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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095297/dual-estrogenic-regulation-of-the-nuclear-progestin-receptor-and-spermatogonial-renewal-during-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata-spermatogenesis
#1
François Chauvigné, Janmejay Parhi, Judith Ollé, Joan Cerdà
Studies in teleosts suggest that progestins have crucial functions during early spermatogenesis. However, the role of the different progestin receptors in these mechanisms is poorly understood. In this work, we investigated the expression pattern and hormonal regulation of the classical nuclear progestin receptor (Pgr) in the gilthead seabream at three different stages of spermatogenesis: the resting (postspawning) phase, onset of spermatogenesis, and spermiation. Immunolocalization experiments using a seabream specific Pgr antibody revealed that the receptor was expressed in Sertoli and Leydig cells, and also in a subset of spermatogonia type A, throughout spermatogenesis...
January 14, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089858/glucose-amino-acids-and-fatty-acids-directly-regulate-ghrelin-and-nucb2-nesfatin-1-in-the-intestine-and-hepatopancreas-of-goldfish-carassius-auratus-in-vitro
#2
Juan Ignacio Bertucci, Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Luis Fabián Canosa, Suraj Unniappan
Ghrelin and nesfatin-1 are two peptidyl hormones primarily involved in food intake regulation. We previously reported that the amount of dietary carbohydrates, protein and lipids modulates the expression of these peptides in goldfish in vivo. In the present work, we aimed to characterize the effects of single nutrients on ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas. First, immunolocalization of ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in goldfish hepatopancreas cells was studied by immunohistochemistry. Second, the effects of 2 and 4h-long exposures of cultured intestine and hepatopancreas sections to glucose, L-tryptophan, oleic acid, linolenic acid (LNA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on ghrelin and nesfatin-1 gene and protein expression were studied...
January 13, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089856/erythrocyte-heat-shock-protein-responses-to-chronic-in-vivo-and-acute-in-vitro-temperature-challenge-in-diploid-and-triploid-salmonids
#3
Pillai V Saranyan, Neil W Ross, Tillmann J Benfey
This research investigated how ploidy level (diploid versus triploid) affects the heat shock protein (HSP) response in erythrocytes under different thermal stress regimes, both in vivo and in vitro, in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) in order to address the question of why triploids typically have reduced thermal tolerance. A preliminary study confirmed that identical volumes of diploid and triploid erythrocytes (which equates to a smaller number of larger cells for triploids compared to diploids) did not differ in total protein synthesis rates...
January 13, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089857/na-k-atpase-activity-in-the-anoxic-turtle-trachemys-scripta-brain-at-different-acclimation-temperature
#4
Jonathan A W Stecyk, Anthony P Farrell, Matti Vornanen
Survival of prolonged anoxia requires a balance between cellular ATP demand and anaerobic ATP supply from glycolysis, especially in critical tissues such as the brain. To add insight into the ATP demand of the brain of the anoxia-tolerant red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) during prolonged periods of anoxic submergence, we quantified and compared the number of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase units and their molecular activity in brain tissue from turtles acclimated to either 21°C or 5°C and exposed to either normoxia or anoxia (6h 21°C; 14 d at 5°C)...
January 12, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087330/molecular-characterization-and-functional-analysis-of-a-salmon-louse-lepeophtheirus-salmonis-kr%C3%A3-yer-1838-heme-peroxidase-with-a-potential-role-in-extracellular-matrixes
#5
Aina-Cathrine Øvergård, Christiane Eichner, Frank Nilsen, Sussie Dalvin
Heme peroxidases are the most abundant type of peroxidase catalyzing a H2O2-dependent oxidation of a wide variety of substrates. They are involved in numerous processes like the innate immune response, hormone and prostaglandin synthesis and crosslinking of proteins within extracellular matrixes (ECM) as well as molecules within the cuticle and chorion of arthropods and nematodes. In the present study, a Lepeophtheirus salmonis heme peroxidase (LsHPX) 1 was characterized. Amino acids in the active site of heme peroxidases were conserved, and the predicted protein sequence showed the highest similarity to genes annotated as chorion peroxidases and genes suggested to be involved in cuticle hardening or adhesion...
January 11, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087331/different-age-dependent-performance-in-drosophila-wild-type-canton-s-and-the-white-mutant-w1118-flies
#6
Shuang Qiu, Chengfeng Xiao, R Meldrum Robertson
Aging has significant effects on the locomotor performance of insects including Drosophila. Using a protocol for the high-throughput analysis of fly locomotion in a restricted space, we re-examined age-dependent behavioral characteristics in adult Drosophila. There are multiple important wild-type and background lines including the Canton-S strain and the w1118 strain, which has a null mutation of the white gene. Under standard rearing conditions, we found similar survival curves and median lifespans in Canton-S (50days) and w1118 (54days) strains, however, w1118 flies maintained stable body mass for up to 43days, whereas Canton-S flies gained body mass at young age, followed by a gradual decline...
January 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062221/extreme-intra-clutch-egg-size-dimorphism-is-not-coupled-with-corresponding-differences-in-antioxidant-capacity-and-stable-isotopes-between-eggs
#7
Maud Poisbleau, Michaël Beaulieu, Nina Dehnhard, Laurent Demongin, Gilles Lepoint, Nicolas Sturaro, Marcel Eens
Oviparous females need to allocate resources optimally to their eggs in order to maximize their fitness. Among these resources, dietary antioxidants, acquired by females and transferred to the eggs during egg formation, can greatly affect the development and survival of the embryo and chick. In crested penguins, incubation starts after the second and last egg is laid and, as opposed to many other bird species, this egg hatches first, thereby enhancing the survival of the chick. Here, we assessed whether antioxidant and isotopic composition could underlie these differences between eggs within clutches of southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome)...
January 4, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025068/transcription-of-four-rhopalosiphum-padi-l-heat-shock-protein-genes-and-their-responses-to-heat-stress-and-insecticide-exposure
#8
Yuting Li, Qi Zhao, Xinle Duan, Chunman Song, Maohua Chen
The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), a worldwide destructive pest, is more heat tolerant than other wheat aphids, and it has developed resistance to different insecticides. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in coping with environmental stresses. To investigate Hsp transcriptional responses to heat and insecticide stress, four full-length Hsp genes from R. padi (RpHsp60, RpHsc70, RpHsp70-1, and RpHsp70-2) were cloned. Four RpHsps were expressed during all R. padi developmental stages, but at varying levels...
December 24, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011410/rates-of-oxygen-uptake-increase-independently-of-changes-in-heart-rate-in-late-stages-of-development-and-at-hatching-in-the-green-iguana-iguana-iguana
#9
Marina R Sartori, Augusto S Abe, Dane A Crossley, Edwin W Taylor
Oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (fH), heart mass (Mh) and body mass (Mb) were measured during embryonic incubation and in hatchlings of green iguana (Iguana iguana). Mean fH and VO2 were unvarying in early stage embryos. VO2 increased exponentially during the later stages of embryonic development, doubling by the end of incubation, while fH was constant, resulting in a 2.7-fold increase in oxygen pulse. Compared to late stage embryos, the mean inactive level of VO2 in hatchlings was 1.7 fold higher, while fH was reduced by half resulting in a further 3...
December 21, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011409/geographic-variation-and-within-individual-correlations-of-physiological-stress-markers-in-a-widespread-reptile-the-common-garter-snake-thamnophis-sirtalis
#10
Eric J Gangloff, Amanda M Sparkman, Kaitlyn G Holden, Caitlyn J Corwin, Madeline Topf, Anne M Bronikowski
Characterizing the baseline and stress-induced hormonal, metabolite, and immune profiles of wild animals is important to assess the impacts of variable environments, including human-induced landscape changes, on organismal health. Additionally, the extent to which these profiles are coordinated across physiological systems within individuals remains an important question in understanding how stressors can differentially affect aspects of an individual's physiology. Here, we present data from wild populations of the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) on both baseline and stress-induced biomarkers: plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentration, plasma glucose concentration, and whole blood heterophil:lymphocyte ratio...
December 21, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007664/effects-of-seasonal-acclimatization-on-action-potentials-and-sarcolemmal-k-currents-in-roach-rutilus-rutilus-cardiac-myocytes
#11
Ahmed Badr, Minna Hassinen, Mohamed F El-Sayed, Matti Vornanen
Temperature sensitivity of electrical excitability is a potential limiting factor for high temperature tolerance of ectotherms. The present study examines whether heat resistance of electrical excitability of cardiac myocytes is modified by seasonal thermal acclimatization in roach (Rutilus rutilus), a eurythermal teleost species. To this end, temperature dependencies of ventricular action potentials (APs), and atrial and ventricular K(+) currents were measured from winter-acclimatized (WiR) and summer-acclimatized (SuR) roach...
December 19, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007663/dynamic-interactions-between-corticosterone-corticosteroid-binding-globulin-and-testosterone-in-response-to-capture-stress-in-male-breeding-eurasian-tree-sparrows
#12
Yaqing Li, Yanfeng Sun, Jesse S Krause, Mo Li, Xuelu Liu, Weiwei Zhu, Yao Yao, Yuefeng Wu, Dongming Li
In birds, corticosterone (CORT), testosterone (T), and corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) are involved in modulating the trade-off between reproduction and survival. In response to acute stress, increased total plasma CORT is a ubiquitous phenomenon while T levels can decrease, or remain unchanged. Since CORT and T bind competitively with CBG in birds, the underlying regulatory mechanisms and consequences of their dynamic interactions remain largely unknown. Here, we studied the dynamic changes of total CORT, T, and CBG, and estimated free and bound CORT and T in response to capture stress in male Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) across the nest building, egg-laying, and nestling stages...
December 19, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993597/a-comparison-of-blood-nitric-oxide-metabolites-and-hemoglobin-functional-properties-among-diving-mammals
#13
Angela Fago, Daniel Garcia Parraga, Elin E Petersen, Niels Kristensen, Lea Giouri, Frank B Jensen
The ability of marine mammals to hunt prey at depth is known to rely on enhanced oxygen stores and on selective distribution of blood flow, but the molecular mechanisms regulating blood flow and oxygen transport remain unresolved. To investigate the molecular mechanisms that may be important in regulating blood flow, we measured concentration of nitrite and S-nitrosothiols (SNO), two metabolites of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO), in the blood of 5 species of marine mammals differing in their dive duration: bottlenose dolphin, South American sea lion, harbor seal, walrus and beluga whale...
December 18, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989496/effects-of-first-exogenous-nutrients-on-the-mrna-levels-of-atrogin-1-mafbx-and-glut1-in-the-skeletal-muscles-of-newly-hatched-chicks
#14
Daichi Ijiri, Saki Shimamoto, Mana Kawaguchi, Airi Furukawa, Kazuki Nakashima, Osamu Tada, Akira Ohtsuka
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of first exogenous nutrients on the mRNA levels of muscle atrophy F-box (atrogin-1/MAFbx) and glucose transporters (GLUTs) in the skeletal muscles of newly hatched chicks with no feed experience. In experiment 1, newly hatched chicks had free access to feed or were fasted for the first 24h. The chicks having free access to feed for the first 24h increased their body weight and had decreased atrogin-1/MAFbx mRNA levels in their sartorius and pectoralis major muscles compared with the fasted chicks...
December 16, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988380/salinity-alters-snakeskin-and-mesh-transcript-abundance-and-permeability-in-midgut-and-malpighian-tubules-of-larval-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#15
Sima Jonusaite, Andrew Donini, Scott P Kelly
This study examined the distribution and localization of the septate junction (SJ) proteins snakeskin (Ssk) and mesh in osmoregulatory organs of larval mosquito (Aedes aegypti), as well as their response to altered environmental salt levels. Ssk and mesh transcripts and immunoreactivity were detected in tissues of endodermal origin such as the midgut and Malpighian tubules of A. aegypti larvae, but not in ectodermally derived hindgut and anal papillae. Immunolocalization of Ssk and mesh in the midgut and Malpighian tubules indicated that both proteins are concentrated at regions of cell-cell contact between epithelial cells...
December 15, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956166/nutritional-status-and-functional-digestive-histology-of-the-carnivorous-tasmanian-devil-sarcophilus-harrisii
#16
Hayley J Stannard, Lydia Tong, Michelle Shaw, Monique Van Sluys, Bronwyn McAllan, David Raubenheimer
Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) are the largest carnivorous marsupial in Australia. Currently many animals are being held in captivity as a management procedure to combat Devil Facial Tumor Disease. Only one published study thus far has investigated nutrition in Tasmanian devils, determining their maintenance energy requirements and digestibility on a rodent diet. More information is needed on Tasmanian devil nutritional and gastrointestinal function to aid in their management. Our study aimed to investigate the current nutritional status of Tasmanian devils in a captive population and functional morphology and histology of their gastrointestinal tract...
December 9, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989866/localization-and-expression-of-molt-inhibiting-hormone-and-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-the-green-shore-crab-carcinus-maenas-and-the-blackback-land-crab-gecarcinus-lateralis
#17
Natalie L Pitts, Donald L Mykles
In decapod crustaceans, molting is controlled by the pulsatile release of molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) from neurosecretory cells in the X-organ/sinus gland (XO/SG) complex in the eyestalk ganglia (ESG). A drop in MIH release triggers molting by activating the molting gland or Y-organ (YO). Post-transcriptional mechanisms ultimately control MIH levels in the hemolymph. Neurotransmitter-mediated electrical activity controls Ca(2+)-dependent vesicular release of MIH from the SG axon terminals, which may be modulated by nitric oxide (NO)...
October 27, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979756/digesting-or-swimming-integration-of-the-postprandial-metabolism-behavior-and-locomotion-in-a-frequently-foraging-fish
#18
Li-Juan Nie, Zhen-Dong Cao, Shi-Jian Fu
Fish that are active foragers usually perform routine activities while digesting their food; thus, their postprandial swimming capacity and related behavior adjustments might be ecologically important. To test whether digestion affect swimming performance and the relationships of digestion with metabolism and behavior in an active forager, we investigated the postprandial metabolic response, spontaneous swimming activities, critical swimming speed (Ucrit), and fast-start escape performance of both fasted and digesting (3h after feeding to satiation) juvenile rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus)...
February 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956167/photoperiod-and-temperature-differently-affect-immune-function-in-striped-hamsters-cricetulus-barabensis
#19
De-Li Xu, Xiao-Kai Hu
Small mammals generally use short day length to elevate immune function to counteract the immunosuppressive effect of low temperature in winter in light of the winter immunoenhancement hypothesis. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis in striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis). We expected that immune responses would be increased by short photoperiod but suppressed by low temperature. Thirty-four adult female hamsters were randomly divided into the long day (16L:8D) and short day (8L:16D) groups, which were further assigned into the warm (23±1°C) and the cold (5±1°C) groups, respectively...
February 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923711/characterization-of-na-transport-to-gain-insight-into-the-mechanism-of-acid-base-and-ion-regulation-in-white-sturgeon-acipenser-transmontanus
#20
Ryan B Shartau, Kevin V Brix, Colin J Brauner
Freshwater fish actively take up ions via specific transporters to counter diffusive losses to their hypotonic environment. While much is known about the specific mechanisms employed by teleosts, almost nothing is known about the basal fishes, such as white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) which may offer insight into the evolution of osmo- and ionoregulation in fishes. We investigated Na(+) uptake in juvenile white sturgeon in the presence and absence of transporter inhibitors. We found that sturgeon acclimated to 100μmoll(-1) Na(+) have Na(+) uptake kinetics typical of teleosts and that a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) is the predominant transporter for Na(+) uptake...
February 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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