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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915151/earth-strength-magnetic-field-affects-the-rheotactic-threshold-of-zebrafish-swimming-in-shoals
#1
Alessandro Cresci, Rosario De Rosa, Nathan F Putman, Claudio Agnisola
Rheotaxis, the unconditioned orienting response to water currents, is a main component of fish behaviour. Rheotaxis is achieved using multiple sensory systems, including visual and tactile cues. Rheotactic orientation in open or low-visibility waters might also benefit from the stable frame of reference provided by the geomagnetic field, but this possibility has not been explored before. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) form shoals living in freshwater systems with low visibility, show a robust positive rheotaxis, and respond to geomagnetic fields...
November 30, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915150/effect-of-environmental-salinity-manipulation-on-uptake-rates-and-distribution-patterns-of-waterborne-amino-acids-in-the-pacific-hagfish
#2
Chris N Glover, Tamzin A Blewett, Chris M Wood
Among vertebrates, hagfish are the only known iono- and osmoconformers, and the only species thus far documented to absorb amino acids directly across the skin. In the current study, short-term (6h) manipulations of exposure salinities (75-125% seawater) were conducted to determine whether changes in osmotic demands influenced the uptake and tissue distribution of waterborne amino acids (alanine, glycine and phenylalanine), in the Pacific hagfish, Eptatretus stoutii. No changes in erythrocyte or muscle amino acid accumulation rates were noted, but the patterns of plasma amino acid accumulation were suggestive of regulation...
November 30, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915149/trans-and-paracellular-calcium-transport-along-the-small-and-large-intestine-in-horses
#3
M R Wilkens, L Marholt, N Eigendorf, A S Muscher-Banse, K Feige, B Schröder, G Breves, A Cehak
Intestinal calcium absorption plays a key role in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis and may either occur by paracellular or transcellular mechanisms. The horse has some unique peculiarities in calcium homeostasis compared to other species including a high absorptive capacity for calcium in the intestine, high plasma calcium concentrations, high renal excretion, and low plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites. So far, knowledge about the underlying mechanisms and the regulation of intestinal calcium absorption is still limited concerning this species...
November 30, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894885/metabolic-rates-are-elevated-and-influenced-by-maternal-identity-during-the-early-yolk-dependent-post-hatching-period-in-an-estuarine-turtle-the-diamondback-terrapin-malaclemys-terrapin
#4
Christopher L Rowe, Ryan J Woodland, Sarah A Funck
Non-genetic maternal effects, operating through a female's physiology or behavior, can influence offspring traits and performance. Here we examined potential maternal influences on metabolic rates (MR) of offspring in an estuarine turtle, the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin). Females and their eggs were collected from the field and the eggs incubated in the laboratory for subsequent measurement of MR of females, late-stage embryos, newly-hatched individuals that were nutritionally dependent on yolk, and older hatchlings that had depleted their yolk reserves and thus were independent of energetic contributions from the female...
November 25, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894884/modulation-of-the-heat-shock-response-is-associated-with-acclimation-to-novel-temperatures-but-not-adaptation-to-climatic-variation-in-the-ants-aphaenogaster-picea-and-a-rudis
#5
Sara Helms Cahan, Andrew D Nguyen, John Stanton-Geddes, Clint A Penick, Yainna Hernáiz-Hernández, Bernice B DeMarco, Nicholas J Gotelli
Ecological diversification into thermally divergent habitats can push species toward their physiological limits, requiring them to accommodate temperature extremes through plastic or evolutionary changes that increase persistence under the local thermal regime. One way to withstand thermal stress is to increase production of heat shock proteins, either by maintaining higher baseline abundance within cells or by increasing the magnitude of induction in response to heat stress. We evaluated whether environmental variation was associated with expression of three heat shock protein genes in two closely-related species of woodland ant, Aphaenogaster picea and A...
November 25, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894883/incubation-relative-humidity-induces-renal-morphological-and-physiological-remodeling-in-the-embryo-of-the-chicken-gallus-gallus-domesticus
#6
Greta Bolin, Benjamin Dubansky, Warren W Burggren
The metanephric kidneys of the chicken embryo, along with the chorioallantoic membrane, process water and ions to maintain osmoregulatory homeostasis. We hypothesized that changes in relative humidity (RH) and thus osmotic conditions during embryogenesis would alter the developmental trajectory of embryonic kidney function. White leghorn chicken eggs were incubated at one of 25-30% relative humidity, 55-60% relative humidity, and 85-90% relative humidity. Embryos were sampled at days 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 to examine embryo and kidney mass, glomerular characteristics, body fluid osmolalities, hematological properties, and whole embryo oxygen consumption...
November 25, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894882/comparing-biomarker-responses-during-thermal-acclimation-a-lethal-vs-non-lethal-approach-in-a-tropical-reef-clownfish
#7
Carolina Madeira, Diana Madeira, Mário S Diniz, Henrique N Cabral, Catarina Vinagre
Knowledge of thermal stress biology for most tropical fish species in reef ecosystems under climate change is still quite limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to measure the time-course changes of thermal stress biomarkers in the commercially exploited coral reef fish Amphiprion ocellaris, during a laboratory simulated event of increased temperature. Heat shock protein 70kDa (Hsp70) and total ubiquitin (Ub) were determined in the muscle (lethal method) and in the fin (non-lethal alternative method) under two temperature treatments (control - 26°C and elevated temperature - 30°C) throughout one month with weekly samplings...
November 25, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887946/inhibition-of-eicosanoid-signaling-leads-to-increased-lipid-peroxidation-in-a-host-parasitoid-system
#8
Ender Büyükgüzel, Meltem Erdem, Hasan Tunaz, Ceyhun Küçük, Utku Can Atılgan, David Stanley, Kemal Büyükgüzel
We posed the hypothesis that inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthesis leads to increased lipid peroxidation in insects. Here we report that rearing the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, on media supplemented with selected inhibitors of eicosanoid biosynthesis throughout the larval, pupal and adult life led to major alterations in selected oxidative and antioxidative parameters of wax moth and its ectoparasitoid, Bracon hebetor. The highest dietary dexamethasone (Dex), esculetin (Esc) and phenidone (Phe) led to increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and to elevated catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities in all developmental stages of host larvae...
November 23, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887945/kisspeptin-system-in-pejerrey-fish-odontesthes-bonariensis-characterization-and-gene-expression-pattern-during-early-developmental-stages
#9
M Oswaldo Tovar Bohórquez, Alejandro S Mechaly, Lily C Hughes, Daniela Campanella, Guillermo Ortí, Luis F Canosa, Gustavo M Somoza
In vertebrates, kisspeptins and their receptors are known to be related to puberty onset and gonadal maturation, however, there are few studies concerning their role in early development. Here, we characterize the kisspeptin system in the pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis, a fish with strong temperature-dependent sex determination. We reconstructed the phylogenetic history of the two ligands (kiss1 and kiss 2) and two receptors (kissr2 and kissr3) in pejerrey in the context of recent classifications of bony fishes, determined their tissue distribution and documented the early expression pattern of these ligands and receptors...
November 22, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880889/milk-composition-of-free-ranging-red-hartebeest-giraffe-southern-reedbuck-and-warthog-and-a-phylogenetic-comparison-of-the-milk-of-african-artiodactyla
#10
G Osthoff, A Hugo, M Madende, F Deacon, P J Nel
The composition of major nutrients and fatty acids of the milk of three species, red hartebeest, Southern reedbuck and warthog, and milk fatty acids of giraffe, that have not been published before, are reported, and together with the same parameters of 11 species previously published, were incorporated in a phylogenetic comparison. Unique properties of milk composition have been observed. Southern reedbuck milk seems to have a complex casein composition, similar to that of sheep. Milk composition varies between species...
November 20, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872009/molecular-details-on-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-sensitivity-to-low-water-temperatures-from-1-h-nmr-metabolomics
#11
Riccardo Melis, Roberta Sanna, Angela Braca, Elia Bonaglini, Roberto Cappuccinelli, Hanno Slawski, Tonina Roggio, Sergio Uzzau, Roberto Anedda
Biometric and metabolic responses of gilthead sea bream to cold challenge are described following a growth trial divided into three water temperature steps, namely cooling, cold maintenance and recovery. Experimental data provide a useful description of fish response to thermal stress at both zootechnical and molecular level. Although no mortality has been observed, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-based metabolomics confirms the marked sensitivity of this fish species to low water temperature, and explains some key molecular events associated to fish response to cold...
November 19, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872010/forkhead-box-o1-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-molecular-characterization-gene-structure-tissue-distribution-and-mrna-expression-in-insulin-inhibited-adipocyte-lipolysis
#12
Jian Sun, Pei-Zhen Xiao, Zhi-Guang Chang, Hong Ji, Zhen-Yu Du, Li-Qiao Chen
Factor forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) is a transcription factor and plays an important role in insulin-mediated lipid metabolism. In the present study, two distinct FoxO1 cDNAs, designated FoxO1a and FoxO1b, were firstly isolated and characterized from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, encoding peptides of 654 and 631 amino acids, respectively. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses suggested that FoxO1a and FoxO1b were derived from paralogous genes that could be originated from teleost-specific genome duplication (TSGD) event...
November 18, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865855/intestinal-response-to-salinity-challenge-in-the-senegalese-sole-solea-senegalensis
#13
I Ruiz-Jarabo, A Barany, I Jerez-Cepa, J M Mancera, J Fuentes
Fish are continuously forced to actively absorb or expel water and ions through epithelia. Most studies have focused on the gill due to its role in Na(+) and Cl(-) trafficking. However, comparatively few studies have focused on the changing function of the intestine in response to external salinity. Therefore, the present study investigated the main intestinal changes of long-term acclimation of the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) to 5, 15, 38 and 55ppt. Through the measurement of short-circuit current (Isc) in Ussing chambers and biochemical approaches, we described a clear anterior/posterior functional regionalization of the intestine in response to salinity...
November 17, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863254/acute-exposure-to-high-environmental-ammonia-hea-triggers-the-emersion-response-in-the-green-shore-crab
#14
Alex M Zimmer, Chris M Wood
The physiological effects of high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure have been well documented in many aquatic species. In particular, it has recently been demonstrated that exposure to ammonia in fish leads to a similar hyperventilatory response as observed during exposure to hypoxia. In littoral crabs, such as the green crab (Carcinus maenas), exposure to severe hypoxia triggers an emersion response whereby crabs escape hypoxia to breathe air. We hypothesized that exposure to HEA in green crabs would lead to a similar behavioural response which is specific to ammonia...
November 15, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845249/synchronization-to-light-and-mealtime-of-daily-rhythms-of-locomotor-activity-plasma-glucose-and-digestive-enzymes-in-the-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#15
Bartira Guerra-Santos, José Fernando López-Olmeda, Bruno Olivetti de Mattos, Alice Borba Baião, Denise Soledade Peixoto Pereira, Francisco Javier Sánchez-Vázquez, Robson Bahia Cerqueira, Ricardo Castelo Branco Albinati, Rodrigo Fortes-Silva
The light-dark cycle and feeding can be the most important factors acting as synchronizers of biological rhythms. In this research we aimed to evaluate synchronization to feeding schedule of daily rhythms of locomotor activity and digestive enzymes of tilapia. For that purpose, 120 tilapias (65.0±0.6g) were distributed in 12 tanks (10 fish per tank) and divided into two groups. One group was fed once a day at 11:00h (zeitgeber time, ZT6) (ML group) and the other group was fed at 23:00h (ZT18) (MD group). The fish were anesthetized to collect samples of blood, stomach and midgut at 4-hour intervals over a period of 24h...
November 12, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845248/biological-and-environmental-influence-on-tissue-fatty-acid-compositions-in-wild-tropical-tunas
#16
Fany Sardenne, Edouard Kraffe, Aurélien Amiel, Edwin Fouché, Laurent Debrauwer, Frédéric Ménard, Nathalie Bodin
This study examined the fatty acid composition of three sympatric tropical tuna species (bigeye Thunnus obesus, yellowfin T. albacares and skipjack tuna Kastuwonus pelamis) sampled in the Western Indian Ocean in 2013. The fatty acid compositions of neutral and polar lipids, respectively involved in energy storage and cell membrane structure, were explored and compared in four tissues (red and white muscles, liver and gonads), according to biological (size, sex and maturity) and environmental (season and area) factors...
November 12, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842224/dietary-alpha-ketoglutarate-promotes-higher-protein-and-lower-triacylglyceride-levels-and-induces-oxidative-stress-in-larvae-and-young-adults-but-not-in-middle-aged-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Maria M Bayliak, Maria P Lylyk, Halyna V Shmihel, Oksana M Sorochynska, Olesia I Semchyshyn, Janet M Storey, Kenneth B Storey, Volodymyr I Lushchak
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is involved in multiple metabolic and regulatory pathways. In this work, the effects of AKG-supplemented diets on selected physiological responses and metabolic processes, including metabolism of reactive oxygen species, was assessed in larvae and adult (both 2 and 24days old) Drosophila melanogaster. Dietary supplementation with AKG resulted in dose-dependent effects on larval development, body composition and antioxidant status of third instar larvae. Larvae and young (2days post-eclosion) adult females fed on AKG shared similar metabolic changes such as higher total protein levels, lower triacylglyceride levels and higher values for oxidative stress indices, namely lipid peroxides and low molecular mass thiols...
November 11, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842223/ghrelin-in-senegalese-sole-solea-senegalensis-post-larvae-paracrine-effects-on-food-intake
#18
Carmen Navarro-Guillén, Manuel Yúfera, Sofia Engrola
Successful food consumption and digestion depend on specifics anatomical and behavioral characteristics and corresponding physiological functions that should be ready to work at the appropriate time. The physiological regulation of appetite and ingestion involves a complex integration of peripheral and central signals by the brain. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone involved in the control of energy homeostasis and increases food intake in mammals, however ghrelin has species-specific actions on food intake in fish...
November 11, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840178/l-leucine-acts-as-a-potential-agent-in-reducing-body-temperature-at-hatching-and-affords-thermotolerance-in-broiler-chicks
#19
Guofeng Han, Hui Yang, Mohammad A Bahry, Phuong V Tran, Phong H Do, Hiromi Ikeda, Mitsuhiro Furuse, Vishwajit S Chowdhury
Thermal manipulation (TM) of incubation temperature causes metabolic alterations and contributes to improving thermotolerance in chicks post hatching. However, there has been no report on amino acid metabolism during TM and the part it plays in thermotolerance. In this study, we therefore first analyzed free amino acid concentrations in the embryonic brain and liver during TM (38.6°C, 6h/d during embryonic day (ED) 10 to ED 18). It was found that leucine (Leu), phenylalanine and lysine were significantly decreased in the embryonic brain and liver...
November 11, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838356/cortisol-regulates-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-freshwater-and-seawater-acclimated-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#20
Lucie Gerber, Steffen S Madsen, Frank B Jensen
Cortisol and nitric oxide (NO) are regulators of ion transport and metabolic functions in fish. In the gill, they show opposite effects on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity: cortisol stimulates NKA activity while NO inhibits NKA activity. We hypothesized that cortisol may impact NO production in osmoregulatory tissues by regulating NO synthase (NOS) expression. We evaluated the influence of cortisol treatment on mRNA expression of Nos1 and Nos2 in gill, kidney and middle intestine of both freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW) acclimated rainbow trout and found both tissue- and salinity-dependent effects...
November 10, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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