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European Journal of Organic Chemistry

Răzvan C Cioc, Verónica Estévez, Daan J van der Niet, Christophe M L Vande Velde, Nikolaus G Turrini, Mélanie Hall, Kurt Faber, Eelco Ruijter, Romano V A Orru
We report the use of bifunctional starting materials (ketoacids) in a diastereoselective Passerini three-center-two-component reaction. Study of the reaction scope revealed the required structural features for stereoselectivity in the isocyanide addition. In this system, an interesting isomerization of the primary Passerini product - the α-carboxamido lactone - into an atypical product, an α-hydroxy imide, was found to occur under acidic conditions. Furthermore, enantioenriched Passerini products can be generated from an enantioenriched ketoacid obtained by chemoenzymatic synthesis...
March 3, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Monalisa Goswami, Bas de Bruin
The azide moiety is a desirable functionality in organic molecules, useful in a variety of transformations such as olefin aziridination, C-H bond amination, isocyanate synthesis, the Staudinger reaction and the formation of azo compounds. To harness the versatility of the azide functionality fully it is important that these compounds be easy to prepare, in a clean and cost-effective manner. Conventional (non-catalysed) methods to synthesise azides generally require quite harsh reaction conditions that are often not tolerant of functional groups...
February 24, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Xiaoping Tang, Rudolf K Allemann, Thomas Wirth
Sesquiterpenes are an important family of natural products, many of which exhibit important pharmaceutical and agricultural properties. They are biosynthesised from farnesyl diphosphate in sesquiterpene synthase catalysed reactions. Here, we report the development of a highly efficient segmented flow system for the enzyme-catalysed continuous flow production of sesquiterpenes. Design of experiment (DoE) methods were used to optimise the performance of the flow biocatalysis, and quantitative yields were achieved by using an operationally simple but highly effective segmented flow system...
January 10, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Stephen M Geddis, Laura Carro, James T Hodgkinson, David R Spring
Two divergent synthetic routes are reported offering access to four quinolone natural products from Pseudonocardia sp. CL38489. Key steps to the natural products involved a regioselective epoxidation, an intramolecular Buchwald-Hartwig amination and a final acid-catalysed 1,3-allylic-alcohol rearrangement to give two of the natural products in one step. This study completes the synthesis of all eight antibacterial quinolone natural products reported in the family. In addition, this modular strategy enables an improved synthesis towards two natural products previously reported...
December 2016: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Michael C Pirrung, Ryan S Schreihans
This work develops serine peptide assembly (SPA), which complements and contrasts with classic native chemical ligation (NCL). Advances in reagent-less peptide bond formation have been applied to serine (and serine models) and a range of C-terminal amino acids, including bulky residues that are not amenable to NCL. The particular appeal of SPA is preparative-scale segment condensations with zero racemization risk and favourable process mass intensity (PMI). Mechanistic studies support a previously proposed reaction pathway via an initial trans-esterification step...
December 2016: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Yufeng Miao, Pieter G Tepper, Edzard M Geertsema, Gerrit J Poelarends
The enzyme 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) promiscuously catalyzes the Michael-type addition of acetaldehyde to β-nitrostyrene derivatives to yield chiral γ-nitroaldehydes, which are important precursors for pharmaceutically active γ-aminobutyric acids. In this study, we investigated the effect of different substituents at the aromatic ring of the Michael acceptor on the catalytic efficiency and stereoselectivity of the 4-OT-catalyzed acetaldehyde addition reactions. Highly enantioenriched (R)- and (S)-γ-nitroaldehydes and 4-substituted chroman-2-ol could be obtained in good to excellent yields by applying different substituents at appropriate positions of the aromatic substrate...
November 2016: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Mikayo Hayashi, Lauren E Brown, John A Porco
Enantioenriched, polycyclic compounds were obtained from a simple acylphloroglucinol scaffold. Highly enantioselective dearomatization was accomplished using a Trost ligand-palladium(0) complex. A computational DFT model was developed to rationalize observed enantioselectivities and revealed a key reactant-ligand hydrogen bonding interaction. Dearomatized products were used in visible light-mediated photocycloadditions and oxidative free radical cyclizations to obtain novel polycyclic chemotypes including tricyclo[4...
October 2016: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Stuart S Rankin, John J Caldwell, Nora B Cronin, Rob L M van Montfort, Ian Collins
A practical synthesis of a novel oxabicyclo[6.2.1]undecenetriol useful as a medicinal chemistry scaffold has been developed starting from l-ribose. The sequence involves an oxidation/Grignard addition sequence and a challenging ring-closing metathesis (RCM) reaction as the ring forming step. Exploration of the RCM substrate protecting groups revealed the key factor for successful nine-membered medium ring formation to be conformational bias of the reacting alkenes of the RCM substrate by very bulky silyl ether protecting groups...
September 2016: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Cornelia Hojnik, Anne Müller, Tobias-Elias Gloe, Thisbe K Lindhorst, Tanja M Wrodnigg
The Amadori rearrangement was investigated for the synthesis of C-glycosyl-type neoglycoconjugates. Various amines including diamines, amino-functionalized glycosides, lysine derivatives, and peptides were conjugated with two different heptoses to generate non-natural C-glycosyl-type glycoconjugates of the d-gluco and d-manno series. With these studies, the scope and limitations of the Amadori rearrangement as a conjugation method have been exemplified with respect to the carbohydrate substrate, as well as the amino components...
September 2016: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
María Jesús Durán-Peña, José Manuel Botubol-Ares, James R Hanson, Rosario Hernández-Galán, Isidro G Collado
A method has been developed for the conversion of primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols, and phenol, into the corresponding esters at room temperature. The method uses a titanium(III) species generated from a substoichiometric amount of titanocene dichloride together with manganese(0) as a reductant, as well as methylene diiodide. It involves a transesterification from an ethyl ester, or a reaction with an acyl chloride. A radical mechanism is proposed for these transformations.
July 2016: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Alinanuswe S Mwakaboko, Binne Zwanenburg
Strigolactones (SLs) are important new plant hormones that receive much attention in current plant science. SLs are produced by many plants and are exuded by the root system. SLs are, amongst others, germination stimulants for seed of parasitic weeds. Naturally occurring SLs invariably contain three annelated rings, the ABC-scaffold, connected to a butenolide (the D-ring) via an enol ether unit. The synthesis of natural SLs requires many steps, therefore there is a continuous search for SL analogues with a simpler structure but with retention of bioactivity...
July 2016: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Ruth Dorel, Paula de Mendoza, Pilar Calleja, Sergio Pascual, Esther González-Cantalapiedra, Noemí Cabello, Antonio M Echavarren
The synthesis of a new C3v -symmetric crushed fullerene C60H24 (5) has been accomplished in three steps from truxene through sixfold palladium-catalyzed intramolecular arylation of a syn-trialkylated truxene precursor. Laser irradiation of 5 induces cyclodehydrogenation processes that result in the formation of C60, as detected by LDI-MS.
July 2016: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Jeffrey T Bagdanoff, Douglas C Behenna, Jennifer L Stockdill, Brian M Stoltz
The enantioselective synthesis of both caprolactam and enone synthons for the DEFG ring system of zoanthenol are described. The evolution of this synthetic approach proceeds first through a synthesis using the chiral pool as a starting point. Challenges in protecting group strategy led to the modification of this approach beginning with (±)-glycidol. Ultimately, an efficient approach was developed by employing an asymmetric hetero-Diels-Alder reaction. The caprolactam building block can be converted by an interesting selective Grignard addition to the corresponding enone synthon...
April 2016: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Kenji Mishiro, Fanghao Hu, Daniel W Paley, Wei Min, Tristan H Lambert
The "deltic guanidinium" ion is described here as a "macrostere" of the guanidinium ion. The use of the 2,4-dimethoxybenzyl protecting group allows for the synthesis of the fully unsubstituted parent compound and a variety of derivatives bearing multiple N-H functions for the first time. Deltic urea, deltic thiourea, and deltic benzamidine are also synthesized. A comparison of the physical properties of guanidinium and deltic guanidinium ions is provided. The use of a deltic guanidinium dendrimer for cell transport is demonstrated...
March 2016: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Dominic P Affron, James A Bull
Saturated heterocycles, such as THFs, pyrrolidines, piperidines and THPs, are essential components of many biologically active compounds. Examples of C-H functionalization on these important ring systems remain scarce, especially at unactivated positions. Here we report the development of conditions for the palladium-catalyzed stereoselective C(sp(3))-H arylation at unactivated 3-positions of 5- and 6-membered N- and O-heterocycles with aminoquinoline directing groups. Subtle differences in substrate structures altered their reactivity significantly; and different conditions were required to achieve high yields in each case...
January 2016: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Elena Barreiro, Alvaro Sanz-Vidal, Eric Tan, Shing-Hing Lau, Tom D Sheppard, Silvia Díez-González
The activity of HBF4 (aqueous solution) as a catalyst in propargylation reactions is presented. Diverse types of nucleophiles were employed in order to form new C-O, C-N and C-C bonds in technical acetone and in air. Good to excellent yields and good chemoselectivities were obtained using low acid loading (typically 1 mol-%) under simple reaction conditions.
December 2015: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Talon M Kosak, Heidi A Conrad, Andrew L Korich, Richard L Lord
One of the most well-known, highly utilized reagents for ether cleavage is boron tribromide (BBr3), and this reagent is frequently employed in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio with ethers. Density functional theory calculations predict a new mechanistic pathway involving charged intermediates for ether cleavage in aryl methyl ethers. Moreover, these calculations predict that one equivalent of BBr3 can cleave up to three equivalents of anisole, producing triphenoxyborane [B(OPh)3] prior to hydrolysis. These predictions were validated by gas chromatography analysis of reactions where the BBr3:anisole ratio was varied...
December 2015: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Michael Fuchs, Judith E Farnberger, Wolfgang Kroutil
During the last decade the use of ω-transaminases has been identified as a very powerful method for the preparation of optically pure amines from the corresponding ketones. Their immense potential for the preparation of chiral amines, together with their ease of use in combination with existing biocatalytic methods, have made these biocatalysts a competitor to any chemical methodology for (asymmetric) amination. An increasing number of examples, especially from industry, shows that this biocatalytic technology outmaneuvers existing chemical processes by its simple and flexible nature...
November 2015: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Ilkay Bora, Sidsel A Bogh, Marco Santella, Martin Rosenberg, Thomas Just Sørensen, Bo W Laursen
Azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA) is a fluorescent triangulenium dye with a long fluorescence lifetime, highly polarized transitions and emission in the red part of the visible spectrum. These properties make the chromophore suited for application in fluorescence polarization/anisotropy assay. To be useful for these applications, reactive forms of the dyes must be available in significant quantities. Here, the synthesis and photophysical properties of amine-reactive NHS esters and a thiol-reactive maleimide derivate of ADOTA are reported...
October 2015: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Linlin Qin, Bao Hu, Kiel D Neumann, Ethan J Linstad, Katelyenn McCauley, Jordan Veness, Jayson J Kempinger, Stephen G DiMagno
Diaryliodonium salts are powerful and widely used arylating agents in organic chemistry. Here we report a scalable, synthesis of densely functionalized diaryliodonium salts from aryl iodides under mild conditions. This two-step, one-pot process has remarkable functional group tolerance, is compatible with commonly employed acid-labile protective group strategies, avoids heavy metal and transition metal reagents, and provides a direct route to stable precursors to PET imaging agents.
September 1, 2015: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
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