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Nathalie Simon, Elodie Foulon, Daphné Grulois, Christophe Six, Yves Desdevises, Marie Latimier, Florence Le Gall, Margot Tragin, Aude Houdan, Evelyne Derelle, Fabien Jouenne, Dominique Marie, Sophie Le Panse, Daniel Vaulot, Birger Marin
The green picoalgal genus Micromonas is broadly distributed in estuaries, coastal marine habitats and open oceans, from the equator to the poles. Phylogenetic, ecological and genomic analyses of culture strains and natural populations have suggested that this cosmopolitan genus is composed of several cryptic species corresponding to genetic lineages. We performed a detailed analysis of variations in morphology, pigment content, and sequences of the nuclear-encoded small-subunit rRNA gene and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) from strains isolated worldwide...
September 14, 2017: Protist
Perla Tedesco, Camino Gestal, Kristina Begić, Ivona Mladineo, Sheila Castellanos-Martínez, Gaetano Catanese, Antonio Terlizzi, Graziano Fiorito
Coccidian parasites of the genus Aggregata are known to parasitize cephalopods as definitive hosts, however one of the genus members, A. octopiana, has shown an unresolved phylogeny within the same definitive host, the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris). Our study represents a large-scale investigation aimed at characterizing morphological traits and phylogeny of A. octopiana isolated from O. vulgaris inhabiting three distinct geographic areas of the central Mediterranean: The Adriatic, Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas...
September 11, 2017: Protist
Pernille Vængebjerg Boutrup, Øjvind Moestrup, Urban Tillmann, Niels Daugbjerg
A gymnodinioid photosynthetic dinoflagellate was isolated from Argentina and examined by light and electron microscopy and analysis of nuclear-encoded LSU rDNA. Kirithra asteri gen. et sp. nov. was proposed as morphology and molecular phylogeny separated this dinoflagellate from others within the family Ceratoperidiniaceae. Cells were surrounded by a hyaline amphiesma comprising polygonal vesicles. Each vesicle contained a honeycomb and a trilaminar structure. An anterior sulcal extension ending in a complete circle formed the apical structure complex (ASC), which characterizes Ceratoperidiniaceae...
September 9, 2017: Protist
Thomas P Roland, Matthew J Amesbury, David M Wilkinson, Dan J Charman, Peter Convey, Dominic A Hodgson, Jessica Royles, Steffen Clauß, Eckhard Völcker
Precise and sufficiently detailed morphological taxonomy is vital in biology, for example in the accurate interpretation of ecological and palaeoecological datasets, especially in polar regions, where biodiversity is poor. Testate amoebae on the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) are well-documented and variations in their population size have recently been interpreted as a proxy for microbial productivity changes in response to recent regional climate change. AP testate amoeba assemblages are dominated by a small number of globally ubiquitous taxa...
August 3, 2017: Protist
Petr Táborský, Tomáš Pánek, Ivan Čepička
We report discovery of a new lineage of anaerobic marine amoebae and amoeboflagellates, Anaeramoeba gen. nov., represented by six newly described species. The trophic form of Anaeramoeba spp. is an amoeba corresponding to the uncommon flabellate or flamellian morphotype - it is fan-shaped and produces an anterior, flattened hyaline zone and posterior hyaline projections. In contrast to other representatives of these morphotypes, cells of Anaeramoeba spp. possess acristate mitochondrion-related organelles associated with prokaryotic symbionts, and a large acentriolar centrosome...
August 2, 2017: Protist
Brajogopal Samanta, Michael E Kinney, Quentin Heffell, James M Ehrman, Irena Kaczmarska
We examined gametogenesis and auxospore development in the cymatosiroid diatom Brockmanniella brockmannii. Our mating experiments demonstrated that the clones were homothallic, self-compatible, produced two eggs per oogonium and four hologenous uniflagellate male gametes per spermatogonium. Auxospores grew free in the culture medium and the most external layer of the auxospore wall was made up of spinescent scaly elements in their early globular stage of development. The anisodiametric expansion of the globular auxospore was rather limited, at best proceeding only to a sub-globular stage...
July 20, 2017: Protist
Nicholas A T Irwin, Mona Sabetrasekh, Denis H Lynn
Ciliates within the order Mobilida comprise a group of ectosymbionts that form ecologically and economically important symbioses with aquatic organisms. However, despite their significance, the factors driving mobilid diversification are poorly understood. To address this, we sought to examine the genetic diversity of two mobilid families, the trichodinids and urceolariids, over geographical areas and from different hosts. To this end we collected and provide morphological and molecular characterizations of three species of Trichodina: Trichodina domerguei and Trichodina tenuidens from three-spined sticklebacks, and Trichodina unionis from snails...
July 14, 2017: Protist
Pedro Murúa, Franz Goecke, Renato Westermeier, Pieter van West, Frithjof C Küpper, Sigrid Neuhauser
Phytomyxea are obligate endoparasites of angiosperm plants and Stramenopiles characterised by a complex life cycle. Here Maullinia braseltonii sp. nov., an obligate parasite infecting the bull kelp Durvillaea (Phaeophyceae, Fucales) from the South-Eastern Pacific (Central Chile and Chiloe Island) and South-Western Atlantic (Falkland Islands, UK) is described. M. braseltonii causes distinct hypertrophies (galls) on the host thalli making it easily identifiable in the field. Sequence comparisons based on the partial 18S and the partial 18S-5...
July 13, 2017: Protist
Jane Harmer, Xin Qi, Gabriella Toniolo, Aysha Patel, Hannah Shaw, Fiona E Benson, Michael L Ginger, Paul G McKean
TOF-LisH-PLL motifs define FOP family proteins; some members are involved in flagellum assembly. The critical role of FOP family protein FOR20 is poorly understood. Here, we report relative localisations of the four FOP family proteins in parasitic Trypanosoma brucei: TbRP2, TbOFD1 and TbFOP/FOP1-like are mature basal body proteins whereas TbFOR20 is present on pro- and mature basal bodies - on the latter it localises distal to TbRP2. We discuss how the data, together with published work for another protist Giardia intestinalis, informs on likely FOR20 function...
July 13, 2017: Protist
Takashi Shiratori, Rabindra Thakur, Ken-Ichiro Ishida
There are many eukaryotic lineages that are exclusively composed of environmental sequences and lack information about which species are included. Regarding stramenopiles, at least 18 environmental lineages, known as marine stramenopiles (MAST), have been recognized. Since each MAST lineage forms deep branches in the stramenopiles, the characterization of MAST members is key to understanding the diversity and evolution of stramenopiles. In this study, we established a culture of Pseudophyllomitus vesiculosus, which is a poorly studied phagotrophic flagellate of uncertain taxonomic position...
July 6, 2017: Protist
Kenneth Dumack, Alexander P Mylnikov, Michael Bonkowski
The genus Kraken represents a distinct lineage of filose amoebae within the Cercozoa. Currently a single species, Kraken carinae, has been described. SSU rDNA phylogeny showed an affiliation to the Cercomonadida, branching with weak support at its base, close to Paracercomonas, Metabolomonas, and Brevimastigomonas. Light microscopical analyses showed several unique features of the genus Kraken, but ultrastructure data were lacking. In this study, K. carinae has been studied by electron microscopy, these data conjoined with a two-gene phylogeny were used to give more insight into the evolutionary relationship of the genus Kraken within Cercozoa...
July 2017: Protist
William Bourland
In terms of protist biogeography, "flagship species" (Foissner 2005) have been defined as those so remarkable or "showy" that they are unlikely to be overlooked when present in a given habitat. On this basis, flagship species have been suggested as an ideal or ultimate test for the existence of protist endemism. One example of a flagship ciliate is the terrestrial lepidosome-bearing trachelophyllid, Luporinophrys micelae, previously thought to be a Gondwanan endemic. This report comprises a morphologic description of two populations of L...
July 2017: Protist
Christian F Bardele, Sigrid Schultheiß, Denis H Lynn, André-Denis G Wright, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Nestor E Obispo
The hoatzin is the only known avian species that has evolved a foregut fermentation system similar to that of ruminant animals. Due to the closeness of the bird's fermentation chamber, the crop, to the bird's beak it exudes an unpleasant odour; therefore, the hoatzin is called the "cow among the birds". In addition to Eubacteria and Archaea, responsible for digestion of the vegetation they consume, the bird's crop contains a holotrich ciliate, described here for the first time in detail. Cytological staining of this isotrichid-like ciliate with the Chatton-Lwoff and Protargol staining procedures, as well as SEM and TEM, justified the establishment of the new genus Aviisotricha n...
July 2017: Protist
Dean Sanders, Katarzyna D Borys, Fikrullah Kisa, Sheryl A Rakowski, Marcela Lozano, Marcin Filutowicz
Dictyostelids are free-living phagocytes that feed on bacteria in diverse habitats. When bacterial prey is in short supply or depleted, they undergo multicellular development culminating in the formation of dormant spores. In this work, we tested isolates representing four dictyostelid species from two genera (Dictyostelium and Polysphondylium) for the potential to feed on biofilms preformed on glass and polycarbonate surfaces. The abilities of dictyostelids were monitored for three hallmarks of activity: 1) spore germination on biofilms, 2) predation on biofilm enmeshed bacteria by phagocytic cells and 3) characteristic stages of multicellular development (streaming and fructification)...
July 2017: Protist
Kenneth Dumack, Paul Mausbach, Mona Hegmann, Michael Bonkowski
Although testate amoebae have attracted great interest of protistologists for more than a century, some groups, especially those with a hyaline, organic test (=theca) are still poorly known. One of those is the genus Lecythium Hertwig et Lesser, 1874. Only recently Lecythium spp. were characterized by morphological and molecular means, but data on the type species Lecythium hyalinum Hertwig et Lesser, 1874, was still lacking. In this study, we screened for L. hyalinum in freshwater samples of Germany and the Netherlands...
July 2017: Protist
Viktoria Schreiber, Josefine Dersch, Katharina Puzik, Oliver Bäcker, Xiaojuan Liu, Simone Stork, Julian Schulz, Thomas Heimerl, Andreas Klingl, Stefan Zauner, Uwe G Maier
Diatoms are unicellular organisms evolved by secondary endosymbiosis. Although studied in many aspects, the functions of vacuolar-like structures of these organisms are rarely investigated. One of these structures is a dominant central vacuole-like compartment with a marbled phenotype, which is supposed to represent a chrysolaminarin-storing and carbohydrate mobilization compartment. However, other functions as well as targeting of proteins to this compartment are not shown experimentally. In order to study trafficking of membrane proteins to the vacuolar membrane, we scanned the genome for intrinsic vacuolar membrane proteins and used one representative for targeting studies...
July 2017: Protist
Susana S Santos, Inês Nunes, Tue K Nielsen, Samuel Jacquiod, Lars H Hansen, Anne Winding
Advances in sequencing technologies allow deeper studies of the soil protist diversity and function. However, little attention has been given to the impact of the chosen soil DNA extraction procedure to the overall results. We examined the effect of three acknowledged DNA recovery methods, two manual methods (ISOm-11063, GnS-GII) and one commercial kit (MoBio), on soil protist community structures obtained from different sites with different land uses. Results from 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing suggest that DNA extraction method significantly affect the replicate homogeneity, the total number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) recovered and the overall taxonomic structure and diversity of soil protist communities...
July 2017: Protist
Rodrigo Pedro Soares, Ellen Cristina Félix Altoé, Vítor Ennes-Vidal, Simone M da Costa, Elizabeth Ferreira Rangel, Nataly Araújo de Souza, Vanderlei Campos da Silva, Petr Volf, Claudia Masini d'Avila-Levy
Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum are the causative agents of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, respectively. Several aspects of the vector-parasite interaction involving gp63 and phosphoglycans have been individually assayed in different studies. However, their role under the same experimental conditions was not studied yet. Here, the roles of divalent metal chelators, anti-gp63 antibodies and purified type I phosphoglycans (PGs) were evaluated during in vitro parasite attachment to the midgut of the vector...
July 2017: Protist
Martina Zahradníková, Heidi L Andersen, Tor Tønsberg, Andreas Beck
The knowledge of the taxonomy and classification of algae (including lichenized) has recently increased rapidly, but there are still many gaps. We aimed to 1) identify the Fuscidea photobionts by locating their taxonomic positions in the green algal classification, and 2) to resolve their interspecific relationships. The lichenized algae were examined based on morphological observations of axenic isolates as well as molecular studies of 18S and ITS nrDNA sequences. Analysis of the secondary structure of the ITS2 operon complemented these investigations...
June 29, 2017: Protist
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