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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146150/the-effect-of-cold-acclimation-on-active-ion-transport-in-cricket-ionoregulatory-tissues
#1
Lauren E Des Marteaux, Soheila Khazraeenia, Gil Y Yerushalmi, Andrew Donini, Natalia G Li, Brent J Sinclair
Cold-acclimated insects defend ion and water transport function during cold exposure. We hypothesized that this is achieved via enhanced active transport. The Malpighian tubules and rectum are likely targets for such transport modifications, and recent transcriptomic studies indicate shifts in Na(+)-K(+) ATPase (NKA) and V-ATPase expression in these tissues following cold acclimation. Here we quantify the effect of cold acclimation (one week at 12°C) on active transport in the ionoregulatory organs of adult Gryllus pennsylvanicus field crickets...
November 13, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133139/methemoglobin-reductase-activity-in-intact-fish-red-blood-cells
#2
Frank B Jensen, Karsten Nielsen
Red blood cells (RBCs) possess methemoglobin reductase activity that counters the ongoing oxidation of hemoglobin (Hb) to methemoglobin (metHb), which in circulating blood is caused by Hb autoxidation or reactions with nitrite. We describe an assay for determining metHb reductase activity in intact RBCs in physiological saline at normal Pco2 and pH. After initial loading of oxygenated RBCs with nitrite (partly oxidizing Hb to metHb), the nitrite is removed by three washes of the RBCs in nitrite-free physiological saline to enable the detection of RBC metHb reductase activity in the absence of counteracting oxidation...
November 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129757/respiration-based-monitoring-of-metabolic-rate-following-cold-exposure-in-two-invasive-anoplophora-species-depending-on-acclimation-regime
#3
M Javal, A Roques, G Roux, M Laparie
The Asian andCitrus longhorned beetles, Anoplophora glabripennis (ALB) and A. chinensis (CLB) respectively, are two closely related invasive species with overlapping native ranges. Although both species have rather similar biological characteristics, they differ in their invasion patterns. ALB shows numerous, but local, outbreaks in urban areas of North-East America, Western andCentral Europe, whereas CLB has colonized a large part of Northern Italy. Temperature is pivotal in setting distribution limits of ectotherms...
November 9, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126986/functional-redundancy-of-glucose-acquisition-mechanisms-in-the-hindgut-of-pacific-hagfish-eptatretus-stoutii
#4
Alyssa M Weinrauch, Alexander M Clifford, Greg G Goss
This study examined the mechanisms of glucose acquisition in the hindgut of Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) using in vitro gut sac techniques. The intestine was determined to have the capacity to digest maltose into glucose along the entirety of the tract, including the foregut. Glucose uptake was biphasic and consisted of a high-affinity, low-capacity concentration-dependent component conforming to Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Km 0.37mM, Jmax 8.48nmol/cm(2)/h) as well as a diffusive component. There was no observed difference in glucose flux rate along the length of the intestine, similar to other nutrients investigated in the hagfish intestine...
November 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113780/dietary-antioxidants-food-deprivation-and-growth-affect-differently-oxidative-status-of-blood-and-brain-in-juvenile-european-seabass-dicentrarchus-labrax
#5
David Costantini, Dario Angeletti, Claudia Strinati, Pamela Trisolino, Alessandro Carlini, Giuseppe Nascetti, Claudio Carere
Compensatory growth may increase molecular oxidative damage, which may be mitigated through the intake of dietary antioxidants. However, dietary antioxidants may also reduce concentration of antioxidant enzymes, which have a key role in regulating the oxidative status. Here we investigated whether feeding on a diet rich in antioxidants (vitamin E) enables juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) to catch up after a period of food deprivation with negligible effects on the oxidative stress to blood and brain as compared to fish feeding on a normal diet (i...
November 4, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079226/unraveling-vasotocinergic-isotocinergic-and-stress-pathways-after-food-deprivation-and-high-stocking-density-in-the-gilthead-sea-bream
#6
Arleta Krystyna Skrzynska, Juan Antonio Martos-Sitcha, Gonzalo Martínez-Rodríguez, Juan Miguel Mancera
The influence of chronic stress, induced by food deprivation (FD) and/or high stocking density (HSD), was assessed on stress, vasotocinergic and isotocinergic pathways of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Fish were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: (1) fed at low stocking density (LSD-F; 5kg·m(-3)); (2) fed at high stocking density (HSD-F, 40kg·m(-3)); (3) food-deprived at LSD (LSD-FD); and (4) food-deprived at HSD (HSD-FD). After 21days, samples from plasma, liver, hypothalamus, pituitary and head-kidney were collected...
October 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056480/the-hatching-process-and-mechanisms-of-adaptive-hatching-acceleration-in-hourglass-treefrogs-dendropsophus-ebraccatus
#7
Kristina L Cohen, Michael L Piacentino, Karen M Warkentin
Environmentally cued hatching is well documented in anurans, enabling embryos to escape diverse threats. However, knowledge of anuran hatching mechanisms is limited and based largely on aquatic-breeding species without known plasticity in hatching timing. Generally, hatching gland cells produce a hatching enzyme that degrades the vitelline membrane. We investigated hatching and its regulation in terrestrial embryos of hourglass treefrogs, Dendropsophus ebraccatus, which accelerate hatching to escape dehydration...
October 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056479/effect-of-combined-stress-salinity-and-temperature-in-european-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax-osmoregulatory-processes
#8
Waliullah Masroor, Emilie Farcy, Romain Gros, Catherine Lorin-Nebel
European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax undertake seasonal migrations to estuaries and lagoons that are characterized by fluctuations in environmental conditions. Their ability to cope with these unstable habitats is undeniable, but it is still not clear how and to what extent salinity acclimation mechanisms are affected at temperatures higher than in the sea. In this study, juvenile sea bass were pre-acclimated to seawater (SW) at 18°C (temperate) or 24°C (warm) for 2weeks and then transferred to fresh water (FW) or SW at the respective temperature...
October 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054808/high-amylose-starch-consumption-induces-obesity-in-drosophila-melanogaster-and-metformin-partially-prevents-accumulation-of-storage-lipids-and-shortens-lifespan-of-the-insects
#9
Oleksandra B Abrat, Janet M Storey, Kenneth B Storey, Volodymyr I Lushchak
There are very few studies that have directly analyzed the effects of dietary intake of slowly digestible starches on metabolic parameters of animals. The present study examined the effects of slowly digestible starch with high amylose content (referred also as amylose starch) either alone, or in combination with metformin on the development, lifespan, and levels of glucose and storage lipids in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Consumption of amylose starch in concentrations 0.25-10% did not affect D...
October 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054807/ontogeny-of-skeletal-and-cardiac-muscle-mitochondria-oxygen-fluxes-in-two-breeds-of-chicken
#10
Sarah K G Sirsat, Edward M Dzialowski
From its earliest days of domestication, the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) has been selectively bred for specific traits. Decades of genetic selection have resulted in significant dissimilarities in metabolism and growth between breeds, in particular fast-growing broilers and highly productive layers. A chicken develops the capacity to elevate metabolism in response to decreases in ambient temperature upon hatching, including well-developed methods of regulating thermogenesis. However, a differential timing between incipient endothermic capacities of broiler and layer strains exists...
October 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054806/nutritional-physiology-of-mahi-mahi-coryphaena-hippurus-postprandial-metabolic-response-to-different-diets-and-metabolic-impacts-on-swim-performance
#11
John D Stieglitz, Daniel D Benetti, Martin Grosell
Migratory pelagic fish species, such as the mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus), must balance numerous metabolic demands simultaneously in order to survive in a challenging oceanic environment. Energetic support for such demands comes from a variety of natural prey items in the wild and can come from manufactured pelletized feed in captivity. This study quantified postprandial metabolism, commonly referred to as specific dynamic action (SDA), over time in adult mahi-mahi (706±25g; 38±0.7cm FL) in response to satiation feeding using three different natural and manufactured diets...
October 17, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966145/how-important-is-the-co2-chemoreflex-for-the-control-of-breathing-environmental-and-evolutionary-considerations
#12
REVIEW
Joseph M Santin
Haldane and Priestley (1905) discovered that the ventilatory control system is highly sensitive to CO2. This "CO2 chemoreflex" has been interpreted to dominate control of resting arterial PCO2/pH (PaCO2/pHa) by monitoring PaCO2/pHa and altering ventilation through negative feedback. However, PaCO2/pHa varies little in mammals as ventilation tightly couples to metabolic demands, which may minimize chemoreflex control of PaCO2. The purpose of this synthesis is to (1) interpret data from experimental models with meager CO2 chemoreflexes to infer their role in ventilatory control of steady-state PaCO2, and (2) identify physiological causes of respiratory acidosis occurring normally across vertebrate classes...
September 29, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966144/effects-of-exercise-training-on-excitation-contraction-coupling-calcium-dynamics-and-protein-expression-in-the-heart-of-the-neotropical-fish-brycon-amazonicus
#13
Rafael Zanelli Rissoli, Eliton da Silva Vasconcelos, Francisco Tadeu Rantin, Ana Lúcia Kalinin
Matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus) is a great swimming performance teleost fish from the Amazon basin. However, the possible cardiac adaptations of this ability are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of prolonged exercise (EX group - 60days under 0.4BL·s(-1)) on ventricular contractility by (i) in-vitro analysis of contractility comparing the relative roles of sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in the excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling and (ii) molecular analysis of NCX, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA2) and phospholamban (PLB) expression and quantification...
September 29, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958765/feeding-alters-blood-flow-patterns-in-the-american-alligator-alligator-mississippiensis
#14
Anders Findsen, Dane A Crossley, Tobias Wang
The crocodilian cardiovascular design with a four-chambered heart and a left aorta that emerge from the right ventricle allows blood to be shunted away from the lungs, a right-to-left (R-L) shunt. The adaptive significance of this R-L shunt remains both poorly understood and controversial with particular debate on its putative role during digestion. Here we measure blood flow patterns in the right aorta (RAo), left aorta (LAo) and the coeliac artery (CoA) of undisturbed American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) during fasting and throughout most of the digestive period...
September 27, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943320/purinergic-and-adenosine-receptors-contribute-to-hypoxic-hyperventilation-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#15
Alisha J Coe, Alexina J Picard, Michael G Jonz
The chemoreceptors involved in oxygen sensing in teleost fish are neuroepithelial cells (NECs) in the gills, and are analogous to glomus cells in the mammalian carotid body. Purinergic signalling mechanisms involving the neurotransmitters, ATP and adenosine, have been identified in mediating hypoxic signalling in the carotid body, but these pathways are not well understood in the fish gill. The present study used a behavioural assay to screen for the effects of drugs, that target purinergic and adenosine receptors, on the hyperventilatory response to hypoxia in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) in order to determine if the receptors on which these drugs act may be involved in hypoxic signalling...
September 21, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864081/hypoxic-acclimation-leads-to-metabolic-compensation-after-reoxygenation-in-atlantic-salmon-yolk-sac-alevins
#16
Elias T Polymeropoulos, Nicholas G Elliott, Peter B Frappell
Hypoxia is common in aquatic environments and has substantial effects on development, metabolism and survival of aquatic organisms. To understand the physiological effects of hypoxia and its dependence on temperature, metabolic rate (Ṁo2) and cardiorespiratory function were studied in response to acute hypoxia (21 ➔ 5kPa) at different measurement temperatures (Ta; 4, 8 and 12°C) in Salmo salar alevins that were incubated under normoxic conditions (PO2=21kPa) or following hypoxic acclimation (PO2=10kPa) as well as two different temperatures (4°C or 8°C)...
August 29, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844972/hypoxia-acclimation-increases-novelty-response-strength-during-fast-starts-in-the-african-mormyrid-marcusenius-victoriae
#17
Kerri L Ackerly, Lauren J Chapman, Rüdiger Krahe
Many fishes perform quick and sudden swimming maneuvers known as fast-starts to escape when threatened. In pulse-type weakly electric fishes these responses are accompanied by transient increases in the rate of electric signal production known as novelty responses. While novelty responses may increase an individual's information about their surroundings, they are aerobically powered and may come at a high energetic cost when compared to fast-starts, which rely primarily on anaerobic muscle. The juxtaposition between two key aspects of fast-starts in these fishes - the aerobic novelty response and the anaerobic swimming performance - makes them an interesting model for studying effects of hypoxia on escape performance and sensory information acquisition...
August 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842223/an-essential-role-of-rieske-domain-oxygenase-neverland-in-the-molting-cycle-of-black-tiger-shrimp-penaeus-monodon
#18
Ponsit Sathapondecha, Sakol Panyim, Apinunt Udomkit
Molting is an important process for development and growth in arthropods. In crustaceans, molt is regulated by ecdysteroids or molting hormones that are synthesized in Y-organs. However, ecdysteroid biosynthesis pathway in crustaceans and its participating enzymes have not been well studied so far. In this study, a Rieske domain oxygenase, the enzyme that acts as cholesterol 7,8-dehydrogenase by converting cholesterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol in the first step of the ecdysteroid biosynthesis was characterized in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon...
August 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951139/interrelationship-of-salinity-shift-with-oxidative-stress-and-lipid-metabolism-in-the-monogonont-rotifer-brachionus-koreanus
#19
Min-Chul Lee, Jun Chul Park, Duck-Hyun Kim, Sujin Kang, Kyung-Hoon Shin, Heum Gi Park, Jeonghoon Han, Jae-Seong Lee
Salinity is a critical key abiotic factor affecting biological processes such as lipid metabolism, yet the relationship between salinity and lipid metabolism has not been studied in the rotifer. To understand the effects of salinity on the monogonont rotifer B. koreanus, we examined high saline (25 and 35psu) conditions compared to the control (15psu). In vivo life cycle parameters (e.g. cumulative offspring and life span) were observed in response to 25 and 35psu compared to 15psu. In addition, to investigate whether high salinity induces oxidative stress, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione S-transferase activity (GST) were measured in a salinity- (15, 25, and 35psu; 24h) and time-dependent manner (3, 6, 12, 24h; 35psu)...
December 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935164/elevated-expression-of-neuropeptide-signaling-genes-in-the-eyestalk-ganglia-and-y-organ-of-gecarcinus-lateralis-individuals-that-are-refractory-to-molt-induction
#20
Natalie L Pitts, Hanna M Schulz, Stephanie R Oatman, Donald L Mykles
Molting is induced in decapod crustaceans via multiple leg autotomy (MLA) or eyestalk ablation (ESA). MLA removes five or more walking legs, which are regenerated and become functional appendages at ecdysis. ESA eliminates the primary source of molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), which suppress the production of molting hormones (ecdysteroids) from the molting gland or Y-organ (YO). Both MLA and ESA are effective methods for molt induction in Gecarcinus lateralis. However, some G...
December 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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