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Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059073/the-role-of-nutrition-in-geriatric-rehabilitation
#1
Rebecca Diekmann, Julia Wojzischke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight the importance of nutrition in older adults undergoing a rehabilitation program. Geriatric rehabilitation aims at the recovery of physical abilities for a largely independent life in the community. The term 'geriatric rehabilitation' is wide and includes inpatient and ambulatory care as well as rehabilitation programs in hospitals, also outside geriatric wards. The role of nutrition is therefore not clearly defined, but an association between declined functional status and low nutritional status is evident...
October 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049044/the-relevance-of-healthy-diets-for-the-prevention-of-frailty-and-cognitive-impairment
#2
Juergen M Bauer, John E Morley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045254/nutritional-interventions-in-sarcopenia-where-do-we-stand
#3
Jean Woo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To document recent evidence regarding the role of nutrition as an intervention for sarcopenia. RECENT FINDINGS: A review of seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) alone on muscle loss in 147 adults showed greater muscle mass gain in the intervention group, but no benefit in muscle strength and physical performance measures. Three other review articles examined nutrition and exercise as combined intervention, and suggest enhancement of benefits of exercise by nutrition supplements (energy, protein, vitamin D)...
October 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035973/the-relevance-of-dietary-protein-after-bariatric-surgery-what-do-we-know
#4
Nele Steenackers, Ina Gesquiere, Christophe Matthys
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The growing obesity epidemic is associated with an increased demand for bariatric surgery with Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy as the most widely performed procedures. Despite beneficial consequences, nutritional complications may arise because of anatomical and physiological changes of the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the recent additions to our understanding of the impact of bariatric surgery on the intake, digestion and absorption of dietary protein...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035972/hyperammonemia-and-proteostasis-in-cirrhosis
#5
Srinivasan Dasarathy, Maria Hatzoglou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skeletal muscle loss or sarcopenia is a frequent complication of cirrhosis that adversely affects clinical outcomes. As skeletal muscle is the largest store of proteins in the body, proteostasis or protein homeostasis is required for maintenance of muscle mass. This review will focus on disordered skeletal muscle proteostasis in liver disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Increased skeletal muscle uptake of ammonia initiates responses that result in disordered proteostasis including impaired protein synthesis and increased autophagy...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035971/dietary-patterns-and-cognition-in-older-persons
#6
Angela M Abbatecola, Marcello Russo, Michelangela Barbieri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current article reviews recently published evidence of the important role that specific dietary patterns may hold on preventing cognitive impairment and dementia over aging. RECENT FINDINGS: Specific dietary patterns attributed to targeting cardiovascular risk factors may protect against the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia, especially Alzheimer's disease. Numerous epidemiological studies have strongly suggested that multinutrient approaches using the Mediterranean diet (Med diet), dietary approach to systolic hypertension (DASH) and the Mediterranean-DASH diet intervention for neurodegenerative delay (MIND) are associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment, MCI and Alzheimer's disease in older persons...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035970/emerging-perspectives-on-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolism-during-adipocyte-differentiation
#7
Daniela Salinas-Rubio, Armando R Tovar, Lilia G Noriega
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adipogenesis has been extensively studied in the context of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. However, little information exists on the role of amino acid metabolism during adipocyte differentiation. Here, we review how branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism is modified during adipogenesis and, due to the limited information in the area, address questions that remain to be answered with further research. RECENT FINDINGS: BCAAs are rapidly consumed during adipocyte differentiation and are indispensable for this process...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035969/effects-of-medical-food-leucine-content-in-the-management-of-methylmalonic-and-propionic-acidemias
#8
Jennifer G Myles, Irini Manoli, Charles P Venditti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review highlights the varied effects of medical foods high in leucine (Leu) and devoid of valine (Val) and isoleucine (Ile) in the management of methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) and propionic acidemia and cobalamin C (cblC) deficiency, aiming to advance dietary practices. RECENT FINDINGS: Leu is a key metabolic regulator with a multitude of effects on different organ systems. Recent observational studies have demonstrated that these effects can have unintended consequences in patients with MMA as a result of liberal use of medical foods...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035968/the-final-word-on-nutritional-screening-and-assessment-in-older-persons
#9
Emanuele Cereda, Nicola Veronese, Riccardo Caccialanza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an updated perspective of how nutritional screening and assessment in older persons should be performed and reasonably implemented in the near future. RECENT FINDINGS: Although nutritional screening and assessment should be fast and easy procedures, there is increasing evidence that more time should be dedicated to them. This is probably an answer to the claim to a medicine being more preventive than curative. Increasing interest is currently given to healthy aging and nutritional status is more likely to be addressed for its implications on functional status and disability...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028650/fast-digestive-proteins-and-sarcopenia-of-aging
#10
Yves Boirie, Christelle Guillet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The speed of dietary protein digestion influences postprandial amino acid availability which is crucial for improving altered anabolic response of skeletal muscle one feature of sarcopenia during aging. RECENT FINDINGS: By analogy with carbohydrate and in reference to their absorption rate, dietary proteins can be classified as 'fast' or 'slow' proteins depending on matrix food structure and technological processes, which can influence amino acids availability and their subsequent metabolic actions...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016367/updates-in-nutrition-and-polypharmacy
#11
Milta O Little
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Medications have the potential to affect nutritional status in negative ways, especially as the number of medications increase. The inter-relation between polypharmacy and malnutrition is complex and not fully delineated in previous studies. More research has been done and compiled in the last year, which helps to clarify this relationship. This review brings together the most recent literature with the previous research to help healthcare providers to better assess and manage medication therapy in older adults...
October 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872467/irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-diet-where-are-we-in-2018
#12
Eirini Dimidi, Megan Rossi, Kevin Whelan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim is to review the most recent advances in the evidence supporting the use of various dietary interventions for the management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). RECENT FINDINGS: There is insufficient evidence of the effect of fibres other than psyllium in IBS, whereas the recent studies on prebiotics suggest a limited effect in IBS. Recent probiotic trials continue to provide varying results, with some probiotic strains exhibiting beneficial effects, whereas others show no effect...
September 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862999/innovation-in-microbiome-based-strategies-for-promoting-metabolic-health
#13
Marina Romaní-Pérez, Ana Agusti, Yolanda Sanz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Update on the development of microbiome-based interventions and dietary supplements to combat obesity and related comorbidities, which are leading causes of global mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of intestinal dysbiosis, partly resulting from unhealthy diets, in the development of obesity and metabolic disorders, is well documented by recent translational research. Human experimental trials with whole-faecal transplants are ongoing, and their results will be crucial as proof of concept that interventions intended to modulate the microbiome composition and function could be alternatives for the management of obesity and related comorbidities...
August 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984689/functional-foods-and-dietary-supplements-in-2017-food-for-thought
#14
Gerard Mullin, Nathalie M Delzenne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915128/polyphenols-dietary-assessment-and-role-in-the-prevention-of-cancers
#15
Joseph A Rothwell, Viktoria Knaze, Raul Zamora-Ros
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Polyphenols are a large and diverse family of phytochemicals widely consumed by humans. Here we summarize the latest epidemiological evidence for associations between cancer risk and polyphenol intake, taking into account difficulties in the accurate estimation of exposure. RECENT FINDINGS: Flavonoids are the most studied subgroup of polyphenols with regard to cancer risk. In recent epidemiological studies, total flavonoid intake has rarely been associated with a reduction in cancer risk...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901995/therapeutic-food-claims-a-global-perspective
#16
Bruce P Burnett, Gerard Mullin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Medical foods in the United States, and foods for special medical purposes in other countries, are food formulations used to manage specific chronic diseases or conditions under medical or physician supervision. The process of reviewing and approving food claims for health benefits varies widely from country to country. RECENT FINDINGS: CODEX Alimentarius, a 187-country and one-member (European Union) organization, has standardized not only nutrition labeling and food safety worldwide but has also recently taken on a prominent role in analyzing therapeutic and health claims for food in member countries by providing a framework to study these issues...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858891/recent-advances-on-bioactivities-of-black-rice
#17
Aécio L de S Dias, Barbara Pachikian, Yvan Larondelle, Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Black rice has been consumed for centuries in Asian countries such as China, Korea or Japan. Nowadays, extracts and derivatives are considered as beneficial functional foods because of their high content in several bioactive molecules such as anthocyanins, other phenolics and terpenoids. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss recent developments on black rice bioactivities. RECENT FINDINGS: Some sterols and triterpenoids with potential anticancer properties already tested in vitro and in vivo have been isolated and identified from bran extracts of black rice...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858890/fat-soluble-micronutrients-and-metabolic-syndrome
#18
Aurélie Goncalves, Marie-Josèphe Amiot
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. MetS prevalence has been associated with diet inadequacy. Conversely, the cumulative incidence of MetS has been inversely associated with a Mediterranean-style diet that includes many different health-beneficial nutrients. Adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet could reduce or at least stabilize metabolic risk factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Low serum level of fat-soluble micronutrients, such as carotenoids, vitamin (vit) A, D and E, has been linked to MetS...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832370/dietary-nitrate-as-modulator-of-physical-performance-and-cardiovascular-health
#19
Conor P Kerley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Early interventional trials reported improvements in cardiac and exercise outcomes with inorganic nitrate ingestion. The current review aims to provide a brief update of recent evidence regarding ergogenic and cardiovascular effects of dietary nitrate and practical recommendations. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence has been inconsistent and questions remain regarding effective dose, duration, and source of nitrate and cohorts likely to benefit...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806179/interpreting-magnesium-status-to-enhance-clinical-care-key-indicators
#20
Rebecca B Costello, Forrest Nielsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To update advances in identifying factors affecting magnesium (Mg) status that assist in providing improved evidence-based clinical decision-making for assessing Mg status. RECENT FINDINGS: Findings from recent cohort studies, small randomized control trials, and multiple meta-analyses reinforce earlier work that serum Mg concentrations, urinary Mg excretion, and Mg dietary intakes are inversely associated with cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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