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Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229266/erratum-to-solidarity-justice-and-recognition-of-the-other
#1
Ruud Ter Meulen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188421/erratum-to-the-causal-explanatory-functions-of-medical-diagnoses
#2
Hane Htut Maung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188420/clashes-of-consensus-on-the-problem-of-both-justifying-abortion-of-fetuses-with-down-syndrome-and-rejecting-infanticide
#3
Henrik Friberg-Fernros
Although the abortion of fetuses with Down syndrome has become commonplace, infanticide is still widely rejected. Generally, there are three ways of justifying the differentiation between abortion and infanticide: by referring to the differences between the moral status of the fetus versus the infant, by referring to the differences of the moral status of the act of abortion versus the act of infanticide, or by separating the way the permissibility of abortion is justified from the way the impermissibility of infanticide is justified...
February 10, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144806/an-integral-approach-to-health-science-and-healthcare
#4
Patrick Daly
Defining disease and delineating its boundaries is a contested area in contemporary philosophy of medicine. The leading naturalistic theory faces a new round of difficulties related to defining a normal environment alongside normal organismic functioning and to delineating a discrete boundary between risk factors and disease. Normative theories face ongoing and seemingly intractable difficulties related to value pluralism and the problematic relation between theory and practice. In this article, I argue for an integral-as opposed to a hybrid-philosophy of health based on Bernard Lonergan's notion of generalized empirical method that provides a way to settle these difficulties dynamically and comprehensively, both in theory, by orienting functional and statistical investigation toward an explanatory ecological viewpoint, and in practice, by framing critiques in relation to the normativity intrinsic to all human inquiry...
January 31, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105531/-big-eye-surgery-the-ethics-of-medicalizing-asian-features
#5
Yves Saint James Aquino
The popularity of surgical modifications of race-typical features among Asian women has generated debates on the ethical implications of the practice. Focusing on blepharoplasty as a representative racial surgery, this article frames the ethical discussion by viewing Asian cosmetic surgery as an example of medicalization, which can be interpreted in two forms: treatment versus enhancement. In the treatment form, medicalization occurs by considering cosmetic surgery as remedy for pathologized Asian features; the pathologization usually occurs in reference to western features as the norm...
January 19, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040857/indeterminacy-and-the-principle-of-need
#6
Anders Herlitz
The principle of need-the idea that resources should be allocated according to need-is often invoked in priority setting in the health care sector. In this article, I argue that a reasonable principle of need must be indeterminate, and examine three different ways that this can be dealt with: appendicizing the principle with further principles, imposing determinacy, or empowering decision makers. I argue that need must be conceptualized as a composite property composed of at least two factors: health shortfall and capacity to benefit...
December 31, 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933474/thinking-ethical-and-regulatory-frameworks-in-medicine-from-the-perspective-of-solidarity-on-both-sides-of-the-atlantic
#7
Barbara Prainsack, Alena Buyx
This article provides a concise overview of the history of scholarship on solidarity in Europe and North America. While recent decades have seen an increase in conceptual and scholarly interest in solidarity in North America and other parts of the Anglo-Saxon world, the concept is much more strongly anchored in Europe. Continental European politics in particular have given rise to two of the most influential traditions of solidarity, namely, socialism and Christian ethics. Solidarity has also guided important public instruments and institutions in Europe (e...
December 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921208/solidarity-and-autonomy-two-conflicting-values-in-english-and-french-health-care-and-bioethics-debates
#8
EDITORIAL
Marie Gaille, Ruth Horn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915459/the-role-of-accompagnement-in-the-end-of-life-debate-in-france-from-solidarity-to-autonomy
#9
Marie Gaille, Ruth Horn
This article traces the way autonomy has become a recognised value in health care in France. In a country that based its social fundamentals on the very idea of solidarity for many years, autonomy has long been considered a foreign 'Anglo-American principle'. Taking the example of the end-of-life debate, the article shows, however, how the use of the French term 'accompagnement' allowed autonomy to be redefined and to be associated with the concept of solidarity. Exploring the arguments used over the past 25 years in professional guidelines, parliamentary reports, ethics committee reports, and legal texts, the authors describe the shift that took place in public and legal discourses on end-of-life care...
December 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909857/privacy-autonomy-and-public-policy-french-and-north-american-perspectives
#10
Jennifer Merchant
This article raises the question of whether in both the United States and in France, an individual's autonomy and private decision-making right(s) in matters of health care and access to reproductive technologies can be conciliated with the general interest, and more specifically, the role of the State. Can a full-fledged right to privacy, the ability to exercise one's autonomy, exist alongside the general interest, and depend neither on financial resources like in the United States nor on centralised government decisions or the medical hierarchy like in France? The contrast between these two modern democracies justify the importance of comparing them...
December 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896526/solidarity-justice-and-recognition-of-the-other
#11
Ruud Ter Meulen
Solidarity has for a long time been referred to as the core value underpinning European health and welfare systems. But there has been debate in recent years about whether solidarity, with its alleged communitarian content, can be reconciled with the emphasis on individual freedom and personal autonomy. One may wonder whether there is still a place for solidarity, and whether the concept of justice should be embraced to analyse the moral issues regarding access to health care. In this article, I will answer this question by analysing the normative foundations of the concept of justice, followed by a deeper examination of the concept of solidarity in continental philosophy...
December 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896525/from-solidarity-to-autonomy-towards-a-redefinition-of-the-parameters-of-the-notion-of-autonomy
#12
Sylvie Fainzang
Starting from examples of concrete situations in France, I show that autonomy and solidarity can coexist only if the parameters of autonomy are redefined. I show on the one hand that in situations where autonomy is encouraged, solidarity nevertheless remains at the foundation of their practices. On the other hand, in situations largely infused with family solidarity, the individual autonomy may be put in danger. Yet, based on my ethnographic observations regarding clinical encounters and medical secrecy, I show that while solidarity may endanger individual autonomy, it does not necessarily endanger autonomy itself...
December 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873139/when-marcel-mauss-s-essai-sur-le-don-becomes-the-gift-variations-on-the-theme-of-solidarity
#13
Simone Bateman
Since the early 1970s, Marcel Mauss's Essai sur le Don (1923), translated into English as The Gift in 1954, has been a standard reference in the social science and bioethical literature on the use of human body parts and substances for medical and research purposes. At that time, three social scientists-political scientist Richard Titmuss in the United Kingdom and sociologist Renée C. Fox working with historian Judith Swazey in the United States-had the idea of using this concept to highlight the fundamental structure of the biomedical practices they were studying, respectively, blood donation, and hemodialysis and organ transplantation...
December 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709454/death-with-dignity-from-the-confucian-perspective
#14
Yaming Li, Jianhui Li
Death with dignity is a significant issue in modern bioethics. In modern healthcare, the wide use of new technologies at the end of life has caused heated debate on how to protect human dignity. The key point of contention lies in the different understandings of human dignity and the dignity of death. Human dignity has never been a clear concept in Western ethical explorations, and the dignity of death has given rise to more confusions. Although there is no such term as "dignity" in Confucian ethics, there are discussions of a number of ideas related to human dignity and the dignity of death...
October 5, 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639870/the-casuistic-method-of-practical-ethics
#15
Georg Spielthenner
This essay concerns itself with the methodology of practical ethics. There are a variety of methods employed in ethics. Although none have been firmly established as dominant, it is generally agreed that casuistry, or the case-based method, is one important strategy commonly used for resolving ethical issues. Casuists compare the case under consideration to a relevantly similar (analogous) precedent case in which judgements have already been made, and they use these earlier judgements to determine the proper resolution of the present case...
October 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638683/personalized-medicine-evidence-of-normativity-in-its-quantitative-definition-of-health
#16
Henrik Vogt, Bjørn Hofmann, Linn Getz
Systems medicine, which is based on computational modelling of biological systems, is emerging as an increasingly prominent part of the personalized medicine movement. It is often promoted as 'P4 medicine' (predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory). In this article, we test promises made by some of its proponents that systems medicine will be able to develop a scientific, quantitative metric for wellness that will eliminate the purported vagueness, ambiguity, and incompleteness-that is, normativity-of previous health definitions...
October 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613280/lydia-dugdale-ed-dying-in-the-twenty-first-century-toward-a-new-ethical-framework-for-the-art-of-dying-well-mit-press-2015-xii-%C3%A2-224-pp-35-00-hardcover-isbn-9780262029124
#17
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613279/making-good-choices-toward-a-theory-of-well-being-in-medicine
#18
Alicia Hall
The principle of beneficence directs healthcare practitioners to promote patients' well-being, ensuring that the patients' best interests guide treatment decisions. Because there are a number of distinct theories of well-being that could lead to different conclusions about the patient's good, a careful consideration of which account is best suited for use in the medical context is needed. While there has been some discussion of the differences between subjective and objective theories of well-being within the bioethics literature, less attention has been given to the questions of what work a theory of well-being needs to do in bioethics and which standards of success ought to be used in selecting a theory of well-being for use in medicine...
October 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613278/miriam-solomon-making-medical-knowledge-oxford-university-press-2015-261-pp-60-00-isbn-978-0-19-873261-7
#19
Hillel D Braude
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638682/the-causal-explanatory-functions-of-medical-diagnoses
#20
Hane Htut Maung
Diagnoses in medicine are often taken to serve as explanations of patients' symptoms and signs. This article examines how they do so. I begin by arguing that although some instances of diagnostic explanation can be formulated as covering law arguments, they are explanatory neither in virtue of their argumentative structures nor in virtue of general regularities between diagnoses and clinical presentations. I then consider the theory that medical diagnoses explain symptoms and signs by identifying their actual causes in particular cases...
September 16, 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
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