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Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707118/exemplars-ethics-and-illness-narratives
#1
Ian James Kidd
Many people report that reading first-person narratives of the experience of illness can be morally instructive or educative. But although they are ubiquitous and typically sincere, the precise nature of such educative experiences is puzzling, for those narratives typically lack the features that modern philosophers regard as constitutive of moral reason. I argue that such puzzlement should disappear, and the morally educative power of illness narratives explained, if one distinguishes two different styles of moral reasoning: an inferentialist style that generates the puzzlement and an alternative exemplarist style that offers a compelling explanation of the morally educative power of pathographic literature...
July 13, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702734/understanding-disease-and-illness
#2
EDITORIAL
Jeremy R Simon, Havi Carel, Alexander Bird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695476/harm-and-the-concept-of-medical-disorder
#3
Neil Feit
According to Jerome Wakefield's harmful dysfunction analysis (HDA) of medical disorder, the inability of some internal part or mechanism to perform its natural function is necessary, but not sufficient, for disorder. HDA also requires that the part dysfunction be harmful to the individual. I consider several problems for HDA's harm criterion in this article. Other accounts on which harm is necessary for disorder will suffer from all or almost all of these problems. Comparative accounts of harm imply that one is harmed when one is made worse off, that is, worse off than one otherwise would have been...
July 11, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695475/symptom-modelling-can-be-influenced-by-psychiatric-categories-choices-for-research-domain-criteria-rdoc
#4
Sam Fellowes
Psychiatric researchers typically assume that the modelling of psychiatric symptoms is not influenced by psychiatric categories; symptoms are modelled and then grouped into a psychiatric category. I highlight this primarily through analysing research domain criteria (RDoC). RDoC's importance makes it worth scrutinizing, and this assessment also serves as a case study with relevance for other areas of psychiatry. RDoC takes inadequacies of existing psychiatric categories as holding back causal investigation...
July 10, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681329/where-s-the-problem-considering-laing-and-esterson-s-account-of-schizophrenia-social-models-of-disability-and-extended-mental-disorder
#5
Rachel Cooper
In this article, I compare and evaluate R. D. Laing and A. Esterson's account of schizophrenia as developed in Sanity, Madness and the Family (1964), social models of disability, and accounts of extended mental disorder. These accounts claim that some putative disorders (schizophrenia, disability, certain mental disorders) should not be thought of as reflecting biological or psychological dysfunction within the afflicted individual, but instead as external problems (to be located in the family, or in the material and social environment)...
July 5, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681328/diagnosis-narrative-identity-and-asymptomatic-disease
#6
Mary Jean Walker, Wendy A Rogers
An increasing number of patients receive diagnoses of disease without having any symptoms. These include diseases detected through screening programs, as incidental findings from unrelated investigations, or via routine checks of various biological variables like blood pressure or cholesterol. In this article, we draw on narrative identity theory to examine how the process of making sense of being diagnosed with asymptomatic disease can trigger certain overlooked forms of harm for patients. We show that the experience of asymptomatic disease can involve 'mismatches' between one's beliefs about one's health status on the one hand, and bodily sensations or past experience on the other...
July 5, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676937/multiple-studies-and-weak-evidential-defeat
#7
Nikk Effingham, Malcolm J Price
When a study shows statistically significant correlation between an exposure and an outcome, the credence of a real connection between the two increases. Should that credence remain the same when it is discovered that further independent studies between the exposure and other independent outcomes were conducted? Matthew Kotzen argues that it should remain the same, even if the results of those further studies are discovered. However, we argue that it can differ dependent upon the results of the studies.
July 4, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676936/evaluating-the-uk-house-of-commons-science-and-technology-committee-s-position-on-the-implausible-effectiveness-of-homeopathic-treatments
#8
Andrew Turner
In 2009, the UK House of Commons Science and Technology Committee (STC) conducted an 'evidence check' on homeopathy to evaluate evidence for its effectiveness. In common with the wider literature critical of homeopathy, the STC report seems to endorse many of the strong claims that are made about its implausibility. In contrast with the critical literature, however, the STC report explicitly does not place any weight on implausibility in its evaluation. I use the contrasting positions of the STC and the wider critical literature to examine the 'implausibility arguments' against homeopathy and the place of such arguments within evidence-based medicine (EBM)...
July 4, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674861/the-muddle-of-medicalization-pathologizing-or-medicalizing
#9
Jonathan Sholl
Medicalization appears to be an issue that is both ubiquitous and unquestionably problematic as it seems to signal at once a social and existential threat. This perception of medicalization, however, is nothing new. Since the first main writings in the 1960s and 1970s, it has consistently been used to describe inappropriate or abusive instances of medical authority. Yet, while this standard approach claims that medicalization is a growing problem, it assumes that there is simply one "medical model" and that the expanding realm of "the medical" can be more or less clearly delineated...
July 4, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660393/re-evaluating-concepts-of-biological-function-in-clinical-medicine-towards-a-new-naturalistic-theory-of-disease
#10
Benjamin Chin-Yee, Ross E G Upshur
Naturalistic theories of disease appeal to concepts of biological function, and use the notion of dysfunction as the basis of their definitions. Debates in the philosophy of biology demonstrate how attributing functions in organisms and establishing the function-dysfunction distinction is by no means straightforward. This problematization of functional ascription has undermined naturalistic theories and led some authors to abandon the concept of dysfunction, favoring instead definitions based in normative criteria or phenomenological approaches...
June 28, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501966/from-method-to-hermeneutics-which-epistemological-framework-for-narrative-medicine
#11
Camille Abettan
The past 10 years have seen considerable developments in the use of narrative in medicine, primarily through the emergence of the so-called narrative medicine. In this article, I question narrative medicine's self-understanding and contend that one of the most prominent issues is its lack of a clear epistemological framework. Drawing from Gadamer's work on hermeneutics, I first show that narrative medicine is deeply linked with the hermeneutical field of knowledge. Then I try to identify which claims can be legitimately expected from narrative medicine, and which ones cannot be...
May 13, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188420/clashes-of-consensus-on-the-problem-of-both-justifying-abortion-of-fetuses-with-down-syndrome-and-rejecting-infanticide
#12
Henrik Friberg-Fernros
Although the abortion of fetuses with Down syndrome has become commonplace, infanticide is still widely rejected. Generally, there are three ways of justifying the differentiation between abortion and infanticide: by referring to the differences between the moral status of the fetus versus the infant, by referring to the differences of the moral status of the act of abortion versus the act of infanticide, or by separating the way the permissibility of abortion is justified from the way the impermissibility of infanticide is justified...
June 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365840/chronicles-of-communication-and-power-informed-consent-to-sterilisation-in-the-namibian-supreme-court-s-lm-judgment-of-2015
#13
Nyasha Chingore-Munazvo, Katherine Furman, Annabel Raw, Mariette Slabbert
The 2015 judgment of the Namibia Supreme Court in Government of the Republic of Namibia v LM and Others set an important precedent on informed consent in a case involving the coercive sterilisation of HIV-positive women. This article analyses the reasoning and factual narratives of the judgment by applying Neil Manson and Onora O'Neill's approach to informed consent as a communicative process. This is done in an effort to understand the practical import of the judgment in the particular context of resource constrained public healthcare facilities through which many women in southern Africa access reproductive healthcare...
April 1, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361295/hearing-sub-saharan-african-voices-in-bioethics
#14
EDITORIAL
Kevin Gary Behrens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349324/partiality-and-distributive-justice-in-african-bioethics
#15
Christopher Simon Wareham
African ethical theories tend to hold that moral agents ought to be partial, in the sense that they should favour members of their family or close community. This is considered an advantage over the impartiality of many Western moral theories, which are regarded as having counterintuitive implications, such as the idea that it is unethical to save a family member before a stranger. The partiality of African ethics is thought to be particularly valuable in the context of bioethics. Thaddeus Metz, in particular, argues that his African-derived theory best accounts for a number of plausible intuitions, such as the intuition that health care practitioners ought to be biased towards the patients for whom they are directly responsible...
April 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299591/dealing-with-the-other-between-the-ethical-and-the-moral-albinism-on-the-african-continent
#16
Elvis Imafidon
Albinism is a global public health issue but it assumes a peculiar nature in the African continent due, in part, to the social stigma faced by persons with albinism (PWAs) in Africa. I argue that there are two essential reasons for this precarious situation. First, in the African consciousness, albinism is an alterity or otherness. The PWA in Africa is not merely a physical other but also an ontological other in the African community of beings, which provides a hermeneutic for the stigmatising separateness or difference of the PWA...
April 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343255/giving-voice-to-african-thought-in-medical-research-ethics
#17
Godfrey B Tangwa
In this article, I consider the virtual absence of an African voice and perspective in global discourses of medical research ethics against the backdrop of the high burden of diseases and epidemics on the continent and the fact that the continent is actually the scene of numerous and sundry medical research studies. I consider some reasons for this state of affairs as well as how the situation might be redressed. Using examples from the HIV/AIDS and Ebola epidemics, I attempt to show that the marginalization of Africa in medical research and medical research ethics is deliberate rather than accidental...
March 25, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303366/ancillary-care-obligations-in-light-of-an-african-bioethic-from-entrustment-to-communion
#18
Thaddeus Metz
Henry Richardson recently published the first book ever devoted to ancillary care obligations, which roughly concern what medical researchers are morally required to provide to participants beyond what safety requires. In it, Richardson notes that he is presenting the 'only fully elaborated view out there' on this topic, which he calls the 'partial-entrustment model'. In this article, I provide a new theory of ancillary care obligations, one that is grounded on ideals of communion salient in the African philosophical tradition and that is intended to rival and surpass Richardson's model, which is a function of Western considerations of autonomy...
March 16, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229266/erratum-to-solidarity-justice-and-recognition-of-the-other
#19
Ruud Ter Meulen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188421/erratum-to-the-causal-explanatory-functions-of-medical-diagnoses
#20
Hane Htut Maung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
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