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Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933474/thinking-ethical-and-regulatory-frameworks-in-medicine-from-the-perspective-of-solidarity-on-both-sides-of-the-atlantic
#1
Barbara Prainsack, Alena Buyx
This article provides a concise overview of the history of scholarship on solidarity in Europe and North America. While recent decades have seen an increase in conceptual and scholarly interest in solidarity in North America and other parts of the Anglo-Saxon world, the concept is much more strongly anchored in Europe. Continental European politics in particular have given rise to two of the most influential traditions of solidarity, namely, socialism and Christian ethics. Solidarity has also guided important public instruments and institutions in Europe (e...
December 8, 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921208/solidarity-and-autonomy-two-conflicting-values-in-english-and-french-health-care-and-bioethics-debates
#2
EDITORIAL
Marie Gaille, Ruth Horn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915459/the-role-of-accompagnement-in-the-end-of-life-debate-in-france-from-solidarity-to-autonomy
#3
Marie Gaille, Ruth Horn
This article traces the way autonomy has become a recognised value in health care in France. In a country that based its social fundamentals on the very idea of solidarity for many years, autonomy has long been considered a foreign 'Anglo-American principle'. Taking the example of the end-of-life debate, the article shows, however, how the use of the French term 'accompagnement' allowed autonomy to be redefined and to be associated with the concept of solidarity. Exploring the arguments used over the past 25 years in professional guidelines, parliamentary reports, ethics committee reports, and legal texts, the authors describe the shift that took place in public and legal discourses on end-of-life care...
December 3, 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909857/privacy-autonomy-and-public-policy-french-and-north-american-perspectives
#4
Jennifer Merchant
This article raises the question of whether in both the United States and in France, an individual's autonomy and private decision-making right(s) in matters of health care and access to reproductive technologies can be conciliated with the general interest, and more specifically, the role of the State. Can a full-fledged right to privacy, the ability to exercise one's autonomy, exist alongside the general interest, and depend neither on financial resources like in the United States nor on centralised government decisions or the medical hierarchy like in France? The contrast between these two modern democracies justify the importance of comparing them...
December 2, 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896526/solidarity-justice-and-recognition-of-the-other
#5
Ruud Ter Meulen
Solidarity has for a long time been referred to as the core value underpinning European health and welfare systems. But there has been debate in recent years about whether solidarity, with its alleged communitarian content, can be reconciled with the emphasis on individual freedom and personal autonomy. One may wonder whether there is still a place for solidarity, and whether the concept of justice should be embraced to analyse the moral issues regarding access to health care. In this article, I will answer this question by analysing the normative foundations of the concept of justice, followed by a deeper examination of the concept of solidarity in continental philosophy...
November 28, 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896525/from-solidarity-to-autonomy-towards-a-redefinition-of-the-parameters-of-the-notion-of-autonomy
#6
Sylvie Fainzang
Starting from examples of concrete situations in France, I show that autonomy and solidarity can coexist only if the parameters of autonomy are redefined. I show on the one hand that in situations where autonomy is encouraged, solidarity nevertheless remains at the foundation of their practices. On the other hand, in situations largely infused with family solidarity, the individual autonomy may be put in danger. Yet, based on my ethnographic observations regarding clinical encounters and medical secrecy, I show that while solidarity may endanger individual autonomy, it does not necessarily endanger autonomy itself...
November 28, 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873139/when-marcel-mauss-s-essai-sur-le-don-becomes-the-gift-variations-on-the-theme-of-solidarity
#7
Simone Bateman
Since the early 1970s, Marcel Mauss's Essai sur le Don (1923), translated into English as The Gift in 1954, has been a standard reference in the social science and bioethical literature on the use of human body parts and substances for medical and research purposes. At that time, three social scientists-political scientist Richard Titmuss in the United Kingdom and sociologist Renée C. Fox working with historian Judith Swazey in the United States-had the idea of using this concept to highlight the fundamental structure of the biomedical practices they were studying, respectively, blood donation, and hemodialysis and organ transplantation...
November 21, 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709454/death-with-dignity-from-the-confucian-perspective
#8
Yaming Li, Jianhui Li
Death with dignity is a significant issue in modern bioethics. In modern healthcare, the wide use of new technologies at the end of life has caused heated debate on how to protect human dignity. The key point of contention lies in the different understandings of human dignity and the dignity of death. Human dignity has never been a clear concept in Western ethical explorations, and the dignity of death has given rise to more confusions. Although there is no such term as "dignity" in Confucian ethics, there are discussions of a number of ideas related to human dignity and the dignity of death...
October 5, 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638682/the-causal-explanatory-functions-of-medical-diagnoses
#9
Hane Htut Maung
Diagnoses in medicine are often taken to serve as explanations of patients' symptoms and signs. This article examines how they do so. I begin by arguing that although some instances of diagnostic explanation can be formulated as covering law arguments, they are explanatory neither in virtue of their argumentative structures nor in virtue of general regularities between diagnoses and clinical presentations. I then consider the theory that medical diagnoses explain symptoms and signs by identifying their actual causes in particular cases...
September 16, 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639870/the-casuistic-method-of-practical-ethics
#10
Georg Spielthenner
This essay concerns itself with the methodology of practical ethics. There are a variety of methods employed in ethics. Although none have been firmly established as dominant, it is generally agreed that casuistry, or the case-based method, is one important strategy commonly used for resolving ethical issues. Casuists compare the case under consideration to a relevantly similar (analogous) precedent case in which judgements have already been made, and they use these earlier judgements to determine the proper resolution of the present case...
October 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638683/personalized-medicine-evidence-of-normativity-in-its-quantitative-definition-of-health
#11
Henrik Vogt, Bjørn Hofmann, Linn Getz
Systems medicine, which is based on computational modelling of biological systems, is emerging as an increasingly prominent part of the personalized medicine movement. It is often promoted as 'P4 medicine' (predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory). In this article, we test promises made by some of its proponents that systems medicine will be able to develop a scientific, quantitative metric for wellness that will eliminate the purported vagueness, ambiguity, and incompleteness-that is, normativity-of previous health definitions...
October 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613280/lydia-dugdale-ed-dying-in-the-twenty-first-century-toward-a-new-ethical-framework-for-the-art-of-dying-well-mit-press-2015-xii-%C3%A2-224-pp-35-00-hardcover-isbn-9780262029124
#12
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613279/making-good-choices-toward-a-theory-of-well-being-in-medicine
#13
Alicia Hall
The principle of beneficence directs healthcare practitioners to promote patients' well-being, ensuring that the patients' best interests guide treatment decisions. Because there are a number of distinct theories of well-being that could lead to different conclusions about the patient's good, a careful consideration of which account is best suited for use in the medical context is needed. While there has been some discussion of the differences between subjective and objective theories of well-being within the bioethics literature, less attention has been given to the questions of what work a theory of well-being needs to do in bioethics and which standards of success ought to be used in selecting a theory of well-being for use in medicine...
October 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613278/miriam-solomon-making-medical-knowledge-oxford-university-press-2015-261-pp-60-00-isbn-978-0-19-873261-7
#14
Hillel D Braude
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543139/the-health-capability-paradigm-and-the-right-to-health-care-in-the-united-states
#15
Jennifer Prah Ruger
Against a backdrop of non-ideal political and legal conditions, this article examines the health capability paradigm and how its principles can help determine what aspects of health care might legitimately constitute positive health care rights-and if indeed human rights are even the best approach to equitable health care provision. This article addresses the long American preoccupation with negative rights rather than positive rights in health care. Positive health care rights are an exception to the overall moral range and general thrust of U...
August 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522224/is-health-care-a-human-right
#16
EDITORIAL
Daniel Brudney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491748/the-right-to-preventive-health-care
#17
Sarah Conly
The right to health care is a right to care that (a) is not too costly to the provider, considering the benefits it conveys, and (b) is effective in bringing about the level of health needed for a good human life, not necessarily the best health possible. These considerations suggest that, where possible, society has an obligation to provide preventive health care, which is both low cost and effective, and that health care regulations should promote citizens' engagement in reasonable preventive health care practices...
August 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491747/health-care-and-human-rights-against-the-split-duty-gambit
#18
Gopal Sreenivasan
There are various grounds on which one may wish to distinguish a right to health care from a right to health. In this article, I review some old grounds before introducing some new grounds. But my central task is to argue that separating a right to health care from a right to health has objectionable consequences. I offer two main objections. The domestic objection is that separating the two rights prevents the state from fulfilling its duty to maximise the health it provides each citizen from its fixed health budget...
August 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27480542/the-place-of-human-rights-and-the-common-good-in-global-health-policy
#19
John Tasioulas, Effy Vayena
This article offers an integrated account of two strands of global health justice: health-related human rights and health-related common goods. After sketching a general understanding of the nature of human rights, it proceeds to explain both how individual human rights are to be individuated and the content of their associated obligations specified. With respect to both issues, the human right to health is taken as the primary illustration. It is argued that (1) the individuation of the right to health is fixed by reference to the subject matter of its corresponding obligations, and not by the interests it serves, and (2) the specification of the content of that right must be properly responsive to thresholds of possibility and burden...
August 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476575/health-care-and-human-rights-a-fundamental-conditions-approach
#20
S Matthew Liao
Many international declarations state that human beings have a human right to health care. However, is there a human right to health care? What grounds this right, and who has the corresponding duties to promote this right? Elsewhere, I have argued that human beings have human rights to the fundamental conditions for pursuing a good life. Drawing on this fundamental conditions approach of human rights, I offer a novel way of grounding a human right to health care.
August 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
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