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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629794/uncoupling-effect-of-palmitate-is-exacerbated-in-skeletal-muscle-mitochondria-of-sea-acclimatized-king-penguins-aptenodytes-patagonicus
#1
Benjamin Rey, Claude Duchamp, Damien Roussel
In king penguin juveniles, the environmental transition from a terrestrial to a marine habitat, occurring at fledging, drastically stimulates lipid catabolism and the remodelling of muscle mitochondria to sustain extensive swimming activity and thermoregulation in the cold circumpolar oceans. However, the exact nature of these mechanisms remains only partially resolved. Here we investigated, in vitro, the uncoupling effect of increasing doses of fatty acids in pectoralis muscle intermyofibrillar mitochondria isolated, either from terrestrial never-immersed or experimentally cold water immersed pre-fledging king penguins or from sea-acclimatized fledged penguins...
June 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629793/the-effects-of-hypoxia-on-active-ionic-transport-processes-in-the-gill-epithelium-of-hyperregulating-crab-carcinus-maneas
#2
Čedomil Lucu, Andreas Ziegler
Effects of hypoxia on the osmorespiratory functions of the posterior gills of the shore crab Carcinus maenas acclimated to 12ppt seawater (DSW) were studied. Short-circuit current (Isc) across the hemilamella (one epithelium layer supported by cuticle) was substantially reduced under exposure to 1.6, 2.0, or 2.5mg O2/L hypoxic saline (both sides of epithelium) and fully recovered after reoxygenation. Isc was reduced equally in the epithelium exposed to 1.6mg O2/L on both sides and when the apical side was oxygenated and the basolateral side solely exposed to hypoxia...
June 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625910/a-high-fat-diet-enhances-the-sensitivity-of-chick-adipose-tissue-to-the-effects-of-centrally-injected-neuropeptide-y-on-gene-expression-of-adipogenesis-associated-factors
#3
Guoqing Wang, Carli A Williams, Betty R McConn, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary macronutrient composition and exogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY) affect mRNA abundance of factors associated with lipid metabolism in chick adipose tissue. Chicks were fed one of three isocaloric (3000kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg) diets after hatch: high carbohydrate (HC; control), high fat (HF; 30% of ME from soybean oil) or high protein (HP; 25% crude protein). On day 4 post-hatch, vehicle or 0.2nmol of NPY was injected intracerebroventricularly and abdominal and subcutaneous fat depots collected 1h later...
June 15, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614698/sardine-procalcitonin-amino-terminal-cleavage-peptide-has-a-different-action-from-calcitonin-and-promotes-osteoblastic-activity-in-the-scales-of-goldfish
#4
Yoichi Kase, Takahiro Ikari, Toshio Sekiguchi, Masayuki Sato, Shouzo Ogiso, Tsuyoshi Kawada, Shin Matsubara, Honoo Satake, Yuichi Sasayama, Masato Endo, Kei-Ichiro Kitamura, Atsuhiko Hattori, Takushi X Watanabe, Yusuke Maruyama, Yoshinari Watanabe, Hisayuki Funahashi, Akira Kambegawa, Nobuo Suzuki
The nucleotide sequence of a sardine preprocalcitonin precursor has been determined from their ultimobranchial glands in the present study. From our analysis of this sequence, we found that sardine procalcitonin was composed of procalcitonin amino-terminal cleavage peptide (N-proCT) (53 amino acids), CT (32 amino acids), and procalcitonin carboxyl-terminal cleavage peptide (C-proCT) (18 amino acids). As compared with C-proCT, N-proCT has been highly conserved among teleosts, reptiles, and birds, which suggests that N-proCT has some bioactivities...
June 11, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602729/alpha-lipoic-acid-impairs-body-weight-gain-of-young-broiler-chicks-via-modulating-peripheral-ampk
#5
Yufeng Wang, Nadia Everaert, Zhigang Song, Eddy Decuypere, Daniel Vermeulen, Johan Buyse
In mammals, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways in the central and peripheral tissues coordinately integrate inputs from multiple sources to regulate energy balance. The present study was aimed to explore the potential role of hepatic AMPK in the energy homeostasis of broiler chickens. Diets with 0, 0.05% or 0.1% alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA), a known AMPK inhibitor were provided to broiler chicks for 7days. As a result, α-LA supplementation decreased the relative growth rate of broiler chicks. Hepatic AMPKα2 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated by dietary α-LA, in concert with the increased phosphorylated AMPKα protein levels...
June 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599948/fish-pigmentation-and-the-melanocortin-system
#6
REVIEW
Laura Cal, Paula Suarez-Bregua, José Miguel Cerdá-Reverter, Ingo Braasch, Josep Rotllant
The melanocortin system is a complex neuroendocrine signaling mechanism involved in numerous physiological processes in vertebrates, including pigmentation, steroidogenesis and metabolic control. This review focuses at one of its most fascinating function in fish, its regulatory role in the control of pigmentation, in which the melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r), its agonist α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-Msh), and the endogenous antagonist agouti signaling protein (Asip1) are the main players. Functional control of Mc1r, which is highly expressed in fish skin and whose activation stimulates melanin production and melanosome dispersion in fish melanophores, is considered a key mechanism for vertebrate pigment phenotypes...
June 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579535/distributional-shift-of-urea-production-site-from-the-extraembryonic-yolk-sac-membrane-to-the-embryonic-liver-during-the-development-of-cloudy-catshark-scyliorhinus-torazame
#7
Wataru Takagi, Makiko Kajimura, Hironori Tanaka, Kumi Hasegawa, Shuntaro Ogawa, Susumu Hyodo
Urea is an essential osmolyte for marine cartilaginous fishes. Adult elasmobranchs and holocephalans are known to actively produce urea in the liver, muscle and other extrahepatic organs; however, osmoregulatory mechanisms in the developing cartilaginous fish embryo with an undeveloped urea-producing organ are poorly understood. We recently described the contribution of extraembryonic yolk sac membranes (YSM) to embryonic urea synthesis during the early developmental period of the oviparous holocephalan elephant fish (Callorhinchus milii)...
June 1, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579534/molecular-markers-of-oocyte-differentiation-in-european-eel-during-hormonally-induced-oogenesis
#8
Iratxe Rojo-Bartolomé, Leticia Martínez-Miguel, Anne-Gaëlle Lafont, M Carmen Vílchez, Juan F Asturiano, Luz Pérez, Ibon Cancio
Reproduction in captivity is a key study issue in Anguilla anguilla as a possible solution for its dwindling population. Understanding the mechanisms controlling the production of ribosomal building blocks during artificially induced oocyte maturation could be particularly interesting. Transcription levels of ribosomal biogenesis associated genes could be used as markers to monitor oogenesis. Eels from the Albufera Lagoon were injected with carp pituitary extract for 15weeks and ovaries in previtellogenic (PV) stage (non-injected), in early-, mid-, late-vitellogenesis (EV, MV, LV), as well as in migratory nucleus stage (MN) were analysed...
June 1, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578076/%C3%AE-1-and-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-stimulation-differ-in-their-effects-on-pgc-1%C3%AE-and-atrogin-1-mafbx-gene-expression-in-chick-skeletal-muscle
#9
Saki Shimamoto, Daichi Ijiri, Mana Kawaguchi, Kazuki Nakashima, Osamu Tada, Hiroki Inoue, Akira Ohtsuka
Adrenaline changes expression of the genes encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α), which is known as a regulator of muscle size, and atrogin-1/muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), which is a muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase. However, the subtype of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) involved in regulating these genes in skeletal muscle is not yet well defined. In this study, the effects of intraperitoneal injection of adrenaline and three β1-3-AR selective agonists on chick skeletal muscle metabolism were examined, to evaluate the functions of β-AR subtypes...
June 1, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552563/evidence-of-extensive-plasma-glucose-recycling-following-a-glucose-load-in-seabass
#10
João Rito, Ivan Viegas, Miguel A Pardal, John G Jones
Seabass and other carnivorous fish are highly dependent on gluconeogenesis from dietary amino acids to maintain glycemia. Glucose recycling (glucose→C3-intermediate→glucose) may potentiate the effects of glucose administration in sparing amino acid gluconeogenesis. To date, very few measurements of glucose recycling have been reported in fish. Thus, to determine the extent of glucose recycling following a glycemic challenge, juvenile seabass were given an intraperitoneal glucose load (2g.kg(-1)) enriched with [U-(13)C]glucose...
May 25, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558963/ecophysiological-adaptations-to-variable-salinity-environments-in-the-crab-hemigrapsus-crenulatus-from-the-southeastern-pacific-coast-sodium-regulation-respiration-and-excretion
#11
Ángel Urzúa, Mauricio A Urbina
The estuarine crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus is a key benthic species of estuarine and intertidal ecosystems of the South Pacific, habitats that experience wide fluctuations in salinity. The physiological strategies that allow this crab to thrive under variable salinities, and how they change during the benthic stages of their life cycle, were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and the regulatory capacity of Na(+) through the normal range of environmental salinities (i...
August 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552705/metabolic-costs-of-the-mechanical-components-of-the-apparent-specific-dynamic-action-in-the-dungeness-crab-cancer-magister
#12
Iain J McGaw, Travis E Van Leeuwen
The specific dynamic action (SDA) describes the postprandial increase in metabolism. It is a composite of mechanical and chemical digestion, nutrient transport and protein synthesis. How these individual events contribute to the overall SDA has not been worked out fully for any organism. The mechanical events associated with the SDA were investigated in Dungeness crabs, Cancer magister. Following consumption of a meal, oxygen consumption (MO2) remained elevated for several hours. When the crabs were presented with fish scent there was a 2 fold increase in MO2, which rapidly decreased once the stimulus was removed...
August 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552562/the-central-anorexigenic-mechanism-of-amylin-in-japanese-quail-coturnix-japonica-involves-pro-opiomelanocortin-calcitonin-receptor-and-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus
#13
Jingwei Yuan, Elizabeth R Gilbert, Mark A Cline
Amylin is a 37-amino acid peptide hormone that exerts anorexigenic effects in humans and animals. We demonstrated that central injection of amylin into chicks affected feeding and related behaviors via the hypothalamus and brainstem, although the molecular mechanisms remained elusive. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying anorexigenic effects of amylin in 7 day-old Japanese quail. Food but not water intake was reduced after intracerebroventricular amylin injection, and the behavior analysis indicated that this was associated with decreased food pecks and preening...
August 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499964/life-history-dependent-relationships-between-body-condition-and-immunity-between-immunity-indices-in-male-eurasian-tree-sparrows
#14
Yuliang Zhao, Mo Li, Yanfeng Sun, Wei Wu, Guanqun Kou, Lingling Guo, Danning Xing, Yuefeng Wu, Dongming Li, Baohua Zhao
In free-living animals, recent evidence indicates that innate, and acquired, immunity varies with annual variation in the demand for, and availability of, food resources. However, little is known about how animals adjust the relationships between immunity and body condition, and between innate and acquired immunity to optimize survival over winter and reproductive success during the breeding stage. Here, we measured indices of body condition (size-corrected mass [SCM], and hematocrit [Hct]), constitutive innate immunity (plasma total complement hemolysis activity [CH50]) and acquired immunity (plasma immunoglobulin A [IgA]), plus heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratios, in male Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) during the wintering and the breeding stages...
August 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499963/neither-artificial-light-at-night-anthropogenic-noise-nor-distance-from-roads-are-associated-with-oxidative-status-of-nestlings-in-an-urban-population-of-songbirds
#15
Giulia Casasole, Thomas Raap, David Costantini, Hamada AbdElgawad, Han Asard, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
Increasing urbanization is responsible for road-related pollutants and causes an unprecedented increase in light and noise pollution, with potential detrimental effects for individual animals, communities and ecosystems. These stressors rarely act in isolation but studies dissecting the effects of these multiple stressors are lacking. Moreover, studies on urban stressors have mainly focused on adults, while exposure in early-life may be detrimental but is largely ignored. To fill this important knowledge gap, we studied if artificial light at night, anthropogenic noise and road-related pollution (using distance from roads as a proxy) explain variation in oxidative status in great tit nestlings (Parus major) in an urban population...
August 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483512/changes-in-free-amino-acid-content-during-naupliar-development-of-the-calanoid-copepod-acartia-tonsa
#16
Thomas Allan Rayner, Niels Ole Gerslev Jørgensen, Guillaume Drillet, Benni Winding Hansen
Changes in free amino acids (FAA) were investigated in the potentially important live feed and neritic copepod species Acartia tonsa during naupliar development. Total content of FAA in A. tonsa nauplii was around 17% of dry weight at first development stage, and declined to 6% for later stages. Relative to body-volume and biomass, the FAA content indicated possible volume-dependent changes. However, changes in FAA with osmolytic activity could not account for this decline in FAA content, but suggests that the decline reflected degradation of residual FAAs from the embryonic stage...
August 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478209/doping-for-sex-bad-for-mitochondrial-performances-case-of-testosterone-supplemented-hyla-arborea-during-the-courtship-period
#17
Julia L Desprat, Loïc Teulier, Sara Puijalon, Adeline Dumet, Caroline Romestaing, Glenn J Tattersall, Thierry Lengagne, Nathalie Mondy
Sexual selection has been widely explored from numerous perspectives, including behavior, ecology, and to a lesser extent, energetics. Hormones, and specifically androgens such as testosterone, are known to trigger sexual behaviors. Their effects are therefore of interest during the breeding period. Our work investigates the effect of testosterone on the relationship between cellular bioenergetics and contractile properties of two skeletal muscles involved in sexual selection in tree frogs. Calling and locomotor abilities are considered evidence of good condition in Hyla males, and thus server as proxies for male quality and attractiveness...
July 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454925/cross-tolerance-effects-due-to-adult-heat-hardening-desiccation-and-starvation-acclimation-of-tropical-drosophilid-zaprionus-indianus
#18
Bhawna Kalra, Aditya Moktan Tamang, Ravi Parkash
Some insect taxa from polar or temperate habitats have shown cross-tolerance for multiple stressors but tropical insect taxa have received less attention. Accordingly, we considered adult flies of a tropical drosophilid-Zaprionus indianus for testing direct as well as cross-tolerance effects of rapid heat hardening (HH), desiccation acclimation (DA) and starvation acclimation (SA) after rearing under warmer and drier season specific simulated conditions. We observed significant direct acclimation effects of HH, DA and SA; and four cases of cross-tolerance effects but no cross-tolerance between desiccation and starvation...
July 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438719/chick-subcutaneous-and-abdominal-adipose-tissue-depots-respond-differently-in-lipolytic-and-adipogenic-activity-to-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-%C3%AE-msh
#19
Steven L Shipp, Guoqing Wang, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
In birds, α-MSH is anorexigenic, but effects on adipose tissue are unknown. Four day-old chicks were intraperitoneally injected with 0 (vehicle), 5, 10, or 50μg of α-MSH and subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue collected at 60min for RNA isolation (n=10). Plasma was collected post-euthanasia at 60 and 180min for measuring non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and α-MSH (n=10). Relative to the vehicle, food intake was reduced in the 50μg-treated group. Plasma NEFAs were greater in 10μg than vehicle-treated chicks at 3h...
July 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434794/behavioral-and-physiological-responses-of-yellow-perch-perca-flavescens-to-moderate-hypoxia
#20
L Zoe Almeida, Samuel C Guffey, Maria S Sepúlveda, Tomas O Höök
While severe hypoxia can be lethal and is usually avoided by mobile aquatic organisms, moderate hypoxic conditions are likely more prevalent and may affect organisms, such as fishes, in a variety of systems. However, fishes have the potential to adjust physiologically and behaviorally and thus reduce the negative effects of hypoxia. Quantifying such physiological responses may shed light on the ability of fishes to tolerate reduced oxygen concentrations. This study assessed how two different hatchery populations of yellow perch Perca flavescens, a fish that is likely to encounter moderate hypoxic conditions in a variety of systems, responded to moderate hypoxic exposure through three experiments: 1) a behavioral foraging experiment, 2) an acute exposure experiment, and 3) a chronic exposure experiment...
July 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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