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Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906700/update-on-lipid-species-and-paediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
Jake P Mann, Ariel E Feldstein, Valerio Nobili
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the recent advances in our understanding of fatty acids and lipids in paediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and their future implications. RECENT FINDINGS: Data have been accumulated to suggest that ceramides are the main drivers of hepatic insulin resistance in NAFLD, and inhibition of ceramide synthesis improves histology in mice.Saturated fatty acids formed by de novo lipogenesis generate increased lipotoxicity compared with dietary-derived saturated fatty acids...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753664/lipids-and-physical-function-in-older-adults
#2
Patricia Casas-Agustench, Antonio Cherubini, Cristina Andrés-Lacueva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Healthy aging is a public health priority. The maintenance of adequate physical function is recognized as a key element of healthy aging. In recent years, scientific evidence has increased concerning the ability of lipids, in particular omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), to positively influence muscle and overall physical function in older patients. The article will critically review observational as well as intervention studies on this topic, and it will elucidate the potential biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on physical function...
October 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755209/the-effects-of-exercise-on-muscle-strength-body-composition-physical-functioning-and-the-inflammatory-profile-of-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#3
Keliane Liberman, Louis N Forti, Ingo Beyer, Ivan Bautmans
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This systematic review reports the most recent literature regarding the effects of physical exercise on muscle strength, body composition, physical functioning and inflammation in older adults. All articles were assessed for methodological quality and where possible effect size was calculated. RECENT FINDINGS: Thirty-four articles were included - four involving frail, 24 healthy and five older adults with a specific disease. One reported on both frail and nonfrail patients...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749710/nutrition-and-aging-successfully
#4
John E Morley, Juergen Bauer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749714/the-relevance-of-nutrition-for-the-concept-of-cognitive-frailty
#5
Ligia J Dominguez, Mario Barbagallo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Physical and cognitive frailty are interrelated and synergistic syndromes more frequently seen in old age, which represent intermediate stages between aging successfully and disability. Poor nutrition is a fundamental determinant for both conditions, while various dietary components are proposed to prevent and/or improve them. This updated review discusses the possible influence of nutritional factors on cognitive frailty and its potential mediators. RECENT FINDINGS: Oxidative stress, low-grade systemic inflammation, neuroinflammation, and altered autophagy, all associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, are proposed mechanisms to explain the influence of nutrition on cognitive health...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749713/body-weight-and-body-composition-in-old-age-and-their-relationship-with-frailty
#6
Ilse Reinders, Marjolein Visser, Laura Schaap
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aging is associated with various changes in body composition, including changes in weight, loss of muscle mass, and increase in fat mass. This article describes the role of body weight and body composition, and their changes, in the risk of frailty in old age. RECENT FINDINGS: Based on current literature, observational studies on obesity and high waist circumference show most convincing results for an association with frailty. The independent role of muscle mass and muscle fat infiltration remains unclear, mainly due to a lack of studies and a lack of accurate measurement of body composition by computed tomography or MRI...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879520/editorial-introductions
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801686/protein-and-amino-acids-key-players-in-modulating-health-and-disease
#8
Rajavel Elango, Alessandro Laviano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801685/dietary-protein-intake-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#9
Gang Jee Ko, Yoshitsugu Obi, Amanda R Tortorici, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High-protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. This can cause damage to glomerular structure leading to or aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low-protein diet (LPD) of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day is often recommended for the management of CKD. We reviewed the effect of protein intake on incidence and progression of CKD and the role of LPD in the CKD management. RECENT FINDINGS: Actual dietary protein consumption in CKD patients remains substantially higher than the recommendations for LPD...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763893/implications-of-frailty-screening-in-clinical-practice
#10
Shosuke Satake, Hidenori Arai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many frailty screening instruments have been proposed due to the lack of consensus on a unified operational definition of frailty. This review reports on recent frailty screening tools in addition to revisiting the frailty concept. RECENT FINDINGS: Although there are two representative frailty models, both have issues that prevent them from being implemented in clinical settings despite their remarkable advantages. Due to their different characteristics, these models are thought to be complementary rather than substitutive...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749712/relevance-of-vitamin-d-in-the-pathogenesis-and-therapy-of-frailty
#11
Olivier Bruyère, Etienne Cavalier, Fanny Buckinx, Jean-Yves Reginster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recently published evidence regarding the role of vitamin D in the physiopathology of physical frailty in elderly populations and its role in the management of this geriatric condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Some recent studies have found a low level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, considered the best marker of vitamin D status, in frail individuals. All prospective studies consistently report that low vitamin D status is associated with an increased risk of becoming frail...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749711/dietary-protein-intake-and-quality-in-early-life-impact-on-growth-and-obesity
#12
Mads V Lind, Anni Larnkjær, Christian Mølgaard, Kim F Michaelsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is an increasing problem and high-protein intake early in life seems to increase later risk of obesity. This review summarizes recent publications in the area including observational and intervention studies and publications on underlying mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent observational and randomized controlled trials confirmed that high-protein intake in early life seems to increase early weight gain and the risk of later overweight and obesity...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749691/influence-of-l-citrulline-and-watermelon-supplementation-on-vascular-function-and-exercise-performance
#13
Arturo Figueroa, Alexei Wong, Salvador J Jaime, Joaquin U Gonzales
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: L-Citrulline, either synthetic or in watermelon, may improve vascular function through increased L-arginine bioavailability and nitric oxide synthesis. This article analyses potential vascular benefits of L-citrulline and watermelon supplementation at rest and during exercise. RECENT FINDINGS: There is clear evidence that acute L-citrulline ingestion increases plasma L-arginine, the substrate for endothelial nitric oxide synthesis. However, the subsequent acute improvement in nitric oxide production and mediated vasodilation is inconsistent, which likely explains the inability of acute L-citrulline or watermelon to improve exercise tolerance...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749690/anorexia-of-aging-and-its-role-for-frailty
#14
Angela M Sanford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to examine the concept of anorexia of aging, including its complex pathophysiology and the multifaceted interventions required to prevent adverse health consequences from this geriatric syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Anorexia of aging is extremely common, occurring in up to 30% of elderly individuals; however, this diagnosis is frequently missed or erroneously attributed to a normal part of the aging process. With aging, impairments in smell and taste can limit the desire to eat...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749689/glutamine-and-the-regulation-of-intestinal-permeability-from-bench-to-bedside
#15
Najate Achamrah, Pierre Déchelotte, Moïse Coëffier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in plasma and plays a key role in maintaining the integrity of intestinal barrier. RECENT FINDINGS: Experimental studies showed that glutamine is able to modulate intestinal permeability and tight junction protein expression in several conditions. Recent articles underlined its putative beneficial role in gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. SUMMARY: Glutamine is a major nutrient to maintain intestinal barrier function in animals and humans...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749767/risks-and-benefits-of-phytoestrogens-where-are-we-now
#16
Catherine Bennetau-Pelissero
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The estrogenic effects of genistein, as reconfirmed by the American National Toxicology Program (USA-NTP), have led to several new clinical studies being undertaken. Here, we highlight the most relevant recent data, reporting either beneficial or adverse effects. RECENT FINDINGS: Phytoestrogens are natural molecules from edible plants exhibiting estrogenic activities. Post-USA-NTP studies investigated both human and animal reproductive and other physiological issues...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749766/editorial-introductions
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583710/berries-their-micronutrients-and-bone-health
#18
Marie-Jeanne Davicco, Yohann Wittrant, Véronique Coxam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The design and the development of functional foods is a key issue for bone health and a scientific challenge as well. As most studies have focused on calcium, and have paid less attention to other nutrients, our knowledge of the influence of nutrition on bone health remains limited. It has been well acknowledged that the human diet contains a wide and complex range of bioactive molecules endowed with interesting protective properties. In this context, and according to their high content in micronutrients, a growing body of evidence has enlightened the high nutritional value of berries...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583709/overview-on-nutritional-issues-in-bariatric-surgery
#19
Ronan Thibault, Claude Pichard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the context of the worldwide obesity epidemic, bariatric surgery is the only therapy associated with a sustainable weight loss and to midterm prevention of obesity-related complications. However, nutritional and behavioral multidisciplinary medical preparation, as well as long-term postoperative nutritional follow-up, is strongly advised to avoid postoperative surgical, nutritional, or psychiatric complications. RECENT FINDINGS: Due to a long history of restrictive diets and large body weight fluctuations, preoperative nutritional assessment and correction of vitamin and trace elements deficiencies are mandatory...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583708/inflammation-and-biomarkers-of-micronutrient-status
#20
David I Thurnham, Christine A Northrop-Clewes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Investigations to discover new biomarkers of nutrition highlighted the fact that inflammation and infection were cross-cutting issues complicating interpretation of status. Collaborative groups of nutritionists, immunologists, clinicians and statisticians were set up to investigate the issues, and some are now reporting their findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent work on the vitamins A, D, E and C and the elements iron, zinc and selenium are reported in this review...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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