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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778799/physiological-vagility-affects-population-genetic-structure-and-dispersal-and-enables-migratory-capacity-in-vertebrates
#1
Thomas V Hancock, Michael S Hedrick
Vagility is defined as the relative capacity for movement. We developed previously a quantitative metric in vertebrates for physiological vagility (PV), the speed at which an animal can move sustainably, incorporating aerobic capacity, body size, body temperature, and transport costs, allowing quantitative tests of whether PV can explain variation in interclass population genetic structure and behaviors involved in dispersal. We found that PV increased with body mass, correlated with maximal dispersal distances, and was inversely related to genetic structure in multiple vertebrate groups...
May 17, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775666/the-effect-of-syndecan-4-and-glypican-1-knockdown-on-the-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-turkey-satellite-cells-differing-in-age-and-growth-rates
#2
Sandra G Velleman, Daniel L Clark, Jeffrey R Tonniges
Posthatch skeletal muscle growth requires myogenic satellite cells and the dynamic expression of cell membrane-associated proteins. The membrane associated heparan sulfate proteoglycans, syndecan-4 and glypican-1, link the satellite cell niche to the intracellular environment. Sydnecan-4 and glypican-1 are differentially expressed with age in turkey satellite cells and their over-expression impacts both satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, but their effect on satellite cells from lines with different growth potentials is not known...
May 15, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753034/localization-and-expression-of-putative-circadian-clock-transcripts-in-the-brain-of-the-nudibranch-melibe-leonina
#3
Victoria E Duback, M Sabrina Pankey, Rachel I Thomas, Taylor L Huyck, Izhar M Mbarani, Kyle R Bernier, Geoffrey M Cook, Colleen A O'Dowd, James M Newcomb, Winsor H Watson
The nudibranch, Melibe leonina, expresses a circadian rhythm of locomotion, and we recently determined the sequences of multiple circadian clock transcripts that may play a role in controlling these daily patterns of behavior. In this study, we used these genomics data to help us: 1) identify putative clock neurons using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH); and 2) determine if there is a daily rhythm of expression of clock transcripts in the M. leonina brain, using quantitative PCR. FISH indicated the presence of the clock-related transcripts clock, period, and photoreceptive and non-photoreceptive cryptochrome (pcry and npcry, respectively) in two bilateral neurons in each cerebropleural ganglion and a group of <10 neurons in the anterolateral region of each pedal ganglion...
May 9, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746909/characterization-of-lpxrfa-receptor-in-the-half-smooth-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis-molecular-cloning-expression-profiles-and-differential-activation-of-signaling-pathways-by-lpxrfa-peptides
#4
Bin Wang, Guokun Yang, Quan Liu, Jingkai Qin, Yongjiang Xu, Wensheng Li, Xuezhou Liu, Bao Shi
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide, serves as a key player in the regulation of reproduction across vertebrates, acting on the brain and pituitary to modulate reproductive physiology and behavior. However, little information is available in teleosts regarding the intracellular signal transduction pathway in response to GnIH. To this end, we first cloned the gene of LPXRFa (the piscine ortholog of GnIH) receptor in the half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), a representative species of the order Pleuronectiformes...
May 7, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746908/the-behavioral-energetics-of-new-zealand-s-bats-daily-torpor-and-hibernation-a-continuum
#5
Brian K McNab, Colin O'Donnell
We examine the impact of behavior on the short-term energy expenditures of the only terrestrial mammals endemic to New Zealand, two bats, the long-tailed (Chalinolobus tuberculatus, family Vespertilionidae), and the lesser short-tailed (Mystacina tuberculata, family Mystacinidae). Vespertilionidae has a world-wide distribution. Mystacinidae is restricted to New Zealand, although related to five neotropical families and one in Madagascar reflecting a shared Gondwanan origin of their Noctilionoidea superfamily...
May 7, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730451/the-effects-of-fasting-and-appetite-regulators-on-catecholamine-and-serotonin-synthesis-pathways-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#6
Stephanie Mandic, Hélène Volkoff
Monoamine neurotransmitters such as catecholamines [dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E)] and serotonin have been shown to influence feeding in vertebrates. In order to better understand the role of monoamine neurotransmitters in the regulation of feeding in fish, we examined the effects of fasting on the brain and intestine gene expression of enzymes involved in their synthesis pathways (SPR: sepiapterin reductase; DHPR: dihydropteridine reductase; TH: tyrosine hydroxylase; TPH: tryptophan hydroxylase; AADC: aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase; DBH: dopamine β-hydroxylase) in goldfish...
May 3, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730450/effect-of-high-temperature-stress-on-heat-shock-protein-expression-and-antioxidant-enzyme-activity-of-two-morphs-of-the-mud-crab-scylla-paramamosain
#7
Zi-Ming Liu, Xian-Long Zhu, Jun Lu, Wan-Jun Cai, Ya-Ping Ye, Yao-Ping Lv
The present study aimed to investigate the effect rapid temperature change from moderate temperature to high temperatures on heat shock protein (HSP) expression and antioxidant enzyme activities in mud crabs. Two mud crabs, one with one spine on the outer margin of the carpus of cheliped (Sp1) and another with two spines (Sp2), were acclimated at 25 °C and then transferred to a 33 °C environment, and HSP expression and antioxidant enzyme activity were assessed. HSP70 and HSP60 were markedly up-regulated in the gills and hepatopancreas of Sp1 and Sp2 after exposure to 35 °C...
May 3, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698766/effects-of-salinity-and-hypoxia-induced-hyperventilation-on-oxygen-consumption-and-cost-of-osmoregulation-in-the-estuarine-red-drum-sciaenops-ocellatus
#8
Rasmus Ern, Andrew J Esbaugh
Understanding the physiological responses of fishes to salinity changes and aquatic hypoxia is essential for the conservation of marine species. Salinity changes affect the osmotic gradient across the gill epithelium, while hypoxia increases gill ventilation and the flow of water over the gills. Both processes affect the diffusive movement of ions and water across the gill epithelium, and the rate of active ion transport required for maintaining osmotic homeostasis. Consequently, salinity and hypoxia may affect the energetic cost of osmoregulation, and consequently the energy available for other physiological functions such as migration, growth, and reproduction...
April 23, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694925/strain-specific-effects-of-crowding-on-long-term-memory-formation-in-lymnaea
#9
Shawn Dodd, Cailin M Rothwell, Ken Lukowiak
Crowding of snails is a stress that obstructs long-term memory (LTM) formation following operant conditioning of aerial respiratory behaviour in Lymnaea stagnalis. In previous experiments, snails of the same strain/population were used for both the crowding and the operant conditioning training. However, there are different strains/populations of Lymnaea stagnalis exhibiting different cognitive abilities. We asked whether Lymnaea of one strain/population are able to determine that they are of a different strain/population...
April 22, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689308/the-influence-of-temperature-stress-on-the-physiology-of-the-atlantic-surfclam-spisula-solidissima
#10
Jesse Hornstein, Emmanuelle Pales Espinosa, Robert M Cerrato, Kamazima M M Lwiza, Bassem Allam
Atlantic surfclam populations have significantly declined in state and federal waters from the south shore of Long Island, New York to the Delmarva Peninsula since the early 2000s. Previous studies have demonstrated that surfclams in this geographic range show signs of physiological stress, suggested to be a result of increasing ocean temperatures. In this study, we examined the effect of 2 temperature regimes (19 °C and 23 °C) on surfclam physiology. These temperatures were chosen because they represent maximal (23 °C) and minimal (19 °C) temperatures prevailing in New York clamming areas during summer...
April 21, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684576/zd7288-and-mibefradil-inhibit-the-myogenic-heartbeat-in-daphnia-magna-indicating-its-dependency-on-hcn-and-t-type-calcium-ion-channels
#11
Thomas J Pirtle, Troy L Carr, Tanisha Khurana, Grace Meeker
Daphnia magna heartbeat is myogenic-originating within the animal's heart. However, the mechanism for this myogenic automaticity is unknown. The mechanism underlying the automaticity of vertebrate myogenic hearts involves cells (pacemaker cells), which have a distinct set of ion channels that include hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) and T-type calcium ion channels. We hypothesized that these ion channels also underlie the automatic myogenic heartbeat of Daphnia magna. The drugs, ZD7288 and mibefradil dihydrochloride, block HCN and T-type calcium ion channels respectively...
April 20, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679684/expression-profile-and-reproductive-regulation-of-apgwamide-in-pacific-abalone-haliotis-discus-hannai
#12
Kyeong Seop Kim, Tae Ha Kim, Mi Ae Kim, Jung Sick Lee, Young Chang Sohn
Neuropeptides in the central nervous system regulate reproductive activities in vertebrates. Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH2 (APGWamide), a neuromediator expressed in the neural ganglia of mollusks, controls sexual maturation and reproduction. To clarify the role of APGWamide in sexual behavior regulation and gamete cell maturation in mollusks, we cloned the cDNA of APGWamide precursor (Hdh-APGWamide) and examined the spatiotemporal expression of the transcript in the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. The 222-amino acid sequence of the precursor deduced from the cDNA sequence showed typical features of gastropod APGWamide precursors...
April 18, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655816/sex-specific-transcription-and-dna-methylation-profiles-of-reproductive-and-epigenetic-associated-genes-in-the-gonads-and-livers-of-breeding-zebrafish
#13
L V Laing, J Viana, E Dempster, T M Uren Webster, R van Aerle, J Mill, E M Santos
Reproduction is an essential process for life and is regulated by complex hormone networks and environmental factors. To date, little is known about the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to the regulation of reproduction, particularly in lower vertebrates. We used the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model to investigate the sex-specific transcription and DNA methylation profiles for genes involved in the regulation of reproduction and in epigenetic signalling in the livers and gonads. We found evidence for associations between DNA promotor methylation and transcription for esr1 (gonads and female livers), amh (gonads) and dnmt1 (livers)...
April 12, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655815/evidence-for-retinoic-acid-involvement-in-the-regulation-of-vitellogenesis-in-the-fresh-water-edible-crab-oziotelphusa-senex-senex
#14
B P Girish, C H Swetha, M Srilatha, M Hemalatha, P Sreenivasula Reddy
The possible involvement of 13-cis retinoic acid (CRA) in the regulation of ovarian development in Oziotelphusa senex senex was investigated. Injection of CRA, into avitellogenic crabs significantly increased ovarian index, oocyte diameter and ovarian vitellogenin levels. Injection of CRA also resulted in a significant increase in the secretory rates of mandibular organs and Y-organs and circulatory levels of the methyl farnesoate and ecdysteroids. Further, administration of CRA into avitellogenic crabs produced higher amounts of Retinoid X Receptor, Ecdysteroid Receptor, E75 and vitellogenin mRNAs in the hepatopancreas...
April 12, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29654820/the-impact-of-acute-thermal-stress-on-green-mussel-perna-viridis-oxidative-damage-and-responses
#15
Jing Wang, Bo Dong, Zhen-Xing Yu, Cui-Luan Yao
Examining the physiological responses of mussels to thermal stress is crucial to evaluate their biogeographic distribution and ability to adapt to a changing climate. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute cold (8 °C and 15 °C) and heat (35 °C and 42 °C) stress on the mortality rate, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and antioxdative responses in the gill tissue of the green mussel species Perna viridis...
April 11, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627325/shifts-in-the-relationship-between-mrna-and-protein-abundance-of-gill-ion-transporters-during-smolt-development-and-seawater-acclimation-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#16
Arne K Christensen, Amy M Regish, Stephen D McCormick
Smolting Atlantic salmon exhibit a seasonal increase in seawater tolerance that is associated with changes in the abundance of major gill ion-transporter transcripts and proteins. In the present study, we investigate how the transcript and protein abundance of specific ion-transporter isoforms relate to each other during smolt development and seawater acclimation, and how each correlates to seawater tolerance. We show that during smolt development both mRNA and protein abundance of gill Na+ /K+ -ATPase α1a subunit (NKAα1a) decreased but the decrease in the mRNA was five-times greater than that of the protein...
April 5, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605472/interactive-effects-of-salinity-and-temperature-acclimation-on-gill-morphology-and-gene-expression-in-threespine-stickleback
#17
Taylor C Gibbons, Tara L McBryan, Patricia M Schulte
Colonization of freshwater habitats from marine environments exposes organisms to novel combinations of temperature and salinity, but little is known about physiological responses to the interactive effects of these stressors. Here, we examined the effects of temperature (14 versus 4 °C) and salinity (11 versus 0.3 ppt) on gill gene expression in marine, anadromous, and freshwater populations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Expression of the epithelial calcium channel was not affected by temperature or salinity, but had significantly higher expression in the freshwater ecotype...
March 29, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597012/differential-expression-of-gonadotropin-and-estrogen-receptors-and-oocyte-cytology-during-follicular-maturation-associated-with-egg-viability-in-european-eel-anguilla-anguilla
#18
Filipa F G da Silva, Helge Tveiten, Gersende Maugars, Anne-Gaëlle Lafont, Sylvie Dufour, Josianne G Støttrup, Elin Kjørsvik, Jonna Tomkiewicz
In captivity, oogenesis and ovarian follicle maturation in European eel can be induced experimentally using hormonal therapy. The follicle's ability to respond effectively to the induction of maturation and ovulation, resulting in viable eggs, depends on the oocyte stage at the time of induction. We hypothesized that variation in the expression of key hormone receptors in the ovary and size of oocyte lipid droplets are associated with changes in oocyte stage. Thus, we induced ovarian follicle maturation using a priming dose of fish pituitary extract followed by an administration of 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP)...
March 26, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567405/phylogenetic-analysis-of-cnidarian-peroxiredoxins-and-stress-responsive-expression-in-the-estuarine-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#19
Rebecca R Helm, Maria Laura Martín-Díaz, Ann M Tarrant
Peroxiredoxins (PRXs) are a family of antioxidant enzymes present in all domains of life. To date, the diversity and function of peroxiredoxins within animals has only been studied in a few model species. Thus, we sought to characterize peroxiredoxin diversity in cnidarians and to gain insight into their function in one cnidarian-the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Phylogenetic analysis using all six known PRX subfamilies (PRX1-4, PRX5, PRX6, PRXQ/AHPE1, TPX, BCP-PRXQ) revealed that like bilaterians, cnidarians contain representatives from three subfamilies (PRX1-4, PRX5, PRX6)...
March 19, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559254/comparison-of-the-organic-matrix-found-in-intestinal-caco-3-precipitates-produced-by-several-marine-teleost-species
#20
Kevin L Schauer, Emil A F Christensen, Martin Grosell
Marine bony fish poses the unique ability to hydrate from imbibed seawater. They accomplish this, in part, by the precipitation of inorganic carbonate mineral in their intestine, which lowers luminal osmotic pressure and allows for water uptake. It has recently been described that in the Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) this Ca(Mg)CO3 precipitation occurs under the regulation of an organic matrix. To date no investigations have aimed to determine if this phenomenon applies more generally to marine fish. Here, intestinally derived precipitates were collected from gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus), white grunt (Haemulon plumieri), European flounder (Platichthys flesus), as well as Gulf toadfish, and their matrices were extracted...
March 17, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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