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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408352/characterization-and-spatiotemporal-expression-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-in-the-pacific-abalone-haliotis-discus-hannai
#1
Tae Ha Kim, Mi Ae Kim, Kyeong Seop Kim, Jae Won Kim, Han Kyu Lim, Jung Sick Lee, Young Chang Sohn
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key neuropeptide regulating reproduction in humans and other vertebrates. Recently, GnRH-like cDNAs and peptides were reported in marine mollusks, implying that GnRH-mediated reproduction is an ancient neuroendocrine system that arose prior to the divergence of protostomes and deuterostomes. Here, we evaluated the reproductive control system mediated by GnRH in the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. We cloned a prepro-GnRH cDNA (Hdh-GnRH) from the pleural-pedal ganglion (PPG) in H...
April 11, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400249/similarity-of-osmoregulatory-capacity-in-coastal-and-inland-alligator-gar
#2
Peter J Allen, Alf Haukenes, Steve E Lochmann
The alligator gar Atractosteus spatula is a primitive fish species, occupying a wide range of temperature and salinity habitats. Long-distance movements are limited, leading to genetic differentiation between inland and coastal populations. Unknown is whether physiological capacity differs between geographically separated populations, particularly for traits important to osmoregulation in saline environments. Alligator gar from inland and coastal populations were reared in a similar environment and exposed to temperature (10, 30 °C) and salinity (0, 20 ppt) extremes to determine whether iono- and osmoregulatory ability differed between populations...
April 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396263/stable-isotope-analysis-of-co2-in-breath-indicates-metabolic-fuel-shifts-in-torpid-arctic-ground-squirrels
#3
Trixie N Lee, Melanie M Richter, Cory T Williams, Øivind Tøien, Brian M Barnes, Diane M O'Brien, C Loren Buck
Stable carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) in breath show promise as an indicator of immediate metabolic fuel utilization in animals because tissue lipids have a lower δ(13)C value than carbohydrates and proteins. Metabolic fuel consumption is often estimated using the respiratory exchange ratio (RER), which has lipid and carbohydrate boundaries, but does not differentiate between protein and mixed fuel catabolism at intermediate values. Because lipids have relatively low δ(13)C values, measurements of stable carbon isotopes in breath may help distinguish between catabolism of protein and mixed fuel that includes lipid...
April 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396262/physiological-and-behavioral-flexibility-to-an-acute-co2-challenge-within-and-between-genotypes-in-rainbow-trout
#4
B Sadoul, N C Friggens, C Valotaire, L Labbé, V Colson, P Prunet, I Leguen
Adaptive capacities, governing the ability of animals to cope with an environmental stressor, have been demonstrated to be strongly dependent upon genetic factors. Two isogenic lines of rainbow trout, previously described for their sensitivity and resilience to an acute confinement challenge, were used in the present study to investigate whether adaptive capacities remain consistent when fish are exposed to a different type of challenge. For this purpose, the effects of a 4-h hypercapnia (CO2 increase) challenge at concentrations relevant in aquaculture conditions are described for the two isogenic lines...
April 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389296/when-local-anesthesia-becomes-universal-pronounced-systemic-effects-of-subcutaneous-lidocaine-in-bullfrogs-lithobates-catesbeianus
#5
Catherine Williams, Aage K O Alstrup, Mads F Bertelsen, Heidi M Jensen, Cleo A C Leite, Tobias Wang
Sodium channel blockers are commonly injected local anesthetics but are also routinely used for general immersion anesthesia in fish and amphibians. Here we report the effects of subcutaneous injection of lidocaine (5 or 50mg kg(-1)) in the hind limb of bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) on reflexes, gular respiration and heart rate (handled group, n=10) or blood pressure and heart rate via an arterial catheter (catheterized group n=6). 5mg kg(-1) lidocaine did not cause loss of reflexes or change in heart rate in the handled group, but was associated with a reduction in gular respiratory rate (from 99±7 to 81±17 breaths min(-1))...
April 4, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377124/characterization-of-appetite-regulating-factors-in-platyfish-xiphophorus-maculatus-cyprinodontiformes-poeciliidae
#6
Paul M Pitts, Hélène Volkoff
The regulation of energy in fish, like most vertebrates, is a complex process that involves a number of brain and peripheral hormones. These signals include anorexigenic (e.g. cholecystokinin (CCK) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART)) as well as orexigenic (e.g. orexin and neuropeptide Y (NPY)) peptides. Platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, are freshwater viviparous fish for which little is known about the endocrine mechanisms regulating feeding. In order to elucidate the role of these peptides in the regulation of feeding of platyfish, we examined the effects of peripheral injections of CCK and orexin on feeding behavior and food intake...
April 3, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380330/to-stress-or-not-to-stress-physiological-responses-to-tetrodotoxin-in-resistant-gartersnakes-vary-by-sex
#7
Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Edmund D Brodie, Tyler Hansen, Edmund D Brodie, Susannah S French
The activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the most important physiological processes in coping with any deviation in an organism's homeostasis. This activation and the secretion of glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone, allow organisms to cope with perturbations and return to optimal physiological functioning as quickly as possible. In this study, we examined the HPA axis activation in Common gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) as a response to a natural toxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX)...
April 2, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359879/a-comparison-of-fat-soluble-antioxidants-in-wild-and-farm-reared-chukar-partridges-alectoris-chukar
#8
Filiz Karadas, Anders Pape Møller, Mehmet Reşit Karageçili
This study assessed differences in antioxidant (carotenoid, retinol, retinol-ester, vitamin E and coenzyme Q10) composition of egg yolk and tissue in chukar partridges (Alectoris chukar) newly hatched from eggs of birds maintained in captivity on commercial maize-soybean based diets and birds from the wild whose diet was obtained from the natural environment. All eggs were incubated in a commercial hatchery. Day-old chicks from both groups were sacrificed and dissected for antioxidant analysis. Fat soluble antioxidant concentrations of egg yolk and tissues were determined by HPLC...
March 27, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336476/associations-of-water-balance-and-thermal-sensitivity-of-toads-with-macroclimatic-characteristics-of-geographical-distribution
#9
Braz Titon, Fernando Ribeiro Gomes
Interspecific variation in patterns of geographical distribution of phylogenetically related species of amphibians might be related to physiological adaptation to different climatic conditions. In this way, a comparative study of resistance to evaporative water loss, rehydration rates and sensitivity of locomotor performance to variations on hydration level and temperature was performed for five species of Bufonidae toads (Rhinella granulosa, R. jimi, R. ornata, R. schneideri and R. icterica) inhabiting different Brazilian biomes...
March 21, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315774/molecular-characterization-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-%C3%AE-2-from-herbivorous-fish-megalobrama-amblycephala-and-responsiveness-to-glucose-loading-and-dietary-carbohydrate-levels
#10
Chao Xu, Wen-Bin Liu, Ding-Dong Zhang, Kai-Zhou Wang, Si-Lei Xia, Xiang-Fei Li
This study aimed to characterize the full-length cDNA of AMPKα2 in Megalobrama amblycephala, and evaluate its potential role in glucose homeostasis and carbohydrate metabolism. The cDNA obtained covered 1942bp with an open reading frame of 1635bp encoding 545 amino acids. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis revealed a high homology (91-100%) among most fish and higher vertebrates. This AMPKα2 mRNA predominantly expressed in muscle, liver and brain, while little in gill and intestine. Then, the AMPKα2 expressions were determined in the muscle, liver and brain of fish subjected to a glucose load (injected intraperitoneally with 0, 1...
March 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315773/the-time-enzyme-in-melatonin-biosynthesis-in-fish-day-night-expressions-of-three-aralkylamine-n-acetyltransferase-genes-in-three-spined-stickleback
#11
REVIEW
Ewa Kulczykowska, Agnieszka Kleszczyńska, Magdalena Gozdowska, Ewa Sokołowska
In vertebrates, aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT; EC 2.3.1.87) is a time-keeping enzyme in melatonin (Mel) biosynthesis. Uniquely in fish, there are several AANAT isozymes belonging to two AANAT subfamilies, AANAT1 and AANAT2, which are encoded by distinct genes. The different substrate preferences, kinetics and spatial expression patterns of isozymes indicate that they may have different functions. In the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), there are three genes encoding three AANAT isozymes...
March 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315772/fractionation-of-the-gulf-toadfish-intestinal-precipitate-organic-matrix-reveals-potential-functions-of-individual-proteins
#12
Kevin L Schauer, Martin Grosell
The regulatory mechanisms behind the production of CaCO3 in the marine teleost intestine are poorly studied despite being essential for osmoregulation and responsible for a conservatively estimated 3-15% of annual oceanic CaCO3 production. It has recently been reported that the intestinally derived precipitates produced by fish as a byproduct of their osmoregulatory strategy form in conjunction with a proteinaceous matrix containing nearly 150 unique proteins. The individual functions of these proteins have not been the subject of investigation until now...
March 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315771/evidence-for-two-populations-of-hair-bundles-in-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#13
Shelcie S Menard, Glen M Watson
Cytochalasin D (CD) was employed to disrupt F-actin within stereocilia of anemone hair bundles. CD treatment decreases the abundance of hair bundles (by 85%) while significantly impairing predation. The remaining hair bundles are 'CD-resistant.' Surprisingly, the morphology and F-actin content of resistant hair bundles are comparable to those of untreated controls. However, the resistant hair bundles fail to respond normally to the N-acetylated sugar, NANA, by elongating. Instead, they remain at resting length...
March 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286329/aquaporin-in-different-moult-stages-of-a-freshwater-decapod-crustacean-expression-and-participation-in-muscle-hydration-control
#14
Kamila Foguesatto, Robert T Boyle, Monique T Rovani, Carolina A Freire, Marta M Souza
Crustaceans, during their moult cycle, at the stages of both pre-moult and post-moult, need water uptake. This movement of water creates a challenge for the regulation of cell volume. The cells of freshwater decapods require a high regulatory capacity to deal with hyposmotic stresses, given the need to face dilution of the haemolymph during their moult cycles. This study investigated the variation in the expression of water channels (aquaporins) along the moult cycle of a freshwater palaemonid shrimp, focusing on their role in cell volume regulation...
March 9, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285958/hypoxia-during-embryonic-development-increases-energy-metabolism-in-normoxic-juvenile-chicks
#15
Lara do Amaral-Silva, Carolina da S Scarpellini, Paula Andrea Toro-Velasquez, Marcia H M R Fernandes, Luciane H Gargaglioni, Kênia C Bícego
Environmental changes during perinatal development can affect the postnatal life. In this sense, chicken embryos that experience low levels of O2 over a specific phase of incubation can have their tissue growth reduced and the ventilatory response to hypoxia blunted, at least until hatching. Additionally, exposure to low level of O2 after birth reduces the thermogenesis as well. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that hypoxia over the third week of incubation affects the thermoregulation of juvenile chicks at an age when thermogenesis is already expected to be well-developed...
March 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263885/effects-of-aerial-hypoxia-and-temperature-on-pulmonary-breathing-pattern-and-gas-exchange-in-the-south-american-lungfish-lepidosiren-paradoxa
#16
Glauber S F da Silva, Daniela A D N Ventura, Lucas A Zena, Humberto Giusti, Mogens L Glass, Wilfried Klein
The South American lungfish Lepidosiren paradoxa is an obligatory air-breathing fish possessing well-developed bilateral lungs, and undergoing seasonal changes in its habitat, including temperature changes. In the present study we aimed to evaluate gas exchange and pulmonary breathing pattern in L. paradoxa at different temperatures (25 and 30°C) and different inspired O2 levels (21, 12, 10, and 7%). Normoxic breathing pattern consisted of isolated ventilatory cycles composed of an expiration followed by 2...
March 3, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263884/comparison-of-whole-animal-costs-of-protein-synthesis-among-polar-and-temperate-populations-of-the-same-species-of-gammarid-amphipod
#17
S P S Rastrick, N M Whiteley
Protein synthesis can account for a substantial proportion of metabolic rate. Energetic costs of protein synthesis, should in theory, be the same in marine invertebrates from a range of thermal habitats, and yet direct measurements using inhibitors produce widely differing values, especially in the cold. The present study aimed to remove any potential confounding interspecific effects by determining costs of protein synthesis in two latitudinally separated populations of the same species (amphipod, Gammarus oceanicus) living in two different thermal regimes; polar vs cold-temperate...
March 2, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259585/corrigendum-to-usefulness-of-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-evaluated-in-the-snout-scraping-serum-and-peripheral-blood-cells-of-crocodylus-moreletii-from-southeast-campeche-for-assessment-of-the-toxic-impact-of-pahs-metals-and-total-phenols-comp-biochem-physiol
#18
Ricardo Dzul-Caamal, Abigail Hernández-López, Mauricio Gonzalez-Jáuregui, Sergio E Padilla, M Ivan Girón-Pérez, Armando Vega-López
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242285/feather-corticosterone-during-non-breeding-correlates-with-multiple-measures-of-physiology-during-subsequent-breeding-in-a-migratory-seabird
#19
Graham D Fairhurst, Louise Champoux, Keith A Hobson, Jean-François Rail, Jonathan Verreault, Magella Guillemette, William A Montevecchi, Pauline Brousseau, Catherine Soos
Carry-over effects in migratory birds are likely mediated by physiological processes that are activated in response to environmental variation. Such processes affect body condition and/or reproductive success, and can include corticosterone (CORT) because this hormone responds to environmental stressors and influences energy balance. Few studies have considered how CORT levels during non-breeding relate to a broader physiological profile during subsequent breeding, and fewer still have considered measures other than body condition...
February 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238833/effects-of-continuous-white-light-and-12h-white-12h-blue-light-cycles-on-the-expression-of-clock-genes-in-diencephalon-liver-and-skeletal-muscle-in-chicks
#20
Kazuhisa Honda, Makoto Kondo, Daichi Hiramoto, Takaoki Saneyasu, Hiroshi Kamisoyama
The core circadian clock mechanism relies on a feedback loop comprised of clock genes, such as the brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1), chriptochrome 1 (Cry1), and period 3 (Per3). Exposure to the light-dark cycle synchronizes the master circadian clock in the brain, and which then synchronizes circadian clocks in peripheral tissues. Birds have long been used as a model for the investigation of circadian rhythm in human neurobiology. In the present study, we examined the effects of continuous light and the combination of white and blue light on the expression of clock genes (Bmal1, Cry1, and Per3) in the central and peripheral tissues in chicks...
February 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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