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Harald Preisner, Eli Levy Karin, Gereon Poschmann, Kai Stühler, Tal Pupko, Sven B Gould
Certain protist lineages bear cytoskeletal structures that are germane to them and define their individual group. Trichomonadida are excavate parasites united by a unique cytoskeletal framework, which includes tubulin-based structures such as the pelta and axostyle, but also other filaments such as the striated costa whose protein composition remains unknown. We determined the proteome of the detergent-resistant cytoskeleton of Tetratrichomonas gallinarum. 203 proteins with homology to Trichomonas vaginalis were identified, which contain significantly more long coiled-coil regions than control protein sets...
September 16, 2016: Protist
Arne Schwelm, Cédric Berney, Christina Dixelius, David Bassc, Sigrid Neuhauser
Clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most important diseases of cultivated brassicas. P. brassicae occurs in pathotypes which differ in the aggressiveness towards their Brassica host plants. To date no DNA based method to distinguish these pathotypes has been described. In 2011 polymorphism within the 28S rDNA of P. brassicae was reported which potentially could allow to distinguish pathotypes without the need of time-consuming bioassays. However, isolates of P. brassicae from around the world analysed in this study do not show polymorphism in their LSU rDNA sequences...
September 9, 2016: Protist
Nick A Kuburich, Nirakar Adhikari, Jeffrey A Hadwiger
Amoeba often use cell movement as a mechanism to find food, such as bacteria, in their environment. The chemotactic movement of the soil amoeba Dictyostelium to folate or other pterin compounds released by bacteria is a well-documented foraging mechanism. Acanthamoeba can also feed on bacteria but relatively little is known about the mechanism(s) by which this amoeba locates bacteria. Acanthamoeba movement in the presence of folate or bacteria was analyzed in above agar assays and compared to that observed for Dictyostelium...
September 6, 2016: Protist
Andrzej Kaczanowski, Clifford F Brunk, Stanislaw L Kazubski
The histophagous ciliate Tetrahymena rostrata was found as a parasite in the renal organs of the land snails Zonitoides nitidus and Cochlicopa lubrica. A starvation medium induced encystment, meiosis, autogamy, and development of new macronuclei. The cell division rate declined linearly with number of divisions from the last autogamy until senescence. The senescing strains were rejuvenated by further encystment-induced autogamy. It is expected, that these processes contribute to genetic variability among the local, small, and isolated T...
November 2016: Protist
Vladimir I Klimov, Vasily V Zlatogursky
BelonocystisRainer, 1968 is an enigmatic protist genus, which currently lacks any supergroup affiliation. The spherical cells of this organism move on the substratum using fine non-branching pseudopodia. The cell surface is surrounded with a spiky covering. Belonocystis marina sp. nov. was studied using light- and electron microscopy. It was clearly shown that the surface structures of Belonocystis were scales, not a capsule. The new species could be distinguished by the morphology of the scales, which had a bulbous base with three "skirts" (circular latticed structures) and a spike consisting of many twisted fibrils...
November 2016: Protist
Aika Shibata, Fumio Takahashi, Masahiro Kasahara, Nobutaka Imamura
The endosymbiotic green algae of Paramecium bursaria are known to release a photosynthate to the host cells. The endosymbiont Chlorella variabilis F36-ZK isolated in Japan releases maltose under acidic conditions, and such release requires both light and low pH. However, whether photosynthate release is due to light sensing by photoreceptors or is merely a consequence of active photosynthesis is unclear. Herein, we studied the effect of light on maltose release from C. variabilis F36-ZK; we measured maltose release using a combination of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone derivative and (14)C-tracer methods...
November 2016: Protist
Francis E G Cox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Protist
Hermann Bothe, Michael Melkonian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Protist
Kenneth Dumack, Christina Baumann, Michael Bonkowski
Although testate amoebae have attracted interest of protistologists for more than 150 years, some groups especially those with a hyaline, organic test (= theca) are still poorly known. One of those is the genus Lecythium (Chlamydophryidae, Tectofilosida, Cercozoa, Rhizaria), first described by Hertwig and Lesser in 1874. Only old, sometimes obscure, species descriptions were available until only recently a new species of Lecythium was described and a small ribosomal subunit RNA gene (SSU) sequence was provided...
November 2016: Protist
Adriana Botero, Crystal Cooper, Craig K Thompson, Peta L Clode, Karrie Rose, R C Andrew Thompson
A number of trypanosome isolates from Australian marsupials are within the clade containing the human pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi. Trypanosomes within this clade are thought to have diverged from a common ancestral bat trypanosome. Here, we characterise Trypanosoma noyesi sp. nov. isolated from the critically endangered woylie (Bettongia pencillata) using phylogenetic inferences from three gene regions (18S rDNA, gGAPDH, and CytB) coupled with morphological and behavioural observations in vitro. We also investigated potential vectors and the presence of T...
November 2016: Protist
Andrey I Azovsky, Denis V Tikhonenkov, Yuri A Mazei
Protists are ubiquitous, but the factors influencing their diversity and biogeography remain unclear. We use a comprehensive database on the marine benthic heterotrophic flagellate (HF) morphospecies to explore the worldwide patterns in their diversity and distribution in comparison with predictions of the Ubiquity model (UM) and Moderate Endemicity model (MEM). The number of known HF morphospecies was limited (even when considering the rates of descriptions), and the local-to-global diversity ratio was relatively high (10-25%)...
November 2016: Protist
Maria Moustaka-Gouni, Konstantinos A Kormas, Marco Scotti, Elisabeth Vardaka, Ulrich Sommer
We studied the response of the heterotrophic flagellate (HF) community to the combined impact of warming and ocean acidification in a mesocosm experiment with a plankton community from the western Baltic Sea. We performed a quantitative analysis of the response at the level of total biomass and size classes and a semi-quantitative one at the level of individual taxa. Total biomass of HF was significantly lower under higher temperatures while there was no significant effect of CO2. The mean biomass of the picoflagellates did not respond to temperature while the three nanoflagellate size classes (class limits 3, 5, 8, 15μm) responded negatively to warming while not responding to CO2...
August 2016: Protist
R Ellen R Nisbet, Davy P Kurniawan, Harrison D Bowers, Christopher J Howe
The apicoplast, an organelle found in Plasmodium and many other parasitic apicomplexan species, is a remnant chloroplast that is no longer able to carry out photosynthesis. Very little is known about primary transcripts and RNA processing in the Plasmodium apicoplast, although processing in chloroplasts of some related organisms (chromerids and dinoflagellate algae) shows a number of unusual features, including RNA editing and the addition of 3' poly(U) tails. Here, we show that many apicoplast transcripts are polycistronic and that there is extensive RNA processing, often involving the excision of tRNA molecules...
August 2016: Protist
Helmuth Goldammer, Elena Hollergschwandtner, Nathalie H Elisabeth, Pedro R Frade, Siegfried Reipert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Protist
Joseph Schrével, Andrea Valigurová, Gérard Prensier, Aurélie Chambouvet, Isabelle Florent, Laure Guillou
Archigregarines, an early branching lineage within Apicomplexa, are a poorly-known group of invertebrate parasites. By their phylogenetic position, archigregarines are an important lineage to understand the functional transition that occurred between free-living flagellated predators to obligatory parasites in Apicomplexa. In this study, we provide new ultrastructural data and phylogenies based on SSU rDNA sequences using the type species of archigregarines, the Selenidiidae Selenidium pendulaGiard, 1884. We describe for the first time the syzygy and early gamogony at the ultrastructural level, revealing a characteristic nuclear multiplication with centrocones, cryptomitosis, filamentous network of chromatin, a cyst wall secretion and a 9+0 flagellar axoneme of the male gamete...
August 2016: Protist
Laura M Walker, Steven L Stephenson
Species identification in the myxomycetes (plasmodial slime molds or myxogastrids) poses particular challenges to researchers as a result of their morphological plasticity and frequent alteration between sexual and asexual life strategies. Traditionally, myxomycete morphology has been used as the primary method of species delimitation. However, with the increasing availability of genetic information, traditional myxomycete taxonomy is being increasingly challenged, and new hypotheses continue to emerge. Due to conflicts that sometimes occur between traditional and more modern species concepts that are based largely on molecular data, there is a pressing need to revisit the discussion surrounding the species concept used for myxomycetes...
August 2016: Protist
Mami Nomura, Ken-Ichiro Ishida
The fine structure of shell formation was observed in P. chromatophora. Scales were formed one by one in silica deposition vesicles (SDVs) that were supported by an array of microtubules, which are probably involved in determining the shape and size of scales. The timing of silicic acid transport into an SDV was shown to be at an early stage of scale production because silicon was detected within SDVs containing immature scales. During the shell construction process, vesicles containing two types of dense materials were observed...
August 2016: Protist
Andrei Diakin, Gita G Paskerova, Timur G Simdyanov, Vladimir V Aleoshin, Andrea Valigurová
Urosporids (Apicomplexa: Urosporidae) are eugregarines that parasitise marine invertebrates, such as annelids, molluscs, nemerteans and echinoderms, inhabiting their coelom and intestine. Urosporids exhibit considerable morphological plasticity, which correlates with their different modes of motility and variations in structure of their cortical zone, according to the localisation within the host. The gregarines Urospora ovalis and U. travisiae from the marine polychaete Travisia forbesii were investigated with an emphasis on their general morphology and phylogenetic position...
June 2016: Protist
Kenneth Dumack, Julia Schuster, David Bass, Michael Bonkowski
The term 'filose amoebae' describes a highly polyphyletic assemblage of protists whose phylogenetic placement can be unpredictable based on gross morphology alone. We isolated six filose amoebae from soils of two European countries and describe a new genus and species of naked filose amoebae, Kraken carinae gen. nov. sp. nov. We provide a morphological description based on light microscopy and small subunit rRNA gene sequences (SSU rDNA). In culture, Kraken carinae strains were very slow-moving and preyed on bacteria using a network of filopodia...
June 2016: Protist
Serena Flori, Pierre-Henri Jouneau, Giovanni Finazzi, Eric Maréchal, Denis Falconet
Diatoms contain a secondary plastid that derives from a red algal symbiont. This organelle is limited by four membranes. The two outermost membranes are the chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum membrane (cERM), which is continuous with the host outer nuclear envelope, and the periplastidial membrane (PPM). The two innermost membranes correspond to the outer and inner envelope membranes (oEM and iEM) of the symbiont's chloroplast. Between the PPM and oEM lies a minimized symbiont cytoplasm, the periplastidial compartment (PPC)...
June 2016: Protist
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