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Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30199394/crucifers-and-related-vegetables-and-supplements-for-neurologic-disorders-what-is-the-evidence
#1
Anita A Panjwani, Hua Liu, Jed W Fahey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurologic disorders have varied pathophysiology, yet many of them appear to have core molecular pathways that are aberrant. We review the evidence that a dietary component may have utility in ameliorating or preventing at least some of them. RECENT FINDINGS: The weight of evidence supporting prescriptive dietary recommendations to promote or enhance healthspan has been building for decades. Cruciferous vegetables are a key part of the arsenal of nutrition-based approaches for reducing the burden of chronic disease...
September 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30199393/beneficial-effects-of-walnut-consumption-on-human-health-role-of-micronutrients
#2
Emilio Ros, María Izquierdo-Pulido, Aleix Sala-Vila
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nuts in general and walnuts in particular are in the limelight for the association of their consumption with improved health outcomes. Walnuts have an optimal composition in bioactive nutrients and recent clinical and experimental studies have uncovered a number of beneficial effects of walnut micronutrients, working in isolation or in concert, on metabolic pathways and clinical outcomes that make this review timely and relevant. RECENT FINDINGS: Alpha-linolenic acid, a critical walnut component, is metabolized into bioactive oxylipins, has been shown to protect microglial cells from inflammation, and is associated with lower fatal myocardial infarction rates through a putative antiarrhythmic effect...
September 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198917/regulation-of-muscle-atrophy-by-micrornas-atromirs-as-potential-target-in-cachexia
#3
Wouter R P H van de Worp, Jan Theys, Ardy van Helvoort, Ramon C J Langen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview and describe the mode of action of miRNAs recently implicated in muscle atrophy, and discuss the challenges to explore their potential as putative therapeutic targets in cachexia. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent work showed differentially expressed miRNAs in skeletal muscle of patients with cachexia-associated diseases. Studies using experimental models revealed miRNA regulation of the anabolic IGF-1 and catabolic TGF- β/myostatin pathways, and downstream protein synthesis and proteolysis signaling in control of muscle mass...
September 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30188386/benefits-and-risk-management-of-functional-foods-in-the-context-of-chronic-diseases
#4
Nathalie M Delzenne, Gerard E Mullin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30169457/dietary-vitamin-d-vitamin-d-receptor-and-microbiome
#5
Jun Sun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review is to summarize the recent progress of vitamin D/vitamin D receptor (VDR) and microbiome in intestinal homeostasis, airway function, and other organs. RECENT FINDINGS: Microbiome is considered as a newly discovered human organ. It is critical in the synthesis of vitamins and harvest of otherwise inaccessible nutrients, metabolism of xenobiotics, body fat storage, renewal of gut epithelial cells, and mature of immune system. Vitamin D and VDR are known to regulate microbiome in health and disease...
August 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30169456/spaceflight-related-ocular-changes-the-potential-role-of-genetics-and-the-potential-of-b-vitamins-as-a-countermeasure
#6
Scott M Smith, Sara R Zwart
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Within the last decade, it was realized that during and after long-duration spaceflight, some astronauts experience ophthalmic abnormalities including refractive changes, optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal folds, and cotton wool spots. Much research has been initiated and conducted, but little evidence is available to differentiate affected crewmembers. RECENT FINDINGS: The first published data to distinguish between affected and nonaffected crewmembers identified biochemical differences in affected astronauts: one-carbon pathway metabolite concentrations were higher in these individuals than in nonaffected astronauts, even before flight...
August 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148741/emerging-outcome-measures-for-nutrition-trials-in-the-critically-ill
#7
Danielle E Bear, David Griffith, Zudin A Puthucheary
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mortality has long been the gold-standard outcome measure for intensive care clinical trials. However, as the critical care community begins to understand and accept that survivorship is associated with functional disability and a health and socioeconomic burden, the clinical and research focus has begun to shift towards long-term physical function RECENT FINDINGS: To use mortality as a primary outcome measure, one would either have to choose an improbable effect (e...
August 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148740/fighting-obesity-by-targeting-factors-regulating-beige-adipocytes
#8
Allison E McQueen, Suneil K Koliwad, Jen-Chywan Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review provides an update on secreted factors and mechanisms that promote a thermogenic program in beige adipocytes, and their potential roles as therapeutic targets to fight obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: We outline recent studies revealing unrecognized mechanisms controlling beige adipocyte physiology, and summarize in particular those that underlie beige thermogenesis independently of classical uncoupling. We also update strategies aimed at fostering beige adipogenesis and white-to beige adipocyte conversion...
August 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148739/telomere-length-as-a-biomarker-of-accelerated-aging-is-it-influenced-by-dietary-intake
#9
Tania-Marisa Freitas-Simoes, Emilio Ros, Aleix Sala-Vila
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is increasing interest in exploring whether age-related diseases can be prevented by dietary means through nutrients or food bioactives, whole foods, or specific dietary patterns. Because of the slow nature of the aging process, biomarkers such as telomere length are helpful for this purpose. Here we update the developments in the area during the last 2 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Most data stem from epidemiologic studies, often cross-sectional in design...
August 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138138/polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-polyphenols-amino-acids-prebiotics-can-they-help-to-tackle-cancer-cachexia-and-related-inflammation
#10
Sarah A Pötgens, Martina Sboarina, Laure B Bindels
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies have highlighted the importance of developing a multimodal therapeutic strategy for cancer cachectic patients. Considering the central role of metabolism and anorexia in this disease, optimized nutritional advice should be an integral part of this strategy. Current recommendations mainly focus on meeting caloric requirements. However, a few studies suggest the great potential of foods naturally enriched in nutrients presenting interesting physiological properties and the interest of using them in the management of cachectic patients...
August 21, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124477/the-dynamic-nature-of-food-reward-processing-in-the-brain
#11
Anne Roefs, Sieske Franssen, Anita Jansen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The dominant view in the literature is that increased neural reactivity to high-caloric palatable foods in the mesocorticolimbic system is a stable-specific characteristic of obese people. In this review, we argue that this viewpoint may not be justified, and we propose that the neural response to food stimuli is dynamic, and in synchrony with the current motivational and cognitive state of an individual. We will further motivate why a clear mental task in the scanner is a necessity for drawing conclusions from neural activity, and why multivariate approaches to functional MRI (fMRI) data-analysis may carry the field forward...
August 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074915/nutritional-interventions-to-improve-recovery-from-postoperative-ileus
#12
Boudewijn J J Smeets, Misha D P Luyer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Postoperative ileus (POI) is an important contributor to postoperative morbidity. However, postoperative outcomes have improved by enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs. Enteral nutrition is an essential part of ERAS and many studies suggest a therapeutic effect of nutrition on POI. RECENT FINDINGS: Early postoperative enteral nutrition has been shown to reduce various complications, including POI, although studies are heterogeneous...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30067542/nutrition-in-gastroenterology-clinical-implications-of-current-interdisciplinary-innovations
#13
M Isabel T D Correia, Alastair Forbes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29979242/long-term-nutritional-follow-up-post-bariatric-surgery
#14
Emilie Montastier, Mael Chalret du Rieu, Géraud Tuyeras, Patrick Ritz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for classes II and III obesity and its associated diseases. However, many important long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery are still poorly understood, such as neurological and psychological complications, bone health, and so on. This review summarizes the current evidence and expert opinions on nutritional care in the long-term postoperative period. RECENT FINDINGS: In the first section, we will provide an update of the main long-term complications: risk of anaemia, risk of bone fracture, neurological and psychological complications, and risk of developing Barrett's oesophagus after sleeve gastrectomy...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29957678/assessment-of-nutritional-status-what-does-it-mean
#15
Luc Cynober
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29957677/bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-in-the-assessment-of-sarcopenia
#16
M Cristina Gonzalez, Thiago G Barbosa-Silva, Steven B Heymsfield
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an accepted technique to estimate low muscle mass for sarcopenia diagnosis. However, muscularity assessment from BIA relies on prediction equations, estimating different compartments according to the calibration method. Low muscle mass can be defined using different approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a lack of standardization on how low muscularity is defined in the context of sarcopenia. Recent studies have shown discrepant results for the estimation of low muscle mass when different prediction equations are used in the same BIA device...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939971/analysis-of-mitochondrial-respiratory-function-in-tissue-biopsies-and-blood-cells
#17
Mario Ost, Carolina Doerrier, Pau Gama-Perez, Sonia Moreno-Gomez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review provides an overview on latest methodological strategies to assess mitochondrial respiratory function in tissue biopsies or blood cells. In addition, it summarizes the recent literature related to this topic. RECENT FINDINGS: Today, the study of mitochondrial function in key metabolic active tissues has been become more relevant, with increasing focus in clinical applications. In addition, assessment of mitochondrial function in blood cells by respirometry might be a sensitive biomarker of disease progression...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939970/fructooligosaccharides-and-appetite
#18
Renee Korczak, Joanne L Slavin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention through reduction of body weight and control of appetite, however, not all fibers are created equally, and characteristics of fiber such as viscosity, fermentability and solubility may affect appetite differently. RECENT FINDINGS: Although early studies supported that fructan fibers, including inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and oligofructose affected satiety, more recent studies are less supportive...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939969/taste-perception-and-its-effects-on-oral-nutritional-supplements-in-younger-life-phases
#19
Amira Sayed Khan, Aziz Hichami, Naim Akhtar Khan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review summarizes the importance of taste perception with regard to acceptance of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in young children. We also shed light on how basic tastes may influence the orosensory detection of ONS in the light of genetic variations, encoding for different taste modalities, particularly for sweet and bitter (and fat), in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of bitter and sweet taste receptor genes, that is, respectively, TAS2R38 and T1R2/T1R3, may influence orosensory perception of 'bitter-made-sweet' ONS...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939968/fecal-microbial-transplantation-an-update
#20
Sonia Bouri, Ailsa Hart
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to provide an update on recent developments in fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the last year. RECENT FINDINGS: Although FMT is an accepted treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), recently it is also gaining acceptance for the treatment of refractory CDI. FMT is showing promise in ulcerative colitis and is experimental in many other conditions. The optimal practical aspects to enhance the success of FMT are still being established...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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