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Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407223/human-milk-protein-vs-formula-protein-and-their-use-in-preterm-infants
#1
Maria L Gianni, Paola Roggero, Fabio Mosca
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the current available evidence on the metabolic fate of human milk proteins and their potential clinical implications for growth and body composition development vs. those of formula proteins in preterm infants. RECENT FINDINGS: The decreased content of human milk protein in preterm mothers throughout lactation might contribute to the reduced growth reported in exclusively human milk-fed infants compared with that of formula-fed infants...
November 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407222/emerging-role-for-kynurenines-in-metabolic-pathologies
#2
Jun-Jun Liu, Jamileh Movassat, Bernard Portha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: So far, the tryptophan catabolites generated in the kynurenine pathway have been mainly studied in relation to oncologic and mental health disorders. The current review provides an update on the emerging biomedical interest for kynurenine pathway activity in the field of energy homeostasis and metabolic diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Kynurenine pathway enzymes are expressed in tissues relevant for energy homeostasis such as fat, skeletal muscle, liver and endocrine pancreas, blood vessel and heart, and are regulated by nutritional and inflammatory signals...
November 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394895/the-diversity-of-healthy-diets-for-older-persons-across-the-world
#3
Nicola Veronese, Stefania Maggi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine eating patterns, and with a particular focus on the different healthy diets followed by older persons across the world and the factors that can limit accessibility to healthy foods. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence has demonstrated that older people are, generally speaking, following less healthy diets with respect to the past. The only exception seems to be China, but the quality of the food there appears to be less than optimal. Socioeconomic status and, in particular, the price of food seems to be the most important factors linked to diet quality...
November 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394894/new-insights-into-the-anorexia-of-ageing-from-prevention-to-treatment
#4
Elsa Dent, Emiel O Hoogendijk, Oliva R L Wright
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Undernutrition in older adults is associated with frailty, functional decline, and mortality. The 'anorexia of ageing' is the age-related appetite and weight loss underpinning such undernutrition. This review examines the latest evidence for its prevention and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Existing nutritional therapies for the anorexia of ageing include supporting nutritional intake with fortified food or supplements, including omega-3 fatty acids, multivitamins, and vitamin D...
November 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394893/diabetes-and-frailty
#5
Mariam El Assar, Olga Laosa, Leocadio Rodríguez Mañas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Disability and its preceding condition, frailty, are outstanding issues for achieving healthy aging. Diabetes is a very prevalent chronic disease among older patients that favours frailty status. This review will analyse the relationship between diabetes and frailty in the elderly and summarize the current strategies to improve physical function in diabetic older patients. RECENT FINDINGS: We have analyzed the current knowledge providing insight on the relationship between frailty and diabetes in older people...
November 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394892/from-old-to-new-roles-of-protein-sources-and-individual-amino-acids-in-clinical-nutrition
#6
Rajavel Elango, Alessandro Laviano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30346314/therapeutic-and-lifestyle-approaches-to-obesity-in-older-persons
#7
Bryan C Jiang, Dennis T Villareal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity rates worldwide continue to increase and will disproportionately affect older adults because of population aging. This review highlights recent progress pertaining to therapeutic approaches to obesity in older adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Caloric restriction alone improves physical function and quality of life in older adults with obesity but is associated with loss of lean mass and increases fracture risk. Adding progressive resistance training to caloric restriction attenuates loss of muscle and bone mass and increasing protein intake enhances this effect...
October 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30277929/genetic-factors-involved-in-the-bioavailability-of-tomato-carotenoids
#8
Charles Desmarchelier, Jean-François Landrier, Patrick Borel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the genetic factors recently associated with the interindividual variability of tomato carotenoid bioavailability. RECENT FINDINGS: Several clinical studies have demonstrated that the main carotenoids found in tomatoes (lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, β-carotene, lutein) all display relatively large interindividual variabilities of their bioavailability, with coefficients of variations more than 70%. The bioavailability of the parent molecules, and the blood/tissue appearance of their metabolites, is modulated by numerous proteins, involved in intestinal absorption and metabolism, blood lipoprotein transport or tissue uptake...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239340/dietary-supplement-intake-among-the-elderly-hazards-and-benefits
#9
Stéphane Walrand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A large percentage of older adults do not receive recommended amounts of many nutrients from food alone. Accordingly, the routine use of dietary supplements has become common among older persons. Although supplement use provides potential benefits by increasing nutrient intakes, there are potential drawbacks. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies have pointed to potential reductions in the risk to develop age-related diseases among older people who reported long-term use of multivitamin supplements...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239339/isoflavones-and-bone-health-in-perimenopausal-and-postmenopausal-women
#10
Max Norman Tandrup Lambert, Per Bendix Jeppesen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Isoflavones exert estrogenic activity distinct from estrogen, they have the potential to treat diseases and symptoms related to estrogen deficiency with minimal side effects and risks. Isoflavone supplementation, in general, is shown to exert beneficial effects against estrogen-deficient bone loss in women, however, some clinical trials still produce conflicting findings. The purpose of this review is to highlight and summarize the most recent and up-to-date research in the field and to bring attention to factors that play a major role in the outcomes of clinical trials that investigate phytoestrogens...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30199394/crucifers-and-related-vegetables-and-supplements-for-neurologic-disorders-what-is-the-evidence
#11
Anita A Panjwani, Hua Liu, Jed W Fahey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurologic disorders have varied pathophysiology, yet many of them appear to have core molecular pathways that are aberrant. We review the evidence that a dietary component may have utility in ameliorating or preventing at least some of them. RECENT FINDINGS: The weight of evidence supporting prescriptive dietary recommendations to promote or enhance healthspan has been building for decades. Cruciferous vegetables are a key part of the arsenal of nutrition-based approaches for reducing the burden of chronic disease...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30199393/beneficial-effects-of-walnut-consumption-on-human-health-role-of-micronutrients
#12
Emilio Ros, María Izquierdo-Pulido, Aleix Sala-Vila
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nuts in general and walnuts in particular are in the limelight for the association of their consumption with improved health outcomes. Walnuts have an optimal composition in bioactive nutrients and recent clinical and experimental studies have uncovered a number of beneficial effects of walnut micronutrients, working in isolation or in concert, on metabolic pathways and clinical outcomes that make this review timely and relevant. RECENT FINDINGS: Alpha-linolenic acid, a critical walnut component, is metabolized into bioactive oxylipins, has been shown to protect microglial cells from inflammation, and is associated with lower fatal myocardial infarction rates through a putative antiarrhythmic effect...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198917/regulation-of-muscle-atrophy-by-micrornas-atromirs-as-potential-target-in-cachexia
#13
Wouter R P H van de Worp, Jan Theys, Ardy van Helvoort, Ramon C J Langen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview and describe the mode of action of miRNAs recently implicated in muscle atrophy, and discuss the challenges to explore their potential as putative therapeutic targets in cachexia. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent work showed differentially expressed miRNAs in skeletal muscle of patients with cachexia-associated diseases. Studies using experimental models revealed miRNA regulation of the anabolic IGF-1 and catabolic TGF- β/myostatin pathways, and downstream protein synthesis and proteolysis signaling in control of muscle mass...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30188386/benefits-and-risk-management-of-functional-foods-in-the-context-of-chronic-diseases
#14
Nathalie M Delzenne, Gerard E Mullin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30169457/dietary-vitamin-d-vitamin-d-receptor-and-microbiome
#15
Jun Sun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review is to summarize the recent progress of vitamin D/vitamin D receptor (VDR) and microbiome in intestinal homeostasis, airway function, and other organs. RECENT FINDINGS: Microbiome is considered as a newly discovered human organ. It is critical in the synthesis of vitamins and harvest of otherwise inaccessible nutrients, metabolism of xenobiotics, body fat storage, renewal of gut epithelial cells, and mature of immune system. Vitamin D and VDR are known to regulate microbiome in health and disease...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30169456/spaceflight-related-ocular-changes-the-potential-role-of-genetics-and-the-potential-of-b-vitamins-as-a-countermeasure
#16
Scott M Smith, Sara R Zwart
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Within the last decade, it was realized that during and after long-duration spaceflight, some astronauts experience ophthalmic abnormalities including refractive changes, optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal folds, and cotton wool spots. Much research has been initiated and conducted, but little evidence is available to differentiate affected crewmembers. RECENT FINDINGS: The first published data to distinguish between affected and nonaffected crewmembers identified biochemical differences in affected astronauts: one-carbon pathway metabolite concentrations were higher in these individuals than in nonaffected astronauts, even before flight...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148741/emerging-outcome-measures-for-nutrition-trials-in-the-critically-ill
#17
Danielle E Bear, David Griffith, Zudin A Puthucheary
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mortality has long been the gold-standard outcome measure for intensive care clinical trials. However, as the critical care community begins to understand and accept that survivorship is associated with functional disability and a health and socioeconomic burden, the clinical and research focus has begun to shift towards long-term physical function RECENT FINDINGS: To use mortality as a primary outcome measure, one would either have to choose an improbable effect (e...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148740/fighting-obesity-by-targeting-factors-regulating-beige-adipocytes
#18
Allison E McQueen, Suneil K Koliwad, Jen-Chywan Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review provides an update on secreted factors and mechanisms that promote a thermogenic program in beige adipocytes, and their potential roles as therapeutic targets to fight obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: We outline recent studies revealing unrecognized mechanisms controlling beige adipocyte physiology, and summarize in particular those that underlie beige thermogenesis independently of classical uncoupling. We also update strategies aimed at fostering beige adipogenesis and white-to beige adipocyte conversion...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148739/telomere-length-as-a-biomarker-of-accelerated-aging-is-it-influenced-by-dietary-intake
#19
Tania-Marisa Freitas-Simoes, Emilio Ros, Aleix Sala-Vila
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is increasing interest in exploring whether age-related diseases can be prevented by dietary means through nutrients or food bioactives, whole foods, or specific dietary patterns. Because of the slow nature of the aging process, biomarkers such as telomere length are helpful for this purpose. Here we update the developments in the area during the last 2 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Most data stem from epidemiologic studies, often cross-sectional in design...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138138/polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-polyphenols-amino-acids-prebiotics-can-they-help-to-tackle-cancer-cachexia-and-related-inflammation
#20
Sarah A Pötgens, Martina Sboarina, Laure B Bindels
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies have highlighted the importance of developing a multimodal therapeutic strategy for cancer cachectic patients. Considering the central role of metabolism and anorexia in this disease, optimized nutritional advice should be an integral part of this strategy. Current recommendations mainly focus on meeting caloric requirements. However, a few studies suggest the great potential of foods naturally enriched in nutrients presenting interesting physiological properties and the interest of using them in the management of cachectic patients...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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