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Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806179/interpreting-magnesium-status-to-enhance-clinical-care-key-indicators
#1
Rebecca B Costello, Forrest Nielsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To update advances in identifying factors affecting magnesium (Mg) status that assist in providing improved evidence-based clinical decision-making for assessing Mg status. RECENT FINDINGS: Findings from recent cohort studies, small randomized control trials, and multiple meta-analyses reinforce earlier work that serum Mg concentrations, urinary Mg excretion, and Mg dietary intakes are inversely associated with cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806178/vitamin-d-and-osteosarcopenia-an-update-from-epidemiological-studies
#2
Olivier Bruyère, Etienne Cavalier, Jean-Yves Reginster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review summarizes recent epidemiological studies that examined the relationship between osteoporosis and sarcopenia to assess the impact of vitamin D status or supplementation on health outcomes related to these two medical conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are major public health problems, but whether these two diseases should be considered alone or combined into a single condition is not clear. No consensual definition of osteosarcopenia is largely accepted...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795972/acetate-a-diet-derived-key-metabolite-in-energy-metabolism-good-or-bad-in-context-of-obesity-and-glucose-homeostasis
#3
Emanuel E Canfora, Ellen E Blaak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent research findings on effects of the short-chain fatty acid acetate in the control of body weight, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis. For this purpose, relevant animal and human in-vivo studies were reviewed and putative mechanisms and pathways were discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Animal and human in-vivo studies provide strong indications for a beneficial role of orally ingested or colonically derived acetate, in the energy and substrate metabolism, thereby preventing or reversing the obese insulin-resistant phenotype...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795971/altered-satellite-cell-dynamics-accompany-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-during-chronic-illness-disuse-and-aging
#4
Colleen F McKenna, Christopher S Fry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review explores recent research investigating the contribution of satellite cells (skeletal muscle stem cells) during muscle fiber atrophy as seen in periods of disuse, illness, and aging. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies indicate reduced satellite cell activity and density in a variety of acute and chronic conditions characterized by robust muscle wasting. The direct contribution of satellite cells to unloading/denervation and chronic illness-induced atrophy remains controversial...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708669/the-role-of-hypothalamic-inflammation-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-serotonin-in-the-cancer-anorexia-cachexia-syndrome
#5
Klaske van Norren, Jvalini T Dwarkasing, Renger F Witkamp
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In cancer patients, the development of cachexia (muscle wasting) is frequently aggravated by anorexia (loss of appetite). Their concurrence is often referred to as anorexia-cachexia syndrome. This review focusses on the recent evidence underlining hypothalamic inflammation as key driver of these processes. Special attention is given to the involvement of hypothalamic serotonin. RECENT FINDINGS: The anorexia-cachexia syndrome is directly associated with higher mortality in cancer patients...
July 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768297/whats-app-ening-the-help-of-new-technologies-in-nutrition-in-digestive-diseases
#6
Dorit V Ankersen, Petra Weimers, Johan Burisch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study is to review the basic concepts of electronic health (eHealth), with a focus on its nutritional applications and its usefulness for digestive diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: eHealth applications for the treatment and monitoring of digestive disease are growing in number. ehealth helps patients in coping with their disease by promoting self-management, which increases adherence to medical treatment and diets, and leads to an improved quality of life...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768296/dietary-pattern-and-colonic-diverticulosis
#7
Antonio Tursi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To assess the role of dietary pattern on the occurrence of colonic diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis. RECENT FINDINGS: High-fiber diet does not prevent diverticulosis occurrence, and results about prevention/treatment of diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis are still conflicting.No association was seen between nut, corn or popcorn consumption and occurrence of diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768295/exclusive-enteral-nutrition-for-inducing-remission-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-paediatric-patients
#8
Amit Assa, Raanan Shamir
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Enteral nutrition as a treatment for inflammatory bowel diseases is an ongoing area of interest. Even in the era of biologic agents, exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) offers a unique, drug-free measure for induction of remission in luminal Crohn's disease. The purpose of this review is to discuss the role of EEN in the evolving therapeutic scheme for Crohn's disease, to report on new evidence for short and long-term efficacy and highlight findings on the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of EEN in light of current understanding of disease pathogenesis...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768294/measurement-of-metabolic-fluxes-using-stable-isotope-tracers-in-whole-animals-and-human-patients
#9
Julie A Reisz, Angelo D'Alessandro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic flux analysis using stable isotope labeled substrates allows for the tracing of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen atoms through metabolic pathways and is an invaluable tool for investigating dynamic metabolic changes occurring in health and disease. Studies of flux analysis in vivo are more technically challenging than in vitro or ex vivo but provide a highly detailed view of organ and/or systemic metabolism. We review here recent efforts in studies of diet and nutrition, non-small cell lung cancer, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and hemorrhagic shock where in vivo flux analysis was utilized to analyze metabolic modulation...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768293/%C3%AE-3-index-as-a-prognosis-tool-in-cardiovascular-disease
#10
Barbara A Fielding
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In 2004, the 'Ω-3 index' was described as the sum of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20 : 5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22 : 6 n-3) in red blood cells (RBCs) as an index of coronary heart disease mortality. This review outlines new evidence to support the Ω-3 index as a tool to inform disease prognosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have reported differential metabolism of EPA and DHA. High-dose supplementation with EPA and DHA led to increased levels of RBC DHA that were associated with decreased liver fat...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768292/assessing-inflammageing
#11
Ursula Müller-Werdan, Sebastian Nuding, Mario Ost
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immunosenescence has been scrutinized in detail, and evidence that inflammation and ageing are interrelated is consistent. Still, a gold standard for assessing the biological age of the immune function in an individual patient is lacking, so that immunosenescence is still not a quantifiable criterion in clinical decision-making processes. RECENT FINDINGS: This review highlights recent (partly ongoing) studies into biomarkers of inflammation to assess immunosenescence, including large-scale studies, and quotes expert opinion statements...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768291/a-requiem-for-bmi-in-the-clinical-setting
#12
Maria Cristina Gonzalez, Maria Isabel T D Correia, Steven B Heymsfield
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Quetelet reported in the nineteenth century that body weight varies across adults with the square of height. Quetelet's index, now known as BMI, is accepted by most health organizations as a first-level measure of body fat and as a screening tool for diagnosing excess adiposity. Modern imaging methods now, however, indicate that BMI has limited predictive value for estimating body fat and lean mass at the individual level. The use of BMI as a measure of body composition in the clinical setting should therefore be challenged...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763370/editorial-introductions
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650855/intermittent-vs-continuous-enteral-feeding-to-prevent-catabolism-in-acutely-ill-adult-and-pediatric-patients
#14
Filippo G Di Girolamo, Roberta Situlin, Nicola Fiotti, Gianni Biolo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In clinical management of acutely ill adults and children, continuous enteral feeding (CEF), being considered the most tolerable approach, in comparison to other temporal patterns of nutrient administration (i.e. intermittent, cyclic and bolus), is the most frequently applied method. However, uncertainties remain about the most efficient approach to counteract protein catabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: In critically ill adults, protein loss is mainly driven by increased protein breakdown whereas, in pediatric patients, acute illness is mainly characterized by blunted regulation of protein synthesis and stunted growth...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650854/recent-developments-in-deuterium-oxide-tracer-approaches-to-measure-rates-of-substrate-turnover-implications-for-protein-lipid-and-nucleic-acid-research
#15
Matthew S Brook, Daniel J Wilkinson, Philip J Atherton, Ken Smith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Methods that inform on dynamic metabolism that can be applied to clinical populations to understand disease progression and responses to therapeutic interventions are of great importance. This review perspective will highlight recent advances, development, and applications of the multivalent stable isotope tracer deuterium oxide (D2O) to the study of substrate metabolism with particular reference to protein, lipids, and nucleic acids, and how these methods can be readily applied within clinical and pharmaceutical research...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622192/editorial-old-tools-new-insights-assessment-of-nutritional-and-metabolic-status
#16
Kristina Norman, Dwight E Matthews
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617710/the-low-fodmap-diet-fundamental-therapy-in-the-management-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#17
Carol Ireton-Jones
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The low FODMAP diet is now recognized as first-line therapy for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms including abdominal pain, gas, bloating, diarrhea and or constipation. This information must be disseminated for application to clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: There are many people with IBS worldwide who can benefit from following the low FODMAP diet to alleviate or minimize symptoms. Clinical studies and trials demonstrating the positive outcomes of the low FODMAP diet have been based on diet education provided by dietitians...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617709/editorial
#18
Alastair Forbes, Maria Isabel T D Correia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617708/the-impact-of-nutrition-on-quality-of-life-of-patients-with-hepatitis-c
#19
Luciana D Silva, Tatiana Bering, Gifone A Rocha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to review the most recent aspects of nutrition and its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). RECENT FINDINGS: Low HRQOL scores have been found in all stages of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Of the factors linked to HRQOL, three aspects should be emphasized, nutritional status, physical activity and mental health status. Regarding the nutrition and metabolic conditions, a broad spectrum of nutritional disorders may impact on HRQOL of patients with CHC...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598896/assessing-pathophysiology-of-cancer-anorexia
#20
Alessandro Laviano, Angela Koverech, Marilia Seelaender
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cancer anorexia is a negative prognostic factor and is broadly defined as the loss of the interest in food. However, multiple clinical domains contribute to the phenotype of cancer anorexia. The characterization of the clinical and molecular pathophysiology of cancer anorexia may enhance the efficacy of preventive and therapeutic strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical trials showed that cancer anorexia should be considered as an umbrella encompassing different signs and symptoms contributing to appetite disruption in cancer patients...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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