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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315774/molecular-characterization-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-%C3%AE-2-from-herbivorous-fish-megalobrama-amblycephala-and-responsiveness-to-glucose-loading-and-dietary-carbohydrate-levels
#1
Chao Xu, Wen-Bin Liu, Ding-Dong Zhang, Kai-Zhou Wang, Si-Lei Xia, Xiang-Fei Li
This study aimed to characterize the full-length cDNA of AMPKα2 in Megalobrama amblycephala, and evaluate its potential role in glucose homeostasis and carbohydrate metabolism. The cDNA obtained covered 1942bp with an open reading frame of 1635bp encoding 545 amino acids. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis revealed a high homology (91-100%) among most fish and higher vertebrates. This AMPKα2 mRNA predominantly expressed in muscle, liver and brain, while little in gill and intestine. Then, the AMPKα2 expressions were determined in the muscle, liver and brain of fish subjected to a glucose load (injected intraperitoneally with 0, 1...
March 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315771/evidence-for-two-populations-of-hair-bundles-in-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#2
Shelcie S Menard, Glen M Watson
Cytochalasin D (CD) was employed to disrupt F-actin within stereocilia of anemone hair bundles. CD treatment decreases the abundance of hair bundles (by 85%) while significantly impairing predation. The remaining hair bundles are 'CD-resistant.' Surprisingly, the morphology and F-actin content of resistant hair bundles are comparable to those of untreated controls. However, the resistant hair bundles fail to respond normally to the N-acetylated sugar, NANA, by elongating. Instead, they remain at resting length...
March 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315773/the-time-enzyme-in-melatonin-biosynthesis-in-fish-day-night-expressions-of-three-aralkylamine-n-acetyltransferase-genes-in-three-spined-stickleback
#3
Ewa Kulczykowska, Agnieszka Kleszczyńska, Magdalena Gozdowska, Ewa Sokołowska
In vertebrates, aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT; EC 2.3.1.87) is a time-keeping enzyme in melatonin (Mel) biosynthesis. Uniquely in fish, there are several AANAT isozymes belonging to two AANAT subfamilies, AANAT1 and AANAT2, which are encoded by distinct genes. The different substrate preferences, kinetics and spatial expression patterns of isozymes indicate that they may have different functions. In the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), there are three genes encoding three AANAT isozymes...
March 15, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315772/fractionation-of-the-gulf-toadfish-intestinal-precipitate-organic-matrix-reveals-potential-functions-of-individual-proteins
#4
Kevin L Schauer, Martin Grosell
The regulatory mechanisms behind the production of CaCO3 in the marine teleost intestine are poorly studied despite being essential for osmoregulation and responsible for a conservatively estimated 3-15% of annual oceanic CaCO3 production. It has recently been reported that the intestinally derived precipitates produced by fish as a byproduct of their osmoregulatory strategy form in conjunction with a proteinaceous matrix containing nearly 150 unique proteins. The individual functions of these proteins have not been the subject of investigation until now...
March 15, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286329/aquaporin-in-different-moult-stages-of-a-freshwater-decapod-crustacean-expression-and-participation-in-muscle-hydration-control
#5
Kamila Foguesatto, Robert T Boyle, Monique T Rovani, Carolina A Freire, Marta M Souza
Crustaceans, during their moult cycle, at the stages of both pre-moult and post-moult, need water uptake. This movement of water creates a challenge for the regulation of cell volume. The cells of freshwater decapods require a high regulatory capacity to deal with hyposmotic stresses, given the need to face dilution of the haemolymph during their moult cycles. This study investigated the variation in the expression of water channels (aquaporins) along the moult cycle of a freshwater palaemonid shrimp, focusing on their role in cell volume regulation...
March 9, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285958/hypoxia-during-embryonic-development-increases-energy-metabolism-in-normoxic-juvenile-chicks
#6
Lara do Amaral-Silva, Carolina da S Scarpellini, Paula Andrea Toro-Velasquez, Marcia H M R Fernandes, Luciane H Gargaglioni, Kênia C Bícego
Environmental changes during perinatal development can affect the postnatal life. In this sense, chicken embryos that experience low levels of O2 over a specific phase of incubation can have their tissue growth reduced and the ventilatory response to hypoxia blunted, at least until hatching. Additionally, exposure to low level of O2 after birth reduces the thermogenesis as well. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that hypoxia over the third week of incubation affects the thermoregulation of juvenile chicks at an age when thermogenesis is already expected to be well-developed...
March 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263885/effects-of-aerial-hypoxia-and-temperature-on-pulmonary-breathing-pattern-and-gas-exchange-in-the-south-american-lungfish-lepidosiren-paradoxa
#7
Glauber S F da Silva, Daniela A D N Ventura, Lucas A Zena, Humberto Giusti, Mogens L Glass, Wilfried Klein
The South American lungfish Lepidosiren paradoxa is an obligatory air-breathing fish possessing well-developed bilateral lungs, and undergoing seasonal changes in its habitat, including temperature changes. In the present study we aimed to evaluate gas exchange and pulmonary breathing pattern in L. paradoxa at different temperatures (25 and 30°C) and different inspired O2 levels (21, 12, 10, and 7%). Normoxic breathing pattern consisted of isolated ventilatory cycles composed of an expiration followed by 2...
March 3, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263884/comparison-of-whole-animal-costs-of-protein-synthesis-among-polar-and-temperate-populations-of-the-same-species-of-gammarid-amphipod
#8
S P S Rastrick, N M Whiteley
Protein synthesis can account for a substantial proportion of metabolic rate. Energetic costs of protein synthesis, should in theory, be the same in marine invertebrates from a range of thermal habitats, and yet direct measurements using inhibitors produce widely differing values, especially in the cold. The present study aimed to remove any potential confounding interspecific effects by determining costs of protein synthesis in two latitudinally separated populations of the same species (amphipod, Gammarus oceanicus) living in two different thermal regimes; polar vs cold-temperate...
March 2, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259585/corrigendum-to-usefulness-of-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-evaluated-in-the-snout-scraping-serum-and-peripheral-blood-cells-of-crocodylus-moreletii-from-southeast-campeche-for-assessment-of-the-toxic-impact-of-pahs-metals-and-total-phenols-comp-biochem-physiol
#9
Ricardo Dzul-Caamal, Abigail Hernández-López, Mauricio Gonzalez-Jáuregui, Sergio E Padilla, M Ivan Girón-Pérez, Armando Vega-López
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242285/feather-corticosterone-during-non-breeding-correlates-with-multiple-measures-of-physiology-during-subsequent-breeding-in-a-migratory-seabird
#10
Graham D Fairhurst, Louise Champoux, Keith A Hobson, Jean-François Rail, Jonathan Verreault, Magella Guillemette, William A Montevecchi, Pauline Brousseau, Catherine Soos
Carry-over effects in migratory birds are likely mediated by physiological processes that are activated in response to environmental variation. Such processes affect body condition and/or reproductive success, and can include corticosterone (CORT) because this hormone responds to environmental stressors and influences energy balance. Few studies have considered how CORT levels during non-breeding relate to a broader physiological profile during subsequent breeding, and fewer still have considered measures other than body condition...
February 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238833/effects-of-continuous-white-light-and-12h-white-12h-blue-light-cycles-on-the-expression-of-clock-genes-in-diencephalon-liver-and-skeletal-muscle-in-chicks
#11
Kazuhisa Honda, Makoto Kondo, Daichi Hiramoto, Takaoki Saneyasu, Hiroshi Kamisoyama
The core circadian clock mechanism relies on a feedback loop comprised of clock genes, such as the brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1), chriptochrome 1 (Cry1), and period 3 (Per3). Exposure to the light-dark cycle synchronizes the master circadian clock in the brain, and which then synchronizes circadian clocks in peripheral tissues. Birds have long been used as a model for the investigation of circadian rhythm in human neurobiology. In the present study, we examined the effects of continuous light and the combination of white and blue light on the expression of clock genes (Bmal1, Cry1, and Per3) in the central and peripheral tissues in chicks...
February 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238832/the-energetic-physiological-and-behavioral-response-of-lemon-sharks-negaprion-brevirostris-to-simulated-longline-capture
#12
Ian A Bouyoucos, Cory D Suski, John W Mandelman, Edward J Brooks
Commercial fisheries bycatch is a considerable threat to elasmobranch population recovery, and techniques to mitigate sub-lethal consequences can be improved with data on the energetic, physiological, and behavioral response of individuals to capture. This study sought to estimate the effects of simulated longline capture on the behavior, energy use, and physiological stress of juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris). Captive sharks equipped with acceleration biologgers were subjected to 1h of simulated longline capture...
February 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238831/high-rates-of-intestinal-bicarbonate-secretion-in-seawater-tilapia-oreochromis-mossambicus
#13
I Ruiz-Jarabo, S F Gregório, P Gaetano, F Trischitta, J Fuentes
Osmoregulation in fish is a complex process that requires the orchestrated cooperation of many tissues. In fish facing hyperosmotic environments, the intestinal absorption of some monovalent ions and the secretion of bicarbonate are key processes to favor water absorption. In the present study, we showed that bicarbonate levels in the intestinal fluid are several fold higher in seawater than in freshwater acclimated tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). In addition, we analyzed gene expression of the main molecular mechanisms involved in HCO3(-) movements i...
February 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219743/significant-association-of-cyp19a-promoter-methylation-with-environmental-factors-and-gonadal-differentiation-in-olive-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#14
Zhaofei Fan, Yuxia Zou, Shuang Jiao, Xungang Tan, Zhihao Wu, DongDong Liang, Peijun Zhang, Feng You
The sex ratio of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus is sensitive to temperature or exogenous hormone exposures in the period of gonadal differentiation. Among sex-related genes, cyp19a, encoding cytochrome P450 aromatase,exhibits significant sex-dimorphic expression pattern and plays an important role in fish gonadal differentiation and development. The present study investigated the expression levels and promoter methylation dynamics of cyp19a and its regulators (nr5a2 and nr0b1), and sex-steroid hormone levels during flounder gonadal differentiation under the treatments of high temperature and estradiol-17β (E2)...
February 17, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216392/nitrergic-cardiovascular-regulation-in-the-african-lungfish-protopterus-aethiopicus
#15
Renato Filogonio, William Joyce, Tobias Wang
As a ubiquitous signaling molecule, nitric oxide (NO) exerts various important effects on the cardiovascular system and is involved in the regulation of vascular tone and myocardial metabolism in vertebrates. Lungfishes are closely related to tetrapods and provide an interesting possibility to understand the transition from water to land. Lungfishes are endowed with both systemic and pulmonary circulations, and their incompletely divided ventricle allows for blood to bypass either circuit. Lungfishes inhabit ephemeral waterbodies that may enforce prolonged aestivation during drought, throughout which nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression is upregulated...
February 17, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196764/nuclear-and-membrane-progestin-receptors-in-the-european-eel-characterization-and-expression-in-vivo-through-spermatogenesis
#16
Marina Morini, David S Peñaranda, María C Vílchez, Rasoul Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Anne-Gaëlle Lafont, Sylvie Dufour, Juan F Asturiano, Finn-Arne Weltzien, Luz Pérez
Characterization of all the progestin receptor genes (PRs) found in the European eel has been performed. There were five membrane PRs (mPRs): mPRα (alpha), mPRAL1 (alpha-like1), mPRAL2 (alpha-like2), mPRγ (gamma), mPRδ (delta) and two nuclear PRs (nPRs or PGRs): pgr1 and pgr2. In silico studies showed that the C and E(F) domains of Pgr are well conserved among vertebrates whereas the A/B domain is not. Phylogeny and synteny analyses suggest that eel duplicated pgr (pgr1 and pgr2) originated from the teleost-specific third whole genome duplication (3R)...
February 11, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192243/the-influence-of-mechanical-ventilation-on-physiological-parameters-in-ball-pythons-python-regius
#17
Sashia L Jakobsen, Catherine J A Williams, Tobias Wang, Mads F Bertelsen
Mechanical ventilation is widely recommended for reptiles during anesthesia, and while it is well-known that their low ectothermic metabolism requires much lower ventilation than in mammals, very little is known about the influence of ventilation protocol on the recovery from anesthesia. Here, 15 ball pythons (Python regius) were induced and maintained with isoflurane for 60min at one of three ventilation protocols (30, 125, or 250mlmin(-1)kg(-1) body mass) while an arterial catheter was inserted, and ventilation was then continued on 100% oxygen at the specified rate until voluntary extubation...
February 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192242/molecular-cloning-characterization-and-temporal-expression-of-the-clock-genes-period-and-timeless-in-the-oriental-river-prawn-macrobrachium-nipponense-during-female-reproductive-development
#18
SuHua Chen, Hui Qiao, HongTuo Fu, Shengming Sun, WenYi Zhang, ShuBo Jin, Yongsheng Gong, Sufei Jiang, Weiyi Xiong, YanWu
The circadian clock is crucial for sustaining rhythmic biochemical, physiological, and behavioral processes in living creatures. In this study, we isolated and characterized two circadian clock genes in Macrobrachium nipponense, period (Mnper) and timeless (Mntim). The complete Mnper cDNA measures 4283bp in length with an open reading frame encoding 1292 amino acids, including functional domains such as PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS), cytoplasmic localization domain (CLD), TIM interaction site (TIS), and nuclear localization signal (NLS)...
February 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192241/molecular-cloning-mrna-expression-and-characterization-of-membrane-bound-hemoglobin-in-oriental-river-prawn-macrobrachium-nipponense
#19
Shengming Sun, Fujun Xuan, Hongtuo Fu, Jian Zhu, Xianping Ge, Xugan Wu
Most hemoglobins are respiratory proteins and are ubiquitous in animals, bacteria, fungi, protists, and plants. In this study, we describe a membrane-bound hemoglobin in the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (MnHb), which also expresses hemocyanin. MnHb cDNA was cloned using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach, which afforded a 1201bp gene encoding a 193 amino acid polypeptide. Bioinformatic evaluation suggested MnHb is membrane anchored by N-myristoylation, and immunofluorescence confirmed its location in the membrane of chief cells in the gill...
February 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188883/effects-of-pinealectomy-on-the-neuroendocrine-reproductive-system-and-locomotor-activity-in-male-european-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax
#20
Mairi Cowan, José A Paullada-Salmerón, José Fernando López-Olmeda, Francisco Javier Sánchez-Vázquez, José A Muñoz-Cueto
The seasonally changing photoperiod controls the timing of reproduction in most fish species, however, the transduction of this photoperiodic information to the reproductive axis is still unclear. This study explored the potential role of two candidate neuropeptide systems, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (Gnih) and kisspeptin, as mediators between the pineal organ (a principle transducer of photoperiodic information) and reproductive axis in male European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Two seven-day experiments of pinealectomy (Px) were performed, in March (end of reproductive season) and August (resting season)...
February 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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