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Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030368/sphingolipids-ormdl3-and-asthma-what-is-the-evidence
#1
Tilla S Worgall
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genome-wide association studies identified ORMDL3, a protein of the endoplasmic reticulum, as a significant asthma risk factor. ORMDL3 is one of three ORMDL proteins that integrate multiple signals to maintain sphingolipid homeostasis. Studies that investigated potential mechanisms for how increased ORMDL3 might affect asthma are summarized. RECENT FINDINGS: Investigations focused on decreased sphingolipid synthesis and on the unfolded protein response because ORMDL3 had been implicated in both...
December 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002075/what-factors-influence-protein-synthesis-and-degradation-in-critical-illness
#2
Filippo G Di Girolamo, Roberta Situlin, Gianni Biolo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The optimal approach to improve protein metabolism in critical illness is not yet fully defined. Here, we have summarized recent literature dealing with the main catabolic and anabolic factors influencing protein kinetics in acute hypercatabolic patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Protein/amino acid intake levels should be adapted to type and severity of illness, keeping in mind that energy overfeeding is associated with poor outcome. A number of anticatabolic nutraceuticals and drugs have been tested in acute patients...
December 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002074/resolving-inflammation-by-using-nutrition-therapy-roles-for-specialized-proresolving-mediators
#3
Lucy V Norling, Lucy Ly, Jesmond Dalli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammation is a unifying component of many of the diseases that afflict Western civilizations. Nutrition therapy and, in particular, essential fatty acid supplementation is one of the approaches that is currently in use for the treatment and management of many inflammatory conditions. The purpose of the present review is to discuss the recent literature in light of the discovery that essential fatty acids are converted by the body to a novel genus of lipid mediators, termed specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs)...
December 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997410/influence-of-nutrition-therapy-on-the-intestinal-microbiome
#4
Monika A Krezalek, Andrew Yeh, John C Alverdy, Michael Morowitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the relationship between nutritional therapies and the intestinal microbiome of critically ill patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The intestinal microbiome of the critically ill displays a near complete loss of health-promoting microbiota with overgrowth of virulent healthcare-associated pathogens. Early enteral nutrition within 24 h of admission to the ICU has been advocated in medical and surgical patients to avoid derangements of the intestinal epithelium and the microbiome associated with starvation...
December 16, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984234/fine-tuning-inflammation-resolution-programs-focus-on-atherosclerosis
#5
Gabrielle Fredman, Sudeshna Sadhu, Nicholas Rymut
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonresolving inflammation is now considered the underpinning of several prevalent human diseases, including atherosclerosis. The resolution of inflammation is a highly coordinated program to counterbalance proinflammatory signals for a swift return to tissue homeostasis. This process is controlled in part by endogenous specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs). Emerging evidence has revealed that the balance of SPMs and proinflammatory mediators during acute inflammation regulates the duration of the inflammatory response and the timing of tissue resolution...
December 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977429/fish-consumption-and-omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-for-prevention-or-treatment-of-cognitive-decline-dementia-or-alzheimer-s-disease-in-older-adults-any-news
#6
Tommy Cederholm
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Twenty years of research indicates that fish and n-3 fatty acids (FAs), for example docosahexaenoic acid, may attenuate cognitive decline including Alzheimer's disease in older people. This review concerns reports during 2015-2016 in humans. RECENT FINDINGS: One prospective cohort study showed that seafood consumption was related to less neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in brain autopsies from elderly care residents. In a large 5-year intervention no effects on cognition could be shown either in n-3 FA supplemented or in control patients...
December 12, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941357/nutrient-deficiencies-prior-to-bariatric-surgery
#7
Lori R Roust, John K DiBaise
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update of recent additions to our understanding of the prevalence of nutrient deficiencies and the potential role of preoperative weight loss in contributing to these deficiencies in obese individuals planning to undergo bariatric surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports that have included bariatric surgery candidates from sites around the world have shown consistent deficiencies in a variety of nutrients...
December 9, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906700/update-on-lipid-species-and-paediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
Jake P Mann, Ariel E Feldstein, Valerio Nobili
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the recent advances in our understanding of fatty acids and lipids in paediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and their future implications. RECENT FINDINGS: Data have been accumulated to suggest that ceramides are the main drivers of hepatic insulin resistance in NAFLD, and inhibition of ceramide synthesis improves histology in mice.Saturated fatty acids formed by de novo lipogenesis generate increased lipotoxicity compared with dietary-derived saturated fatty acids...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879520/editorial-introductions
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801686/protein-and-amino-acids-key-players-in-modulating-health-and-disease
#10
Rajavel Elango, Alessandro Laviano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801685/dietary-protein-intake-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
Gang Jee Ko, Yoshitsugu Obi, Amanda R Tortorici, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High-protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. This can cause damage to glomerular structure leading to or aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low-protein diet (LPD) of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day is often recommended for the management of CKD. We reviewed the effect of protein intake on incidence and progression of CKD and the role of LPD in the CKD management. RECENT FINDINGS: Actual dietary protein consumption in CKD patients remains substantially higher than the recommendations for LPD...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763893/implications-of-frailty-screening-in-clinical-practice
#12
Shosuke Satake, Hidenori Arai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many frailty screening instruments have been proposed due to the lack of consensus on a unified operational definition of frailty. This review reports on recent frailty screening tools in addition to revisiting the frailty concept. RECENT FINDINGS: Although there are two representative frailty models, both have issues that prevent them from being implemented in clinical settings despite their remarkable advantages. Due to their different characteristics, these models are thought to be complementary rather than substitutive...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755209/the-effects-of-exercise-on-muscle-strength-body-composition-physical-functioning-and-the-inflammatory-profile-of-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#13
Keliane Liberman, Louis N Forti, Ingo Beyer, Ivan Bautmans
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This systematic review reports the most recent literature regarding the effects of physical exercise on muscle strength, body composition, physical functioning and inflammation in older adults. All articles were assessed for methodological quality and where possible effect size was calculated. RECENT FINDINGS: Thirty-four articles were included - four involving frail, 24 healthy and five older adults with a specific disease. One reported on both frail and nonfrail patients...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753664/lipids-and-physical-function-in-older-adults
#14
Patricia Casas-Agustench, Antonio Cherubini, Cristina Andrés-Lacueva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Healthy aging is a public health priority. The maintenance of adequate physical function is recognized as a key element of healthy aging. In recent years, scientific evidence has increased concerning the ability of lipids, in particular omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), to positively influence muscle and overall physical function in older patients. The article will critically review observational as well as intervention studies on this topic, and it will elucidate the potential biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on physical function...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749714/the-relevance-of-nutrition-for-the-concept-of-cognitive-frailty
#15
Ligia J Dominguez, Mario Barbagallo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Physical and cognitive frailty are interrelated and synergistic syndromes more frequently seen in old age, which represent intermediate stages between aging successfully and disability. Poor nutrition is a fundamental determinant for both conditions, while various dietary components are proposed to prevent and/or improve them. This updated review discusses the possible influence of nutritional factors on cognitive frailty and its potential mediators. RECENT FINDINGS: Oxidative stress, low-grade systemic inflammation, neuroinflammation, and altered autophagy, all associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, are proposed mechanisms to explain the influence of nutrition on cognitive health...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749712/relevance-of-vitamin-d-in-the-pathogenesis-and-therapy-of-frailty
#16
Olivier Bruyère, Etienne Cavalier, Fanny Buckinx, Jean-Yves Reginster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recently published evidence regarding the role of vitamin D in the physiopathology of physical frailty in elderly populations and its role in the management of this geriatric condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Some recent studies have found a low level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, considered the best marker of vitamin D status, in frail individuals. All prospective studies consistently report that low vitamin D status is associated with an increased risk of becoming frail...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749711/dietary-protein-intake-and-quality-in-early-life-impact-on-growth-and-obesity
#17
Mads V Lind, Anni Larnkjær, Christian Mølgaard, Kim F Michaelsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is an increasing problem and high-protein intake early in life seems to increase later risk of obesity. This review summarizes recent publications in the area including observational and intervention studies and publications on underlying mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent observational and randomized controlled trials confirmed that high-protein intake in early life seems to increase early weight gain and the risk of later overweight and obesity...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749710/nutrition-and-aging-successfully
#18
John E Morley, Jürgen M Bauer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749691/influence-of-l-citrulline-and-watermelon-supplementation-on-vascular-function-and-exercise-performance
#19
Arturo Figueroa, Alexei Wong, Salvador J Jaime, Joaquin U Gonzales
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: L-Citrulline, either synthetic or in watermelon, may improve vascular function through increased L-arginine bioavailability and nitric oxide synthesis. This article analyses potential vascular benefits of L-citrulline and watermelon supplementation at rest and during exercise. RECENT FINDINGS: There is clear evidence that acute L-citrulline ingestion increases plasma L-arginine, the substrate for endothelial nitric oxide synthesis. However, the subsequent acute improvement in nitric oxide production and mediated vasodilation is inconsistent, which likely explains the inability of acute L-citrulline or watermelon to improve exercise tolerance...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749690/anorexia-of-aging-and-its-role-for-frailty
#20
Angela M Sanford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to examine the concept of anorexia of aging, including its complex pathophysiology and the multifaceted interventions required to prevent adverse health consequences from this geriatric syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Anorexia of aging is extremely common, occurring in up to 30% of elderly individuals; however, this diagnosis is frequently missed or erroneously attributed to a normal part of the aging process. With aging, impairments in smell and taste can limit the desire to eat...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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