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European Journal of Organic Chemistry

Ihsan Erden, Christian Gärtner, Jingxiang Ma, Gabriel Cabrera, Kate Markham, Saeed Azimi, Scott Gronert
Aldonitrones derived from spiro[2.4]hepta-4,6-diene-1-carbaldehyde and its benzo analog undergo a tandem uncatalyzed intramolecular cyclopropane-nitrone cyclization-5,6-dihydro-1,2-oxazine cycloreversion to give cyclopentadienones. Similarly, the NH-nitrone generated in situ from spiro[cyclopropane-1,1'-indene]carbaldehyde oxime leads to benzocyclopentadienone (1H-inden-1-one) by the same mechanism. DFT calculations are in favor of a concerted yet highly asynchronous pathway for the cyclizations. Control experiments with the dihydro and tetrahydro derivatives show that the spirocyclopentadiene unit is essential for the success of the reaction, invoking spiroconjugative effects for increased cyclopropane reactivity...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Bojan Vulovic, Donald A Watson
Since the discovery of the Heck reaction in the early seventies, this reaction has become a powerful tool in synthetic organic chemistry. By employing heteroatomic instead of traditional carbon electrophiles, the Heck reaction shows an intriguing flexibility. These "hetereoatomic-Heck reactions" reinvigorate the area, offering new routes to highly useful synthetic precursors and structural motifs present in biologically active compounds. This microreview focuses on early developments leading to the heteroatomic-Heck reactions (silyl-Heck, boryl-Heck and intramolecular aza-Heck), current state of the emerging area, as well as that of a few related processes...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Stephen J Chawner, Manuel J Cases-Thomas, James A Bull
Cyclopropanes provide important design elements in medicinal chemistry and are widely present in drug compounds. Here we describe a strategy and extensive synthetic studies for the preparation of a diverse collection of cyclopropane-containing lead-like compounds, fragments and building blocks exploiting a single precursor. The bifunctional cyclopropane (E/Z)-ethyl 2-(phenylsulfanyl)-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate was designed to allow derivatization through the ester and sulfide functionalities to topologically varied compounds designed to fit in desirable chemical space for drug discovery...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Lorenzo Cavina, Dion van der Born, Peter H M Klaren, Martin C Feiters, Otto C Boerman, Floris P J T Rutjes
Radioiodinated pharmaceuticals are convenient tracers for clinical and research investigations because of the relatively long half-lives of radioactive iodine isotopes (i.e., (123)I, (124)I, and (131)I) and the ease of their chemical insertion. Their application in radionuclide imaging and therapy may, however, be hampered by poor in vivo stability of the C-I bond. After an overview of the use of iodine in biology and nuclear medicine, we present here a survey of the catabolic pathways for iodinated xenobiotics, including their biodistribution, accumulation, and biostability...
June 30, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Ihsan Erden, Scott Gronert, Gabriel Cabrera, Necdet Coskun, Marco Tapken
The title compound exhibits a number of reactivities toward nucleophiles/bases owing to the presence of several electrophilic and potentially nucleophilic sites in the molecule. We explored the reactions of 6-(chloromethyl)-6-methylfulvene with oxygen- and nitrogen nucleophiles and bases as well as a carbon-based nucleophile (an enamine) and realized all possible reactivity modes predicted on the basis of electrophilic and nucleophilic positions in this compound.
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Daniel Rackl, Viktor Kais, Eugen Lutsker, And Oliver Reiser
The synthesis of chiral tetrahydrofurans and pyrrolidines starting from 1,2-diols or β-amino alcohols, respectively, by visible-light-mediated deoxygenation is described. Easily accessible monoallylated/propargylated substrates were activated either as inexpensive ethyl oxalates or as recyclable 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzoates to generate alkyl radicals suitable for 5-exo-trig/5-exo-dig cyclizations under visible-light irradiation.
April 18, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Matthew A Horwitz, Jeffrey S Johnson
The application of desymmetrization strategies in chemical synthesis has allowed fundamentally new synthetic sequences that efficiently create dense and polyfunctional stereochemical arrays. Enantiotopic group discrimination has become a well-established method of global desymmetrization, while the conceptually unique strategy of local desymmetrization by diastereotopic group discrimination has its own advantages. This microreview focuses on the application of local desymmetrization in natural product synthesis and places a particular emphasis on the efficiency engendered by diastereotopic group discrimination...
March 17, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Răzvan C Cioc, Verónica Estévez, Daan J van der Niet, Christophe M L Vande Velde, Nikolaus G Turrini, Mélanie Hall, Kurt Faber, Eelco Ruijter, Romano V A Orru
We report the use of bifunctional starting materials (ketoacids) in a diastereoselective Passerini three-center-two-component reaction. Study of the reaction scope revealed the required structural features for stereoselectivity in the isocyanide addition. In this system, an interesting isomerization of the primary Passerini product - the α-carboxamido lactone - into an atypical product, an α-hydroxy imide, was found to occur under acidic conditions. Furthermore, enantioenriched Passerini products can be generated from an enantioenriched ketoacid obtained by chemoenzymatic synthesis...
March 3, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Monalisa Goswami, Bas de Bruin
The azide moiety is a desirable functionality in organic molecules, useful in a variety of transformations such as olefin aziridination, C-H bond amination, isocyanate synthesis, the Staudinger reaction and the formation of azo compounds. To harness the versatility of the azide functionality fully it is important that these compounds be easy to prepare, in a clean and cost-effective manner. Conventional (non-catalysed) methods to synthesise azides generally require quite harsh reaction conditions that are often not tolerant of functional groups...
February 24, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Xiaoping Tang, Rudolf K Allemann, Thomas Wirth
Sesquiterpenes are an important family of natural products, many of which exhibit important pharmaceutical and agricultural properties. They are biosynthesised from farnesyl diphosphate in sesquiterpene synthase catalysed reactions. Here, we report the development of a highly efficient segmented flow system for the enzyme-catalysed continuous flow production of sesquiterpenes. Design of experiment (DoE) methods were used to optimise the performance of the flow biocatalysis, and quantitative yields were achieved by using an operationally simple but highly effective segmented flow system...
January 10, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Ashley M Dreis, Sadie C Otte, Matthew S Eastwood, Elizabeth R Alonzi, Jason T Brethorst, Christopher J Douglas
Reported herein is a diastereoselective intramolecular alkene cyanoamidation, wherein high d.r. values are imparted by chiral directing groups. Lactams with an α-all-carbon quaternary stereocenter are readily synthesized, which may enable access to structures frequently found in biologically active molecules and natural products.
January 3, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Ruth Dorel, Antonio M Echavarren
The outstanding performance of pentacene-based molecules in molecular electronics, as well as the predicted enhanced semiconducting properties of extended acenes, have stimulated the development of new synthetic methods and functionalization strategies for the preparation of stable and soluble acenes larger than tetracene with the aim of obtaining improved functional materials.
January 3, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Timothy E Hurst, Richard J K Taylor
The synthesis of acridanes and related compounds through a Cu-catalysed radical cross-dehydrogenative coupling of simple 2-[2-(arylamino)aryl]malonates is reported. This method can be further streamlined to a one-pot protocol involving the in situ fomation of the 2-[2-(arylamino)aryl]malonate by α-arylation of diethyl malonate with 2-bromodiarylamines under Pd catalysis, followed by Cu-catalysed cyclisation.
January 3, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Arun K Ghosh, Anindya Sarkar
Enantioselective syntheses of (-)-alloyohimbane and (-)-yohimbane was accomplished in a convergent manner. The key step involved a modified mild protocol for the enantioselective enzymatic desymmetrization of meso-diacetate. The protocol provided convenient access to an optically active monoacetate in multi-gram scale in high enantiomeric purity. This monoacetate was converted to (-)-alloyohimbane. Reductive amination of the derived aldehyde causes the isomerization leading to the trans-product and allows the synthesis of (-)-yohimbane...
December 2016: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Stephen M Geddis, Laura Carro, James T Hodgkinson, David R Spring
Two divergent synthetic routes are reported offering access to four quinolone natural products from Pseudonocardia sp. CL38489. Key steps to the natural products involved a regioselective epoxidation, an intramolecular Buchwald-Hartwig amination and a final acid-catalysed 1,3-allylic-alcohol rearrangement to give two of the natural products in one step. This study completes the synthesis of all eight antibacterial quinolone natural products reported in the family. In addition, this modular strategy enables an improved synthesis towards two natural products previously reported...
December 2016: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Michael C Pirrung, Ryan S Schreihans
This work develops serine peptide assembly (SPA), which complements and contrasts with classic native chemical ligation (NCL). Advances in reagent-less peptide bond formation have been applied to serine (and serine models) and a range of C-terminal amino acids, including bulky residues that are not amenable to NCL. The particular appeal of SPA is preparative-scale segment condensations with zero racemization risk and favourable process mass intensity (PMI). Mechanistic studies support a previously proposed reaction pathway via an initial trans-esterification step...
December 2016: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Yufeng Miao, Pieter G Tepper, Edzard M Geertsema, Gerrit J Poelarends
The enzyme 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) promiscuously catalyzes the Michael-type addition of acetaldehyde to β-nitrostyrene derivatives to yield chiral γ-nitroaldehydes, which are important precursors for pharmaceutically active γ-aminobutyric acids. In this study, we investigated the effect of different substituents at the aromatic ring of the Michael acceptor on the catalytic efficiency and stereoselectivity of the 4-OT-catalyzed acetaldehyde addition reactions. Highly enantioenriched (R)- and (S)-γ-nitroaldehydes and 4-substituted chroman-2-ol could be obtained in good to excellent yields by applying different substituents at appropriate positions of the aromatic substrate...
November 2016: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Mikayo Hayashi, Lauren E Brown, John A Porco
Enantioenriched, polycyclic compounds were obtained from a simple acylphloroglucinol scaffold. Highly enantioselective dearomatization was accomplished using a Trost ligand-palladium(0) complex. A computational DFT model was developed to rationalize observed enantioselectivities and revealed a key reactant-ligand hydrogen bonding interaction. Dearomatized products were used in visible light-mediated photocycloadditions and oxidative free radical cyclizations to obtain novel polycyclic chemotypes including tricyclo[4...
October 2016: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Yunpeng Liu, Liuqing Wen, Lei Li, Madhusudhan Reddy Gadi, Wanyi Guan, Kenneth Huang, Zhongying Xiao, Mohui Wei, Cheng Ma, Qing Zhang, Hai Yu, Xi Chen, Peng George Wang, Junqiang Fang
A concise, prototypical, and stereoselective strategy for the synthesis of therapeutically and immunologically significant glycosphingolipids has been developed. This strategy provides a universal platform for glycosphingolipid synthesis by block coupling of enzymatically prepared free oligosaccharideglycans to lipids using glycosyl N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidates as efficient activated intermediates. As demonstrated here, two different types of glycosphingolipids were obtained in excellent yields using the method...
September 2016: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Stuart S Rankin, John J Caldwell, Nora B Cronin, Rob L M van Montfort, Ian Collins
A practical synthesis of a novel oxabicyclo[6.2.1]undecenetriol useful as a medicinal chemistry scaffold has been developed starting from l-ribose. The sequence involves an oxidation/Grignard addition sequence and a challenging ring-closing metathesis (RCM) reaction as the ring forming step. Exploration of the RCM substrate protecting groups revealed the key factor for successful nine-membered medium ring formation to be conformational bias of the reacting alkenes of the RCM substrate by very bulky silyl ether protecting groups...
September 2016: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
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