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Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501966/from-method-to-hermeneutics-which-epistemological-framework-for-narrative-medicine
#1
Camille Abettan
The past 10 years have seen considerable developments in the use of narrative in medicine, primarily through the emergence of the so-called narrative medicine. In this article, I question narrative medicine's self-understanding and contend that one of the most prominent issues is its lack of a clear epistemological framework. Drawing from Gadamer's work on hermeneutics, I first show that narrative medicine is deeply linked with the hermeneutical field of knowledge. Then I try to identify which claims can be legitimately expected from narrative medicine, and which ones cannot be...
May 13, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365840/chronicles-of-communication-and-power-informed-consent-to-sterilisation-in-the-namibian-supreme-court-s-lm-judgment-of-2015
#2
Nyasha Chingore-Munazvo, Katherine Furman, Annabel Raw, Mariette Slabbert
The 2015 judgment of the Namibia Supreme Court in Government of the Republic of Namibia v LM and Others set an important precedent on informed consent in a case involving the coercive sterilisation of HIV-positive women. This article analyses the reasoning and factual narratives of the judgment by applying Neil Manson and Onora O'Neill's approach to informed consent as a communicative process. This is done in an effort to understand the practical import of the judgment in the particular context of resource constrained public healthcare facilities through which many women in southern Africa access reproductive healthcare...
April 1, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188420/clashes-of-consensus-on-the-problem-of-both-justifying-abortion-of-fetuses-with-down-syndrome-and-rejecting-infanticide
#3
Henrik Friberg-Fernros
Although the abortion of fetuses with Down syndrome has become commonplace, infanticide is still widely rejected. Generally, there are three ways of justifying the differentiation between abortion and infanticide: by referring to the differences between the moral status of the fetus versus the infant, by referring to the differences of the moral status of the act of abortion versus the act of infanticide, or by separating the way the permissibility of abortion is justified from the way the impermissibility of infanticide is justified...
June 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361295/hearing-sub-saharan-african-voices-in-bioethics
#4
EDITORIAL
Kevin Gary Behrens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299591/dealing-with-the-other-between-the-ethical-and-the-moral-albinism-on-the-african-continent
#5
Elvis Imafidon
Albinism is a global public health issue but it assumes a peculiar nature in the African continent due, in part, to the social stigma faced by persons with albinism (PWAs) in Africa. I argue that there are two essential reasons for this precarious situation. First, in the African consciousness, albinism is an alterity or otherness. The PWA in Africa is not merely a physical other but also an ontological other in the African community of beings, which provides a hermeneutic for the stigmatising separateness or difference of the PWA...
April 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349324/partiality-and-distributive-justice-in-african-bioethics
#6
Christopher Simon Wareham
African ethical theories tend to hold that moral agents ought to be partial, in the sense that they should favour members of their family or close community. This is considered an advantage over the impartiality of many Western moral theories, which are regarded as having counterintuitive implications, such as the idea that it is unethical to save a family member before a stranger. The partiality of African ethics is thought to be particularly valuable in the context of bioethics. Thaddeus Metz, in particular, argues that his African-derived theory best accounts for a number of plausible intuitions, such as the intuition that health care practitioners ought to be biased towards the patients for whom they are directly responsible...
March 27, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343255/giving-voice-to-african-thought-in-medical-research-ethics
#7
Godfrey B Tangwa
In this article, I consider the virtual absence of an African voice and perspective in global discourses of medical research ethics against the backdrop of the high burden of diseases and epidemics on the continent and the fact that the continent is actually the scene of numerous and sundry medical research studies. I consider some reasons for this state of affairs as well as how the situation might be redressed. Using examples from the HIV/AIDS and Ebola epidemics, I attempt to show that the marginalization of Africa in medical research and medical research ethics is deliberate rather than accidental...
March 25, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303366/ancillary-care-obligations-in-light-of-an-african-bioethic-from-entrustment-to-communion
#8
Thaddeus Metz
Henry Richardson recently published the first book ever devoted to ancillary care obligations, which roughly concern what medical researchers are morally required to provide to participants beyond what safety requires. In it, Richardson notes that he is presenting the 'only fully elaborated view out there' on this topic, which he calls the 'partial-entrustment model'. In this article, I provide a new theory of ancillary care obligations, one that is grounded on ideals of communion salient in the African philosophical tradition and that is intended to rival and surpass Richardson's model, which is a function of Western considerations of autonomy...
March 16, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229266/erratum-to-solidarity-justice-and-recognition-of-the-other
#9
Ruud Ter Meulen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188421/erratum-to-the-causal-explanatory-functions-of-medical-diagnoses
#10
Hane Htut Maung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144806/an-integral-approach-to-health-science-and-healthcare
#11
Patrick Daly
Defining disease and delineating its boundaries is a contested area in contemporary philosophy of medicine. The leading naturalistic theory faces a new round of difficulties related to defining a normal environment alongside normal organismic functioning and to delineating a discrete boundary between risk factors and disease. Normative theories face ongoing and seemingly intractable difficulties related to value pluralism and the problematic relation between theory and practice. In this article, I argue for an integral-as opposed to a hybrid-philosophy of health based on Bernard Lonergan's notion of generalized empirical method that provides a way to settle these difficulties dynamically and comprehensively, both in theory, by orienting functional and statistical investigation toward an explanatory ecological viewpoint, and in practice, by framing critiques in relation to the normativity intrinsic to all human inquiry...
February 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040857/indeterminacy-and-the-principle-of-need
#12
Anders Herlitz
The principle of need-the idea that resources should be allocated according to need-is often invoked in priority setting in the health care sector. In this article, I argue that a reasonable principle of need must be indeterminate, and examine three different ways that this can be dealt with: appendicizing the principle with further principles, imposing determinacy, or empowering decision makers. I argue that need must be conceptualized as a composite property composed of at least two factors: health shortfall and capacity to benefit...
February 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709454/death-with-dignity-from-the-confucian-perspective
#13
Yaming Li, Jianhui Li
Death with dignity is a significant issue in modern bioethics. In modern healthcare, the wide use of new technologies at the end of life has caused heated debate on how to protect human dignity. The key point of contention lies in the different understandings of human dignity and the dignity of death. Human dignity has never been a clear concept in Western ethical explorations, and the dignity of death has given rise to more confusions. Although there is no such term as "dignity" in Confucian ethics, there are discussions of a number of ideas related to human dignity and the dignity of death...
February 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638682/the-causal-explanatory-functions-of-medical-diagnoses
#14
Hane Htut Maung
Diagnoses in medicine are often taken to serve as explanations of patients' symptoms and signs. This article examines how they do so. I begin by arguing that although some instances of diagnostic explanation can be formulated as covering law arguments, they are explanatory neither in virtue of their argumentative structures nor in virtue of general regularities between diagnoses and clinical presentations. I then consider the theory that medical diagnoses explain symptoms and signs by identifying their actual causes in particular cases...
February 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105531/-big-eye-surgery-the-ethics-of-medicalizing-asian-features
#15
Yves Saint James Aquino
The popularity of surgical modifications of race-typical features among Asian women has generated debates on the ethical implications of the practice. Focusing on blepharoplasty as a representative racial surgery, this article frames the ethical discussion by viewing Asian cosmetic surgery as an example of medicalization, which can be interpreted in two forms: treatment versus enhancement. In the treatment form, medicalization occurs by considering cosmetic surgery as remedy for pathologized Asian features; the pathologization usually occurs in reference to western features as the norm...
January 19, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933474/thinking-ethical-and-regulatory-frameworks-in-medicine-from-the-perspective-of-solidarity-on-both-sides-of-the-atlantic
#16
Barbara Prainsack, Alena Buyx
This article provides a concise overview of the history of scholarship on solidarity in Europe and North America. While recent decades have seen an increase in conceptual and scholarly interest in solidarity in North America and other parts of the Anglo-Saxon world, the concept is much more strongly anchored in Europe. Continental European politics in particular have given rise to two of the most influential traditions of solidarity, namely, socialism and Christian ethics. Solidarity has also guided important public instruments and institutions in Europe (e...
December 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921208/solidarity-and-autonomy-two-conflicting-values-in-english-and-french-health-care-and-bioethics-debates
#17
EDITORIAL
Marie Gaille, Ruth Horn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915459/the-role-of-accompagnement-in-the-end-of-life-debate-in-france-from-solidarity-to-autonomy
#18
Marie Gaille, Ruth Horn
This article traces the way autonomy has become a recognised value in health care in France. In a country that based its social fundamentals on the very idea of solidarity for many years, autonomy has long been considered a foreign 'Anglo-American principle'. Taking the example of the end-of-life debate, the article shows, however, how the use of the French term 'accompagnement' allowed autonomy to be redefined and to be associated with the concept of solidarity. Exploring the arguments used over the past 25 years in professional guidelines, parliamentary reports, ethics committee reports, and legal texts, the authors describe the shift that took place in public and legal discourses on end-of-life care...
December 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909857/privacy-autonomy-and-public-policy-french-and-north-american-perspectives
#19
Jennifer Merchant
This article raises the question of whether in both the United States and in France, an individual's autonomy and private decision-making right(s) in matters of health care and access to reproductive technologies can be conciliated with the general interest, and more specifically, the role of the State. Can a full-fledged right to privacy, the ability to exercise one's autonomy, exist alongside the general interest, and depend neither on financial resources like in the United States nor on centralised government decisions or the medical hierarchy like in France? The contrast between these two modern democracies justify the importance of comparing them...
December 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896526/solidarity-justice-and-recognition-of-the-other
#20
Ruud Ter Meulen
Solidarity has for a long time been referred to as the core value underpinning European health and welfare systems. But there has been debate in recent years about whether solidarity, with its alleged communitarian content, can be reconciled with the emphasis on individual freedom and personal autonomy. One may wonder whether there is still a place for solidarity, and whether the concept of justice should be embraced to analyse the moral issues regarding access to health care. In this article, I will answer this question by analysing the normative foundations of the concept of justice, followed by a deeper examination of the concept of solidarity in continental philosophy...
December 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
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