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Anna Busch, Sebastian Hess
Several distantly related, phagotrophic microeukaryotes share the remarkable ability to perforate foreign cell walls in a well-defined pattern to acquire protoplast material as food. The underlying cellular processes, especially the local application of cell wall degrading agents, are still unexplored. We examined the distribution of F-actin and alpha-tubulin in the algivorous, viridiraptorid amoeboflagellates Orciraptor agilis and Viridiraptor invadens over their life histories using phalloidin conjugates and immunolocalization...
October 31, 2016: Protist
Naoji Yubuki, Sam S C Huang, Brian S Leander
The Fornicata (Excavata) is a group of microbial eukaryotes consisting of both free-living lineages (e.g., Carpediemonas) and parasitic lineages (e.g. Giardia and Retortamonas) that share several molecular and ultrastructural traits. Carpediemonas-like organisms (CLOs) are free-living lineages that diverged early within the Fornicata, making them important for inferring the early evolutionary history of the group. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of free-living fornicates, including sequences from environmental PCR surveys, have demonstrated that CLOs form six different lineages...
October 18, 2016: Protist
David Morse, Philip Daoust, Siham Benribague
Dinoflagellates are a group of unicellular and generally marine protists, of interest to many because of their ability to form the large algal blooms commonly called "red tides". The large algal concentrations in these blooms require sustained cell replication, yet to date little is known about cell cycle regulation in these organisms. To address this issue, we have screened the transcriptomes of two dinoflagellates, Lingulodinium polyedrum and Symbiodinium sp., with budding yeast cell cycle pathway components...
October 17, 2016: Protist
Jie Xiao, Xiaoxiang Miao, Caiwen Li, Wenjun Xu, Xuelei Zhang, Zongling Wang
The parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium infects multiple cultured marine crustaceans and has resulted in significant economic losses to their aquaculture in China. Limited molecular data implied a close relationship among Hematodinium reported in China, whereas the genetic diversity and detailed genetic variation within Hematodinium remains unclear. In order to investigate the genetic diversity and composition of the parasitic dinoflagellate in China, the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1 - 5...
October 17, 2016: Protist
Vasily V Zlatogursky, Vladimir I Klimov
The first application of DNA-barcoding for the centrohelids is reported. The character-rich genus Acanthocystis was chosen to compare sequence divergence and morphological similarity. Acanthocystis nichollsi, an easily identifiable and well outlined species, was isolated from four remote locations; A. costata; A. takahashii (2 strains) and A. turfacea were studied as well. Detailed light- and electron-microscopic data were obtained and a fragment of 18S rDNA (mostly V5 to V8 regions) was cloned and multiple clones were sequenced...
October 14, 2016: Protist
Helge Abildhauge Thomsen, Frank Nitsche, Daniel J Richter
It is a trend in loricate choanoflagellate research that our knowledge of species diversity is insufficient in terms of understanding annual successional changes at any specific locality, whereas there is a fairly decent coverage worldwide - at least in more coastal realms - in terms of biodiversity within more narrowly defined time windows. To help address this knowledge gap, we have compiled all available loricate choanoflagellate occurrence data from Danish sampling sites covering an overall time span of close to four decades...
October 6, 2016: Protist
Aika Yamaguchi, Sadaaki Yoshimatsu, Mona Hoppenrath, Kevin C Wakeman, Hiroshi Kawai
The genus Amphidiniopsis is a benthic (sand-dwelling) lineage of thecate dinoflagellates, containing 19 morphologically diverse species. Past work has shown that some Amphidiniopsis species form a clade with the sand-dwelling Herdmania litoralis as well as some planktonic species in the family Protoperidiniaceae (i.e. the Monovela group). Still, our contemporary knowledge regarding Amphidiniopsis is limited, compared to the Protoperidiniaceae. To this end, we obtained 18S rDNA data from seven Amphidiniopsis species and a part of the 28S rDNA from four Amphidiniopsis species, with the goal of improving our understanding of phylogenetic relationships among Amphidiniopsis and the Monovela group...
October 6, 2016: Protist
Harald Preisner, Eli Levy Karin, Gereon Poschmann, Kai Stühler, Tal Pupko, Sven B Gould
Certain protist lineages bear cytoskeletal structures that are germane to them and define their individual group. Trichomonadida are excavate parasites united by a unique cytoskeletal framework, which includes tubulin-based structures such as the pelta and axostyle, but also other filaments such as the striated costa whose protein composition remains unknown. We determined the proteome of the detergent-resistant cytoskeleton of Tetratrichomonas gallinarum. 203 proteins with homology to Trichomonas vaginalis were identified, which contain significantly more long coiled-coil regions than control protein sets...
September 16, 2016: Protist
Andrzej Kaczanowski, Clifford F Brunk, Stanislaw L Kazubski
The histophagous ciliate Tetrahymena rostrata was found as a parasite in the renal organs of the land snails Zonitoides nitidus and Cochlicopa lubrica. A starvation medium induced encystment, meiosis, autogamy, and development of new macronuclei. The cell division rate declined linearly with number of divisions from the last autogamy until senescence. The senescing strains were rejuvenated by further encystment-induced autogamy. It is expected, that these processes contribute to genetic variability among the local, small, and isolated T...
November 2016: Protist
Vladimir I Klimov, Vasily V Zlatogursky
BelonocystisRainer, 1968 is an enigmatic protist genus, which currently lacks any supergroup affiliation. The spherical cells of this organism move on the substratum using fine non-branching pseudopodia. The cell surface is surrounded with a spiky covering. Belonocystis marina sp. nov. was studied using light- and electron microscopy. It was clearly shown that the surface structures of Belonocystis were scales, not a capsule. The new species could be distinguished by the morphology of the scales, which had a bulbous base with three "skirts" (circular latticed structures) and a spike consisting of many twisted fibrils...
November 2016: Protist
Aika Shibata, Fumio Takahashi, Masahiro Kasahara, Nobutaka Imamura
The endosymbiotic green algae of Paramecium bursaria are known to release a photosynthate to the host cells. The endosymbiont Chlorella variabilis F36-ZK isolated in Japan releases maltose under acidic conditions, and such release requires both light and low pH. However, whether photosynthate release is due to light sensing by photoreceptors or is merely a consequence of active photosynthesis is unclear. Herein, we studied the effect of light on maltose release from C. variabilis F36-ZK; we measured maltose release using a combination of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone derivative and (14)C-tracer methods...
November 2016: Protist
Francis E G Cox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Protist
Hermann Bothe, Michael Melkonian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Protist
Kenneth Dumack, Christina Baumann, Michael Bonkowski
Although testate amoebae have attracted interest of protistologists for more than 150 years, some groups especially those with a hyaline, organic test (= theca) are still poorly known. One of those is the genus Lecythium (Chlamydophryidae, Tectofilosida, Cercozoa, Rhizaria), first described by Hertwig and Lesser in 1874. Only old, sometimes obscure, species descriptions were available until only recently a new species of Lecythium was described and a small ribosomal subunit RNA gene (SSU) sequence was provided...
November 2016: Protist
Adriana Botero, Crystal Cooper, Craig K Thompson, Peta L Clode, Karrie Rose, R C Andrew Thompson
A number of trypanosome isolates from Australian marsupials are within the clade containing the human pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi. Trypanosomes within this clade are thought to have diverged from a common ancestral bat trypanosome. Here, we characterise Trypanosoma noyesi sp. nov. isolated from the critically endangered woylie (Bettongia pencillata) using phylogenetic inferences from three gene regions (18S rDNA, gGAPDH, and CytB) coupled with morphological and behavioural observations in vitro. We also investigated potential vectors and the presence of T...
November 2016: Protist
Andrey I Azovsky, Denis V Tikhonenkov, Yuri A Mazei
Protists are ubiquitous, but the factors influencing their diversity and biogeography remain unclear. We use a comprehensive database on the marine benthic heterotrophic flagellate (HF) morphospecies to explore the worldwide patterns in their diversity and distribution in comparison with predictions of the Ubiquity model (UM) and Moderate Endemicity model (MEM). The number of known HF morphospecies was limited (even when considering the rates of descriptions), and the local-to-global diversity ratio was relatively high (10-25%)...
November 2016: Protist
Arne Schwelm, Cédric Berney, Christina Dixelius, David Bass, Sigrid Neuhauser
Clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most important diseases of cultivated brassicas. P. brassicae occurs in pathotypes which differ in the aggressiveness towards their Brassica host plants. To date no DNA based method to distinguish these pathotypes has been described. In 2011 polymorphism within the 28S rDNA of P. brassicae was reported which potentially could allow to distinguish pathotypes without the need of time-consuming bioassays. However, isolates of P. brassicae from around the world analysed in this study do not show polymorphism in their LSU rDNA sequences...
September 9, 2016: Protist
Nick A Kuburich, Nirakar Adhikari, Jeffrey A Hadwiger
Amoeba often use cell movement as a mechanism to find food, such as bacteria, in their environment. The chemotactic movement of the soil amoeba Dictyostelium to folate or other pterin compounds released by bacteria is a well-documented foraging mechanism. Acanthamoeba can also feed on bacteria but relatively little is known about the mechanism(s) by which this amoeba locates bacteria. Acanthamoeba movement in the presence of folate or bacteria was analyzed in above agar assays and compared to that observed for Dictyostelium...
September 6, 2016: Protist
Shuwen Zhang, Kit Yu Karen Chan, Zhuo Shen, Shunyan Cheung, Michael R Landry, Hongbin Liu
The dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans (Noctiluca) has the ability to reproduce sexually, which may help to increase or restore its population size during periods of blooms or environmental stress. Here, we documented for the first time a marine ciliate Strombidium sp. that feeds on Noctiluca's progametes undergoing stages 5 to 9 of nuclear division. This ciliate frequently swam on or around gametogenic and some vegetative Noctiluca cells. The ciliates associated with gametogenic cells had significantly lower swimming speed and changed direction more frequently than those associated with vegetative cells, which overall increased their time spent around the food patches (progametes)...
August 31, 2016: Protist
Maria Moustaka-Gouni, Konstantinos A Kormas, Marco Scotti, Elisabeth Vardaka, Ulrich Sommer
We studied the response of the heterotrophic flagellate (HF) community to the combined impact of warming and ocean acidification in a mesocosm experiment with a plankton community from the western Baltic Sea. We performed a quantitative analysis of the response at the level of total biomass and size classes and a semi-quantitative one at the level of individual taxa. Total biomass of HF was significantly lower under higher temperatures while there was no significant effect of CO2. The mean biomass of the picoflagellates did not respond to temperature while the three nanoflagellate size classes (class limits 3, 5, 8, 15μm) responded negatively to warming while not responding to CO2...
August 2016: Protist
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