-functional-characterization-of-3-phosphoglycerate-dehydrogenase-involved-in-salt-responses-in-sugar-beet
#20
Kunihide Kito, Koichi Tsutsumi, Vandna Rai, Cattarin Theerawitaya, Suriyan Cha-Um, Nana Yamada-Kato, Shota Sakakibara, Yoshito Tanaka, Teruhiro Takabe
The present study investigated the significance of serine biosynthetic genes for salt stress in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris). We isolated a total of four genes, two each encoding D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (BvPGDHa and BvPGDHb) and serine hydroxymethyl transferase (BvSHMTa and BvSHMTb). mRNA transcriptional expression for BvPGDHa was significantly enhanced under salt stress conditions in both leaves and roots of sugar beet, whereas it was reduced for BvPGDHb. On the other hand, BvSHMTa was expressed transiently in leaves and roots under salt stress, whereas expression level of BvSHMTb was not altered...
May 26, 2017: Protoplasma
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