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Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS

Mariana Labão Catapani, José Salatiel Rodrigues Pires, Angélica da Silva Vasconcellos
The captive environment can limit some important behavioral options for nonhuman animals, which often results in decreased welfare. The companion of a conspecific can be a source of complexity in captivity, but this aspect has received little attention for solitary species. This study investigated the effects of two different housing conditions on the behavior of a solitary species, the Southern tamandua (Tamandua tetradactyla). Six individuals housed singly and four housed in pairs in two Brazilian zoological institutions were observed for 10 days from 09:00h to 17:00h during the rainy season...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Daniel Bergin, Vincent Nijman
The welfare of wild-caught animals in markets has generally been overlooked by both wildlife trade and welfare studies, despite the potential negative impacts on the animals. Morocco is a member of the World Organisation for Animal Health and has proposed draft legislation prohibiting mistreatment or abuse of animals in captivity. There is still, however, a bustling wild animal trade, and vendor compliance with industry-standard best practices is lacking. This study provides insight into the conditions of 2113 wild-caught animals in markets in six of the largest cities in Morocco by scoring their welfare based on four of the Farm Animal Welfare Committee Five Freedoms: freedom from hunger and thirst, freedom from discomfort, freedom to express normal behavior, and freedom from distress...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Christian P Howell, Susan M Cheyne
Activity budget comparisons between groups or individuals in the wild and those in captivity are commonly used to determine the range of wild-type behaviors that nonhuman animals in captivity perform. These comparisons are conducted with the view that individuals displaying a greater range of wild-type behaviors have enhanced welfare. Such comparisons have a greater appeal when it comes to primates because increased levels of anthropomorphism toward primates lead to welfare concerns. However, the validity of such comparisons has not been assessed...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Leonardo Ramón Leggieri, Antonela Marozzi, Antonella Panebianco, Pablo Gregorio, Pablo Carmanchahi
A considerable increase in creatinine kinase (CK) activity and gastrin hormone due to exercise has been observed in sled dogs during endurance mushing races; however, there have been no studies on sled dogs during recreational mushing. Although oxytocin hormone is involved in social behaviors and empathy, it has not been studied in sled dogs. This study aimed to assess changes in plasma CK activity, and gastrin and oxytocin concentrations in adult sled dogs used in touristic mushing in North Patagonia, Argentina...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Taylor Eagan
Studies on environmental enrichment for reptiles are lacking in the scientific literature. Although the literature reflects a limited take on reptile enrichment in the zoological community, it may not be the case in reality as enrichment is generally considered an important aspect of the care of nonhuman animals in captivity. This project investigated the current state of reptile enrichment as it is being used in zoos. Although respondents were disproportionately accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, the results showed many forms of enrichment being used for reptiles in zoos and happening at much greater levels than what has been suggested in the scientific literature...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Sandra Strong, Jennifer Federico, Ron Banks, Cathy Williams
Companion-animal hoarding is a significant problem in the United States and internationally. Hoarding situations can incubate for years before a case is reported to law enforcement or animal control agencies. According to a survey by Gary Patronek, animal control agencies have estimated there are approximately 3000 reportable cases of animal hoarding annually in the United States. Animal hoarding cases vary in size from fewer than 20 animals to hundreds of animals. Every case of animal hoarding results in suboptimal animal welfare...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Mona Franziska Giersberg, Nicole Kemper, Birgit Spindler
Challenges in alternative housing for laying hens are barren functional areas such as winter gardens and the occurrence of behavioral disorders. Environmental enrichment is a measure to deal with these problems. Therefore, an enrichment device offering maize silage automatically was tested in two winter gardens on-farm. The use of the winter gardens and the times individual hens stayed there and occupied themselves with the maize silage were determined in a temporary preference test. The proportion of residing hens was significantly larger in the enriched winter garden...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Miranda E Spindel, Matthew R Krecic, Margaret R Slater, Nicole Vigil
This cross-sectional study aimed to identify where dogs with negative antibody tests to canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) originated when entering a community shelter, using a commercially available ELISA antibody test and Geographic Information Systems mapping. Of 2745 canines entering during a three-month period, 1056 test results were obtained. Dogs or puppies weighing over 2 lb were eligible if they could be humanely, nonchemically restrained for phlebotomy. Age and minor health issues weren't exclusions...
October 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Aileigh Kay, Jason B Coe, Ian Young, David Pearl
Millions of companion animals are relinquished to shelters each year. For each dog entering, their characteristics and the characteristics of the shelter holding him/her influence their time to adoption. Using a Cox proportional hazards frailty model, these issues were explored using data from 31 shelters within the British Columbia Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals shelter system. Results indicated that surrender reason, age, original source, coat color, breed, human population density of the shelter location, and year the nonhuman animal entered the shelter significantly influenced time to adoption...
October 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Yijie He, John Deen, Gerald C Shurson, Yuzhi Z Li
The objective of this study was to determine how feeder-space allowance affects behaviors of slow- and fast-growing pigs during the nursery period. Nursery pigs (n = 192; initial weight = 7.4 ± 1.6 kg) were housed in 24 pens of 8 pigs, with 12 pens provided with either a two-space feeder or a five-space feeder. Pigs were categorized as slow growers (SG) and fast growers (FG) based on adjusted market weight (SG < 105 kg; FG ≥ 105 kg). Behaviors of pigs were video-recorded during the first four days after entering the nursery and on Day 21...
October 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Kirrilly R Thompson, Larissa Clarkson, Christopher B Riley, Mariette van den Berg
Little is known about the horse health management practices of Australian horse caregivers (owners). This article presents findings from a convenience sample of 505 horse owners who participated in an online survey. No large-scale welfare issues were identified, but there were some areas of potential concern, including owners who did not regularly deworm their horses (4%), a lack of strategic parasite control (3.1%), and a lack of regular dental care (11%). Several participants did not have their horse's hooves regularly shod or trimmed (2%), and 14% had an unqualified person maintain their horse's hooves...
October 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Ifeanyichukwu C Egbuniwe, Joseph O Ayo, Mohammed U Kawu, Aliyu Mohammed
Heat stress is a major problem in poultry production in tropical regions. Assessing the impact of thermally stressful environmental conditions on the welfare of broiler chickens is of great importance. Behavioral responses in a novel environment and hematology of broiler chickens administered with betaine and/or ascorbic acid (AA) during the hot-dry season were evaluated. Broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups: Group I (control) was given sterile water, Group II was given betaine, Group III was given AA, and Group IV received betaine + AA orally and daily for 42 days...
October 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Veronika Richter, Rainer Muche, Benjamin Mayer
Statistical sample size calculation is a crucial part of planning nonhuman animal experiments in basic medical research. The 3R principle intends to reduce the number of animals to a sufficient minimum. When planning experiments, one may consider the impact of less rigorous assumptions during sample size determination as it might result in a considerable reduction in the number of required animals. Sample size calculations conducted for 111 biometrical reports were repeated. The original effect size assumptions remained unchanged, but the basic properties (type 1 error 5%, two-sided hypothesis, 80% power) were varied...
October 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Caroline Marques Maia, Gilson Luiz Volpato
Preference tests have usually been used to identify nonhuman animal preferences for welfare purposes (environmental enrichment), but they are mostly at the group level-that is, group preferences for resources or environmental conditions. However, a more robust method was developed to analyze animal preference, and this method detected clear individual variation in preferences of Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) selecting different background colors. Here, a clear individual variability of preference was found for another type of enrichment-the sizes of substrate...
October 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Marie-Françoise Van Bressem, Koen Van Waerebeek, Pádraig J Duignan
Clinical and epidemiological features of tattoo skin disease (TSD) are reported for 257 common bottlenose dolphins held in 31 facilities in the Northern Hemisphere. Photographs and biological data of 146 females and 111 males were analyzed. Dolphins were classified into three age classes: 0-3 years, 4-8 years, and older than 9 years. From 2012 to 2014, 20.6% of the 257 dolphins showed clinical TSD. The youngest dolphins with tattoo lesions were 14 and 15 months old. TSD persisted from 4 to 65 months in 30 dolphins...
October 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Candice J A Skelton, Hayley J Stannard
As the number of Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) in captivity increases, an understanding of captive social dynamics and behavior is becoming increasingly important. In the wild, devils are solitary, although sometimes, they congregate to feed on a large carcass. However, it is common to house devils in groups as a form of social enrichment. This study investigated how behavior at feeding time of captive Tasmanian devils varied in groups of different sizes. Observations were made of individually housed devils and devils in groups of two, three, five, and six, when presented with a carcass on which to feed...
July 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Michaela Fels, Franziska Lüthje, Alice Faux-Nightingale, Nicole Kemper
In this study, the possibility of introducing an elevated platform to a piglet pen was explored as a way of increasing available space and creating functional areas. On the platform, nine different manipulable materials were offered. In four batches, 40 weaned piglets were kept for five weeks in the two-level pen. Video recordings were taken two days per week. In the afternoon, more piglets were on the platform than in the morning or at night (7.2 ± 0.1 vs. 4.9 ± 0.1 vs. 0.6 ± 0.1 piglets/5 minutes; p < ...
July 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Natasha Janke, Olaf Berke, Eyal Klement, D T Tyler Flockhart, Jason Coe, Shane Bateman
In recent years, there has been a growing concern regarding populations of cats who are homeless. Shelters are constantly overwhelmed by the influx of cats without caregivers and are seeking solutions to enhance positive outcomes for them. In 2014, the Guelph Humane Society implemented a population management program to expedite the movement of cats through the shelter by decreasing the average nonhuman animal's length of stay using scheduled intakes to control for overcrowding and by implementing strategies to increase adoption rates...
July 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Gisela Marcoppido, Yanina Arzamendia, Bibiana Vilá
The management of wild vicuñas can trigger a stress response that may compromise welfare. In Santa Catalina, Jujuy Province, Argentina, indices of short-term stress associated with capture, handling, and shearing were studied in 105 wild vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna). The study included 2 groups (n = 59 and n = 46) of wild vicuñas captured in 2 consecutive days. Independent variables analyzed included sex, restraint time, and groups. Cortisol, creatine kinase, glucose, white blood cells, temperature, heart rate, and respiratory frequency were higher than published values...
July 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Grace Fuller, Wilhelmina Frederica Eggen, Wirdateti Wirdateti, K A I Nekaris
Illegal harvesting and trade are major forces behind population declines of wild slow lorises (genus Nycticebus). The impacts of the wildlife trade on individual slow lorises have not been as well described. In this article, we describe quantitatively the consequences of the wildlife trade for 77 greater slow lorises, N. coucang, who were confiscated en masse and brought to Cikananga Wildlife Center in Indonesia. Medical records indicated that in total, 28.6% of the slow lorises died within the first 6 months, mostly due to traumatic injury, and all the infants died...
July 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
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