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Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341970/does-the-use-of-indirect-calorimetry-change-outcome-in-the-icu-yes-it-does
#1
Elisabeth De Waele, Patrick M Honoré, Manu L N G Malbrain
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recent findings on metabolic monitoring and possible beneficial effects of an adequate nutrition therapy, based on indirect calorimetry as the golden standard to predict energy expenditure. RECENT FINDINGS: in the last decades, major steps are taken in the field of metabolism and nutrition, evolving from nutrition as a baseline support to a therapeutic intervention. The aspect of energy expenditure is of cardinal importance, and technical possibilities have impressively improved: from the first 'calorimetre' in 1789 to the new generation, clinical applicable indirect calorimeters and the high accuracy and easy use model reaching high technology readiness level [Oshima et al...
January 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256925/dispelling-myths-about-intravenous-fish-oil-based-lipid-emulsions-a-clinical-perspective
#2
Michele ApSimon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intravenous lipid emulsions (IVLEs) are an essential component of parenteral nutrition. With the recent incorporation of new lipid emulsions into the Canadian and American market, the clinician responsible for prescribing these lipids should be educated regarding the different fatty acid (FA) profiles of these lipids, as well as their metabolic and functional effects. RECENT FINDINGS: New IVLEs contain a mix of soybean oil and olive oil, or a mix of soybean oil, coconut oil, olive oil and fish oil...
December 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251692/is-refeeding-syndrome-relevant-for-critically-ill-patients
#3
Wilhelmina A C Koekkoek, Arthur R H Van Zanten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent relevant studies regarding refeeding syndrome (RFS) in critically ill patients and provide recommendations for clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent knowledge regarding epidemiology of refeeding syndrome among critically ill patients, how to identify ICU patients at risk, and strategies to reduce the potential negative impact on outcome are discussed. SUMMARY: RFS is a potentially fatal acute metabolic derangement that ultimately can result in marked morbidity and even mortality...
December 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251691/nutritional-metabolomics-in-critical-illness
#4
Kenneth B Christopher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Disruption of metabolic homeostasis is universal in the critically ill. Macronutrients and micronutrients are major environmental regulators of metabolite production through their gene regulation effects. The study of large numbers of circulating metabolites is beginning to emerge through the comprehensive profiling of the critically ill. In the critically ill, metabolomic studies consistently show that changes in fatty acids, lipids and tryptophan metabolite pathways are common and are associated with disease state and outcomes...
December 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232262/intermittent-versus-continuous-feeding-in-critically-ill-adults
#5
Jayshil J Patel, Martin D Rosenthal, Daren K Heyland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Early enteral nutrition is recommended in critically ill adult patients. The optimal method of administering enteral nutrition remains unknown. Continuous enteral nutrition administration in critically ill patients remains the most common practice worldwide; however, its practice has recently been called into question in favor of intermittent enteral nutrition administration, where volume is infused multiple times per day. This review will outline the key differences between continuous and intermittent enteral nutrition, describe the metabolic responses to continuous and intermittent enteral nutrition administration and outline recent studies comparing continuous with intermittent enteral nutrition administration on outcomes in critically ill adults...
December 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232261/long-chain-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-cancer-any-cause-for-concern
#6
Simona Serini, Gabriella Calviello
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recently, concerns have been raised with regard to the recommended doses of marine long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-omega-3 PUFAs) especially in relation to cancer risk and treatment. There is urgent need to clarify this point. This review considers the most recent evidence related to the potential risk of developing cancer with high LC-omega-3 PUFA intakes, and possible research strategies to better elucidate this matter. RECENT FINDINGS: The latest published recommendations have still highlighted the usefulness of an increased dietary intake of LC-omega-3 PUFAs for the prevention of some cardiovascular diseases...
December 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227331/unravelling-new-pathways-of-sterol-metabolism-lessons-learned-from-in-born-errors-and-cancer
#7
Yuqin Wang, William J Griffiths
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To update researchers of recently discovered metabolites of cholesterol and of its precursors and to suggest relevant metabolic pathways. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients suffering from inborn errors of sterol biosynthesis, transport and metabolism display unusual metabolic pathways, which may be major routes in the diseased state but minor in the healthy individual. Although quantitatively minor, these pathways may still be important in healthy individuals...
December 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232264/fish-oil-derived-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-sarcopenia
#8
Stuart R Gray, Bettina Mittendorfer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Muscle mass and function decline progressively starting in middle age, which can result in sarcopenia and affect people's mobility and independence later in life. Exercise training and increased protein intake are typically recommended to counteract the age-associated decline in muscle mass and function. However, few people comply with exercise recommendations and the effectiveness of high-protein intake to halt the decline in muscle mass and function has not been proven...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232263/can-the-critically-ill-patient-generate-sufficient-energy-to-facilitate-exercise-in-the-icu
#9
Danielle E Bear, Selina M Parry, Zudin A Puthucheary
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Trials of physical rehabilitation post critical illness have yet to deliver improved health-related quality of life in critical illness survivors. Muscle mass and strength are lost rapidly in critical illness and a proportion of patients continue to do so resulting in increased mortality and functional disability. Addressing this issue is therefore fundamental for recovery from critical illness. RECENT FINDINGS: Altered mitochondrial function occurs in the critically ill and is likely to result in decreased adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) production...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200030/resveratrol-for-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-hype-or-hope
#10
Rosanne J H C G Beijers, Harry R Gosker, Annemie M W J Schols
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease with a high prevalence of extrapulmonary manifestations and, frequently, cardiovascular comorbidity. Resveratrol is a food-derived compound with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, metabolic and cardioprotective potential. Therefore, resveratrol might improve the pulmonary as well as extrapulmonary pathology in COPD. In this review, we will evaluate knowledge on the effects of resveratrol on lung injury, muscle metabolism and cardiovascular risk profile and discuss if resveratrol is a hype or hope for patients with COPD...
December 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206690/mechanisms-regulating-brain-docosahexaenoic-acid-uptake-what-is-the-recent-evidence
#11
Raphaël Chouinard-Watkins, R J Scott Lacombe, Richard P Bazinet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent advances pertaining to the mechanisms regulating brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) uptake. DHA is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid highly enriched in neuronal membranes and it is implicated in several important neurological processes. However, DHA synthesis is extremely limited within the brain. RECENT FINDINGS: There are two main plasma pools that supply the brain with DHA: the nonesterified pool and the lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPtdCho) pool...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206689/placental-fatty-acid-transfer
#12
Rohan M Lewis, Christian Wadsack, Gernot Desoye
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review outlines recent advances in placental lipid transport in relation to maternal metabolic status and pregnancy outcome. A particular focus of this review will be on the way these findings may influence our understanding of placental transfer of the essential fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) which is crucial for fetal neurodevelopment and of lipid transfer as a predisposing factor for childhood obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Placental metabolism may determine the quantity and composition of fatty acids delivered to the fetus...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211698/branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolism-in-cancer
#13
Elitsa A Ananieva, Adam C Wilkinson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review aims to provide an update on the recent biomedical interest in oncogenic branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism, and discusses the advantages of using BCAAs and expression of BCAA-related enzymes in the treatment and diagnosis of cancers. RECENT FINDINGS: An accumulating body of evidence demonstrates that BCAAs are essential nutrients for cancer growth and are used by tumors in various biosynthetic pathways and as a source of energy...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049044/the-relevance-of-healthy-diets-for-the-prevention-of-frailty-and-cognitive-impairment
#14
Jürgen M Bauer, John E Morley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045254/nutritional-interventions-in-sarcopenia-where-do-we-stand
#15
Jean Woo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To document recent evidence regarding the role of nutrition as an intervention for sarcopenia. RECENT FINDINGS: A review of seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) alone on muscle loss in 147 adults showed greater muscle mass gain in the intervention group, but no benefit in muscle strength and physical performance measures. Three other review articles examined nutrition and exercise as combined intervention, and suggest enhancement of benefits of exercise by nutrition supplements (energy, protein, vitamin D)...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035973/the-relevance-of-dietary-protein-after-bariatric-surgery-what-do-we-know
#16
Nele Steenackers, Ina Gesquiere, Christophe Matthys
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The growing obesity epidemic is associated with an increased demand for bariatric surgery with Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy as the most widely performed procedures. Despite beneficial consequences, nutritional complications may arise because of anatomical and physiological changes of the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the recent additions to our understanding of the impact of bariatric surgery on the intake, digestion and absorption of dietary protein...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035971/dietary-patterns-and-cognition-in-older-persons
#17
Angela M Abbatecola, Marcello Russo, Michelangela Barbieri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current article reviews recently published evidence of the important role that specific dietary patterns may hold on preventing cognitive impairment and dementia over aging. RECENT FINDINGS: Specific dietary patterns attributed to targeting cardiovascular risk factors may protect against the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia, especially Alzheimer's disease. Numerous epidemiological studies have strongly suggested that multinutrient approaches using the Mediterranean diet (Med diet), dietary approach to systolic hypertension (DASH) and the Mediterranean-DASH diet intervention for neurodegenerative delay (MIND) are associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment, MCI and Alzheimer's disease in older persons...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035968/the-final-word-on-nutritional-screening-and-assessment-in-older-persons
#18
Emanuele Cereda, Nicola Veronese, Riccardo Caccialanza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an updated perspective of how nutritional screening and assessment in older persons should be performed and reasonably implemented in the near future. RECENT FINDINGS: Although nutritional screening and assessment should be fast and easy procedures, there is increasing evidence that more time should be dedicated to them. This is probably an answer to the claim to a medicine being more preventive than curative. Increasing interest is currently given to healthy aging and nutritional status is more likely to be addressed for its implications on functional status and disability...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028650/fast-digestive-proteins-and-sarcopenia-of-aging
#19
Yves Boirie, Christelle Guillet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The speed of dietary protein digestion influences postprandial amino acid availability which is crucial for improving altered anabolic response of skeletal muscle one feature of sarcopenia during aging. RECENT FINDINGS: By analogy with carbohydrate and in reference to their absorption rate, dietary proteins can be classified as 'fast' or 'slow' proteins depending on matrix food structure and technological processes, which can influence amino acids availability and their subsequent metabolic actions...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016367/updates-in-nutrition-and-polypharmacy
#20
Milta O Little
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Medications have the potential to affect nutritional status in negative ways, especially as the number of medications increase. The inter-relation between polypharmacy and malnutrition is complex and not fully delineated in previous studies. More research has been done and compiled in the last year, which helps to clarify this relationship. This review brings together the most recent literature with the previous research to help healthcare providers to better assess and manage medication therapy in older adults...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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