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Chakkree Lekklar, Supachitra Chadchawan, Preeda Boon-Long, Wolfgang Pfeiffer, Anchalee Chaidee
How many subcellular targets of the beneficial silicon effect do exist in salt-stressed rice? Here, we investigate the effects of silicon on the different components of salt stress, i.e., osmotic stress, sodium, and chloride toxicity. These components are separated by multivariate analysis of 18 variables measured in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.). Multivariate analysis can dissect vectors and extract targets as principal components, given the regressions between all variables are known. Consequently, the exploration of 153 correlations and 306 regression models between all variables is essential, and regression parameters for variables of shoot (silicon, sodium, chloride, carotenoids, chlorophylls a and b, and relative growth rate) and variables of shoot and root (hydrogen peroxide, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), fresh weight, dry weight, root-to-shoot ratio) are determined...
August 10, 2018: Protoplasma
Sepideh Ghasemi, Hassan Hassani Kumleh, Mojtaba Kordrostami
Biotic and abiotic stresses cause special defense reactions in plant organs, which after a series of reactions, these stresses produce secondary metabolites. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the expression of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), GPP synthases, Deoxyribonino heptulosinate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHP), and Deoxy Xylose Phosphate Synthase (DXS)), and the association of these genes with different amounts of secondary metabolites (phenol, terpene, flavonoids, anthocyanins, alkaloids, lycopene, and beta-carotene) was investigated in this study...
August 6, 2018: Protoplasma
Olga Gorelova, Olga Baulina, Tatiana Ismagulova, Kamilya Kokabi, Elena Lobakova, Irina Selyakh, Larisa Semenova, Olga Chivkunova, Olga Karpova, Pavel Scherbakov, Inna Khozin-Goldberg, Alexei Solovchenko
In photosynthetic organisms including unicellular algae, acclimation to and damage by environmental stresses are readily apparent at the level of the photosynthetic apparatus. Phenotypic manifestations of the stress responses include rapid and dramatic reduction of photosynthetic activity and pigment content aimed at mitigating the risk of photooxidative damage. Although the physiological and molecular mechanisms of these events are well known, the ultrastructural picture of the stress responses is often elusive and frequently controversial...
August 6, 2018: Protoplasma
Munish Sharma, Sanjana Kaul, Manoj Kumar Dhar
The dried stigmas of saffron constitute the world's costliest spice. Saffron has many therapeutic applications due to the presence of apocarotenoids. The latter are synthesized at different stages of development, and the biosynthetic pathway involves several genes encoding different enzymes. In order to understand the differential expression of various genes of the pathway, eight distinct developmental stages (S1-early to S8-late) were identified. The corms were assorted into three groups (I, II, and III) based on corm weight...
August 4, 2018: Protoplasma
Magdalena Kasjaniuk, Aleksandra Grabowska-Joachimiak, Andrzej J Joachimiak
The translocation hypothesis regarding the origin of the XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system was tested with reference to the F1 hybrids between two chromosomal races of Rumex hastatulus. The hybrids derived from reciprocal crossing between the Texas (T) race and the North Carolina (NC) race were investigated for the first time with respect to the meiotic chromosome configuration in the pollen mother cells, pollen viability, and sex ratio. A sex chromosome trivalent in the NC × T males and two sex chromosome bivalents in the T × NC males were detected...
August 3, 2018: Protoplasma
Laiane Corsini Rocha, Marco Túlio Mendes Ferreira, Isabela Martinez Fontes Cunha, Andréa Mittelmann, Vânia Helena Techio
In this study, we evaluated the behavior of 45S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sites during the meiosis of Lolium multiflorum. The reason to study it in this species is that 45S rDNA sites are usually visualized as gaps in mitotic metaphase chromosomes and were initially denominated fragile sites (FSs). In different species, FSs were related to rearrangements that alter the karyotype and affect the chromosome pairing in meiosis. However, our findings show that the chromosome pairing in L. multiflorum is regular and, as in mitosis, the number of sites is variable...
August 1, 2018: Protoplasma
Fareen Sami, Shamsul Hayat
The present experiment was conducted to investigate the promotive effects of exogenous glucose (Glc) on the morpho-physiology in Brassica juncea. L. cv. RGN-48. The plants were treated with the different concentrations (0, 2, 4, and 8%) of glucose as foliar spray at 25 days after sowing (DAS) for 5 days consecutively. The plants were collected to analyze various growth and photosynthetic parameters at 30, 45, and 60 DAS. After 5 days exposure to Glc, the level of carbohydrate, total reducing sugars, proline, plant water status, chlorophyll content, as well as that of activities of peroxidase (EC 1...
July 31, 2018: Protoplasma
Barsha Majumder, Susmita Das, Sandip Mukhopadhyay, Asok K Biswas
Arsenic toxicity is the most commonly experienced challenge of rice plants due to irrigation with arsenic-polluted groundwater and their cultivation in water logging environment which poses threat to human health, particularly in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India). In the present study, hydroponically grown eight rice cultivars, viz., Bhutmuri, Kumargore, Binni, Vijaya, Tulsibhog, Badshabhog, Pusa basmati, and Swarnadhan, were screened for arsenic tolerance by using physiological and molecular parameters. Treatment with 25 μM, 50 μM, and 75 μM arsenate resulted in dosage-based retardation in growth and water content in all the tested cultivars due to accumulation of total arsenic along with the enhanced activity of arsenate reductase with more severe effects exhibited in cvs...
July 31, 2018: Protoplasma
Md Mezanur Rahman, Mohammad Golam Mostofa, Md Abiar Rahman, Md Giashuddin Miah, Satya Ranjan Saha, M Abdul Karim, Sanjida Sultana Keya, Munny Akter, Mohidul Islam, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Sapota (Achras sapota), a fruit tree with nutritional and medicinal properties, is known to thrive in salt-affected areas. However, the underlying mechanisms that allow sapota to adapt to saline environment are yet to be explored. Here, we examined various morphological, physiological, and biochemical features of sapota under a gradient of seawater (0, 4, 8, and 12 dS m-1 ) to study its adaptive responses against salinity. Our results showed that seawater-induced salinity negatively impacted on growth-related attributes, such as plant height, root length, leaf area, and dry biomass in a dose-dependent manner...
July 30, 2018: Protoplasma
Mohamed S Sheteiwy, Jianyu An, Mengqi Yin, Xiaowen Jia, Yajing Guan, Fei He, Jin Hu
Figures 3 and 6 in the published online version of the paper have been replaced with the incorrect artworks which has no relevance to the study. The correct version of the figures are shown below.
July 26, 2018: Protoplasma
Humera Nawaz, Stephan Manhalter, Aamir Ali, Muhammad Yasin Ashraf, Ingeborg Lang
The negative effect of excess nickel (Ni) on plants is well investigated but there is only little information on its influence on root anatomy and a possible amelioration by chelating agents. In this study, we utilized light microscopy to observe anatomical changes in canola (Brassica napus) roots and investigated the element content by X-ray microanalysis. Ni-tolerant (Con-II) and Ni-sensitive cultivars (Oscar) were selected for this purpose. The plants were treated with 30 ppm NiSO4 . Then, citric acid and ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) (alone or in combination) were applied to observe the influence of chelating agents in metal stress amelioration...
July 25, 2018: Protoplasma
Amparo Sanz, Sharon Pike, Mather A Khan, Àngela Carrió-Seguí, David G Mendoza-Cózatl, Lola Peñarrubia, Walter Gassmann
Copper (Cu) is an essential plant micronutrient. Under scarcity, Cu2+ is reduced to Cu+ and taken up through specific high-affinity transporters (COPTs). In Arabidopsis, the COPT family consists of six members, either located at the plasma membrane (COPT1, COPT2, and COPT6) or in internal membranes (COPT3 and COPT5). Cu uptake by COPT proteins has been mainly assessed through complementation studies in corresponding yeast mutants, but the mechanism of this transport has not been elucidated. To test whether Cu is incorporated by an electrogenic mechanism, electrophysiological changes induced by Cu addition were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana...
July 24, 2018: Protoplasma
Sandeep B Adavi, Lekshmy Sathee
Wheat is a major staple food crop worldwide contributing approximately 20% of total protein consumed by mankind. The nitrogen and protein concentration of wheat crop and grain often decline as a result of exposure of the crop to elevated CO2 (EC). The changes in nitrogen (N) assimilation, root system architecture, and nitric oxide (NO)-mediated N signaling and expression of genes involved in N assimilation and high affinity nitrate uptake were examined in response to different nitrate levels and EC in wheat...
July 21, 2018: Protoplasma
Yve Canaveze, Alexandra Antunes Mastroberti, Jorge Ernesto de Araujo Mariath, Silvia Rodrigues Machado
The cellular mechanisms of laticifer growth are of particular interest in plant biology but are commonly neglected. Using transmission electron microscopy and immunocytochemical methods, we recorded cytological differentiation and evaluated the cell wall involvement in the growth of articulated laticifers with intrusive growth in the mature embryo and plant shoot apex of Tabernaemontana catharinensis. The incorporation of adjacent meristematic cells into the laticifer system occurred in the embryo and plant shoot apex, and the incorporated cells acquired features of laticifer, confirming the laticifers' action-inducing mechanism...
July 11, 2018: Protoplasma
S Tirumani, K M Gothandam, Basuthkar J Rao
Carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) and photorespiration (PR) are interlinked and co-regulated in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, but conditions where co-regulation alters are not sufficiently explored. Here, we uncover that PR gene transcripts, like CCM transcripts, are induced even in the dark when both processes are not active. Such diurnal cycles show that transcript levels peak in the middle of 12 h day, decline by early part of 12-h dark followed by their onset again at mid-dark. Interestingly, the onset in the mid-dark phase is sensitive to high CO2 , implying that the active carbon sensing mechanism operates even in the dark...
July 10, 2018: Protoplasma
Eduard Villagrasa, Neus Ferrer-Miralles, Laia Millach, Aleix Obiol, Jordi Creus, Isabel Esteve, Antonio Solé
Microorganisms living in hypersaline microbial mats frequently form consortia under stressful and changing environmental conditions. In this paper, the heterotrophic strain DE2010 from a microalgae consortium (Scenedesmus sp. DE2009) from Ebro Delta microbial mats has been phenotypically and genotypically characterized and identified. In addition, changes in the morphology and biomass of this bacterium in response to nitrogen deficiency stress have been evaluated by correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) combining differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
July 9, 2018: Protoplasma
Mohamed S Sheteiwy, Jianyu An, Mengqi Yin, Xiaowen Jia, Yajing Guan, Fei He, Jin Hu
The present study was designed to highlight the effects of cold plasma (10 kV) treatment and priming with 2 mM salicylic acid (SA) and their combination (10 kV of plasma + 2 mM SA) on the physiological parameters and metabolism of two cultivars of Oryza sativa, i.e., Zhu Liang You 06 (ZY) and Qian You No. 1 (QY), under salinity stress (150 mM NaCl) and normal growth condition (0 mM NaCl). Seed germination and seedling growth were enhanced by SA priming and cold plasma treatment either alone or in combination under salinity stress...
July 8, 2018: Protoplasma
Maria Celeste Dias, Conceição Santos, Glória Pinto, Artur M S Silva, Sónia Silva
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -NP) are increasingly being proposed for nanoagriculture but their effect on photosynthesis is limited and contradictory, mostly regarding putative chronical effects associated to the exposure to the commercial P25 formulation (anatase:rutile). This research aims at evaluating how chronical exposure to P25-NP affect photosynthetic processes in Triticum aestivum. Wheat plants were exposed (from the germination stage) to 0, 5, 50, and 150 mg L-1 P25-NP for 20 days. P25-NP impaired both light-dependent and -independent phases of photosynthesis, decreased chlorophyll a content, maximal and effective efficiency of PSII, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and starch content...
June 30, 2018: Protoplasma
Bingxin Li, Fengxia Xu
In basal angiosperms, there are several types of permanent tetrad but their formation pattern remains elusive. Pseuduvaria trimera has five types of tetrads and is the species with the most abundant tetrad types in Annonaceae. In order to interpret the formation pattern of different tetrad types, pollen development was investigated from the microspore mother cell stage to the bicellular pollen stage and the ultrastructure of pollen wall in the five tetrad types using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy...
June 27, 2018: Protoplasma
Liu-Jun Huang, Guo-Xin Cheng, Abid Khan, Ai-Min Wei, Qing-Hui Yu, Sheng-Bao Yang, De-Xu Luo, Zhen-Hui Gong
Environmental stress affects growth and development of crops, and reduces yield and quality of crops. To cope with environmental stressors, plants have sophisticated defense mechanisms, including the HSF/HSP pathway. Here, we identify the expression pattern of CaHSP16.4 in thermo-tolerant and thermo-sensitive pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) lines. Under heat stress, R9 thermo-tolerant line had higher CaHSP16.4 expression level than the B6 thermo-sensitive line. Under drought stress, expression pattern of CaHSP16...
June 26, 2018: Protoplasma
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