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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30201541/sex-and-species-differences-of-stress-markers-in-sympatric-cheetahs-and-leopards-in-namibia
#1
David Costantini, Gábor Á Czirják, Joerg Melzheimer, Vera Menges, Bettina Wachter
Physiological stress markers may provide valuable insight for our understanding of costs of given life-history strategies or of wildlife health condition, most importantly in case of threatened species. In the last decade, there has been growing interest in the ecological relevance of cellular oxidative stress, which would provide complimentary information to that obtained by the classic analyses of glucocorticoid hormones. In this study, we analysed the sex and species variation of five blood-based markers of oxidative status, both molecular oxidative damage and antioxidant protection, in sympatric cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and leopards (Panthera pardus) living on Namibian farmlands...
September 8, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30201543/regulation-of-mitochondrial-biosynthesis-and-function-by-dietary-carbohydrate-levels-and-lipid-sources-in-juvenile-blunt-snout-bream-megalobrama-amblycephala
#2
Xiang-Fei Li, Bing-Ke Wang, Chao Xu, Hua-Juan Shi, Li Zhang, Jia-Dai Liu, Hong-Yan Tian, Wen-Bin Liu
This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary non-protein energy adjustments on the mitochondrial biosynthesis and function of juvenile Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish (average weight: 37.98 ± 0.07 g) were fed eight diets containing two dietary carbohydrate levels (30% and 43%) and four lipid sources (fish oil, soybean oil, palm oil and the mixed oil) for 11 weeks. Liver mitochondrial respiratory chain complex V activity and ATP (adenosine triphosphate) content both increased significantly with increasing dietary carbohydrate levels, whereas the opposite was true for the AMP (adenosine 5'-monophosphate)/ATP ratio, hepatic transcripts of AMP-activated protein kinase α1 (AMPKα1), AMPKα2, peroxisome proliferators γ-activated receptor coativator-1α (PGC-1α), NADH dehydrogenase 1 and cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COX1) as well as the activities of Na+ -K+ -ATPase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), citrate synthase (CS) and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I, III and IV...
September 7, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30201542/molecular-characterization-of-a-pattern-recognition-protein-lgbp-highly-expressed-in-the-early-stages-of-mud-crab-scylla-paramamosain
#3
Xiaowan Ma, Weibin Zhang, Fangyi Chen, Kejian Wang, Hui Peng
The early developmental stages of the mud crab Scylla paramamosain suffer from high mortality caused by pathogen infections; however, few immune associated factors are known. Lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) functions as a typical pathogen recognition receptor and plays an important role in the innate immune system of invertebrates. In this study we characterized a LGBP gene (SpLGBP) which was highly expressed in the late embryonic, zoea I larval stage and hepatopancreas of S. paramamosain...
September 7, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30195015/functional-characterization-of-the-gaba-transporter-gat-1-from-the-deep-sea-mussel-bathymodiolus-septemdierum
#4
Azusa Kinjo, Mieko Sassa, Tomoko Koito, Miwa Suzuki, Koji Inoue
Mammalian γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter subtype 1 (GAT-1) is a specific transporter for GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter in GABA-ergic neurons. GAT-1 belongs to the GAT group, in which five related transporters, GAT-2, GAT-3, GAT-4, CT1, and TAUT are known in mammals. By contrast, the deep-sea mussel, Bathymodiolus septemdierum has only two GAT group members, BsGAT-1 and BsTAUT, and their function in environmental adaptation is of interest to better understand the physiology of deep-sea organisms...
September 6, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193864/the-mechanism-of-action-of-a-fat-regulator-glycyrrhetinic-acid-ga-stimulating-fatty-acid-transmembrane-and-intracellular-transport-in-blunt-snout-bream-megalobrama-amblycephala
#5
Guang-Zhen Jiang, Man Zhou, Ding-Dong Zhang, Xiang-Fei Li, Wen-Bin Liu
High-fat diets are associated with fatty liver and aberrant hepatic lipid metabolism, and glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) has been shown to exert a beneficial effect on lipolysis and fat deposition in fish. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of GA on the growth performance and expression of hepatic lipid transport related genes in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) fed a high fat diet. Two hundred and sixteen fish (average body weight: 45.57 g ± 0.98 g) were fed three experimental diets (6% fat/L6 group, control, 11% fat/L11 group, and 11% fat with 0...
September 5, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30165242/effect-of-different-feeding-regimes-on-cecotrophy-behavior-and-retention-of-solute-and-particle-markers-in-the-digestive-tract-of-paca-cuniculus-paca
#6
Letícia Guerra Aldrigui, Sérgio Luiz Gama Nogueira-Filho, Alcester Mendes, Vanessa Souza Altino, Sylvia Ortmann, Selene Siqueira da Cunha Nogueira, Marcus Clauss
Many small herbivores practice cecotrophy - the ingestion of special feces enriched in microbial protein by colonic separation mechanisms (CSM). In digesta passage experiments, secondary marker excretion peaks in feces are considered indicative of marker-reingestion via cecotrophy, but corroboration by behavioral observation was lacking so far. The paca (Cuniculus paca), a Neotropical hystricomorph rodent, produces two different kinds of feces (hard and soft) and practices cecotrophy either directly (from the anus) or indirectly (from a pile of defecated feces, mostly when hard and soft feces are defecated together)...
August 27, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144517/effects-of-fasting-and-refeeding-on-protein-and-glucose-metabolism-in-arctic-charr
#7
Alicia A Cassidy, Pierre U Blier, Nathalie R Le François, Patrick Dionne, Pier Jr Morin, Simon G Lamarre
Refeeding, following a period of food deprivation will often lead to compensatory growth. Although many studies have focused on molecular mechanisms behind this accelerated growth response in fish, little is known on the roles of protein and metabolism. We also assessed, for the first time, the potential roles of miRNAs in regulating compensatory growth. Artcic charr, Salvelinus alpinus, a northern freshwater species, was deprived of food for 101 days and then fed to satiety for 126 days. The refeeding period resulted in compensatory growth, with a partial compensation of body mass...
August 23, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138690/exercise-improves-growth-alters-physiological-performance-and-gene-expression-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#8
Jyotsna Shrivastava, Božidar Rašković, Ronny Blust, Gudrun De Boeck
It has been suggested that induced swimming has the potential to improve the growth performance of fish. We tested this hypothesis by measuring growth, metabolic efficiency and physiological capacity of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish were swum at different exercise regimes: 0.0 (control), 1.5 and 2.5 body lengths per second (BL/s) in 1600 L recirculating raceways for 4 weeks. The results showed a significant increase in weight gain, specific growth rate, improved feed conversion efficiency, and a higher hepatosomatic index for 2...
August 21, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30114471/daily-repeating-fluctuations-in-embryonic-incubation-temperature-alter-metabolism-and-growth-of-lake-whitefish-coregonus-clupeaformis
#9
John Eme, Casey A Mueller, Abigail H Lee, Christopher Melendez, Richard G Manzon, Christopher M Somers, Douglas R Boreham, Joanna Y Wilson
Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) utilize overwintering embryonic development (up to 180 days), and such stenothermic, cold-water embryos may be particularly susceptible to thermal shifts. We incubated whitefish embryos in temperature treatments that were constant temperature (2.0 ± 0.1 °C, 5.0 ± 0.1 °C, and 8.0 ± 0.1 °C; mean ± SD) or variable temperature (VT, mean = 5.0 ± 0.3 °C). In the VT, a daily 2 °C temperature change followed a continuous pattern throughout development: 2-4-6-8-6-4-2 °C...
August 13, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099116/does-experimental-cortisol-elevation-mediate-risk-taking-and-antipredator-behaviour-in-a-wild-teleost-fish
#10
Michael J Lawrence, Jean-Guy J Godin, Steven J Cooke
The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis is centrally implicated in stressor mitigation in teleost fishes. Sustained HPI axis activation can be detrimental to the physiological functioning of an organism and can result in fitness-related trade-offs. Predator-induced mortality is known to be higher in stressed fish than in unstressed conspecifics, suggesting a role for the HPI axis in mediating fish behaviour. However, the underlying specific mechanism(s) for this phenomenon is(are) unknown. The purpose of the current study was to address how the HPI axis influences risk-taking, and antipredator behaviours in a wild teleost, the pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus)...
August 10, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30056161/benzocaine-induced-stress-in-the-euryhaline-teleost-centropomus-parallelus-and-its-implications-for-anesthesia-protocols
#11
Natascha Wosnick, Fabiano Bendhack, Renata D Leite, Rosana N Morais, Carolina A Freire
The use of anesthetic in fish farming is a traditional practice which aims to reduce the stress caused by transport and handling. However, anesthesia-induction protocols are commonly established and implemented without proper physiological/behavioral evaluation. Additionally, concentration and time of exposure to the anesthetic are often set without considering species-specific responses. The fat snook (Centropomus parallelus) is a fish with great potential for aquaculture. Given its remarkable euryhalinity, it can grow in fresh- or seawater...
July 26, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031149/interspecific-variation-in-the-physiological-and-reproductive-parameters-of-porcelain-crabs-from-the-southeastern-pacific-coast-potential-adaptation-in-contrasting-marine-environments
#12
Natalia Viña, Miguel Bascur, Fabián Guzmán, Rodrigo Riera, Kurt Paschke, Ángel Urzúa
Porcelain crabs inhabit from upper intertidal to subtidal habitats. These environments are characterized by highly variable environmental conditions, which subject species found in these habitats to stress. In this study, we compared reproductive traits of mothers [i.e. fecundity, reproductive output (RO), dry weight, organic matter] and physiological parameters of their offspring (i.e. wet weight, water content, dry weight, organic matter, lactate content of embryos) of three species of porcelain crabs that inhabit the Southeastern Pacific: Petrolisthes laevigatus (upper intertidal); P...
July 18, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057359/south-american-characids-share-very-similar-ionoregulatory-characteristics
#13
R J Gonzalez, A Cradeur, M Guinnip, A Mitchell, V Reduta
We examined ionoregulatory characteristics of four Characids from diverse locations in South America, emperor tetras (Nematobrycon palmeri), penguin tetras (Thayeria boehlkei), serpae tetras (Hyphessobrycon eques), and rosy tetras (Hyphessobrycon rosaceous). When held in 100 μmol L-1 Na+ water, tetras had Jmax values over 1100 nmol g-1  h-1 , and Km values below 60 μmol L-1 . When held in 1 mmol L-1 Na+ water kinetic parameters were unchanged. Low pH had no effect on Na+ uptake (Jin Na )...
July 3, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057358/seasonal-expression-of-5%C3%AE-reductases-and-androgen-receptor-in-the-prostate-gland-of-the-wild-ground-squirrel-spermophilus-dauricus
#14
Yan Zhang, Yu Wang, Can Huang, Yi Wang, Hongyu Qi, Yingying Han, Zhengrong Yuan, Qiang Weng, Haolin Zhang
The prostate gland is a male accessory reproductive gland that requires androgenic steroids for maintaining its vitality and function. The aim of the study was to investigate the localization and expressions of the androgen receptor (AR), SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 in the prostate glands of wild male ground squirrels during different reproductive periods by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Gross mass of the prostate gland was higher in the breeding season than that of the non-breeding season. Histological observation showed that exocrine lumens in the prostate gland were enlarged in the breeding season and shrank in the non-breeding season...
July 2, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30036674/hydra-s-feeding-response-effect-of-gaba-b-ligands-on-gsh-induced-electrical-activity-in-the-hypostome-of-h-vulgaris
#15
B M Lauro, G Kass-Simon
The feeding response in the Cnidarian, hydra, consists of mouth opening, tentacle writhing, and the cessation of pacemaker-controlled tentacle and body contractions. The behavior can be induced by reduced glutathione (GSH), contained in body fluids that leak from prey impaled by hydra's cnidocysts. Mouth, tentacle, and body-contraction behavior is carried out by hydra's ectodermal and endodermal epitheliomuscular cells. Here, we present the first evidence of GSH-induced electrical activity in the hypostome and its modification by GABA and GABAB ligands...
November 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018007/seasonal-and-dose-dependent-effects-of-recombinant-gonadotropins-on-sperm-production-and-quality-in-the-flatfish-solea-senegalensis
#16
François Chauvigné, Wendy González, Sandra Ramos, Carla Ducat, Neil Duncan, Ignacio Giménez, Joan Cerdà
Consecutive treatments with recombinant follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones (rFsh and rLh, respectively) stimulate spermatogenesis and potentiate sperm production in pubescent specimens of the oligospermic Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). However, sperm production in response to the hormones is highly variable, and the steroidogenic potential of the testis may be diminished due to sustained hormone supply. Here, we compared the effectiveness of low (9 μg/kg) and high (18 μg/kg) doses of rFsh and rLh to improve sperm production in adult sole during late winter-early spring (onset of the natural spawning period), and in autumn under a controlled temperature of 12 °C (period of testicular recrudescence)...
November 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30017911/changes-in-glycogen-concentration-and-gene-expression-levels-of-glycogen-metabolizing-enzymes-in-muscle-and-liver-of-developing-masu-salmon
#17
Fumiya Furukawa, Shotaro Irachi, Mugen Koyama, Otto Baba, Hajime Akimoto, Sei-Ichi Okumura, Hirohiko Kagawa, Katsuhisa Uchida
Glycogen, as an intracellular deposit of polysaccharide, takes important roles in energy balance of many animals. In fish, however, the role of glycogen during development is poorly understood. In the present study, we assessed changes in glycogen concentration and gene expression patterns of glycogen-metabolizing enzymes in developing masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou masou), a salmonid species inhabiting west side of North Pacific Ocean. As we measured glycogen levels in the bodies and yolk sacs containing the liver separately, the glycogen concentration increased in both parts as the fish developed, whereas it transiently decreased in the yolk sac after hatching, implying glycogen synthesis and breakdown in these tissues...
November 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003967/isolated-adult-turtle-brainstems-exhibit-central-hypoxic-chemosensitivity
#18
Michelle E Bartman, Stephen M Johnson
During hypoxia, red-eared slider turtles increase ventilation and decrease episodic breathing, but whether these responses are due to central mechanisms is not known. To test this question, isolated adult turtle brainstems were exposed to 240 min of hypoxic solution (bath PO2  = 32.6 ± 1.2 mmHg) and spontaneous respiratory-related motor bursts (respiratory event) were recorded on hypoglossal nerve roots. During hypoxia, burst frequency increased during the first 15 min, and then decreased during the remaining 35-240 min of hypoxia...
November 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958996/multiple-sub-lethal-thresholds-for-cellular-responses-to-thermal-stressors-in-an-estuarine-fish
#19
Ken M Jeffries, Nann A Fangue, Richard E Connon
Understanding physiological limits and the ability to acclimatize to changing conditions will determine whether species will be able to cope with further increases in water temperature. Changes in temperature may be considered to become stressful for an ectotherm when it results in reduced performance, which can lead to fitness level consequences. The relative intensity of the stressor as well as the duration of the exposure to the stressor will determine the response observed. Transcriptomic responses can potentially indicate thresholds where physiological performance begins to decline...
November 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932975/short-and-long-term-salinity-challenge-osmoregulatory-ability-and-na-k-atpase-kinetics-and-%C3%AE-subunit-mrna-expression-in-the-gills-of-the-thinstripe-hermit-crab-clibanarius-symmetricus-anomura-diogenidae
#20
Rogério O Faleiros, Daniela P Garçon, Malson N Lucena, John C McNamara, Francisco A Leone
The evolutionary history of the Crustacea reveals ample adaptive radiation and the subsequent occupation of many osmotic niches resulting from physiological plasticity in their osmoregulatory mechanisms. We evaluate osmoregulatory ability in the intertidal, thinstripe hermit crab Clibanarius symmetricus after short-term exposure (6 h) or long-term acclimation (10 days) to a wide salinity range, also analyzing kinetic behavior and α-subunit mRNA expression of the gill (Na+ , K+ )-ATPase. The crab strongly hyper-regulates its hemolymph at 5 and 15‰S (Salinity, g L-1 ) but weakly hyper-regulates up to ≈27‰S...
November 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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