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Rui Xiao, Xiang Li, Yi Zheng
This research studied the influences of cultivation conditions (carbon/nitrogen source concentration, initial pH, salinity, and rotation speed) on cell growth and fatty acid (FA) production/composition of a marine protist, Thraustochytrium striatum. Fed-batch was also studied to improve cell growth and FA production. The optimum cell growth (∼5g/L dry cell mass, DCM) occurred under the cultivation conditions of T=25°C, glucose=30g/L, yeast extract/peptone (YEP)=4g/L, salinity=100% of seawater, pH=6-7, and rotation speed=120rpm...
June 4, 2018: Protist
Sam De Decker, Pieter Vanormelingen, Eveline Pinseel, Josefin Sefbom, Sien Audoor, Koen Sabbe, Wim Vyverman
Incomplete reproductive isolation between genetically distinct taxa provides an interesting opportunity for speciation and adaptation studies. This phenomenon is well-described in macro-organisms, but less experimental evidence is available for unicellular eukaryotes. Here, we document the sympatric occurrence of genetically differentiated populations of the pennate model diatom Seminavis robusta in coastal subtidal biofilm communities and show widespread potential for gene flow between them. Based on sequence variation in the plastid-encoded rbcL gene, three distinct clades were identified...
May 29, 2018: Protist
William Bourland, Johana Rotterová, Xiaotian Luo, Ivan Čepička
Class Armophorea Lynn, 2004 includes two orders of mainly free-living anaerobic ciliates, Armophorida Jankowski, 1980 and Metopida Jankowski, 1980 and, a third, the exclusively endosymbiotic Clevelandellida. Kahl described the majority of free-living metopid species early in the 20th century. Excepting Jankowski in the 1960's, little further interest was shown in this group. Metopus turbo Dragesco and Dragesco-Kernéis, 1986, from a West African pond, was more recently described. Although not explicitly described as endemic, Dragesco believed in some degree of endemism of sub-Saharan ciliates...
May 26, 2018: Protist
Anna Ronikier, Adam T Halamski
Myxomycetes is one of the largest groups of protists belonging to Amoebozoa, with ca 1,000 species recognised and more than 4,000 names in use. Historically, myxomycetes were considered fungi or protozoans which, however, fell under the provisions of the former International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN), currently the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). Attempts to apply the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) to myxomycetes were rare and inconsistent; thus, we argue that Myxomycetes is not a truly ambiregnal group (i...
May 25, 2018: Protist
Konstanze Kobel-Höller, Kevin Gley, Janina Jochinke, Kristina Heider, Verena Nadin Fritsch, Ha Viet Duc Nguyen, Timo Lischke, Renate Radek, Ria Baumgrass, Rupert Mutzel, Sascha Thewes
Calcineurin is involved in development and cell differentiation of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. However, since knockouts of the calcineurin-encoding genes are not possible in D. discoideum it is assumed that the phosphatase also plays a crucial role during vegetative growth of the amoebae. Therefore, we investigated the role of calcineurin during vegetative growth in D. discoideum. RNAi-silenced calcineurin mutants showed cellular alterations with an abnormal morphology of mitochondria and had increased content of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)...
April 21, 2018: Protist
Paul Christiaan Venter, Frank Nitsche, Hartmut Arndt
Protists are among the most diverse and abundant eukaryotes in soil. However, gaps between described and sequenced protist morphospecies still present a pending problem when surveying environmental samples for known species using molecular methods. The number of sequences in the molecular PR2 database (∼130,000) is limited compared to the species richness expected (>1 million protist species) - limiting the recovery rate. This is important, since high throughput sequencing (HTS) methods are used to find associative patterns between functional traits, taxa and environmental parameters...
July 2018: Protist
Kevin C Wakeman, Aika Yamaguchi, Takeo Horiguchi
This study describes a novel species of Haplozoon, H. ezoense n. sp., a dinoflagellate parasite isolated from the intestines of Praxillella pacifica (Polychaeta). Trophonts (feeding stages) of H. ezoense n. sp. were isolated and studied with scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and molecular phylogenetic analyses was performed using 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA. Trophonts had an average length of 120μm, and were linear, forming a single longitudinal row comprising a trophocyte with a stylet, an average of 14 gonocytes (width=10μm), and bulbous cells that we concluded were likely sporocytes...
July 2018: Protist
Tatiana Mikhailyuk, Alena Lukešová, Karin Glaser, Andreas Holzinger, Sabrina Obwegeser, Svetlana Nyporko, Thomas Friedl, Ulf Karsten
Two new genera (Streptosarcina and Streptofilum) and three new species (Streptosarcina arenaria, S. costaricana and Streptofilum capillatum) of streptophyte algae were detected in cultures isolated from terrestrial habitats of Europe and Central America and described using an integrative approach. Additionally, a strain isolated from soil in North America was identified as Hormidiella parvula and proposed as an epitype of this species. The molecular phylogeny based on 18S rRNA and rbcL genes, secondary structure of ITS-2, as well as the morphology of vegetative and reproductive stages, cell ultrastructure, ecology and distribution of the investigated strains were assessed...
July 2018: Protist
Johana Rotterová, William Bourland, Ivan Čepička
We report a discovery of a novel family of anaerobic ciliates, Tropidoatractidae fam. nov. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 18S rRNA gene show that the family Tropidoatractidae corresponds to the previously reported clade of environmental sequences closely related to the lineage consisting of orders Metopida and Clevelandellida. The family comprises two genera, Tropidoatractus and Palmarella, and five species, two of which are newly described herein. Tropidoatractidae are cosmopolitan Metopida with sparse somatic and oral ciliature, deep, cup-like buccal cavity, and hyaline cortex with interkinetal ridges...
July 2018: Protist
Ryoma Kamikawa, Tomonori Azuma, Ken-Ichiro Ishii, Yusei Matsuno, Hideaki Miyashita
We determined the complete sequences of the plastid and mitochondrial genomes of three non-photosynthetic Nitzschia spp., as well as those of a photosynthetic close relative, Nitzschia palea. All the plastid genomes and the three mitochondrial genomes determined were found to be circularly mapping, and the other mitochondrial genomes were predicted to be of a linear form with telomere-like structures at both ends. We found that all the non-photosynthetic plastid genomes are streamlined and lack a common gene set: two RNA genes, and 60 protein-coding genes, most of which are related to photosynthetic functions...
July 2018: Protist
Takahide Ota
In Tetrahymena, K antigens associate only with mature basal bodies and are expected to play important roles in the morphogenesis and function of the membrane skeleton around basal bodies, but these proteins have not been identified and their functions are unknown. Commercially available anti-human Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor α (RhoGDIα) antibody (sc-33201) was accidentally found to show very similar immunofluorescence staining patterns to those of anti-K antigen antibodies, such as 424A8 and 10D12 mouse monoclonal antibodies, in Tetrahymena...
July 2018: Protist
Justin J S Wilcox, Hope Hollocher
Research on host-associated microbiomes has highlighted major divisions between the role of eukaryotes in free-living and symbiont systems. These trends call into question the relevance of macroecological processes to host-associated systems and the relative importance of parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism as evolutionary patterns across the domains of life. However, it is unclear as to whether these apparent differences reflect biological realities or methodologies in community characterization: free-living eukaryotes tend to be characterized using metabarcoding whereas symbiont eukaryotes are typically characterized with microscopy...
July 2018: Protist
Paul Christiaan Venter, Frank Nitsche, Anja Scherwass, Hartmut Arndt
By measuring the change in soil protist communities, the effect of human land use on grasslands can be monitored to promote sustainable ecosystem functioning. Protists form the active link in the rhizosphere between the plant roots and higher trophic organisms; however, only few morphological species and their ecological values have yet been described in this context. To investigate the communicability between morphological and molecular databases used in the molecular barcoding of protists and in the biomonitoring of grassland soil, the present high-throughput sequencing (HTS) study (N=150) covered the area of central Europe (mesoscale) known to be well studied for ciliated protists...
April 14, 2018: Protist
Gert Hansen, Niels Daugbjerg, Øjvind Moestrup
The rarely recorded dinoflagellate Hemidinium ochraceum Levander was isolated from a rainwater rock-pool in Finland and the motile stage studied by light- and electron microscopy and molecular sequencing. The ultrastructure of the motile stage revealed several features not previously observed in other dinoflagellates, e.g. thecal plates with inwards 'knobs' and a peculiar corrugated left sulcal plate. The apparent lack of the R2 and R4 flagellar roots was also unusual. The typical plate tabulation was 4', 2a, 8″, cx , 4c,?s, 3‴, cy , 1p, 2″″, cx and cy being extra plates associated with the cingulum, but intraspecific variations were observed in shape and number of plates...
April 2018: Protist
Fernando Gómez, Lu Wang, Senjie Lin
Consortia of the peritrich ciliate Vorticella oceanica and the planktonic diatom Chaetoceros coarctactus are reported from the South Atlantic Ocean. The morphologies of the constituent species were similar to their counterparts from other geographical regions, revealing a widespread distribution in tropical waters. Besides, we describe Pseudovorticella coscinodisci sp. nov. that lives on Coscinodiscus wailesii and other pelagic diatoms off Brazil. The zooids were 34-45μm long, and 19-30μm wide with a stalk too short to coil...
April 2018: Protist
Ivan Voltski, Andrew J Gooday, Jan Pawlowski
Vanhoeffenella is a common deep-sea monothalamous foraminifer, some species of which have a unique eye-like test morphology. Owing to its world-wide distribution, it has been recorded numerous times since the "heroic age" of the deep-sea exploration in the early 20th century. So far, only 4 species have been described, and no attempts have been made to estimate the real diversity of this peculiar genus. Over the last fifteen years, we have collected specimens of Vanhoeffenella from various deep-sea areas, providing the basis for an integrative taxonomy and biogeography of this genus...
April 2018: Protist
Juliane Kretschmann, Paweł M Owsianny, Anže Žerdoner Čalasan, Marc Gottschling
Because of a great variety of remote localities and cold habitats, the Tatra Mountains are home to many freshwater protist lineages. Dinophytes have been subjected to a number of studies from this area dating mostly to the first half of the 20th century, but their true diversity remains elusive until today. We collected water tow samples at five lakes in the Tatra Mountains in order to establish monoclonal strains. We found four lineages that were distinctive in terms of morphology and DNA sequence data and that could be assigned to peridinialean Parvodinium...
April 2018: Protist
Garvin Schulz, Mark Maraun, Eckhard Völcker, Stefan Scheu, Valentyna Krashevska
Morphological features are often the only characteristics suitable for identification of taxa in testate amoebae, especially in ecological and palaeoecological studies. However, whereas the morphology of some species is rather stable it may vary considerably in others. Within the order Arcellinida the genus Trigonopyxis with the type species Trigonopyxis arcula is morphologically highly variable. To identify reliable characteristics for morphology-based taxon delineation we investigated variations in shell size, pseudostome diameter and pseudostome form in T...
April 2018: Protist
Denis H Lynn, Martin Kolisko, William Bourland
The class Nassophorea includes the microthoracids and nassulids, which share morphological similarities in their somatic kinetids and cytopharyngeal baskets. The monophyly of this clade has been challenged by small subunit rRNA gene sequences and multi-gene analyses that do not provide strong support. To provide a more robust test of the monophyly of the Nassophorea, phylogenomic analyses were based on 124 genes derived from the single-cell transcriptomes of the microthoracid Pseudomicrothorax dubius and the nassulid Furgasonia blochmanni...
April 2018: Protist
Daria Tashyreva, Galina Prokopchuk, Akinori Yabuki, Binnypreet Kaur, Drahomíra Faktorová, Jan Votýpka, Chiho Kusaka, Katsunori Fujikura, Takashi Shiratori, Ken-Ichiro Ishida, Aleš Horák, Julius Lukeš
Diplonemids were recently found to be the most species-rich group of marine planktonic protists. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences and morphological observations, we report the description of new members of the genus Rhynchopus - R. humris sp. n. and R. serpens sp. n., and the establishment of two new genera - Lacrimia gen. n. and Sulcionema gen. n., represented by L. lanifica sp. n. and S. specki sp. n., respectively. In addition, we describe the organism formerly designated as Diplonema sp...
April 2018: Protist
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