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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30439559/the-effect-of-algal-turbidity-on-larval-performance-and-the-ontogeny-of-digestive-enzymes-in-the-grey-mullet-mugil-cephalus
#1
William Koven, Enric Gisbert, Oriya Nixon, Mikhail M Solovyev, Aviad Gaon, Guy Allon, Iris Meiri-Ashkenazi, Amos Tandler, Hanna Rosenfeld
A study comprised of two trials determined the effects of water turbidity produced by live microalgae and inert clay particles on the larval rearing of grey mullet (Mugil cephalus). Trial 1 evaluated the effect of microalgae produced water turbidity on grey mullet larval performance and digestive tract (DT) enzyme ontogeny. Two microalgae (Nannochloropsis oculata and Isochrysis galbana) water turbidity levels (0.76 and 1.20 NTU, respectively) and a non-microalgae control (0.26 NTU) were investigated on 2 to 23 dph grey mullet larvae...
November 12, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30439558/the-use-of-photoperiods-to-provide-year-round-spawning-in-lumpfish-cyclopterus-lumpus
#2
Albert K Imsland, Thor Arne Hangstad, Thor Magne Jonassen, Sigurd O Stefansson, Tom Ole Nilsen, Peter Hovgaard, Tor Anders Elvegård, Ken Ståle Lindberg, Bjørn Mikalsen, Tonje Cecilie Urskog, Birgitta Norberg, Eva Andersson, Frank Spetland, Patrick Reynolds
In order to provide year round spawning broodstock, lumpfish (initial size 746 g and 24.9 cm) were reared under four different photoperiod regimes from January 2017 to July 2018. One group was reared under simulated natural photoperiod (LDN, control group) for Tromsø (70°N). The second group was transferred to continuous light (LD240) on 30 January 2017 and reared at LD24:0 throughout the trial period. Two compressed and phase advanced photoperiods were also established. Both groups were moved from LDN to LD24:0 on 30 January 2017, and after that reared at compressed natural photoperiods where the annual photoperiod was compressed down to six months (L6) or nine months (L9) for the duration of the study...
November 12, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414916/weaning-european-glass-eels-anguilla-anguilla-with-plant-protein-based-diets-and-its-effects-on-intestinal-maturation
#3
Enric Gisbert, Mansour Torfi Mozanzadeh
Weaning glass eels with compound diets (36% proteins, 16% lipids) differing in their fishmeal (FM) level (50, 75 and 100% FM replaced by a blend of plant proteins, PP) was compared to a group fed cod roe. Weaning lasted for 20 days and then, eels were fed compound diets for 70 days, whereas the other group was only fed cod roe (90 days). Diets were tested with four replicates and evaluated in terms of growth, survival, glass eels metamorphosis into elvers, oxidative stress status and activity of digestive enzymes...
November 8, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414915/initiation-of-sex-change-and-gonadal-gene-expression-in-black-sea-bass-centropristis-striata-exposed-to-exemestane-an-aromatase-inhibitor
#4
Timothy S Breton, Linas W Kenter, Katherine Greenlaw, Jacob Montgomery, Giles W Goetz, David L Berlinsky, J Adam Luckenbach
Many teleost fishes exhibit sequential hermaphroditism, where male or female gonads develop first and later undergo sex change. Model sex change species are characterized by social hierarchies and coloration changes, which enable experimental manipulations to better understand these processes. However, other species such as the protogynous black sea bass (Centropristis striata) do not exhibit these characteristics and instead receive research attention due to their importance in fisheries or aquaculture. Black sea bass social structure is unknown, which makes sex change sampling difficult, and few molecular resources are available...
November 8, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389628/activity-changes-in-gill-ion-transporter-enzymes-in-response-to-salinity-and-temperature-in-fathead-minnows-pimephales-promelas
#5
Ian Monroe, Simon Wentworth, Katrina Thede, Varsha Aravindabose, Jeffrey Garvin, Randall K Packer
Fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, are found throughout the continental United States in waters in which salinity can change with tides and temperatures vary seasonally. They have been used extensively in studies of environmental toxicology and are commercially important. In a very recent study in our labs RNA Seq was used to assemble transcriptomes from the gills of fatheads acclimated to either 5° or 22 °C. By comparison with published genomes, transcripts were identified for a number of ion transporters, ion channels, and signal molecule receptors, as well as enzymes that generate ammonia...
October 31, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30385171/interplay-between-diet-induced-obesity-and-oxidative-stress-comparison-between-drosophila-and-mammals
#6
REVIEW
Maria M Bayliak, Olexandra B Abrat, Janet M Storey, Kenneth B Storey, Volodymyr I Lushchak
Obesity caused by excessive fat accumulation in adipocytes is a growing global problem and is a major contributing risk factor for many chronic metabolic diseases. There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in both obesity progression and obesity-related complications. In recent years, Drosophila models of diet-induced obesity and associated pathologies have been successfully developed through manipulation of carbohydrate or fat concentrations in the food. Obese flies accumulate triacylglycerols in the fat body, an organ homologous to mammalian adipose tissue and exhibit metabolic and physiological complications including hyperglycemia, redox imbalance and shortened longevity; these are all similar to those observed in obese humans...
October 30, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30393112/does-a-ghrelin-stimulus-during-zebrafish-embryonic-stage-modulate-its-performance-on-the-long-term
#7
Carmen Navarro-Guillén, Jorge Dias, Filipa Rocha, M F Castanheira, Catarina I M Martins, Vincent Laizé, Paulo J Gavaia, Sofia Engrola
Metabolic programming refers to the induction, deletion, or impaired development of a somatic structure or "setting" of a physiological system by an early life stimulus operated at a critical period during development. Ghrelin is the only known orexigenic gut hormone, is an acylated peptide that acts as an endogenous ligand specific for growth-hormone secretagogue-receptor. The aim of the present work was to evaluate if an in ovo ghrelin administration could positively influence the zebrafish performance in the long-term and to gain insight on the mechanisms associated to ghrelin regulation of food intake during the larval phase...
October 25, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367962/the-heart-of-an-acrobatic-bird
#8
J Barske, M Eghbali, S Kosarussavadi, E Choi, B A Schlinger
The courtship behavior of some species of birds can be energetically demanding, but it is unknown if cardiovascular specializations enable such behaviors. While performing a highly acrobatic courtship dance, heart rate in male golden-collared manakins increases briefly to 1300 beats per minute, among the highest heart rates recorded in any bird or mammal. We hypothesize that male manakins have enhanced cardiovascular capabilities to meet these demands on the heart. Using histological and molecular techniques, we examined manakin heart structure as well as expression of genes involved in Ca2+ handling, action potential duration, steroidal signaling and cardiac growth...
October 25, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367963/expression-of-calcineurin-in-relation-to-the-embryonic-diapause-process-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#9
Hsiao-Yen Hsieh, Shi-Hong Gu
Calcineurin (CN) is a Ca2+ /calmodulin-activated serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is essential for translating Ca2+ signals into changes in cell function and development. In the present study, we investigated changes in CN expression during the process of embryonic diapause in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. An immunoblot analysis showed that Bombyx eggs contained a 59-kDa catalytic A subunit (CNA), a 19-kDa regulatory B subunit (CNB), and a 27-kDa calcipressin; the CNA, CNB, and calcipressin were found to undergo differential changes between diapause and developing eggs during the diapause process...
October 24, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30347246/temperature-constrains-locomotion-and-muscle-function-in-two-temperate-labrids
#10
Clinton J Moran, David L Neubauer, Caroline L Rzucidlo, Shannon P Gerry
Winter quiescence in fishes is not uncommon, however understanding the mechanisms that cause dormancy are poorly understood. This study highlights the physiological stress temperature places on locomotor musculature and its consequences on whole organism locomotion. Cunner and tautog experience temperatures ranging from 0 to 25 °C and enter dormancy at ~10 °C. We aimed to address the question: how do winter temperatures affect steady swimming and muscle contraction kinetics in cunner? Fishes were collected and housed at 5, 10, 15, or 20 °C...
October 19, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30347245/effects-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-agonists-on-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-cultured-muscle-cells
#11
Emilio J Vélez, Sara Balbuena-Pecino, Encarnación Capilla, Isabel Navarro, Joaquim Gutiérrez, Miquel Riera-Codina
β2 -adrenoceptors are a subtype of G-protein coupled receptors whose activation leads to increased protein synthesis and decreased degradation in mammalian skeletal muscle, causing hypertrophy. In this study, we compared the effects of the classical β2 -agonist noradrenaline (NA) with two representatives of a new generation of agonists (formoterol, FOR and salmeterol, SALM) on growth and metabolism of primary cultured muscle cells of gilthead sea bream. Activation of signaling pathways, cell development and expression of relevant genes were analyzed in day 4 myocytes...
October 19, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30343059/the-squirrel-with-the-lagging-eif2-global-suppression-of-protein-synthesis-during-torpor
#12
Samantha M Logan, Cheng-Wei Wu, Kenneth B Storey
Hibernating mammals use strong metabolic rate depression and a reduction in body temperature to near-ambient to survive the cold winter months. During torpor, protein synthesis is suppressed but can resume during interbout arousals. The current study aimed to identify molecular targets responsible for the global suppression of protein synthesis during torpor as well as possible mechanisms that could allow for selective protein translation to continue over this time. Relative changes in protein expression and/or phosphorylation levels of key translation factors (ribosomal protein S6, eIF4E, eIF2α, eEF2) and their upstream regulators (mTOR, TSC2, p70 S6K, 4EBP) were analyzed in liver and kidney of 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) sampled from six points over the torpor-arousal cycle...
October 18, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336278/dna-damage-as-an-indicator-of-chronic-stress-correlations-with-corticosterone-and-uric-acid
#13
Brenna M G Gormally, Rory Fuller, Mitch McVey, L Michael Romero
Corticosterone does not change in consistent ways across species and contexts, making it challenging to use as an indicator of chronic stress. We assessed DNA damage as a potential metric that could be a more integrative stress measurement with direct links to health. We captured free-living house sparrows, took an immediate blood sample, and transferred them to the laboratory, exposing them to the chronic stress of captivity. Biweekly blood and weight samples were then taken for 4 weeks. We immediately assessed DNA damage in red blood cells using the comet assay and later quantified corticosterone...
October 15, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326270/the-effects-of-stress-cortisol-administration-and-cortisol-inhibition-on-black-sea-bass-centropristis-striata-sex-differentiation
#14
Kelsie A Miller, Linas W Kenter, Timothy S Breton, David L Berlinsky
Sex differentiation in many lower vertebrates (e.g. reptiles, amphibians, and fishes) can be influenced by environmental factors experienced during sensitive developmental periods. Environmental stressors, acting through cortisol, masculinize some teleost fishes during development by limiting gonadal cytochrome P450 aromatase (cyp19a1a), the enzyme that irreversibly converts testosterone to 17β-estradiol. In this study, we examined the influence of cortisol, cortisol inhibitors and a repeated, acute stressor (net-chasing) on sex differentiation in black sea bass (BSB; Centropristis striata), a protogynous hermaphroditic teleost...
October 13, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326269/chitin-synthesis-and-degradation-in-lepeophtheirus-salmonis-molecular-characterization-and-gene-expression-profile-during-synthesis-of-a-new-exoskeleton
#15
Hulda María Harðardóttir, Rune Male, Frank Nilsen, Christiane Eichner, Michael Dondrup, Sussie Dalvin
Animals with exoskeleton need to molt to grow and develop. Molting is well described in some arthropods especially insects. Chitin is a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, and one of the major components of the exoskeleton of arthropods. Chitin is synthesized and degraded by a series of enzymes during the molting cycle. However, the presence and function of these enzymes are largely unknown in copepods such as the ectoparasite salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) a major pest in salmonid aquaculture. Here we describe six genes found in the L...
October 13, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315868/effects-of-fasting-on-the-gene-expression-of-appetite-regulators-in-three-characiformes-with-different-feeding-habits-gymnocorymbus-ternetzi-metynnis-argenteus-and-exodon-paradoxus
#16
Zahndra Diann Butt, Erin O'Brien, Hélène Volkoff
In order to assess potential interspecific differences in the endocrine mechanisms regulating feeding in Characiformes, we used three fish species with different feeding habits: two Characidae, the omnivore black widow tetra and the carnivore bucktooth tetra, and one Serrasalmidae, the herbivore silver dollar, as models. cDNAs encoding for appetite-regulating peptides (orexin, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript CART, cholecystokinin CCK and leptin) were isolated and their tissue distribution examined...
October 11, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315867/the-effects-of-transfer-from-steady-state-to-tidally-changing-salinities-on-plasma-and-branchial-osmoregulatory-variables-in-adult-mozambique-tilapia
#17
K Keano Pavlosky, Yoko Yamaguchi, Darren T Lerner, Andre P Seale
The Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, is a teleost fish native to estuarine waters that vary in salinity between fresh water (FW) and seawater (SW). The neuroendocrine system plays a key role in salinity acclimation by directing ion uptake and extrusion in osmoregulatory tissues such as gill. While most studies with O. mossambicus have focused on acclimation to steady-state salinities, less is known about the ability of adult fish to acclimate to dynamically-changing salinities. Plasma osmolality, prolactin (PRL) levels, and branchial gene expression of PRL receptors (PRLR1 and PRLR2), Na+ /Cl- and Na+ /K+ /2Cl- co-transporters (NCC and NKCC), Na+ /K+ -ATPase (NKAα1a and NKAα1b), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and aquaporin 3 (AQP3) were measured in fish reared in FW and SW steady-state salinities, in a tidal regimen (TR) where salinities changed between FW and SW every six hours, and in fish transferred from FW or SW to TR...
October 11, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308304/effect-of-molting-on-the-concentration-of-plasma-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-in-captive-african-penguins-spheniscus-demersus
#18
Kentaro Ueda, Fumiko Akashi, Motoki Kawasaki, Tohru Matsui
Feed intake and body weight are drastically altered in penguins during peri-molting period, and molting is known to affect the nutritional status of vitamin A and E. Although vitamin D status is not known in penguins during peri-molting period, vitamin D intake is supposed to be remarkably altered. The objective of the present study was to clarify the alterations in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, the most reliable biomarker for assessing vitamin D status, and vitamin D intake during peri-molting period...
October 9, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308303/influence-of-seasonality-on-the-natural-modulation-of-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-in-mangrove-crab-ucides-cordatus-brachyura-ucididae
#19
Carla Carolina Miranda Dos Santos, Jorge Felippe Medeiros da Costa, Cléverson Rannieri Meira Dos Santos, Lílian Lund Amado
The estuaries are characterized by the formation of salinity gradients and are frequently associated with anthropic activities. Studies that show the condition of organisms against the natural environmental variations are fundamental for future evaluation of environmental change due to anthropic impacts. Biomarkers are useful tools defined as biological changes in low levels of organization induced by stressors and considered as predictive responses of more severe effects. The aim of this study was to characterize the modulation of biochemical biomarkers in Ucides cordatus against the natural variation a pristine mangrove forest in an Amazonic estuary (Japerica Bay)...
October 9, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308302/enhanced-salt-tolerance-of-euryhaline-tadpoles-depends-on-increased-na-k-atpase-expression-after-salinity-acclimation
#20
Jou-Chieh Lai, Yeong-Choy Kam, Hui-Chen Lin, Chi-Shiun Wu
Understanding physiological responses and osmoregulatory mechanisms for dealing with salinity stress is essential to clarify how amphibians living in coastal areas adapt to fluctuating salinity levels. Euryhaline species are rare among reported tadpole species inhabiting saline habitats, and few studies addressed the osmoregulatory mechanisms. We quantified the effects of salinity acclimation on survival, osmolality, water content, ion concentration, and gill Na+ , K+ -ATPase (NKA) expression of euryhaline tadpoles of Fejervarya cancrivora, to examine time-course changes of osmoregulatory responses of tadpoles subjected to salinity stress and how osmoregulatory mechanisms were involved in the process...
October 9, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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