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Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS

Miranda E Spindel, Matthew R Krecic, Margaret R Slater, Nicole Vigil
This cross-sectional study aimed to identify where dogs with negative antibody tests to canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) originated when entering a community shelter, using a commercially available ELISA antibody test and Geographic Information Systems mapping. Of 2745 canines entering during a three-month period, 1056 test results were obtained. Dogs or puppies weighing over 2 lb were eligible if they could be humanely, nonchemically restrained for phlebotomy. Age and minor health issues weren't exclusions...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Aileigh Kay, Jason B Coe, Ian Young, David Pearl
Millions of companion animals are relinquished to shelters each year. For each dog entering, their characteristics and the characteristics of the shelter holding him/her influence their time to adoption. Using a Cox proportional hazards frailty model, these issues were explored using data from 31 shelters within the British Columbia Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals shelter system. Results indicated that surrender reason, age, original source, coat color, breed, human population density of the shelter location, and year the nonhuman animal entered the shelter significantly influenced time to adoption...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Antoni Dalmau, Bruno Areal, Silvana Machado, Joaquim Pallisera, Antonio Velarde
The objective of this study was to investigate if female growing pigs spend similar amounts of time exploring a wooden stick as they do exploring enrichment material regardless of its proximity to the feeder. Forty-eight pigs aged 18 to 26 weeks allocated to 16 pens with three pigs per pen were studied. Fifty percent of the pens had a wooden stick beside the feeder, and the rest had a similar stick opposite to the feeder. Two observers assessed the pigs by means of scan and focal sampling. The pigs spent more time (p < ...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Anastacia Southland, Seana Dowling-Guyer, Emily McCobb
This study investigated the visitor experience at one urban animal shelter. While several previous studies have examined the reasons particular nonhuman animals are chosen by adopters, few have investigated the possible reasons one would visit a shelter and leave without adopting. Over a two-month period, 158 visitors were surveyed after they were finished touring the shelter. One quarter of those exiting the shelter had adopted a pet (companion animal) compared to 11% who had been planning to adopt that day but did not...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Vikki Neville, Keith Hinde, Elaine Line, Rae Todd, Richard Anthony Saunders
To identify implicit causes of companion rabbit relinquishment, this study investigated whether there was annual and seasonal variation in the number of advertisements and ages of rabbits posted as free or for sale on classified websites in the United Kingdom. The number of advertisements posted decreased from 2014 to 2016. There was an increase in the number of advertisements for free rabbits in winter compared with other seasons, which could be a result of caregivers' reduced willingness to interact with their rabbits and carry out husbandry during periods of inclement weather...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Yijie He, John Deen, Gerald C Shurson, Yuzhi Z Li
The objective of this study was to determine how feeder-space allowance affects behaviors of slow- and fast-growing pigs during the nursery period. Nursery pigs (n = 192; initial weight = 7.4 ± 1.6 kg) were housed in 24 pens of 8 pigs, with 12 pens provided with either a two-space feeder or a five-space feeder. Pigs were categorized as slow growers (SG) and fast growers (FG) based on adjusted market weight (SG < 105 kg; FG ≥ 105 kg). Behaviors of pigs were video-recorded during the first four days after entering the nursery and on Day 21...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Kirrilly R Thompson, Larissa Clarkson, Christopher B Riley, Mariette van den Berg
Little is known about the horse health management practices of Australian horse caregivers (owners). This article presents findings from a convenience sample of 505 horse owners who participated in an online survey. No large-scale welfare issues were identified, but there were some areas of potential concern, including owners who did not regularly deworm their horses (4%), a lack of strategic parasite control (3.1%), and a lack of regular dental care (11%). Several participants did not have their horse's hooves regularly shod or trimmed (2%), and 14% had an unqualified person maintain their horse's hooves...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Ifeanyichukwu C Egbuniwe, Joseph O Ayo, Mohammed U Kawu, Aliyu Mohammed
Heat stress is a major problem in poultry production in tropical regions. Assessing the impact of thermally stressful environmental conditions on the welfare of broiler chickens is of great importance. Behavioral responses in a novel environment and hematology of broiler chickens administered with betaine and/or ascorbic acid (AA) during the hot-dry season were evaluated. Broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups: Group I (control) was given sterile water, Group II was given betaine, Group III was given AA, and Group IV received betaine + AA orally and daily for 42 days...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Veronika Richter, Rainer Muche, Benjamin Mayer
Statistical sample size calculation is a crucial part of planning nonhuman animal experiments in basic medical research. The 3R principle intends to reduce the number of animals to a sufficient minimum. When planning experiments, one may consider the impact of less rigorous assumptions during sample size determination as it might result in a considerable reduction in the number of required animals. Sample size calculations conducted for 111 biometrical reports were repeated. The original effect size assumptions remained unchanged, but the basic properties (type 1 error 5%, two-sided hypothesis, 80% power) were varied...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Caroline Marques Maia, Gilson Luiz Volpato
Preference tests have usually been used to identify nonhuman animal preferences for welfare purposes (environmental enrichment), but they are mostly at the group level-that is, group preferences for resources or environmental conditions. However, a more robust method was developed to analyze animal preference, and this method detected clear individual variation in preferences of Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) selecting different background colors. Here, a clear individual variability of preference was found for another type of enrichment-the sizes of substrate...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Marie-Françoise Van Bressem, Koen Van Waerebeek, Pádraig J Duignan
Clinical and epidemiological features of tattoo skin disease (TSD) are reported for 257 common bottlenose dolphins held in 31 facilities in the Northern Hemisphere. Photographs and biological data of 146 females and 111 males were analyzed. Dolphins were classified into three age classes: 0-3 years, 4-8 years, and older than 9 years. From 2012 to 2014, 20.6% of the 257 dolphins showed clinical TSD. The youngest dolphins with tattoo lesions were 14 and 15 months old. TSD persisted from 4 to 65 months in 30 dolphins...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Candice J A Skelton, Hayley J Stannard
As the number of Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) in captivity increases, an understanding of captive social dynamics and behavior is becoming increasingly important. In the wild, devils are solitary, although sometimes, they congregate to feed on a large carcass. However, it is common to house devils in groups as a form of social enrichment. This study investigated how behavior at feeding time of captive Tasmanian devils varied in groups of different sizes. Observations were made of individually housed devils and devils in groups of two, three, five, and six, when presented with a carcass on which to feed...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Adrianna Nimer, Nashelly Meneses, Zachary D Watson, Stephen M Shuster, Russell Benford
The island of Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, is populated by free-roaming dogs who were introduced during World War II. The local nonhuman animal control agency manages this population; however, the demographic information and public perception of this population remain unknown. To characterize the free-roaming dog population, an island-wide survey on Saipan was conducted. Photographic, mark-recapture data were used to estimate the population size per land type. Age, sex, sociality, and behavior per land type were documented and associations between these variables were tested using G tests...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Michaela Fels, Franziska Lüthje, Alice Faux-Nightingale, Nicole Kemper
In this study, the possibility of introducing an elevated platform to a piglet pen was explored as a way of increasing available space and creating functional areas. On the platform, nine different manipulable materials were offered. In four batches, 40 weaned piglets were kept for five weeks in the two-level pen. Video recordings were taken two days per week. In the afternoon, more piglets were on the platform than in the morning or at night (7.2 ± 0.1 vs. 4.9 ± 0.1 vs. 0.6 ± 0.1 piglets/5 minutes; p < ...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Natasha Janke, Olaf Berke, Eyal Klement, D T Tyler Flockhart, Jason Coe, Shane Bateman
In recent years, there has been a growing concern regarding populations of cats who are homeless. Shelters are constantly overwhelmed by the influx of cats without caregivers and are seeking solutions to enhance positive outcomes for them. In 2014, the Guelph Humane Society implemented a population management program to expedite the movement of cats through the shelter by decreasing the average nonhuman animal's length of stay using scheduled intakes to control for overcrowding and by implementing strategies to increase adoption rates...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
R Costa, C Sousa, M Llorente
The 2011 European Union Zoo Inquiry presented evidence that most zoos fail to achieve adequate levels of nonhuman animal welfare. Appropriate environmental enrichment (EE) can play a role in the promotion of welfare. However, financial and staff constraints frequently make it challenging to implement EE on a daily basis. The aim of this study was to test how individuals of three different nonhuman primate species at the Maia Zoo in Portugal (white-handed gibbons, Hylobates lar; Mona monkeys, Cercopithecus mona; and brown lemurs, Eulemur fulvus) reacted to EE devices...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Heinke Heise, Ludwig Theuvsen
Many people believe that welfare standards for nonhuman animals on farms need to be improved. However, the definition of farm animal welfare (FAW) remains unclear, as different disciplines have developed competing understandings of FAW. Some studies have investigated citizens' understanding of FAW through quantitative surveys. This study combined both closed-ended and open-ended questions and compared the findings from the different types of questions. For the open-ended question, respondents mostly named criteria in the categories of "housing system" and "management practice"; however, for the closed-ended question, the category "animal health" was most important...
April 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Katrina Merkies, Lindsay Nakonechny, Cordelie DuBois, Emilie Derisoud
Training practices may impose restrictions on the equine behavioral repertoire through the use of training equipment. Presently, the prevalence of the use of training equipment in Canada is unknown. Through an online survey for horse enthusiasts (n = 654), this study evaluated the prevalence and predominant uses of whips, spurs, and head-control equipment by enthusiasts with direct contact with horses compared to perceptions held by enthusiasts with no direct horse contact using chi-squared analyses. Respondents primarily reported using whips and spurs to augment rider or trainer cues and reported using head-control equipment mainly for lunging purposes...
April 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
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January 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Sara Isgate, Justin J Couchman
Humans readily attribute personality and behavioral traits to dogs, and these attributions influence decisions about adoption. This study focused on how these attributions could be influenced by breed and pose by using pictures of four breeds (Doberman Pinscher, Golden Retriever, pit bull, and Rottweiler) in 4 poses (dog sitting alone, sitting with a human, standing alone, and walking on a leash with a human). Participants rated each picture on friendliness, aggressiveness, and adoptability. Eye-tracking technology identified which specific features were represented in each picture to determine whether they had any effect on the judgments...
January 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
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