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Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS

Laura A Reese, Mark Skidmore, William Dyar, Erika Rosebrook
Companion animal overpopulation is a growing problem in the United States. In addition to strays, an average of 324,500 nonhuman animals are relinquished to shelters yearly by their caregivers due to family disruption (divorce, death), foreclosure, economic problems, or minor behavioral issues. As a result, estimates of animals in shelters range from 3 million to 8 million, and due to overcrowding, euthanasia is common. This analysis seeks to determine the appropriate pricing mechanisms to clear animal shelters of dogs in the manner most desirable-that is, through adoption...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Chloe Pyzer, Lucy Clarke, V Tamara Montrose
Photographs are frequently used to promote adoption of dogs on rescue shelter websites. While physical traits are well illustrated via photographs, conveying a dog's behavioral traits is more problematic. Traits such as sociability, obedience, and friendliness are likely to be better displayed via video footage. This study explored the effects of video versus photographs on the perception of dog behavioral traits. Four dogs from a Gloucestershire Rescue Shelter (2 desirable breeds, 2 from a stigmatized breed) were individually photographed, and a 30-s video of each was recorded...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Chiara Mariti, Ludovica Pierantoni, Claudio Sighieri, Angelo Gazzano
A large survey of Italian dog guardians (n = 906) was conducted to assess dog behavior and welfare at the veterinary clinic and to investigate how guardians and veterinarians affect them. This study confirmed that the veterinary clinic is a source of stress for most dogs, who showed impaired welfare in all phases: in the waiting room, entering the examination room, on the examination table, and when approached by the vet. This study also characterizes some factors related to the guardians' and veterinarians' behavior that affect the dogs' behavior and welfare during the veterinary examination...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Daniel N Qekwana, Cheryl M E McCrindle, James W Oguttu, Delia Grace, Beniamino T Cenci-Goga
Goats are traditionally slaughtered to celebrate marriages and births, venerate ancestors, address personal problems, or perform a ritual during funerals. The objective of this study was to assess nonhuman animal welfare issues associated with the traditional slaughter of goats in and around Pretoria, South Africa. Participatory research methods were used to interview 105 respondents. Four of those interviewed were visited to observe the slaughter process. The most common method of transport was a vehicle (47%), followed by transport on foot (30%)...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Aysha Akhtar
In December 2015, the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health held the first-ever summit on the intersection between nonhuman animal ethics and human health. The conference covered a variety of issues where animal health intersects with human health, including the wildlife trade, animal agriculture, and animal experimentation. This article provides a brief overview and critique of the summit.
August 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Charles P Byrd, Christina Winnicker, Brianna N Gaskill
Domestic guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) in laboratories have been shown to actively avoid the centers of their cages. This experiment tested a novel, dark-colored "shader" placed over the central portion of a cage. Based on the observed behavior of wild guinea pig species, it was hypothesized that utilization of the central portion of the cage would increase when the shader was present. Eleven male and 11 female albino, 3-week-old Hartley guinea pigs (Crl:HA) experienced the control and treatment conditions in a crossover study design...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Evan P Lancaster, Suzanne Lenhart, Ejebagom J Ojogbo, Steven I Rekant, Janelle R Scott, Heidi Weimer, John C New
To find management strategies for controlling the owned cat population in Knox County, TN, the authors formulated a mathematical model using biological properties of such nonhuman animals and spay actions on certain age classes. They constructed this discrete-time model to predict the future owned cat population in this county and to evaluate intervention strategies to surgically sterilize some proportion of the population. Using the predicted population size and the number of surgeries for specific scenarios, they showed that focusing on specific age classes can be an effective feature in spay programs...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Jéssica Reimer, Caroline Marques Maia, Eliana Ferraz Santos
Environmental enrichment has been widely used to improve conditions for nonhuman animals in captivity. However, there is no consensus about the best way to evaluate the success of enrichments. This study evaluated whether the proportion of time spent interacting with enrichments indicated the proportion of overall behavioral changes. Six environmental enrichments were introduced in succession to 16 captive macaws, and interaction of the animals with them as well as the behaviors of the group were recorded before and during the enrichments...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Chiara Mariti, Jonathan E Bowen, Sonia Campa, Gabriele Grebe, Claudio Sighieri, Angelo Gazzano
To assess the welfare of cats at the veterinary clinic and how caregivers and veterinarians affect it, a survey of Italian cat guardians (n = 1,111) was conducted using a 28-item multichoice questionnaire. Most cats showed impaired welfare during all stages of a clinic visit: before entering, in the waiting room, moving to the examination room, on the examination table, and after returning home. A relationship was found between welfare states in each stage. Stress worsened with further experience and had negative effects on traveling and handling in other situations...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Alexandra L Whittaker, Kerry A Lymn, Gordon S Howarth
Although the metabolic cage is commonly used for housing nonhuman animals in the laboratory, it has been recognized as constituting a unique stressor. Such an environment would be expected to affect behavioral change in animals housed therein. However, few studies have specifically addressed the nature or magnitude of this change. The current study sought to characterize the behavioral time budget of rats in metabolic cage housing in comparison to that of individually housed animals in standard open-top cages...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Carlyle Mendes Coelho, Cristiano Schetini de Azevedo, Marcelo Alcino de Barros Vaz Guimarães, Robert John Young
Environmental enrichment is a technique that may reduce the stress of nonhuman animals in captivity. Stress may interfere with normal behavioral expression and affect cognitive decision making. Noninvasive hormonal studies can provide important information about the stress statuses of animals. This study evaluated the effectiveness of different environmental enrichment treatments in the diminution of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (stress indicators) of three captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Correlations of the fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels with expressed behaviors were also determined...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Melissa A Voigt, Kristina Hiney, Jennifer C Richardson, Karen Waite, Abigail Borron, Colleen M Brady
The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Olga Martín, Dolors Vinyoles, Eduardo García-Galea, Carmen Maté
Improving the welfare of nonhuman animals in captivity and maintaining behavioral competence for future conservation purposes is of the highest priority for zoos. The behavior of an aggressive male drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus poensis) was assessed in Barcelona Zoo. The 2-year study presented in this article examined the effects of introducing changes in the exhibit of the drill to improve his welfare by analyzing scan behaviors. First, a partial visual barrier was applied and proved to be insufficient to decrease the long-term stress indicators assessed...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Susan V Horseman, Henry Buller, Siobhan Mullan, Toby G Knowles, Alistair R S Barr, Helen R Whay
Investigating how those responsible for the care of nonhuman animals understand the concept of animal welfare is important for animal welfare improvement. In-depth interviews with 31 equine stakeholders were used to explore their perceptions and understanding of welfare. The results showed the stakeholders understood the concept of welfare in 4 ways. Firstly, welfare was understood in terms of the provision of resources-for example, food. Secondly, a "horse-centered" understanding of welfare was articulated; this understanding included the horses' mental state and was linked to natural behavior...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Kelly Arthur
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Sarah Zito, John Morton, Dianne Vankan, Mandy Paterson, Pauleen C Bennett, Jacquie Rand, Clive J C Phillips
Most cats surrendered to nonhuman animal shelters are identified as unowned, and the surrender reason for these cats is usually simply recorded as "stray." A cross-sectional study was conducted with people surrendering cats to 4 Australian animal shelters. Surrenderers of unowned cats commonly gave surrender reasons relating to concern for the cat and his/her welfare. Seventeen percent of noncaregivers had considered adopting the cat. Barriers to assuming ownership most commonly related to responsible ownership concerns...
July 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Marieke Cassia Gartner, David M Powell, Alexander Weiss
The study of subjective well-being in nonhuman animals is growing in the field of psychology, but there are still only a few published studies and the focus is on primates. To consider whether the construct of subjective well-being could be found in another mammal, this study aimed to assess subjective well-being in felids and to examine its association with personality. Personality is one of the strongest and most consistent predictors of well-being in humans. This relationship could have important implications for other species, because personality has also been shown to affect health outcomes including stress, morbidity, and mortality...
July 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Lance J Miller, Michael J Chase, Charlotte E Hacker
With increased scrutiny surrounding the welfare of elephants in zoological institutions, it is important to have empirical evidence on their current welfare status. If elephants are not receiving adequate exercise, it could lead to obesity, which can lead to many issues including acyclicity and potentially heart disease. The goal of the current study was to compare the walking rates of elephants in the wild versus elephants in zoos to determine if elephants are walking similar distances relative to their wild counterparts...
July 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Georgina Limon, Eloy A Gonzales-Gustavson, Troy J Gibson
Guinea pigs (Cavia porcelus) are an important source of nonhuman animal protein in the Andean region of South America. Specific guidelines regarding the welfare of guinea pigs before and during slaughter have yet to be developed. This study critically assessed the humaneness of 4 different stunning/slaughter methods for guinea pigs: cervical neck dislocation (n = 60), electrical head-only stunning (n = 83), carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning (n = 21), and penetrating captive bolt (n = 10). Following cervical neck dislocation, 97% of guinea pigs had at least 1 behavioral or cranial/spinal response...
July 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
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