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Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS

Machiel Mulder, Sigourney Zomer
This article analyzes Dutch consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for the welfare of broiler chickens and the consequences for nonhuman animal welfare policies. Using data from a discrete-choice experiment and a random parameter logit model, this study showed that consumers particularly value opportunities for outdoor access and the method used for anesthesia before slaughter. The WTP was also positively related to the number of consumers buying the same product, indicating that they experience the public-good dilemma...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Sara Hintze, Emma Roth, Iris Bachmann, Hanno Würbel
Judgment bias tasks for nonhuman animals are promising tools to assess emotional valence as a measure of animal welfare. In view of establishing a valid judgment bias task for horses, the present study aimed to evaluate 2 versions (go/no-go and active choice) of an auditory judgment bias task for horses in terms of acquisition learning and discrimination of ambiguous cues. Five mares and 5 stallions were randomly assigned to the 2 designs and trained for 10 trials per day to acquire different operant responses to a low-frequency tone and a high-frequency tone, respectively...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Mystera M Samuelson, Lisa K Lauderdale, Kelly Pulis, Moby Solangi, Tim Hoffland, Heidi Lyn
In the wild, California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are exposed to a wide variety of sensory information, which cannot be replicated in captive environments. Therefore, unique procedures are necessary for maintaining physiological and psychological health in nonhuman animals in captivity. The effects of introducing natural scents to captive enclosures have been investigated in a variety of species, yet they have not been examined in marine mammals. This project explored the behavioral effect of scent added to the environment, with the goal of improving the welfare of sea lions in captivity...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Louis DiVincenti, Angelika Rehrig
Rabbits are usually singly housed in laboratories, but a new emphasis on providing social housing for social species has prompted exploration of alternative housing for this species. However, a paucity of literature on the social behavior of rabbits in captivity has prevented scientific-based recommendations for appropriate housing. This study involved a descriptive analysis of the social behavior of rabbit bucks in the laboratory in 3 different housing situations: in groups in pens, in pairs in cages, and singly in cages...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Terri M Bright, Louise Hadden
Shelter dogs are typically cared for by staff and volunteers. At the Boston location of the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, prior to 2009, any member of the public who was older than 16 years of age and attended 1 orientation could walk dogs available for adoption. There was no systematic method of training volunteers or staff to walk unruly, strong, or fearful dogs, nor was there any organized system of enrichment in the form of in-kennel or out-of-kennel training for the population of 20 to 40 dogs in the shelter...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
William J Fielding
This article compares results from a study in 2014 with a similar study from 1998 (Fielding, 1999 ) to examine changes in the care of dogs in New Providence, The Bahamas. The results from a survey of 379 residents indicated a general lack of improvement in matters associated with the care of dogs during the past 16 years. For example, in 1998, it was estimated that 35% of caregivers had at least 1 dog sterilized, and in 2014, the corresponding figure was 37%. In 1998, 14% of households with dogs allowed their dogs to roam compared with 41...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Laura A Reese, Mark Skidmore, William Dyar, Erika Rosebrook
Companion animal overpopulation is a growing problem in the United States. In addition to strays, an average of 324,500 nonhuman animals are relinquished to shelters yearly by their caregivers due to family disruption (divorce, death), foreclosure, economic problems, or minor behavioral issues. As a result, estimates of animals in shelters range from 3 million to 8 million, and due to overcrowding, euthanasia is common. This analysis seeks to determine the appropriate pricing mechanisms to clear animal shelters of dogs in the manner most desirable-that is, through adoption...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Daniel N Qekwana, Cheryl M E McCrindle, James W Oguttu, Delia Grace, Beniamino T Cenci-Goga
Goats are traditionally slaughtered to celebrate marriages and births, venerate ancestors, address personal problems, or perform a ritual during funerals. The objective of this study was to assess nonhuman animal welfare issues associated with the traditional slaughter of goats in and around Pretoria, South Africa. Participatory research methods were used to interview 105 respondents. Four of those interviewed were visited to observe the slaughter process. The most common method of transport was a vehicle (47%), followed by transport on foot (30%)...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Chiara Mariti, Ludovica Pierantoni, Claudio Sighieri, Angelo Gazzano
A large survey of Italian dog guardians (n = 906) was conducted to assess dog behavior and welfare at the veterinary clinic and to investigate how guardians and veterinarians affect them. This study confirmed that the veterinary clinic is a source of stress for most dogs, who showed impaired welfare in all phases: in the waiting room, entering the examination room, on the examination table, and when approached by the vet. This study also characterizes some factors related to the guardians' and veterinarians' behavior that affect the dogs' behavior and welfare during the veterinary examination...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Chloe Pyzer, Lucy Clarke, V Tamara Montrose
Photographs are frequently used to promote adoption of dogs on rescue shelter websites. While physical traits are well illustrated via photographs, conveying a dog's behavioral traits is more problematic. Traits such as sociability, obedience, and friendliness are likely to be better displayed via video footage. This study explored the effects of video versus photographs on the perception of dog behavioral traits. Four dogs from a Gloucestershire Rescue Shelter (2 desirable breeds, 2 from a stigmatized breed) were individually photographed, and a 30-s video of each was recorded...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Aysha Akhtar
In December 2015, the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health held the first-ever summit on the intersection between nonhuman animal ethics and human health. The conference covered a variety of issues where animal health intersects with human health, including the wildlife trade, animal agriculture, and animal experimentation. This article provides a brief overview and critique of the summit.
January 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Susan V Horseman, Henry Buller, Siobhan Mullan, Toby G Knowles, Alistair R S Barr, Helen R Whay
Investigating how those responsible for the care of nonhuman animals understand the concept of animal welfare is important for animal welfare improvement. In-depth interviews with 31 equine stakeholders were used to explore their perceptions and understanding of welfare. The results showed the stakeholders understood the concept of welfare in 4 ways. Firstly, welfare was understood in terms of the provision of resources-for example, food. Secondly, a "horse-centered" understanding of welfare was articulated; this understanding included the horses' mental state and was linked to natural behavior...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Tanja Peric, Antonella Comin, Mirco Corazzin, Marta Montillo, Federico Canavese, Marco Stebel, Alberto Prandi
To investigate how long relocation modified hair cortisol concentrations in New Zealand white rabbits, 19 rabbits were subjected to a change in their breeding facility at the beginning of the trial and then were kept under stable environmental conditions. Hair samples were collected at the time of arrival to the nonhuman animal facility and at 40-day intervals from the same skin area for up to 440 days after the animals' arrival to the facility. A period effect on the hair cortisol concentration was found (p < ...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Gloria Fernández Lázaro, Sarah Zehr, Enrique Alonso García
The increasing debate and restrictions on primate research have prompted many surveys about their status. However, there is a lack of information regarding strepsirrhine primates in the literature. This study provides an overview of research on strepsirrhines in captivity by analyzing scientific articles published from 2010 to 2013 and assessing publicly available government reports in Europe and the United States. Data on taxonomy, country, research area, research class, and type of institution were extracted...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Charles P Byrd, Christina Winnicker, Brianna N Gaskill
Domestic guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) in laboratories have been shown to actively avoid the centers of their cages. This experiment tested a novel, dark-colored "shader" placed over the central portion of a cage. Based on the observed behavior of wild guinea pig species, it was hypothesized that utilization of the central portion of the cage would increase when the shader was present. Eleven male and 11 female albino, 3-week-old Hartley guinea pigs (Crl:HA) experienced the control and treatment conditions in a crossover study design...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Evan P Lancaster, Suzanne Lenhart, Ejebagom J Ojogbo, Steven I Rekant, Janelle R Scott, Heidi Weimer, John C New
To find management strategies for controlling the owned cat population in Knox County, TN, the authors formulated a mathematical model using biological properties of such nonhuman animals and spay actions on certain age classes. They constructed this discrete-time model to predict the future owned cat population in this county and to evaluate intervention strategies to surgically sterilize some proportion of the population. Using the predicted population size and the number of surgeries for specific scenarios, they showed that focusing on specific age classes can be an effective feature in spay programs...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Jéssica Reimer, Caroline Marques Maia, Eliana Ferraz Santos
Environmental enrichment has been widely used to improve conditions for nonhuman animals in captivity. However, there is no consensus about the best way to evaluate the success of enrichments. This study evaluated whether the proportion of time spent interacting with enrichments indicated the proportion of overall behavioral changes. Six environmental enrichments were introduced in succession to 16 captive macaws, and interaction of the animals with them as well as the behaviors of the group were recorded before and during the enrichments...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Chiara Mariti, Jonathan E Bowen, Sonia Campa, Gabriele Grebe, Claudio Sighieri, Angelo Gazzano
To assess the welfare of cats at the veterinary clinic and how caregivers and veterinarians affect it, a survey of Italian cat guardians (n = 1,111) was conducted using a 28-item multichoice questionnaire. Most cats showed impaired welfare during all stages of a clinic visit: before entering, in the waiting room, moving to the examination room, on the examination table, and after returning home. A relationship was found between welfare states in each stage. Stress worsened with further experience and had negative effects on traveling and handling in other situations...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Alexandra L Whittaker, Kerry A Lymn, Gordon S Howarth
Although the metabolic cage is commonly used for housing nonhuman animals in the laboratory, it has been recognized as constituting a unique stressor. Such an environment would be expected to affect behavioral change in animals housed therein. However, few studies have specifically addressed the nature or magnitude of this change. The current study sought to characterize the behavioral time budget of rats in metabolic cage housing in comparison to that of individually housed animals in standard open-top cages...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Carlyle Mendes Coelho, Cristiano Schetini de Azevedo, Marcelo Alcino de Barros Vaz Guimarães, Robert John Young
Environmental enrichment is a technique that may reduce the stress of nonhuman animals in captivity. Stress may interfere with normal behavioral expression and affect cognitive decision making. Noninvasive hormonal studies can provide important information about the stress statuses of animals. This study evaluated the effectiveness of different environmental enrichment treatments in the diminution of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (stress indicators) of three captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Correlations of the fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels with expressed behaviors were also determined...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
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