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Cliver Fernandes Farder-Gomes, Helen Cristina Pinto Santos, Marco Antonio Oliveira, José Cola Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão
Eibesfeldtphora tonhascai (Diptera: Phoridae) is a parasitoid of leaf-cutting ants and a potential biological control agent against these insect pests. This study describes the morphology of the ovary and spermatheca of E. tonhascai. The female reproductive tract of this parasitoid has a pair of meroistic polytrophic ovaries, two lateral oviducts that open into a common oviduct, an elongated accessory gland, and two spermathecae. Young oocytes are small and spherical, and their size increases as yolk is stored in the cytoplasm...
June 16, 2018: Protoplasma
Lorenzo Alibardi
The digital adhesive pads that allow gecko lizards to climb vertical surfaces result from the modification of the oberhautchen layer of the epidermis in normal scales. This produces sticky filaments of 10-100 μm in length, called setae that are composed of various proteins. The prevalent types, termed corneous beta proteins (CBPs), have a low molecular weight (12-20 kDa) and contain a conserved central region of 34 amino acids with a beta-conformation. This determines their polymerization into long beta-filaments that aggregate into corneous beta-bundles that form the framework of setae...
June 7, 2018: Protoplasma
Jinbo Hu, Yang Shi, Yuan Liu, Shanshan Chang
The main product of Camellia oleifera is edible oil made from the seeds, but huge quantities of agro-waste are produced in the form of shells. The primary components of C. oleifera fruit shell are cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, which probably make it a good eco-friendly non-wood material. Understanding the structure of the shell is however a prerequisite to making full use of it. The anatomical structure of C. oleifera fruit shells was investigated from macroscopic to ultrastructural scale by stereoscopic, optical, and scanning electron microscopy...
June 4, 2018: Protoplasma
Peter Nick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 4, 2018: Protoplasma
Jacek Jachuła, Agata Konarska, Bożena Denisow
The self-incompatible flowers of Linaria vulgaris have developed a range of mechanisms for attraction of insect visitors/pollinators and deterrence of ineffective pollinators and herbivores. These adaptive traits include the flower size and symmetry, the presence of a spur as a "secondary nectar presenter," olfactory (secondary metabolites) and sensual (scent, flower color, nectar guide-contrasting palate) signals, and floral rewards, i.e. pollen and nectar. Histochemical tests revealed that the floral glandular trichomes produced essential oils and flavonoids, and pollen grains contained flavonoids, terpenoids, and steroids, which play a role of olfactory attractants/repellents...
June 3, 2018: Protoplasma
Fernanda Raquel Martins Abreu, Beata Dedicova, Rosana Pereira Vianello, Anna Cristina Lanna, João Augusto Vieira de Oliveira, Ariadna Faria Vieira, Odilon Peixoto Morais, João Antônio Mendonça, Claudio Brondani
This work aimed to evaluate the drought tolerance of transformed plants of the cultivar BRSMG Curinga that overexpress the rice phospholipase D α1 (OsPLDα1) gene. The productivity of independent transformation event plants of the OsPLDα1 gene was evaluated in an experiment where 19 days of water deficit were applied at the reproductive stage, a very strict growing condition for upland rice. The non-genetically modified cultivar (NGM) under drought treatment reduced productivity by 89% compared with that under irrigated treatment, whereas transformed plants (PLDα1_E2) reduced productivity by only 41%...
May 30, 2018: Protoplasma
Dung Tien Le, Kim-Lien Nguyen, Ha Duc Chu, Nam Tuan Vu, Thu Thi Ly Pham, Lam-Son Phan Tran
In plants, two types of methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR) exist, namely methionine-S-sulfoxide reductase (MSRA) and methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase (MSRB). These enzymes catalyze the reduction of methionine sulfoxides (MetO) back to methionine (Met) by a catalytic cysteine (Cys) and one or two resolving Cys residues. Interestingly, a group of MSRA encoded by plant genomes does not have a catalytic residue. We asked that if this group of MSRA did not have any function (as fitness), why it was not lost during the evolutionary process...
May 28, 2018: Protoplasma
Ana Carvalho, Fernanda Leal, Manuela Matos, José Lima-Brito
Grapevine varieties respond differentially to heat stress (HS). HS ultimately reduces the photosynthesis and respiratory performance. However, the HS effects in the leaf nuclei and mitotic cells of grapevine are barely known. This work intends to evaluate the HS effects in the leaf mitotic cell cycle and chromosomes of four wine-producing varieties: Touriga Franca (TF), Touriga Nacional (TN), Rabigato, and Viosinho. In vitro plants with 11 months were used in a stepwise acclimation and recovery (SAR) experimental setup comprising different phases: heat acclimation period (3 h-32 °C), extreme HS (1 h-42 °C), and two recovery periods (3 h-32 °C and 24 h-25 °C), and compared to control plants (maintained in vitro at 25 °C)...
May 22, 2018: Protoplasma
Mayara Pereira Gonçalves, Maria Olívia Mercadante-Simões, Leonardo Monteiro Ribeiro
Latex is a complex plant secretion with both ecological and economic importance. There is little information currently available on the cytological aspects of the ontogenesis of anastomosed laticifers, the ducts originating through the lysis of adjacent cell walls. Hancornia speciosa is a tree typical of the Cerrado (neotropical savanna) biome. Its latex has medicinal value and is also used to produce rubber. The ontogenesis of its laticifers and the process of latex synthesis are described here. Structural, cytochemical, and ultrastructural analyses of the stem apex and phytochemical analyses of the latex were performed...
May 18, 2018: Protoplasma
Asena Goren, Daniel Ashlock, Ian J Tetlow
Starch is a water-insoluble polyglucan synthesized inside the plastid stroma within plant cells, serving a crucial role in the carbon budget of the whole plant by acting as a short-term and long-term store of energy. The highly complex, hierarchical structure of the starch granule arises from the actions of a large suite of enzyme activities, in addition to physicochemical self-assembly mechanisms. This review outlines current knowledge of the starch biosynthetic pathway operating in plant cells in relation to the micro- and macro-structures of the starch granule...
May 17, 2018: Protoplasma
Virgínia Teles Dohanik, Wagner Gonzaga Gonçalves, Leandro Licursi Oliveira, José Cola Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão
Vitellogenin receptor (VgR) is a low-density lipoprotein receptor responsible for the mediated endocytosis of vitellogenin (Vg) during egg formation in insects. The maturing oocyte is enveloped by a follicular epithelium, which has large intercellular spaces during Vg accumulation (patency). However, Vg has been reported in the cytoplasm of follicular cells, indicating that there may be a transcellular route for its transport. This study verified the presence of VgR in the follicular cells of the ovaries of the honeybee Apis mellifera and the wasp Polistes simillimus in order to evaluate if Vg is transported via transcytosis in these insects...
May 13, 2018: Protoplasma
Luis Carlos Martínez, Angelica Plata-Rueda, Guilherme da Silva Neves, Jamile Fernanda Cossolin, Marcelo Henrique Dos Santos, José Cola Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão
The osmeterium, found in papilionoid larvae, is an eversible organ with an exocrine gland that produces substances in response to the mechanical disturbances caused by natural enemies. The anatomy, histology and ultrastructure of the osmeterium, and the chemical composition of its secretion in Heraclides thoas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) were studied. Heraclides thoas larvae have a Y-shaped osmeterium in the thorax. The surface of the osmeterium has a rough cuticle lining cells with papillae and irregular folds, whereas the cells that limited the gland pores are irregular, folded, and devoid of papillae...
May 11, 2018: Protoplasma
Nevena Mitić, Mariana Stanišić, Jelena Savić, Tatjana Ćosić, Nemanja Stanisavljević, Jovanka Miljuš-Đukić, Marija Marin, Svetlana Radović, Slavica Ninković
Chenopodium murale L. is an invasive weed species significantly interfering with wheat crop. However, the complete nature of its allelopathic influence on crops is not yet fully understood. In the present study, the focus is made on establishing the relation between plant morphophysiological changes and oxidative stress, induced by allelopathic extract. Phytotoxic medium of C. murale hairy root clone R5 reduced the germination rate (24% less than control value) of wheat cv. Nataša seeds, as well as seedling growth, diminishing shoot and root length significantly, decreased total chlorophyll content, and induced abnormal root gravitropism...
May 10, 2018: Protoplasma
Priscila da Silva Pereira, Letícia de Almeida Gonçalves, Marcos José da Silva, Maria Helena Rezende
The published online version contains mistake. The author name Letícia de Almeida Golçalves should be Letícia de Almeida Gonçalves. Corrected name is shown in the author group section above.
May 9, 2018: Protoplasma
Vijayata Singh, Ajit Pal Singh, Jyoti Bhadoria, Jitender Giri, Jogendra Singh, Vineeth T V, P C Sharma
The understanding of physio-biochemical and molecular attributes along with morphological traits contributing to the salinity tolerance is important for developing salt-tolerant rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties. To explore these facts, rice genotypes CSR10 and MI48 with contrasting salt tolerance were characterized under salt stress (control, 75 and 150 mM NaCl) conditions. CSR10 expressed higher rate of physio-biochemical parameters, maintained lower Na/K ratio in shoots, and restricted Na translocation from roots to shoots than MI48...
May 8, 2018: Protoplasma
Yuan-Hong Qi, Fang-Fang Mao, Zhu-Qing Zhou, Dong-Cheng Liu, Min-Yu, Xiang-Yi Deng, Ji-Wei Li, Fang-Zhu Mei
It has been shown in mammalian systems that the mitochondria can play a key role in the regulation of apoptosis by releasing intermembrane proteins (such as cytochrome c) into the cytosol. Cytochrome c released from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm activates proteolytic enzyme cascades, leading to specific nuclear DNA degradation and cell death. This pathway is considered to be one of the important regulatory mechanisms of apoptosis. Previous studies have shown that endosperm cell development in wheat undergoes specialized programmed cell death (PCD) and that waterlogging stress accelerates the PCD process; however, little is known regarding the associated molecular mechanism...
May 2, 2018: Protoplasma
Priscila da Silva Pereira, Letícia de Almeida Golçalves, Marcos José da Silva, Maria Helena Rezende
Considering the importance of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) in Fabaceae, the objectives of this research were to analyze (1) the anatomical and histochemical characteristics of the EFNs of Chamaecrista ramosa var. ramosa, C. ramosa var. curvifoliola, C. ramosa var. parvifoliola, and C. ramosa var. lucida and (2) the ultrastructure of the EFNs of C. ramosa var. ramosa. Standard techniques in plant anatomy and transmission electron microscopy were used. The anatomical analyses confirmed the characteristics described for extrafloral nectaries, evidencing three well-defined regions: epidermis, nectariferous, and subnectariferous parenchymas...
April 27, 2018: Protoplasma
Alexander A Bulychev, Anna A Rybina
Local illumination of the characean internode with a 30-s pulse of white light was found to induce the delayed transient increase of modulated chlorophyll fluorescence in shaded cell parts, provided the analyzed region is located downstream in the cytoplasmic flow at millimeter distances from the light spot. The fluorescence response to photostimulation of a remote cell region indicates that the metabolites produced by source chloroplasts in an illuminated region are carried downstream with the cytoplasmic flow, thus ensuring long-distance communications between anchored plastids in giant internodal cells...
April 27, 2018: Protoplasma
Juanni Yao, Dan Yu, Yulin Cheng, Zhensheng Kang
Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe euonymi-japonici (Eej) is an increasingly serious fungal disease on Euonymus japonicus that is an important ornamental plant. However, little is currently known about infection and pathogenesis of Eej on E. japonicus. Here, we report plant infection by Eej at the histological and cytological levels. Eej caused severe disease symptoms with white and snow-like colonies on leaf surfaces of E. japonicus. Microscopic observations were conducted continuously to define infection process of Eej on E...
April 25, 2018: Protoplasma
Inna Chaban, Marat Khaliluev, Ekaterina Baranova, Neonila Kononenko, Sergey Dolgov, Elena Smirnova
Parthenocarpy and fruit malformations are common among independent transgenic tomato lines, expressing genes encoding different pathogenesis-related (PR) protein and antimicrobal peptides. Abnormal phenotype developed independently of the expression and type of target genes, but distinctive features during flower and fruit development were detected in each transgenic line. We analyzed the morphology, anatomy, and cytoembryology of abnormal flowers and fruits from these transgenic tomato lines and compared them with flowers and fruits of wild tomatoes, line YaLF used for transformation, and transgenic plants with normal phenotype...
April 21, 2018: Protoplasma
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