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Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS

Ashley L Melco, Larry Goldman, Aubrey H Fine, Jose M Peralta
This study evaluated the impact that participation in sessions with children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has on therapy dogs. Nine certified therapy dogs were paired for 6 sessions with groups of 3-4 children. Sessions consisted of 5 different activities. Activities 1 and 5 involved interactions solely with each dog and their owner, as a control. Activities 2-4 consisted of interactions with the dogs and the children which included social skills training, dog training, and reading in the company of dogs...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Michelle Sinclair, John Morton, Clive J C Phillips
Intentions form the basis of behavioral action to improve animal welfare; however an intention-behavior gap has been previously identified. Livestock stakeholders in China, Malaysia, Vietnam and Thailand (n = 1041) involved in slaughter and transport completed a survey in which they were asked their level of intention to improve animal welfare, and their level of confidence in their ability to do this. Chinese respondents had the most confidence in their ability to improve animal welfare, and veterinarians showed more confidence than livestock team leaders...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Neely Walker, Melissa Cater, Brittany Bourg, Hannah Devall, Megan Sarver
Due to the increased awareness of animal welfare issues and sensitized attitudes throughout society, youth animal projects provide a unique opportunity to assess and impact youth understanding and attitudes regarding animal welfare. Animal ethics training is not an uncommon requirement for participants in 4-H livestock programs. However, participants in 4-H horse projects are not universally held to the same standard. The purpose of this study was to assess youth knowledge, attitudes, and confidence in understanding of equine welfare at the 4-H state horse show, as well as to determine the beliefs and observations of unethical practices, and if differences exist between those parameters in youth competitors...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Frederic Chatigny
Fish welfare is still a relatively new field. As such, regulations and protocols to ensure fish welfare are currently limited and vary considerably in different jurisdictions. This is in part because of the ongoing controversy as to whether or not fish feel pain. This controversy has persisted for several years, yet veterinarians have been mostly absent from the discussion so far. This essay aims to address this issue. Here, it is argued that while this controversy has its place, it is unlikely to be resolved in the near future...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Kelsey Myers, Fatima Mohammed, Justin W Rickard, Donald E Meyer, Aslihan D Spaulding
This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine perceptions, awareness, and knowledge of the unwanted horse population in Illinois from the viewpoint of horse owners, non-horse owners, and equine industry stakeholders. A questionnaire included items that pertained to knowledge of current legislation, equine background, current methods of controlling the unwanted horse population, and methods that respondents believe would reduce the unwanted horse population in Illinois. Results indicated that 58% of horse owners viewed horses as companion animals...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Zenithson Ng, Laura Morse, Julia Albright, Ann Viera, Marcy Souza
Currently, there has been growing attention to animal welfare in animal-assisted interventions (AAI). However, there is a lack of scrutiny regarding what steps to take to ensure animal wellbeing during AAI research. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) reviews, monitors, and approves all research involving animal subjects in order to ensure an animal's ethical and humane treatment. However, AAI publications rarely report IACUC approval. The purpose of this critical review was to determine the frequency of IACUC approval and to report the descriptions of animal use in AAI research publications...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Matthew R Heintz, Grace A Fuller, Sarah J Woodhouse, Anna Murray, Stephanie M Allard
As nonhuman animals age, geriatric individuals require additional care and veterinary support to ensure their well being. The focus on lifelong care is a relatively newer approach when providing good welfare, and few studies have examined how veterinary care impacts behavior at different ages or how best to accommodate geriatric individuals in zoos. The objectives of this study were to (a) assess both the immediate and long-term (one year later) behavioral impacts of cataract removal for macaroni (Eudyptes chrysolophus) and southern rockhopper (Eudyptes chrysocome) penguins; (b) compare the behavior of penguins following cataract surgery to that of other conspecifics in the same habitat; and (c) monitor the impacts of cataract surgery on swimming behavior using time-depth recorders...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Krishna Prasad Acharya, Narayan Acharya, R Trevor Wilson
The small densely populated country of Nepal rises from just above sea level to more than 8800 m and encompasses many agro-ecological zones. Rich in both nature and culture, livestock are integral to household and national economies. Most Nepalese consider the cow sacred, and slaughter is forbidden. Other nonhuman animals are less esteemed, slaughter is not proscribed, and many are sacrificed during religious festivals. Limited financial and material resources, inadequate feed supplies, poor access to veterinary services, absence of appropriate legislation, and ignoring the needs of livestock as sentient beings can compromise welfare and lead to inhumane treatment...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Krzysztof Patkowski, Michał Pluta, Antoni Lipiec, Monika Greguła-Kania, Tomasz M Gruszecki
The research objective was to assess the behavior patterns of the Polish Konik horse breed and the Uhruska variety of the Polish Lowland Sheep breed under a mixed-grazing system, and their relationship with climatic factors. The observation included 4 adult horses, 27 ewes with lambs and 10 primiparous ewes. The behavior of the animals and the weather conditions were recorded at 60-min intervals. Horses and sheep displayed similarities in both species-specific behavioral patterns and timing of grazing activity, and the duration of foraging sessions was mostly influenced by time of day, lower temperature and relative humidity...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Ran Yi, Chao Wang, Xin Zhang, Peng Zhao, Mingyue Zhang, Xiang Li, Shiquan Cui, Honggui Liu, Jun Bao
This study aimed to evaluate whether adding straw to a loose-farrowing house promotes maternal functions and production. Forty-eight sows (Landrace× Large White) were housed in either a farrowing pen without straw (C, n = 24) or with straw (S, n = 24). Behaviors were observed using video recordings and were statistically analyzed. Lateral recumbency was higher and standing was lower in S compared with C (p = .034 and p = .020, respectively), and lateral recumbency to other postures, ventral to lateral recumbency and standing to lying were markedly lower in S than C (p = ...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Mariana Labão Catapani, José Salatiel Rodrigues Pires, Angélica da Silva Vasconcellos
The captive environment can limit some important behavioral options for nonhuman animals, which often results in decreased welfare. The companion of a conspecific can be a source of complexity in captivity, but this aspect has received little attention for solitary species. This study investigated the effects of two different housing conditions on the behavior of a solitary species, the Southern tamandua (Tamandua tetradactyla). Six individuals housed singly and four housed in pairs in two Brazilian zoological institutions were observed for 10 days from 09:00h to 17:00h during the rainy season...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Miranda E Spindel, Matthew R Krecic, Margaret R Slater, Nicole Vigil
This cross-sectional study aimed to identify where dogs with negative antibody tests to canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) originated when entering a community shelter, using a commercially available ELISA antibody test and Geographic Information Systems mapping. Of 2745 canines entering during a three-month period, 1056 test results were obtained. Dogs or puppies weighing over 2 lb were eligible if they could be humanely, nonchemically restrained for phlebotomy. Age and minor health issues weren't exclusions...
October 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Aileigh Kay, Jason B Coe, Ian Young, David Pearl
Millions of companion animals are relinquished to shelters each year. For each dog entering, their characteristics and the characteristics of the shelter holding him/her influence their time to adoption. Using a Cox proportional hazards frailty model, these issues were explored using data from 31 shelters within the British Columbia Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals shelter system. Results indicated that surrender reason, age, original source, coat color, breed, human population density of the shelter location, and year the nonhuman animal entered the shelter significantly influenced time to adoption...
October 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Yijie He, John Deen, Gerald C Shurson, Yuzhi Z Li
The objective of this study was to determine how feeder-space allowance affects behaviors of slow- and fast-growing pigs during the nursery period. Nursery pigs (n = 192; initial weight = 7.4 ± 1.6 kg) were housed in 24 pens of 8 pigs, with 12 pens provided with either a two-space feeder or a five-space feeder. Pigs were categorized as slow growers (SG) and fast growers (FG) based on adjusted market weight (SG < 105 kg; FG ≥ 105 kg). Behaviors of pigs were video-recorded during the first four days after entering the nursery and on Day 21...
October 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Kirrilly R Thompson, Larissa Clarkson, Christopher B Riley, Mariette van den Berg
Little is known about the horse health management practices of Australian horse caregivers (owners). This article presents findings from a convenience sample of 505 horse owners who participated in an online survey. No large-scale welfare issues were identified, but there were some areas of potential concern, including owners who did not regularly deworm their horses (4%), a lack of strategic parasite control (3.1%), and a lack of regular dental care (11%). Several participants did not have their horse's hooves regularly shod or trimmed (2%), and 14% had an unqualified person maintain their horse's hooves...
October 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Ifeanyichukwu C Egbuniwe, Joseph O Ayo, Mohammed U Kawu, Aliyu Mohammed
Heat stress is a major problem in poultry production in tropical regions. Assessing the impact of thermally stressful environmental conditions on the welfare of broiler chickens is of great importance. Behavioral responses in a novel environment and hematology of broiler chickens administered with betaine and/or ascorbic acid (AA) during the hot-dry season were evaluated. Broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups: Group I (control) was given sterile water, Group II was given betaine, Group III was given AA, and Group IV received betaine + AA orally and daily for 42 days...
October 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Veronika Richter, Rainer Muche, Benjamin Mayer
Statistical sample size calculation is a crucial part of planning nonhuman animal experiments in basic medical research. The 3R principle intends to reduce the number of animals to a sufficient minimum. When planning experiments, one may consider the impact of less rigorous assumptions during sample size determination as it might result in a considerable reduction in the number of required animals. Sample size calculations conducted for 111 biometrical reports were repeated. The original effect size assumptions remained unchanged, but the basic properties (type 1 error 5%, two-sided hypothesis, 80% power) were varied...
October 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Caroline Marques Maia, Gilson Luiz Volpato
Preference tests have usually been used to identify nonhuman animal preferences for welfare purposes (environmental enrichment), but they are mostly at the group level-that is, group preferences for resources or environmental conditions. However, a more robust method was developed to analyze animal preference, and this method detected clear individual variation in preferences of Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) selecting different background colors. Here, a clear individual variability of preference was found for another type of enrichment-the sizes of substrate...
October 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Marie-Françoise Van Bressem, Koen Van Waerebeek, Pádraig J Duignan
Clinical and epidemiological features of tattoo skin disease (TSD) are reported for 257 common bottlenose dolphins held in 31 facilities in the Northern Hemisphere. Photographs and biological data of 146 females and 111 males were analyzed. Dolphins were classified into three age classes: 0-3 years, 4-8 years, and older than 9 years. From 2012 to 2014, 20.6% of the 257 dolphins showed clinical TSD. The youngest dolphins with tattoo lesions were 14 and 15 months old. TSD persisted from 4 to 65 months in 30 dolphins...
October 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Daniel Bergin, Vincent Nijman
The welfare of wild-caught animals in markets has generally been overlooked by both wildlife trade and welfare studies, despite the potential negative impacts on the animals. Morocco is a member of the World Organisation for Animal Health and has proposed draft legislation prohibiting mistreatment or abuse of animals in captivity. There is still, however, a bustling wild animal trade, and vendor compliance with industry-standard best practices is lacking. This study provides insight into the conditions of 2113 wild-caught animals in markets in six of the largest cities in Morocco by scoring their welfare based on four of the Farm Animal Welfare Committee Five Freedoms: freedom from hunger and thirst, freedom from discomfort, freedom to express normal behavior, and freedom from distress...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
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