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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149699/tetrahymena-cilia-cap-is-built-in-a-multi-step-process-a-study-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#1
Cecília Seixas, João Gonçalves, Luís Viseu Melo, Helena Soares
Cilia are complex and dynamic organelles that have motility and sensory functions. Defects in cilia biogenesis and function are at the origin of human ciliopathies. In motile cilia, a basal body organizes the axoneme composed of nine microtubule doublets surrounding a central pair of singlet microtubules. The distal ends of axonemal microtubules are attached to the membrane by microtubule-capping structures. Little is known about the early steps of cilium assembly. Although cilia grow and resorb from their distal tips, it remains poorly understood where and when the components of the caps are first assembled...
October 20, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107797/establishment-of-a-de-novo-reference-transcriptome-of-histomonas-meleagridis-reveals-basic-insights-about-biological-functions-and-potential-pathogenic-mechanisms-of-the-parasite
#2
Rounik Mazumdar, Lukas Endler, Andreas Monoyios, Michael Hess, Ivana Bilic
The protozoan flagellate Histomonas meleagridis is the causative agent of histomonosis in poultry. In turkeys, high mortality might be noticed whereas in chickens the disease is less severe despite production losses. Discovered over a century ago, molecular data on this parasite are scarce and genetic studies are in its infancy. To expand genomic information, a de novo transcriptome sequencing of H. meleagridis was performed from a virulent and an attenuated strain, cultivated in vitro as monoxenic mono-eukaryotic culture...
October 6, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125937/novel-specificity-of-ido-enzyme-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-mating-pheromone-in-the-ciliate-blepharisma-stoltei
#3
Mayumi Sugiura, Hajime J Yuasa, Terue Harumoto
Mating pheromones (gamone 1 and gamone 2) in the ciliate Blepharisma are biologically active substances that trigger sexual reproduction (conjugation) under starvation conditions. Gamone 1 is a glycoprotein secreted by type I cells, and gamone 2 is a tryptophan (Trp)-derivative compound secreted by type II cells. Both gamones stimulate complementary mating type cells to promote each gamone production and induce pair formation. To elucidate the biosynthetic pathway of gamone 2, we investigated the enzymes involved in the pathway and the specificity of the enzymes...
September 18, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100111/trehalose-during-two-stress-responses-in-acanthamoeba-differentiation-between-encystation-and-pseudocyst-formation
#4
Eva Bínová, David Bína, David A Ashford, Jane Thomas-Oates, Eva Nohýnková
The non-reducing disaccharide trehalose can serve as a protectant against a range of environmental stressors, such as heat, cold, or dehydration, in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, with the exception of vertebrates. Here, we analyzed trehalose metabolism in the facultatively parasitic organism Acanthamoeba castellanii, known to respond to unfavorable external conditions by forming two resistant stages: a cyst, produced in the case of chronic stress, and a pseudocyst, formed in reaction to acute stress. The possible role of trehalose in the resistant stages was investigated using a combination of bioinformatic, molecular biological and biochemical approaches...
September 14, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028580/revision-of-the-genus-micromonas-manton-et-parke-chlorophyta-mamiellophyceae-of-the-type-species-m-pusilla-butcher-manton-parke-and-of-the-species-m-commoda-van-baren-bachy-and-worden-and-description-of-two-new-species-based-on-the-genetic-and-phenotypic-characterization
#5
Nathalie Simon, Elodie Foulon, Daphné Grulois, Christophe Six, Yves Desdevises, Marie Latimier, Florence Le Gall, Margot Tragin, Aude Houdan, Evelyne Derelle, Fabien Jouenne, Dominique Marie, Sophie Le Panse, Daniel Vaulot, Birger Marin
The green picoalgal genus Micromonas is broadly distributed in estuaries, coastal marine habitats and open oceans, from the equator to the poles. Phylogenetic, ecological and genomic analyses of culture strains and natural populations have suggested that this cosmopolitan genus is composed of several cryptic species corresponding to genetic lineages. We performed a detailed analysis of variations in morphology, pigment content, and sequences of the nuclear-encoded small-subunit rRNA gene and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) from strains isolated worldwide...
September 14, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017074/morphological-and-molecular-characterization-of-aggregata-spp-frenzel-1885-apicomplexa-aggregatidae-in-octopus-vulgaris-cuvier-1797-mollusca-cephalopoda-from-central-mediterranean
#6
Perla Tedesco, Camino Gestal, Kristina Begić, Ivona Mladineo, Sheila Castellanos-Martínez, Gaetano Catanese, Antonio Terlizzi, Graziano Fiorito
Coccidian parasites of the genus Aggregata are known to parasitize cephalopods as definitive hosts, however one of the genus members, A. octopiana, has shown an unresolved phylogeny within the same definitive host, the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris). Our study represents a large-scale investigation aimed at characterizing morphological traits and phylogeny of A. octopiana isolated from O. vulgaris inhabiting three distinct geographic areas of the central Mediterranean: The Adriatic, Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas...
September 11, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987651/ultrastructure-and-phylogeny-of-kirithra-asteri-gen-et-sp-nov-ceratoperidiniaceae-dinophyceae-a-free-living-thin-walled-marine-photosynthetic-dinoflagellate-from-argentina
#7
Pernille Vængebjerg Boutrup, Øjvind Moestrup, Urban Tillmann, Niels Daugbjerg
A gymnodinioid photosynthetic dinoflagellate was isolated from Argentina and examined by light and electron microscopy and analysis of nuclear-encoded LSU rDNA. Kirithra asteri gen. et sp. nov. was proposed as morphology and molecular phylogeny separated this dinoflagellate from others within the family Ceratoperidiniaceae. Cells were surrounded by a hyaline amphiesma comprising polygonal vesicles. Each vesicle contained a honeycomb and a trilaminar structure. An anterior sulcal extension ending in a complete circle formed the apical structure complex (ASC), which characterizes Ceratoperidiniaceae...
September 9, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822910/corrigendum-to-revision-of-the-genus-cryptomonas-cryptophyceae-a-combination-of-molecular-phylogeny-and-morphology-provides-insights-into-a-long-hidden-dimorphism-protist-154-2003-371-409
#8
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961456/taxonomic-implications-of-morphological-complexity-within-the-testate-amoeba-genus-corythion-from-the-antarctic-peninsula
#9
Thomas P Roland, Matthew J Amesbury, David M Wilkinson, Dan J Charman, Peter Convey, Dominic A Hodgson, Jessica Royles, Steffen Clauß, Eckhard Völcker
Precise and sufficiently detailed morphological taxonomy is vital in biology, for example in the accurate interpretation of ecological and palaeoecological datasets, especially in polar regions, where biodiversity is poor. Testate amoebae on the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) are well-documented and variations in their population size have recently been interpreted as a proxy for microbial productivity changes in response to recent regional climate change. AP testate amoeba assemblages are dominated by a small number of globally ubiquitous taxa...
August 3, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985627/anaeramoebidae-fam-nov-a-novel-lineage-of-anaerobic-amoebae-and-amoeboflagellates-of-uncertain-phylogenetic-position
#10
Petr Táborský, Tomáš Pánek, Ivan Čepička
We report discovery of a new lineage of anaerobic marine amoebae and amoeboflagellates, Anaeramoeba gen. nov., represented by six newly described species. The trophic form of Anaeramoeba spp. is an amoeba corresponding to the uncommon flabellate or flamellian morphotype - it is fan-shaped and produces an anterior, flattened hyaline zone and posterior hyaline projections. In contrast to other representatives of these morphotypes, cells of Anaeramoeba spp. possess acristate mitochondrion-related organelles associated with prokaryotic symbionts, and a large acentriolar centrosome...
August 2, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822911/maullinia-braseltonii-sp-nov-rhizaria-phytomyxea-phagomyxida-a-cyst-forming-parasite-of-the-bull-kelp-durvillaea-spp-stramenopila-phaeophyceae-fucales
#11
Pedro Murúa, Franz Goecke, Renato Westermeier, Pieter van West, Frithjof C Küpper, Sigrid Neuhauser
Phytomyxea are obligate endoparasites of angiosperm plants and Stramenopiles characterised by a complex life cycle. Here Maullinia braseltonii sp. nov., an obligate parasite infecting the bull kelp Durvillaea (Phaeophyceae, Fucales) from the South-Eastern Pacific (Central Chile and Chiloe Island) and South-Western Atlantic (Falkland Islands, UK) is described. M. braseltonii causes distinct hypertrophies (galls) on the host thalli making it easily identifiable in the field. Sequence comparisons based on the partial 18S and the partial 18S-5...
August 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950198/gametogenesis-and-auxospore-development-in-the-bipolar-centric-diatom-brockmanniella-brockmannii-family-cymatosiraceae
#12
Brajogopal Samanta, Michael E Kinney, Quentin Heffell, James M Ehrman, Irena Kaczmarska
We examined gametogenesis and auxospore development in the cymatosiroid diatom Brockmanniella brockmannii. Our mating experiments demonstrated that the clones were homothallic, self-compatible, produced two eggs per oogonium and four hologenous uniflagellate male gametes per spermatogonium. Auxospores grew free in the culture medium and the most external layer of the auxospore wall was made up of spinescent scaly elements in their early globular stage of development. The anisodiametric expansion of the globular auxospore was rather limited, at best proceeding only to a sub-globular stage...
July 20, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826079/diversification-and-phylogenetics-of-mobilid-peritrichs-ciliophora-with-description-of-urceolaria-parakorschelti-sp-nov
#13
Nicholas A T Irwin, Mona Sabetrasekh, Denis H Lynn
Ciliates within the order Mobilida comprise a group of ectosymbionts that form ecologically and economically important symbioses with aquatic organisms. However, despite their significance, the factors driving mobilid diversification are poorly understood. To address this, we sought to examine the genetic diversity of two mobilid families, the trichodinids and urceolariids, over geographical areas and from different hosts. To this end we collected and provide morphological and molecular characterizations of three species of Trichodina: Trichodina domerguei and Trichodina tenuidens from three-spined sticklebacks, and Trichodina unionis from snails...
July 14, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822909/variation-in-basal-body-localisation-and-targeting-of-trypanosome-rp2-and-for20-proteins
#14
Jane Harmer, Xin Qi, Gabriella Toniolo, Aysha Patel, Hannah Shaw, Fiona E Benson, Michael L Ginger, Paul G McKean
TOF-LisH-PLL motifs define FOP family proteins; some members are involved in flagellum assembly. The critical role of FOP family protein FOR20 is poorly understood. Here, we report relative localisations of the four FOP family proteins in parasitic Trypanosoma brucei: TbRP2, TbOFD1 and TbFOP/FOP1-like are mature basal body proteins whereas TbFOR20 is present on pro- and mature basal bodies - on the latter it localises distal to TbRP2. We discuss how the data, together with published work for another protist Giardia intestinalis, informs on likely FOR20 function...
July 13, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822908/pseudophyllomitus-vesiculosus-larsen-and-patterson-1990-lee-2002-a-poorly-studied-phagotrophic-biflagellate-is-the-first-characterized-member-of-stramenopile-environmental-clade-mast-6
#15
Takashi Shiratori, Rabindra Thakur, Ken-Ichiro Ishida
There are many eukaryotic lineages that are exclusively composed of environmental sequences and lack information about which species are included. Regarding stramenopiles, at least 18 environmental lineages, known as marine stramenopiles (MAST), have been recognized. Since each MAST lineage forms deep branches in the stramenopiles, the characterization of MAST members is key to understanding the diversity and evolution of stramenopiles. In this study, we established a culture of Pseudophyllomitus vesiculosus, which is a poorly studied phagotrophic flagellate of uncertain taxonomic position...
July 6, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582680/evolutionary-relationship-of-the-scale-bearing-kraken-incertae-sedis-monadofilosa-cercozoa-rhizaria-combining-ultrastructure-data-and-a-two-gene-phylogeny
#16
Kenneth Dumack, Alexander P Mylnikov, Michael Bonkowski
The genus Kraken represents a distinct lineage of filose amoebae within the Cercozoa. Currently a single species, Kraken carinae, has been described. SSU rDNA phylogeny showed an affiliation to the Cercomonadida, branching with weak support at its base, close to Paracercomonas, Metabolomonas, and Brevimastigomonas. Light microscopical analyses showed several unique features of the genus Kraken, but ultrastructure data were lacking. In this study, K. carinae has been studied by electron microscopy, these data conjoined with a two-gene phylogeny were used to give more insight into the evolutionary relationship of the genus Kraken within Cercozoa...
July 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554153/how-far-do-ciliate-flagships-sail-a-proposed-gondawanaland-endemic-species-at-anchor-in-idaho-soils
#17
William Bourland
In terms of protist biogeography, "flagship species" (Foissner 2005) have been defined as those so remarkable or "showy" that they are unlikely to be overlooked when present in a given habitat. On this basis, flagship species have been suggested as an ideal or ultimate test for the existence of protist endemism. One example of a flagship ciliate is the terrestrial lepidosome-bearing trachelophyllid, Luporinophrys micelae, previously thought to be a Gondwanan endemic. This report comprises a morphologic description of two populations of L...
July 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554152/aviisotricha-hoazini-n-gen-n-sp-the-morphology-and-molecular-phylogeny-of-an-anaerobic-ciliate-from-the-crop-of-the-hoatzin-opisthocomus-hoazin-the-cow-among-the-birds
#18
Christian F Bardele, Sigrid Schultheiß, Denis H Lynn, André-Denis G Wright, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Nestor E Obispo
The hoatzin is the only known avian species that has evolved a foregut fermentation system similar to that of ruminant animals. Due to the closeness of the bird's fermentation chamber, the crop, to the bird's beak it exudes an unpleasant odour; therefore, the hoatzin is called the "cow among the birds". In addition to Eubacteria and Archaea, responsible for digestion of the vegetation they consume, the bird's crop contains a holotrich ciliate, described here for the first time in detail. Cytological staining of this isotrichid-like ciliate with the Chatton-Lwoff and Protargol staining procedures, as well as SEM and TEM, justified the establishment of the new genus Aviisotricha n...
July 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499132/multiple-dictyostelid-species-destroy-biofilms-of-klebsiella-oxytoca-and-other-gram-negative-species
#19
Dean Sanders, Katarzyna D Borys, Fikrullah Kisa, Sheryl A Rakowski, Marcela Lozano, Marcin Filutowicz
Dictyostelids are free-living phagocytes that feed on bacteria in diverse habitats. When bacterial prey is in short supply or depleted, they undergo multicellular development culminating in the formation of dormant spores. In this work, we tested isolates representing four dictyostelid species from two genera (Dictyostelium and Polysphondylium) for the potential to feed on biofilms preformed on glass and polycarbonate surfaces. The abilities of dictyostelids were monitored for three hallmarks of activity: 1) spore germination on biofilms, 2) predation on biofilm enmeshed bacteria by phagocytic cells and 3) characteristic stages of multicellular development (streaming and fructification)...
July 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499131/polyphyly-in-the-thecate-amoeba-genus-lecythium-chlamydophryidae-tectofilosida-cercozoa-redescription-of-its-type-species-l-hyalinum-description-of-l-jennyae-sp-nov-and-the-establishment-of-fisculla-gen-nov-and-fiscullidae-fam-nov
#20
Kenneth Dumack, Paul Mausbach, Mona Hegmann, Michael Bonkowski
Although testate amoebae have attracted great interest of protistologists for more than a century, some groups, especially those with a hyaline, organic test (=theca) are still poorly known. One of those is the genus Lecythium Hertwig et Lesser, 1874. Only recently Lecythium spp. were characterized by morphological and molecular means, but data on the type species Lecythium hyalinum Hertwig et Lesser, 1874, was still lacking. In this study, we screened for L. hyalinum in freshwater samples of Germany and the Netherlands...
July 2017: Protist
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