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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003967/isolated-adult-turtle-brainstems-exhibit-central-hypoxic-chemosensitivity
#1
Michelle E Bartman, Stephen M Johnson
During hypoxia, red-eared slider turtles increase ventilation and decrease episodic breathing, but whether these responses are due to central mechanisms is not known. To test this question, isolated adult turtle brainstems were exposed to 240 min of hypoxic solution (bath PO2  = 32.6 ± 1.2 mmHg) and spontaneous respiratory-related motor bursts (respiratory event) were recorded on hypoglossal nerve roots. During hypoxia, burst frequency increased during the first 15 min, and then decreased during the remaining 35-240 min of hypoxia...
July 9, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958996/multiple-sub-lethal-thresholds-for-cellular-responses-to-thermal-stressors-in-an-estuarine-fish
#2
Ken M Jeffries, Nann A Fangue, Richard E Connon
Understanding physiological limits and the ability to acclimatize to changing conditions will determine whether species will be able to cope with further increases in water temperature. Changes in temperature may be considered to become stressful for an ectotherm when it results in reduced performance, which can lead to fitness level consequences. The relative intensity of the stressor as well as the duration of the exposure to the stressor will determine the response observed. Transcriptomic responses can potentially indicate thresholds where physiological performance begins to decline...
June 26, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29953949/facultative-hypothermia-as-a-survival-strategy-during-snowstorm-induced-food-shortages-in-antarctic-storm-petrel-chicks
#3
Nadja D Kuepper, Carina Marek, Nestor Coria, Marcela Libertelli, Petra Quillfeldt
Wilson's storm-petrels (Oceanites oceanicus) are the smallest marine birds breeding in Antarctica, where events like snowstorms often prevent parents from providing food daily for their offspring. To minimize energy expenses, Wilson's storm-petrel chicks can reduce their metabolism and body temperature by entering hypothermia. Hypothermia is reported to impact development, hence we hypothesized that hypothermia will be majorly used after long fasting periods. Chick development in a breeding colony of Wilson's storm-petrels on the South Shetland Islands was monitored daily during three consecutive summers by recording chicks' body mass and temperature, as well as environmental parameters...
June 25, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932975/short-and-long-term-salinity-challenge-osmoregulatory-ability-and-na-k-atpase-kinetics-and-%C3%AE-subunit-mrna-expression-in-the-gills-of-the-thinstripe-hermit-crab-clibanarius-symmetricus
#4
Rogério O Faleiros, Daniela P Garçon, Malson N Lucena, John C McNamara, Francisco A Leone
The evolutionary history of the Crustacea reveals ample adaptive radiation and the subsequent occupation of many osmotic niches resulting from physiological plasticity in their osmoregulatory mechanisms. We evaluate osmoregulatory ability in the intertidal, thinstripe hermit crab Clibanarius symmetricus after short-term exposure (6 h) or long-term acclimation (10 days) to a wide salinity range, also analyzing kinetic behavior and α-subunit mRNA expression of the gill (Na+ , K+ )-ATPase. The crab strongly hyper-regulates its hemolymph at 5 and 15‰S (Salinity, g L-1 ) but weakly hyper-regulates up to ≈27‰S...
June 19, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932974/regulation-of-nle74a-on-vitellogenin-might-be-mediated-by-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-through-a-fecundity-related-snp-in-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens
#5
Zhongxiang Sun, Qi Shi, Cuicui Xu, Rumeng Wang, Huanhuan Wang, Yuanyuan Song, Rensen Zeng
The major yolk protein precursors (YPP) gene, vitellogenin (Vg), usually considered as a reproductive indicator and molecular marker for evaluating insect fecundity, is controlled by insect hormone (mainly ecdysteroids and juvenile hormone), transcription factors and many other fecundity-related genes. To better understand the underlying molecular regulation mechanisms of the NlVg in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (N. lugens), the correlation between one early ecdysone response gene E74 and one important fecundity-related gene angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) on the regulation of Vg gene expression, was investigated...
June 19, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913320/assessing-the-role-of-the-acid-sensing-ion-channel-asic4b-in-sodium-uptake-by-larval-zebrafish
#6
Alex M Zimmer, Agnieszka K Dymowska, Yusuke Kumai, Greg G Goss, Steve F Perry, Raymond W M Kwong
Na+ uptake in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) is coordinated by three mechanisms: Na+ /H+ -exchanger 3b (NHE3b) expressed in H+ -ATPase-rich (HR) cells, an unidentified Na+ channel coupled to electrogenic H+ -ATPase expressed in HR cells, and Na+ -Cl- -cotransporter (NCC) expressed in NCC cells. Recently, acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) were proposed to be the putative Na+ channel involved in H+ -ATPase-mediated Na+ uptake in adult zebrafish and rainbow trout. In the present study, we hypothesized that ASICs also play this role in Na+ uptake in larval zebrafish...
June 15, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890210/the-rostral-medulla-of-bullfrog-tadpoles-contains-critical-lung-rhythmogenic-and-chemosensitive-regions-across-metamorphosis
#7
Mitchell D Reed, Kimberly E Iceman, Michael B Harris, Barbara E Taylor
The development of amphibian breathing provides insight into vertebrate respiratory control mechanisms. Neural oscillators in the rostral and caudal medulla drive ventilation in amphibians, and previous reports describe ventilatory oscillators and CO2 sensitive regions arise during different stages of amphibian metamorphosis. However, inconsistent findings have been enigmatic, and make comparisons to potential mammalian counterparts challenging. In the current study we assessed amphibian central CO2 responsiveness and respiratory rhythm generation during two different developmental stages...
June 8, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886255/rankl-ephrin-eph-and-wnt10b-are-key-intercellular-communication-molecules-regulating-bone-remodeling-in-autologous-transplanted-goldfish-scales
#8
Yuya Tazaki, Kayo Sugitani, Kazuhiro Ogai, Isao Kobayashi, Haruki Kawasaki, Takafumi Aoyama, Nobuo Suzuki, Yoshiaki Tabuchi, Atsuhiko Hattori, Kei-Ichiro Kitamura
This study aimed to investigate the precise data of gene expression, functions, and chronological relationships amongst communication molecules involved in the bone remodeling process with an in vivo model using autologous transplanted scales of goldfish. Autotransplantation of methanol-fixed cell-free scales triggers scale resorption and regeneration, as well as helps elucidate the process of bone remodeling. We investigated osteoclastic markers, osteoblastic markers, and gene expressions of communicating molecules (RANKL, ephrinB2, EphB4, EphA4, Wnt10b) by qPCR, in situ hybridization for Wnt10b, and immunohistochemistry for EphrinB2 and EphA4 proteins to elucidate the bone remodeling process...
June 7, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886254/uncoupling-protein-1-in-snakehead-channa-argus-cloning-tissue-distribution-and-its-expression-in-response-to-fasting-and-refeeding
#9
Chuan-Jie Qin, Zheng-Yong Wen, Jun Wang, Yang He, Deng-Yue Yuan, Rui Li
In mammals, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is well known for its thermogenic role in brown adipose tissue (BAT). However, the UCP1 physiological roles are still unclear in fish, although several teleost ucp1 genes have been identified. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential roles of fish UCP1 involved in food intake regulation and energy homeostasis. We herein report on the molecular cloning, tissue distribution and the effect of fasting and refeeding on the expression of ucp1 in Channa argus. UCP1 consisted of a 921 bp open reading frame predicted to encode 306 amino acids...
June 7, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885552/comparing-enchytraeus-albidus-populations-from-contrasting-climatic-environments-suggest-a-link-between-cold-tolerance-and-metabolic-activity
#10
Anamarija Žagar, Martin Holmstrup, Tatjana Simčič, Barabara Debeljak, Stine Slotsbo
Basal metabolic activity and freezing of body fluids create reactive oxygen species (ROS) in freeze-tolerant organisms. These sources of ROS can have an additive negative effect via oxidative stress. In cells, antioxidant systems are responsible for removing ROS in order to avoid damage due to oxidative stress. Relatively little is known about the importance of metabolic rate for the survival of freezing, despite a good understanding of several cold tolerance related physiological mechanisms. We hypothesized that low basal metabolism would be selected for in freeze-tolerant organisms where winter survival is important for fitness for two reasons...
June 6, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879485/response-of-the-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-igf1-system-to-nutritional-status-and-growth-rate-variation-in-olive-rockfish-sebastes-serranoides
#11
Nicole L Hack, Jackson S Strobel, Meredith L Journey, Brian R Beckman, Sean C Lema
Growth performance in vertebrates is regulated by environmental factors including the quality and quantity of food, which influence growth via endocrine pathways such as the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor somatotropic axis. In several teleost fishes, circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (Igf1) correlate positively with growth rate, and it has been proposed that plasma Igf1 levels may serve as an indicator of growth variation for fisheries and aquaculture applications. This study tested whether plasma Igf1 concentrations might serve as an indicator of somatic growth in olive rockfish (Sebastes serranoides), one species among dozens of rockfishes important to commercial and recreational fisheries in the Northern Pacific Ocean...
June 4, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864517/the-effects-of-warm-temperature-acclimation-on-constitutive-stress-immunity-and-metabolism-in-white-sturgeon-acipenser-transmontanus-of-different-ploidies
#12
Michaiah J Leal, Brigitte E Clark, Joel P Van Eenennaam, Andrea D Schreier, Anne E Todgham
Previous studies suggest fish with additional copies of their genome (polyploids) underperform in suboptimal conditions and may be more susceptible to stress and disease. The objective of this study was to determine the role ploidy plays in the physiological response of white sturgeon to chronically elevated water temperatures. White sturgeon of two ploidies (8 N and 10 N) were acclimated to ambient (18 °C) and warm (22 °C) water. Bioindices of stress (plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate, total erythrocyte count, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean erythrocyte volume, mean erythrocyte hemoglobin, and mean erythrocyte hemoglobin concentration), immunity (respiratory burst, plasma lysozyme, and total leukocyte count), and cellular metabolic capacity (lactate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity) were measured before and after a 6-week acclimation period...
June 2, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864518/does-hypoxia-or-different-rates-of-re-oxygenation-after-hypoxia-induce-an-oxidative-stress-response-in-cyphocharax-abramoides-kner-1858-a-characid-fish-of-the-rio-negro
#13
Ora E Johannsson, Marina Giacomin, Helen Sadauskas-Henrique, Derek Campos, Susana Braz-Mota, Waldir Heinrichs-Caldas, Ramon Baptista, Chris M Wood, Vera Maria F Almeida-Val, Adalberto L Val
We examined whether oxidative damage and antioxidant responses are more likely to occur during hypoxia or re-oxygenation in hypoxia-tolerant fish, and whether there is an influence of the rate of re-oxygenation. An hypoxia/re-oxygenation experiment using wild-caught Cyphocharax abramoides (Rio Negro, Brazil), was designed to answer these questions. Lipid peroxidation (MDA), a measure of oxidative damage, and antioxidant activities superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), were measured in brain, gill and liver tissues after normoxia, 3-h hypoxia (2...
June 1, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852254/leptin-and-leptin-receptor-genes-in-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis-molecular-cloning-tissue-distribution-and-differential-regulation-of-these-genes-by-sex-steroids
#14
Yongjiang Xu, Yaxing Zhang, Bin Wang, Xuezhou Liu, Quan Liu, Xuesong Song, Bao Shi, Kangli Ren
Leptin (Lep) is a key factor for the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis in mammals. To date, a number of studies have provided evidence for the existence of multiple leptin genes in teleosts, but not much information is available in fish regarding the regulation of leptin genes by sex steriods. As a first step, two leptin genes (lepa and lepb) and a leptin receptor (lepr) gene were cloned from the half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), a representative species of the order Pleuronectiformes...
May 28, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852253/characterization-and-expression-of-na-k-atpase-in-gills-and-kidneys-of-the-teleost-fish-oreochromis-mossambicus-oreochromis-urolepis-hornorum-and-their-hybrids-in-response-to-salinity-challenge
#15
Huaping Zhu, Zhigang Liu, Fengying Gao, Maixin Lu, Yujiao Liu, Huanhuan Su, Dongmei Ma, Xiaoli Ke, Miao Wang, Jianmeng Cao, Mengmeng Yi
Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus, O. urolepis hornorum, their hybrids O. mossambicus♀ × O. hornorum♂ and O. hornorum♀ × O. mossambicus♂) were exposed to a high salinity environment to evaluate their osmoregulatory responses. The plasma osmolality of all the tilapia species were elevated with the salinity challenge. The activities of Na+ /K+ -ATPase (NKA) in both the gill and kidney showed a similar increased change tendency compared with the control. The distribution of NKA α1 mRNA in all the examined tissues suggested that NKA α1 has a possible housekeeping role for this isoform...
May 28, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778799/physiological-vagility-affects-population-genetic-structure-and-dispersal-and-enables-migratory-capacity-in-vertebrates
#16
Thomas V Hancock, Michael S Hedrick
Vagility is defined as the relative capacity for movement. We developed previously a quantitative metric in vertebrates for physiological vagility (PV), the speed at which an animal can move sustainably, incorporating aerobic capacity, body size, body temperature, and transport costs, allowing quantitative tests of whether PV can explain variation in interclass population genetic structure and behaviors involved in dispersal. We found that PV increased with body mass, correlated with maximal dispersal distances, and was inversely related to genetic structure in multiple vertebrate groups...
September 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775666/the-effect-of-syndecan-4-and-glypican-1-knockdown-on-the-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-turkey-satellite-cells-differing-in-age-and-growth-rates
#17
Sandra G Velleman, Daniel L Clark, Jeffrey R Tonniges
Posthatch skeletal muscle growth requires myogenic satellite cells and the dynamic expression of cell membrane-associated proteins. The membrane associated heparan sulfate proteoglycans, syndecan-4 and glypican-1, link the satellite cell niche to the intracellular environment. Sydnecan-4 and glypican-1 are differentially expressed with age in turkey satellite cells and their over-expression impacts both satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, but their effect on satellite cells from lines with different growth potentials is not known...
September 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753034/localization-and-expression-of-putative-circadian-clock-transcripts-in-the-brain-of-the-nudibranch-melibe-leonina
#18
Victoria E Duback, M Sabrina Pankey, Rachel I Thomas, Taylor L Huyck, Izhar M Mbarani, Kyle R Bernier, Geoffrey M Cook, Colleen A O'Dowd, James M Newcomb, Winsor H Watson
The nudibranch, Melibe leonina, expresses a circadian rhythm of locomotion, and we recently determined the sequences of multiple circadian clock transcripts that may play a role in controlling these daily patterns of behavior. In this study, we used these genomic data to help us: 1) identify putative clock neurons using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH); and 2) determine if there is a daily rhythm of expression of clock transcripts in the M. leonina brain, using quantitative PCR. FISH indicated the presence of the clock-related transcripts clock, period, and photoreceptive and non-photoreceptive cryptochrome (pcry and npcry, respectively) in two bilateral neurons in each cerebropleural ganglion and a group of <10 neurons in the anterolateral region of each pedal ganglion...
September 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746909/characterization-of-lpxrfa-receptor-in-the-half-smooth-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis-molecular-cloning-expression-profiles-and-differential-activation-of-signaling-pathways-by-lpxrfa-peptides
#19
Bin Wang, Guokun Yang, Quan Liu, Jingkai Qin, Yongjiang Xu, Wensheng Li, Xuezhou Liu, Bao Shi
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide, serves as a key player in the regulation of reproduction across vertebrates, acting on the brain and pituitary to modulate reproductive physiology and behavior. However, little information is available in teleosts regarding the intracellular signal transduction pathway in response to GnIH. To this end, we first cloned the gene of LPXRFa (the piscine ortholog of GnIH) receptor in the half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), a representative species of the order Pleuronectiformes...
September 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746908/the-behavioral-energetics-of-new-zealand-s-bats-daily-torpor-and-hibernation-a-continuum
#20
Brian K McNab, Colin O'Donnell
We examine the impact of behavior on the short-term energy expenditures of the only terrestrial mammals endemic to New Zealand, two bats, the long-tailed (Chalinolobus tuberculatus, family Vespertilionidae), and the lesser short-tailed (Mystacina tuberculata, family Mystacinidae). Vespertilionidae has a world-wide distribution. Mystacinidae is restricted to New Zealand, although related to five neotropical families and one in Madagascar reflecting a shared Gondwanan origin of their Noctilionoidea superfamily...
September 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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