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A Borchers, M Deckena, H Buschmann
Although rather inconspicuous, movements are an important adaptive trait of plants. Consequently, light- or gravity-induced movements leading to organ bending have been studied intensively. In the field, however, plant movements often result in organ twisting rather than bending. This study investigates the mechanism of light- or gravity-induced twisting movements, coined "helical tropisms." Because certain Arabidopsis cell expansion mutants show organ twisting under standard growth conditions, we here investigated how the right-handed helical growth mutant tortifolia1/spiral2 (tor1) responds when stimulated to perform helical tropisms...
April 13, 2018: Protoplasma
Jitendra Kumar, Samatha Gunapati, Shahryar F Kianian, Sudhir P Singh
Drought tolerance is a complex trait that is governed by multiple genes. The study presents differential transcriptome analysis between drought-tolerant (Triticum aestivum Cv. C306) and drought-sensitive (Triticum aestivum Cv. WL711) genotypes, using Affymetrix GeneChip® Wheat Genome Array. Both genotypes exhibited diverse global transcriptional responses under control and drought conditions. Pathway analysis suggested significant induction or repression of genes involved in secondary metabolism, nucleic acid synthesis, protein synthesis, and transport in C306, as compared to WL711...
April 12, 2018: Protoplasma
Stanislav Yu Veselov, Leila N Timergalina, Guzel R Akhiyarova, Guzel R Kudoyarova, Alla V Korobova, Igor Ivanov, Tatiana N Arkhipova, Els Prinsen
The aim of the present report was to demonstrate how a novel approach for immunohistochemical localization of cytokinins in the leaf and particularly in the phloem may complement to the study of their long-distance transport. Different procedures of fixation were used to conjugate either cytokinin bases or their ribosides to proteins of cytoplasm to enable visualization and differential localization of these cytokinins in the leaf cells of wheat plants. In parallel to immunolocalization of cytokinins in the leaf cells, we immunoassayed distribution of free bases of cytokinins, their nucleotides and ribosides between roots and shoots of wheat plants as well as their presence in phloem sap after incubation of leaves in a solution supplemented with either trans-zeatin or isopentenyladenine...
April 10, 2018: Protoplasma
Peter Nick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2018: Protoplasma
Julia M Minina, Tatjana V Karamysheva, Nicolaj B Rubtsov, Natalia S Zhdanova
Previously, we described the unique feature of telomeric regions in Iberian shrew Sorex granarius: its telomeres have two ranges of size, very small (3.8 kb of telomeric repeats on average) and very large discontinuous telomeres (213 kb) interrupted with 18S rDNA. In this study, we have demonstrated extraordinary replication pattern of S. granarius large telomeres that have not been shown before in other studied mammal. Using the ReD-FISH procedure, we observed prolonged, through S period, large telomere replication...
April 7, 2018: Protoplasma
Wynston Ray Woodenberg, Sershen, Boby Varghese, Norman Pammenter
Plant cell walls (CWs) are dynamic in that they can change conformation during ontogeny and in response to various stresses. Though seeds are the main propagatory units of higher plants, little is known of the conformational responses of zygotic embryo CWs to drying. This study employed cryo-scanning electron microscopy to compare the effects of desiccation on zygotic embryo CW morphology across three gymnosperm species that were shown here to differ in seed desiccation sensitivity: Podocarpus henkelii (highly desiccation-sensitive), Podocarpus falcatus (moderately desiccation-sensitive), and Pinus elliottii (desiccation-tolerant)...
April 4, 2018: Protoplasma
Tatiana A Serova, Anna V Tsyganova, Viktor E Tsyganov
Plant symbiotic mutants are useful tool to uncover the molecular-genetic mechanisms of nodule senescence. The pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutants SGEFix- -1 (sym40), SGEFix- -3 (sym26), and SGEFix- -7 (sym27) display an early nodule senescence phenotype, whereas the mutant SGEFix- -2 (sym33) does not show premature degradation of symbiotic structures, but its nodules show an enhanced immune response. The nodules of these mutants were compared with each other and with those of the wild-type SGE line using seven marker genes that are known to be activated during nodule senescence...
April 3, 2018: Protoplasma
Sandra Silvina Aliscioni, Marina Gotelli, Juan Pablo Torretta
The family Malpighiaceae, particularly in the Neotropic, shows a similar floral morphology. Although floral attraction and rewards to pollinators are alike, stigmas and styles show more diversity. The stigmas were described covered with a thin and impermeable cuticle that needs to be ruptured by the mechanical action of the pollinators. However, this characteristic was only mentioned for a few species and the anatomy and ultrastructure of the stigmas were not explored. In this work, we analyze the morphology, anatomy, and ultrastructure of the stigma and style of Callaeum psilophyllum...
March 29, 2018: Protoplasma
Cattarin Theerawitaya, Nana Yamada-Kato, Harminder Pal Singh, Suriyan Cha-Um, Teruhiro Takabe
The plant specific DREPP proteins have been shown to bind Ca2+ and regulate the N-myristoylation signaling and microtubule polymerization in Arabidopsis thaliana. The information about DREPP proteins in other plants is, however, scarce. In the present study, we isolated the DREPP gene from a halophytic grass, Sporobolus virginicus, and tested whether the gene was involved in alkaline salt stress responses. The SvDREPP1 was cloned from S. virginicus by RACE methods. The isolated gene showed high homology to DREPP homologs from C4 grasses, Setaria italica, and Panicum hallii as well as rice (OsDREPP1)...
March 25, 2018: Protoplasma
Chaoxia Wang, Rongrong He, Jiang Lu, Yali Zhang
Proline (Pro) accumulation protects plant cell under abiotic stress. Hydroxyproline (Hyp) as selection agent is a toxic analog of proline and promotes Pro overaccumulation. In this study, Chardonnay calli were firstly irradiated with different dosages of60 Co and then cultured on a Hyp-added medium. Finally, some stable hydroxyproline-resistant (HR) calli were obtained. When calli were cultured on 4 mM Hyp medium for 7 days, intracellular Pro content of the HR calli was five times higher than that detected in the normal calli...
March 22, 2018: Protoplasma
Eleni Fegaras, Arthur Forer
A "precocious" cleavage furrow develops and ingresses during early prometaphase in Mesostoma ehrenbergii spermatocytes (Forer and Pickett-Heaps Eur J Cell Biol 89:607-618, 2010). In response to chromosome movements which regularly occur during prometaphase and that alter the balance of chromosomes in the two half-spindles, the precocious furrow shifts its position along the cell, moving 2-3 μm towards the half cell with fewer chromosomes (Ferraro-Gideon et al. Cell Biol Int 37:892-898, 2013). This process continues until proper segregation is achieved and the cell enters anaphase with the cleavage furrow again in the middle of the cell...
March 21, 2018: Protoplasma
Sailendra Singh, Pallavi Pandey, Sumit Ghosh, Suchitra Banerjee
Andrographolide (AD) is the time-honoured pharmacologically active constituent of the traditionally renowned medicinal plant-Andrographis paniculata. Advancements in the target-oriented drug discovery process have further unravelled the immense therapeutic credibility of another unique molecule-neoandrographolide (NAD). The escalated market demand of these anti-cancer diterpenes is increasingly facing unrelenting hurdles of demand and supply disparity, attributable to their limited yield. Callus and adventitious root cultures were generated to explore their biosynthetic potentials which first time revealed NAD production along with AD...
March 20, 2018: Protoplasma
Lyubov A Suldina, Ksenia N Morozova, Aleksei G Menzorov, Elena A Kizilova, Elena Kiseleva
Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are widely used in developmental biology and transgenic research. Despite numerous studies, ultrastructural reorganization of inner cell mass (ICM) cells during in vitro culture has not yet been described in detail. Here, we for the first time performed comparative morphological and morphometric analyses of three ES cell lines during their derivation in vitro. We compared morphological characteristics of blastocyst ICM cells at 3.5 and 4.5 days post coitum on feeder cells (day 6, passage 0) with those of ES cells at different passages (day 19, passage 2; day 25, passage 4; and passage 15)...
March 16, 2018: Protoplasma
Andrzej J Joachimiak, Robert Hasterok, Elwira Sliwinska, Krystyna Musiał, Aleksandra Grabowska-Joachimiak
The location of 5S and 35S rDNA sequences in chromosomes of four Aconitum subsp. Aconitum species was analyzed after fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Both in diploids (2n = 2x = 16; Aconitum variegatum, A. degenii) and tetraploids (2n = 4× = 32; A. firmum, A. plicatum), rDNA repeats were localized exclusively on the shorter arms of chromosomes, in subterminal or pericentromeric sites. All analyzed species showed similar basal genome size (Cx = 5.31-5.71 pg). The most striking features of tetraploid karyotypes were the conservation of diploid rDNA loci and emergence of many additional 5S rDNA clusters...
March 14, 2018: Protoplasma
Mohammad Akbari, Nasser Mahna, Katam Ramesh, Ali Bandehagh, Silvia Mazzuca
Pistachio, one of the important tree nuts, is cultivated in arid and semi-arid regions where salinity is the most common abiotic stress encountered by this tree. However, the mechanisms underlying salinity tolerance in this plant are not well understood. In the present study, five 1-year-old pistachio rootstocks (namely Akbari, Badami, Ghazvini, Kale-Ghouchi, and UCB-1) were treated with four saline water regimes (control, 8, 12, and 16 dS m-1 ) for 100 days. At high salinity level, all rootstocks showed decreased relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content (TCHC), and carotenoids in the leaf, while ascorbic acid (AsA) and total soluble proteins (TSP) were reduced in both leaf and root organs...
March 12, 2018: Protoplasma
Branka D Živanović, Kristian K Ullrich, Bianka Steffens, Sladjana Z Spasić, Paul Galland
The roles of fungal auxins in the regulation of elongation growth, photo-, and gravitropism are completely unknown. We analyzed the effects of exogenous IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), various synthetic auxins including 1-NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid) and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and the auxin transport inhibitor NPA (N-1-naphtylphtalamic acid) on the growth rate and bending of the unicellular sporangiophore of the zygomycete fungus, Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Sporangiophores that were submerged in an aqueous buffer responded to IAA with a sustained enhancement of the growth rate, while 1-NAA, 2,4-D, and NPA elicited an inhibition...
March 9, 2018: Protoplasma
Anna Michalik, Jacek Szwedo, Adam Stroiński, Dariusz Świerczewski, Teresa Szklarzewicz
In contrast to Cicadomorpha, in which numerous symbiotic bacteria have been identified and characterized, the symbionts of fulgoromorphans are poorly known. Here, we present the results of histological, ultrastructural, and molecular analyses of the symbiotic system of the planthopper Ommatidiotus dissimilis. Amplification, cloning, and sequencing of bacterial 16S RNA genes have revealed that O. dissimilis is host to five types of bacteria. Apart from bacteria Sulcia and Vidania, which are regarded as ancestral symbionts of Fulgoromorpha, three additional types of bacteria belonging to the genera Sodalis, Wolbachia, and Rickettsia have been detected...
March 7, 2018: Protoplasma
O V Nakonechnaya, A V Kalachev
Pollen ultrastructure has been studied in two relict and rare species of the genus Aristolochia, A. contorta Bunge and A. manshuriensis Kom. (Aristolochiaceae). Both species have inaperturate, spheroidal, sometimes distally monocolpate or distally bicolpate pollen grains. The equatorial and polar axes of pollen grain in A. manshuriensis are 48.5 and 44.0 μm, respectively. The percentage of defective pollen grains in A. manshuriensis is 3.4%. The fossulate, perforated exine is up to 2.3 μm in thickness; the sexine and the nexine are almost equal in thickness...
March 6, 2018: Protoplasma
Laura Recalde, Analía Vázquez, María D Groppa, María Patricia Benavides
Polyamines (PAs) produce H2 O2 and nitric oxide (NO) during their normal catabolism and modulate plant growth and development. To explore the biochemical basis of PAs-induced growth inhibition in Triticum aestivum L seedlings, we examined the role of O2 ·- , H2 O2 or NO in shoot and root development. Although all PA treatments resulted in a variable reduction of root and shoot elongation, spermine (Spm) caused the greater inhibition in a similar way to that observed with the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP)...
March 6, 2018: Protoplasma
Abhishek Sharma, Priyanka Verma, Archana Mathur, Ajay Kumar Mathur
Terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) biosynthetic pathway of Catharanthus roseus possesses the major attention in current metabolic engineering efforts being the sole source of highly expensive antineoplastic molecules vinblastine and vincristine. The entire TIA pathway is fairly known at biochemical and genetic levels except the pathway steps leading to biosynthesis of catharanthine and tabersonine. To increase the in-planta yield of these antineoplastic metabolites for the pharmaceutical and drug industry, extensive plant tissue culture-based studies were performed to provide alternative production systems...
March 5, 2018: Protoplasma
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