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Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708669/the-role-of-hypothalamic-inflammation-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-serotonin-in-the-cancer-anorexia-cachexia-syndrome
#1
Klaske van Norren, Jvalini T Dwarkasing, Renger F Witkamp
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In cancer patients, the development of cachexia (muscle wasting) is frequently aggravated by anorexia (loss of appetite). Their concurrence is often referred to as anorexia-cachexia syndrome. This review focusses on the recent evidence underlining hypothalamic inflammation as key driver of these processes. Special attention is given to the involvement of hypothalamic serotonin. RECENT FINDINGS: The anorexia-cachexia syndrome is directly associated with higher mortality in cancer patients...
July 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650855/intermittent-vs-continuous-enteral-feeding-to-prevent-catabolism-in-acutely-ill-adult-and-pediatric-patients
#2
Filippo G Di Girolamo, Roberta Situlin, Nicola Fiotti, Gianni Biolo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In clinical management of acutely ill adults and children, continuous enteral feeding (CEF), being considered the most tolerable approach, in comparison to other temporal patterns of nutrient administration (i.e. intermittent, cyclic and bolus), is the most frequently applied method. However, uncertainties remain about the most efficient approach to counteract protein catabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: In critically ill adults, protein loss is mainly driven by increased protein breakdown whereas, in pediatric patients, acute illness is mainly characterized by blunted regulation of protein synthesis and stunted growth...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650854/recent-developments-in-deuterium-oxide-tracer-approaches-to-measure-rates-of-substrate-turnover-implications-for-protein-lipid-and-nucleic-acid-research
#3
Matthew S Brook, Daniel J Wilkinson, Philip J Atherton, Ken Smith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Methods that inform on dynamic metabolism that can be applied to clinical populations to understand disease progression and responses to therapeutic interventions are of great importance. This review perspective will highlight recent advances, development, and applications of the multivalent stable isotope tracer deuterium oxide (D2O) to the study of substrate metabolism with particular reference to protein, lipids, and nucleic acids, and how these methods can be readily applied within clinical and pharmaceutical research...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622192/-old-tools-new-insights-assessment-of-nutritional-and-metabolic-status
#4
Kristina Norman, Dwight E Matthews
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617709/editorial
#5
Alastair Forbes, Maria Isabel T D Correia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617708/the-impact-of-nutrition-on-quality-of-life-of-patients-with-hepatitis-c
#6
Luciana D Silva, Tatiana Bering, Gifone A Rocha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to review the most recent aspects of nutrition and its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). RECENT FINDINGS: Low HRQOL scores have been found in all stages of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Of the factors linked to HRQOL, three aspects should be emphasized, nutritional status, physical activity and mental health status. Regarding the nutrition and metabolic conditions, a broad spectrum of nutritional disorders may impact on HRQOL of patients with CHC...
June 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617710/the-low-fodmap-diet-fundamental-therapy-in-the-management-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#7
Carol Ireton-Jones
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The low FODMAP diet is now recognized as first-line therapy for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms including abdominal pain, gas, bloating, diarrhea and or constipation. This information must be disseminated for application to clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: There are many people with IBS worldwide who can benefit from following the low FODMAP diet to alleviate or minimize symptoms. Clinical studies and trials demonstrating the positive outcomes of the low FODMAP diet have been based on diet education provided by dietitians...
June 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562491/new-findings-of-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-in-nutritional-research
#8
Bastian Kochlik, Tilman Grune, Daniela Weber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to present a brief overview of recently published articles assessing oxidative stress markers in nutritional studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Intervention and observational studies were carried out in both, healthy subjects and patients and describe the association of foodstuffs as well as isolated nutrients with biomarkers of oxidative stress. The results from human intervention studies on healthy participants and patients are controversial...
June 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598896/assessing-pathophysiology-of-cancer-anorexia
#9
Alessandro Laviano, Angela Koverech, Marilia Seelaender
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cancer anorexia is a negative prognostic factor and is broadly defined as the loss of the interest in food. However, multiple clinical domains contribute to the phenotype of cancer anorexia. The characterization of the clinical and molecular pathophysiology of cancer anorexia may enhance the efficacy of preventive and therapeutic strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical trials showed that cancer anorexia should be considered as an umbrella encompassing different signs and symptoms contributing to appetite disruption in cancer patients...
June 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590260/ghrelin-and-autophagy
#10
Silvia Ezquerro, Gema Frühbeck, Amaia Rodríguez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A compromised autophagy is associated with the onset of obesity, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Our aim is to review the potential role of ghrelin, a gut hormone involved in energy homeostasis, in the regulation of autophagy. RECENT FINDINGS: In the recent years, it has been demonstrated that autophagy constitutes an important mechanism by which ghrelin exerts a plethora of central and peripheral actions...
June 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562490/assessing-nutritional-status-in-cancer-role-of-the-patient-generated-subjective-global-assessment
#11
Harriët Jager-Wittenaar, Faith D Ottery
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) is used internationally as the reference method for proactive risk assessment (screening), assessment, monitoring and triaging for interventions in patients with cancer. This review aims to explain the rationale behind and data supporting the PG-SGA, and to provide an overview of recent developments in the utilization of the PG-SGA and the PG-SGA Short Form. RECENT FINDINGS: The PG-SGA was designed in the context of a paradigm known as 'anabolic competence'...
May 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548972/assessment-of-adult-malnutrition-and-prognosis-with-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-phase-angle-and-impedance-ratio
#12
Henry C Lukaski, Ursula G Kyle, Jens Kondrup
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malnutrition affects prognosis in many groups of patients. Although screening tools are available to identify adults at risk for poor nutritional status, a need exists to improve the assessment of malnutrition by identifying the loss of functional tissues that can lead to frailty, compromised physical function, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality, particularly among hospitalized and ill patients and older adults. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) offers a practical approach to identify malnutrition and prognosis by assessing whole-body cell membrane quality and depicting fluid distribution for an individual...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463898/glucose-kinetics-an-update-and-novel-insights-into-its-regulation-by-glucagon-and-glp-1
#13
Amalia Gastaldelli, Melania Gaggini, Ralph DeFronzo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glucagon and GLP-1 share the same origin (i.e., proglucagon); primarily GLP-1 is generated from intestinal L-cells and glucagon from pancreatic α-cell, but intestinal glucagon and pancreatic GLP-1 secretion is likely. Glucose kinetics are tightly regulated by pancreatic hormones insulin and glucagon, but other hormones, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), also play an important role. The purpose of this review is to describe the recent findings on the mechanisms by which these two hormones regulate glucose kinetics...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441146/epigenetic-regulation-of-glucose-metabolism
#14
Sapna Sharma, Jennifer Kriebel, Harald Grallert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glucose metabolism is a central process in mammalian energy homeostasis. Its deregulation is a key factor in development of metabolic disease like diabetes and cancer. In recent decades, our understanding of gene regulation at the signaling, chromatin and posttranscriptional levels has seen dramatic developments. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of epigenetic mechanisms that do not affect the genetic code can be assessed with new technologies. However, increasing complexity becomes a major challenge for translation into clinical application...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403011/emerging-roles-of-lipid-metabolism-in-cancer-progression
#15
Cyril Corbet, Olivier Feron
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lipid metabolism in cancer cells and tumor-associated stromal cells was recently identified to contribute to disease progression particularly in response to changes in tumor microenvironment such as acidosis and hypoxia. RECENT FINDINGS: New molecular mechanisms driving lipid metabolism in various cancers were elicited through genetic silencing, pharmacological inhibition of key metabolic enzymes, including those involved in fatty acid oxidation and synthesis, and modulation of diet composition...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403010/prevention-of-metabolic-diseases-fruits-including-fruit-sugars-vs-vegetables
#16
Jessica N Kuzma, Kelsey A Schmidt, Mario Kratz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent evidence from observational and intervention studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and metabolic disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Observational studies have consistently demonstrated a modest inverse association between the intake of fruit and leafy green vegetables, but not total vegetables, and biomarkers of metabolic disease as well as incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is in contrast to limited evidence from recently published randomized controlled dietary intervention trials, which - in sum - suggests little to no impact of increased F&V consumption on biomarkers of metabolic disease...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399013/caspase-recruitment-domain-9-microbiota-and-tryptophan-metabolism-dangerous-liaisons-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#17
Bruno Lamas, Mathias L Richard, Harry Sokol
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) develop as a result of a combination of genetic predisposition, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, and environmental influences. Here, we describe an example of how caspase recruitment domain 9 (CARD9), one of the numerous IBD susceptibility genes, participate to colitis susceptibility by shaping gut microbiota to produce tryptophan metabolites. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent study showed that CARD9 mice are more susceptible to colitis as a result of impaired interleukin 22 signaling pathway...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399012/sweeteners-and-sweetness-enhancers
#18
Christine Belloir, Fabrice Neiers, Loïc Briand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review summarizes and discusses current knowledge on sweeteners and sweetness enhancers. RECENT FINDINGS: The perception of sweet taste is mediated by the type 1 taste receptor 2 (T1R2)/type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1R3) receptor, which is expressed in the oral cavity, where it provides input on the caloric and macronutrient contents of ingested food. This receptor recognizes all the compounds (natural or artificial) perceived as sweet by people...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383298/fructose-use-in-clinical-nutrition-metabolic-effects-and-potential-consequences
#19
Sandra Moulin, Gérald Seematter, Kevin Seyssel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current article presents recent findings on the metabolic effects of fructose. RECENT FINDINGS: Fructose has always been considered as a simple 'caloric' hexose only metabolized by splanchnic tissues. Nevertheless, there is growing evidence that fructose acts as a second messenger and induces effects throughout the human body. SUMMARY: Recent discoveries made possible with the evolution of technology have highlighted that fructose induces pleiotropic effects on different tissues...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375880/amp-activated-protein-kinase-fatty-acid-metabolism-and-insulin-sensitivity
#20
Brennan K Smith, Gregory R Steinberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Insulin resistance is an important risk factor for metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. A common characteristic of strategies that improve insulin sensitivity involves the activation of the energy sensing enzyme of the cell, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The purpose of this review is to explore the mechanisms associated with AMPK activation to improve insulin sensitivity with a focus on fatty acid metabolism...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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