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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317315/carry-over-effects-modulated-by-salinity-during-the-early-ontogeny-of-the-euryhaline-crab-hemigrapsus-crenulatus-from-the-southeastern-pacific-coast-development-time-and-carbon-and-energy-content-of-offspring
#1
Ángel Urzúa, Miguel Bascur, Fabián Guzmán, Mauricio Urbina
Hemigrapsus crenulatus is a key species of coastal and estuarine ecosystems in the Southeastern Pacific and New Zealand. Since the gravid females-and their embryos-develop under conditions of variable salinity, we propose that low external salinity will be met with an increase in energy expenditures in order to maintain osmoregulation; subsequently, the use of energy reserves for reproduction will be affected. In this study, we investigate in H. crenulatus whether 1) the biomass and energy content of embryos is influenced by salinity experienced during oogenesis and embryogenesis and 2) how variation in the biomass and energy content of embryos affects larval energetic condition at hatching...
January 6, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288768/untargeted-metabolic-profiling-reveals-distinct-patterns-of-thermal-sensitivity-in-two-related-notothenioids
#2
Anja Rebelein, Hans-Otto Pörtner, Christian Bock
Antarctic marine ectothermal animals may be affected more than temperate species by rising temperatures due to ongoing climate change. Their specialisation on stable cold temperatures make them vulnerable to even small degrees of warming. Thus, addressing the impacts of warming on Antarctic organisms and identifying their potentially limited capacities to respond is of interest. The objective of the study was to determine changes in metabolite profiles related to temperature acclimation. In a long-term experiment adult fish of two Antarctic sister species Notothenia rossii and Notothenia coriiceps were acclimated to 0 °C and 5 °C for three months...
December 27, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275188/the-effects-of-temperature-and-food-availability-on-growth-flexibility-in-metabolic-rates-and-their-relationships-in-juvenile-common-carp
#3
Ling-Qing Zeng, Cheng Fu, Shi-Jian Fu
Flexibility in phenotypic traits can allow organisms to handle environmental changes. However, the ecological consequences of flexibility in metabolic rates are poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether the links between growth and flexibility in metabolic rates vary between two temperatures. Common carp Cyprinus carpio were raised in three temperature treatments [the 18°C, 28°C and 28°C-food control (28°C-FC)] and fed to satiation of receiving food either once or twice daily for 4weeks. The morphology and metabolic rates (standard metabolic rate, SMR; maximum metabolic rate, MMR) were measured at the beginning and end of the experiment...
December 21, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277431/characterization-of-distinct-ovarian-isoform-of-crustacean-female-sex-hormone-in-the-kuruma-prawn-marsupenaeus-japonicus
#4
Naoaki Tsutsui, Sayaka Kotaka, Tsuyoshi Ohira, Tatsuya Sakamoto
The eyestalk hormone, crustacean female sex hormone (CFSH), regulates the development of female secondary sexual characteristics in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. After its discovery, several CFSH gene orthologs have been identified in some species of the suborder Pleocyemata as well. Similarly, in species of another suborder (Dendrobranchiata), an ortholog (Maj-CFSH) has been characterized as an eyestalk factor expressed in both females and males of the kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus. In this study, another novel CFSH isoform was identified in the same species using cDNA cloning, expression analysis, and recombinant protein production...
December 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248570/synthetic-capacity-does-not-predict-elasmobranchs-ability-to-maintain-trimethylamine-oxide-without-a-dietary-contribution
#5
Abigail B Bockus, Brad A Seibel
Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) is an organic osmolyte and universal protein stabilizer. Its role as a cytoprotectant is particularly important in ureosmotic elasmobranchs that accumulate high levels of urea, a macromolecular perturbant. Feeding is a key component in the turnover and maintenance of these nitrogenous compounds. However, previous studies examining TMAO regulation have been largely completed using starved individuals, when nitrogen balance is altered. Here, under fed conditions, we test the importance of dietary TMAO on long-term maintenance in three elasmobranch species with differing endogenous synthetic capacities...
December 14, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248569/molecular-characterization-and-gene-expression-of-synaptosome-associated-protein-25-snap-25-in-the-brain-during-both-seaward-and-homeward-migrations-of-chum-salmon-oncorhynchus-keta
#6
Takashi Abe, Yui Minowa, Hideaki Kudo
It is generally accepted that information about some of the odorants in the natal streams of anadromous Pacific salmon (Genus Oncorhynchus) is imprinted during their seaward migration, and that anadromous Pacific salmon use olfaction to identify their natal streams during the homeward migration. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the various pre-synaptic functions that are important for olfactory imprinting and memory retrieval in the salmon brain. Synaptosome-associated protein-25 (SNAP-25) mediates pre-synaptic vesicle exocytosis and regulates synaptic transmission and neuronal plasticity...
December 14, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223611/individuals-exhibit-consistent-differences-in-their-metabolic-rates-across-changing-thermal-conditions
#7
Sonya K Auer, Karine Salin, Graeme J Anderson, Neil B Metcalfe
Metabolic rate has been linked to growth, reproduction, and survival at the individual level and is thought to have far reaching consequences for the ecology and evolution of organisms. However, differences in metabolic rate among individuals must be consistent (i.e. repeatable) over at least some portion of their lifetime in order to predict their longer-term effects on population dynamics and how they will respond to selection. Previous studies demonstrate that metabolic rates are repeatable under constant conditions but potentially less so in more variable environments...
December 6, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222047/clown-knifefish-chitala-ornata-oxygen-uptake-and-its-partitioning-in-present-and-future-temperature-environments
#8
Dang Diem Tuong, Tran Bao Ngoc, Vo Thi Nhu Huynh, Do Thi Thanh Huong, Nguyen Thanh Phuong, Tran Ngoc Hai, Tobias Wang, Mark Bayley
It has been argued that tropical ectotherms are more vulnerable to the projected temperature increases than their temperate relatives, because they already live closer to their upper temperature limit. Here we examine the effects of a temperature increase in environmental temperature to 6°C above the present day median temperature (27°C) in the freshwater air-breathing fish Chitala ornata, on aspects of its respiratory physiology in both normoxia and in hypoxia. We found no evidence of respiratory impairment with elevated temperature...
December 5, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175245/characterization-of-two-channel-catfish-ictalurus-punctatus-glucocorticoid-receptors-and-expression-following-an-acute-stressor
#9
Brian C Small, Sylvie M A Quiniou
Two channel catfish glucocorticoid receptor genes, ipGR1 (NR3C1_1) and ipGR2 (NR3C1_2) were partially characterized. Identification and analysis of the genomic organization of two channel catfish glucocorticoid (GC) receptors (GRs) revealed differences in the lengths of exons 1 and 2 and the addition of an extra 27-bp exon inserted after exon 2 in the GR1 gene, yielding a 9-aa insert in the receptor protein. Sequence of the 9-aa insert in ipGR1 (WRARQNTHG) is unique compared to other teleost fish GRs. Amino acid sequence alignment of the two channel catfish GRs, revealed 55% sequence identity between them, with a high degree of sequence conservation (82%) in the DNA binding and ligand binding domains...
November 22, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158138/different-ecophysiological-responses-of-freshwater-fish-to-warming-and-acidification
#10
Tiago F Jesus, Inês C Rosa, Tiago Repolho, Ana R Lopes, Marta S Pimentel, Vera M F Almeida-Val, Maria M Coelho, Rui Rosa
Future climate change scenarios predict threatening outcomes to biodiversity. Available empirical data concerning biological response of freshwater fish to climate change remains scarce. In this study, we investigated the physiological and biochemical responses of two Iberian freshwater fish species (Squalius carolitertii and the endangered S. torgalensis), inhabiting different climatic conditions, to projected future scenarios of warming (+3°C) and acidification (ΔpH=-0.4). Herein, metabolic enzyme activities of glycolytic (citrate synthase - CS, lactate dehydrogenase - LDH) and antioxidant (glutathione S-transferase, catalase and superoxide dismutase) pathways, as well as the heat shock response (HSR) and lipid peroxidation were determined...
November 17, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146150/the-effect-of-cold-acclimation-on-active-ion-transport-in-cricket-ionoregulatory-tissues
#11
Lauren E Des Marteaux, Soheila Khazraeenia, Gil Y Yerushalmi, Andrew Donini, Natalia G Li, Brent J Sinclair
Cold-acclimated insects defend ion and water transport function during cold exposure. We hypothesized that this is achieved via enhanced active transport. The Malpighian tubules and rectum are likely targets for such transport modifications, and recent transcriptomic studies indicate shifts in Na(+)-K(+) ATPase (NKA) and V-ATPase expression in these tissues following cold acclimation. Here we quantify the effect of cold acclimation (one week at 12°C) on active transport in the ionoregulatory organs of adult Gryllus pennsylvanicus field crickets...
November 13, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133139/methemoglobin-reductase-activity-in-intact-fish-red-blood-cells
#12
Frank B Jensen, Karsten Nielsen
Red blood cells (RBCs) possess methemoglobin reductase activity that counters the ongoing oxidation of hemoglobin (Hb) to methemoglobin (metHb), which in circulating blood is caused by Hb autoxidation or reactions with nitrite. We describe an assay for determining metHb reductase activity in intact RBCs in physiological saline at normal Pco2 and pH. After initial loading of oxygenated RBCs with nitrite (partly oxidizing Hb to metHb), the nitrite is removed by three washes of the RBCs in nitrite-free physiological saline to enable the detection of RBC metHb reductase activity in the absence of counteracting oxidation...
November 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129757/respiration-based-monitoring-of-metabolic-rate-following-cold-exposure-in-two-invasive-anoplophora-species-depending-on-acclimation-regime
#13
M Javal, A Roques, G Roux, M Laparie
The Asian and Citrus longhorned beetles, Anoplophora glabripennis (ALB) and A. chinensis (CLB) respectively, are two closely related invasive species with overlapping native ranges. Although both species have rather similar biological characteristics, they differ in their invasion patterns. ALB shows numerous, but local, outbreaks in urban areas of North-East America, Western and Central Europe, whereas CLB has colonized a large part of Northern Italy. Temperature is pivotal in setting distribution limits of ectotherms...
November 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126986/functional-redundancy-of-glucose-acquisition-mechanisms-in-the-hindgut-of-pacific-hagfish-eptatretus-stoutii
#14
Alyssa M Weinrauch, Alexander M Clifford, Greg G Goss
This study examined the mechanisms of glucose acquisition in the hindgut of Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) using in vitro gut sac techniques. The intestine was determined to have the capacity to digest maltose into glucose along the entirety of the tract, including the foregut. Glucose uptake was biphasic and consisted of a high-affinity, low-capacity concentration-dependent component conforming to Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Km 0.37mM, Jmax 8.48nmol/cm(2)/h) as well as a diffusive component. There was no observed difference in glucose flux rate along the length of the intestine, similar to other nutrients investigated in the hagfish intestine...
November 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113780/dietary-antioxidants-food-deprivation-and-growth-affect-differently-oxidative-status-of-blood-and-brain-in-juvenile-european-seabass-dicentrarchus-labrax
#15
David Costantini, Dario Angeletti, Claudia Strinati, Pamela Trisolino, Alessandro Carlini, Giuseppe Nascetti, Claudio Carere
Compensatory growth may increase molecular oxidative damage, which may be mitigated through the intake of dietary antioxidants. However, dietary antioxidants may also reduce concentration of antioxidant enzymes, which have a key role in regulating the oxidative status. Here we investigated whether feeding on a diet rich in antioxidants (vitamin E) enables juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) to catch up after a period of food deprivation with negligible effects on the oxidative stress to blood and brain as compared to fish feeding on a normal diet (i...
November 4, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079226/unraveling-vasotocinergic-isotocinergic-and-stress-pathways-after-food-deprivation-and-high-stocking-density-in-the-gilthead-sea-bream
#16
Arleta Krystyna Skrzynska, Juan Antonio Martos-Sitcha, Gonzalo Martínez-Rodríguez, Juan Miguel Mancera
The influence of chronic stress, induced by food deprivation (FD) and/or high stocking density (HSD), was assessed on stress, vasotocinergic and isotocinergic pathways of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Fish were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: (1) fed at low stocking density (LSD-F; 5kg·m(-3)); (2) fed at high stocking density (HSD-F, 40kg·m(-3)); (3) food-deprived at LSD (LSD-FD); and (4) food-deprived at HSD (HSD-FD). After 21days, samples from plasma, liver, hypothalamus, pituitary and head-kidney were collected...
October 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951139/interrelationship-of-salinity-shift-with-oxidative-stress-and-lipid-metabolism-in-the-monogonont-rotifer-brachionus-koreanus
#17
Min-Chul Lee, Jun Chul Park, Duck-Hyun Kim, Sujin Kang, Kyung-Hoon Shin, Heum Gi Park, Jeonghoon Han, Jae-Seong Lee
Salinity is a critical key abiotic factor affecting biological processes such as lipid metabolism, yet the relationship between salinity and lipid metabolism has not been studied in the rotifer. To understand the effects of salinity on the monogonont rotifer B. koreanus, we examined high saline (25 and 35psu) conditions compared to the control (15psu). In vivo life cycle parameters (e.g. cumulative offspring and life span) were observed in response to 25 and 35psu compared to 15psu. In addition, to investigate whether high salinity induces oxidative stress, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione S-transferase activity (GST) were measured in a salinity- (15, 25, and 35psu; 24h) and time-dependent manner (3, 6, 12, 24h; 35psu)...
December 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935164/elevated-expression-of-neuropeptide-signaling-genes-in-the-eyestalk-ganglia-and-y-organ-of-gecarcinus-lateralis-individuals-that-are-refractory-to-molt-induction
#18
Natalie L Pitts, Hanna M Schulz, Stephanie R Oatman, Donald L Mykles
Molting is induced in decapod crustaceans via multiple leg autotomy (MLA) or eyestalk ablation (ESA). MLA removes five or more walking legs, which are regenerated and become functional appendages at ecdysis. ESA eliminates the primary source of molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), which suppress the production of molting hormones (ecdysteroids) from the molting gland or Y-organ (YO). Both MLA and ESA are effective methods for molt induction in Gecarcinus lateralis. However, some G...
December 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923771/differential-expression-of-putative-sodium-dependent-cation-chloride-cotransporters-in-aedes-aegypti
#19
Peter M Piermarini, Daniel C Akuma, John C Crow, Taylor L Jamil, Willa G Kerkhoff, Kenyatta C M F Viel, Christopher M Gillen
The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, has three genes that code for proteins with sequence similarity to vertebrate Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporters (NKCCs) of the solute-linked carrier 12 superfamily of cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs). We hypothesized that these mosquito NKCC orthologues have diverged to perform distinct roles in salt secretion and absorption. In phylogenetic analyses, one protein (aeNKCC1) groups with a Drosophila melanogaster NKCC that mediates salt secretion whereas two others (aeCCC2 and aeCCC3) group with a Drosophila transporter that is not functionally characterized...
December 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916374/amp-activated-protein-kinase-protects-against-anoxia-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Justin J Evans, Chengfeng Xiao, R Meldrum Robertson
During anoxia, proper energy maintenance is essential in order to maintain neural operation. Starvation activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an evolutionarily conserved indicator of cellular energy status, in a cascade which modulates ATP production and consumption. We investigated the role of energetic status on anoxia tolerance in Drosophila and discovered that starvation or AMPK activation increases the speed of locomotor recovery from an anoxic coma. Using temporal and spatial genetic targeting we found that AMPK in the fat body contributes to starvation-induced fast locomotor recovery, whereas, under fed conditions, disrupting AMPK in oenocytes prolongs recovery...
December 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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