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Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306567/use-of-parenteral-nutrition-in-the-pediatric-icu-should-we-panic-because-of-pepanic
#1
Berthold Koletzko, Olivier Goulet, Frank Jochum, Raanan Shamir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257333/recent-advances-for-measurement-of-protein-synthesis-rates-use-of-the-virtual-biopsy-approach-and-measurement-of-muscle-mass
#2
Marc Hellerstein, William Evans
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Flux-rate measurements of protein synthesis and breakdown (turnover) in muscle represent an ideal class of mechanism-based biomarkers for conditions of altered muscle mass and function. We describe here new metabolic labeling techniques for flux-rate measurements in humans, focusing on skeletal muscle. RECENT FINDINGS: Dynamics of the muscle proteome are accurately measured in humans by combining long-term heavy water labeling with tandem mass spectrometry...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257332/parathyroid-hormone-stimulates-adipose-tissue-browning-a-pathway-to-muscle-wasting
#3
Sandhya S Thomas, William E Mitch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studying organ-to-organ communications (i.e. crosstalk) uncovers mechanisms regulating metabolism in several tissues. What is missing is identification of mediators of different catabolic conditions contributing to losses of adipose and muscle tissues. Identifying mediators involved in organ-to-organ crosstalk could lead to innovative therapeutic strategies because several disorders such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), cancer cachexia, and other catabolic conditions share signals of worsening metabolism and increased risk of mortality...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257331/vitamin-d-and-muscle-trophicity
#4
Carla Domingues-Faria, Yves Boirie, Stéphane Walrand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review recent findings on the involvement of vitamin D in skeletal muscle trophicity. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitamin D deficiencies are associated with reduced muscle mass and strength, and its supplementation seems effective to improve these parameters in vitamin D-deficient study participants. Latest investigations have also evidenced that vitamin D is essential in muscle development and repair. In particular, it modulates skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230703/omics-and-cachexia
#5
Brigitte Twelkmeyer, Nicolas Tardif, Olav Rooyackers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to recapture recent advances in cachexia-related diseases, mainly cancer cachexia, and treatment using genomic, transcriptomics, proteomic, and metabolomics-related techniques. RECENT FINDINGS: From recent studies in the cancer cachexia field it is clear that the tumor has a direct effect on distant organs via its secretome. The affected pathways on the other hand were largely known from earlier studies with changes in energy-related pathways (mainly lipid metabolism) and the protein degradation pathways...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230702/does-infant-feeding-modulate-the-manifestation-of-celiac-disease-and-type-1-diabetes
#6
Caroline R Meijer, Valentina Discepolo, Riccardo Troncone, Maria L Mearin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review aims to critically discuss the role of infant feeding in the development of celiac disease and type 1 diabetes (T1D). RECENT FINDINGS: Prospective observational and randomized interventional studies show that breastfeeding (BF) or BF during gluten introduction does not reduce the risk of developing CD, but high gluten consumption before age 2 years increased the risk in Swedish children.Despite evidence from retrospective studies, prospective trials failed to find a protective effect of breastfeeding against the risk of T1D development...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207424/skeletal-muscle-wasting-new-role-of-nonclassical-renin-angiotensin-system
#7
Claudio Cabello-Verrugio, Juan C Rivera, Dominga Garcia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skeletal muscle can be affected by many physiological and pathological conditions that contribute to the development of muscle weakness, including skeletal muscle loss, inflammatory processes, or fibrosis. Therefore, research into therapeutic treatment alternatives or alleviation of these effects on skeletal muscle is of great importance. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that angiotensin (1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] - a vasoactive peptide of the nonclassical axis in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) - and its Mas receptor are expressed in skeletal muscle...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207425/evidence-based-interventions-for-improvement-of-maternal-and-child-nutrition-in-low-income-settings-what-s-new
#8
Tyler Vaivada, Michelle F Gaffey, Jai K Das, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maternal and child malnutrition continues to disproportionately affect low and middle-income countries, contributing to high rates of morbidity, mortality, and suboptimal development. This article reviews evidence from recent systematic reviews and studies on the effectiveness of interventions to improve nutritional status in these especially vulnerable populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Macronutrients provided to expectant mothers in the form of balanced protein energy supplements can improve fetal growth and birth outcomes, and new research suggests that lipid nutrient supplements can reduce both stunting and wasting in newborns...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141618/editorial-introductions
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030368/sphingolipids-ormdl3-and-asthma-what-is-the-evidence
#10
Tilla S Worgall
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genome-wide association studies identified ORMDL3, a protein of the endoplasmic reticulum, as a significant asthma risk factor. ORMDL3 is one of three ORMDL proteins that integrate multiple signals to maintain sphingolipid homeostasis. Studies that investigated potential mechanisms for how increased ORMDL3 might affect asthma are summarized. RECENT FINDINGS: Investigations focused on decreased sphingolipid synthesis and on the unfolded protein response because ORMDL3 had been implicated in both...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002075/what-factors-influence-protein-synthesis-and-degradation-in-critical-illness
#11
Filippo G Di Girolamo, Roberta Situlin, Gianni Biolo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The optimal approach to improve protein metabolism in critical illness is not yet fully defined. Here, we have summarized recent literature dealing with the main catabolic and anabolic factors influencing protein kinetics in acute hypercatabolic patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Protein/amino acid intake levels should be adapted to type and severity of illness, keeping in mind that energy overfeeding is associated with poor outcome. A number of anticatabolic nutraceuticals and drugs have been tested in acute patients...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002074/resolving-inflammation-by-using-nutrition-therapy-roles-for-specialized-proresolving-mediators
#12
Lucy V Norling, Lucy Ly, Jesmond Dalli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammation is a unifying component of many of the diseases that afflict Western civilizations. Nutrition therapy and, in particular, essential fatty acid supplementation is one of the approaches that is currently in use for the treatment and management of many inflammatory conditions. The purpose of the present review is to discuss the recent literature in light of the discovery that essential fatty acids are converted by the body to a novel genus of lipid mediators, termed specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs)...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997410/influence-of-nutrition-therapy-on-the-intestinal-microbiome
#13
Monika A Krezalek, Andrew Yeh, John C Alverdy, Michael Morowitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the relationship between nutritional therapies and the intestinal microbiome of critically ill patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The intestinal microbiome of the critically ill displays a near complete loss of health-promoting microbiota with overgrowth of virulent healthcare-associated pathogens. Early enteral nutrition within 24 h of admission to the ICU has been advocated in medical and surgical patients to avoid derangements of the intestinal epithelium and the microbiome associated with starvation...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984234/fine-tuning-inflammation-resolution-programs-focus-on-atherosclerosis
#14
Gabrielle Fredman, Sudeshna Sadhu, Nicholas Rymut
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonresolving inflammation is now considered the underpinning of several prevalent human diseases, including atherosclerosis. The resolution of inflammation is a highly coordinated program to counterbalance proinflammatory signals for a swift return to tissue homeostasis. This process is controlled in part by endogenous specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs). Emerging evidence has revealed that the balance of SPMs and proinflammatory mediators during acute inflammation regulates the duration of the inflammatory response and the timing of tissue resolution...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977429/fish-consumption-and-omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-for-prevention-or-treatment-of-cognitive-decline-dementia-or-alzheimer-s-disease-in-older-adults-any-news
#15
Tommy Cederholm
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Twenty years of research indicates that fish and n-3 fatty acids (FAs), for example docosahexaenoic acid, may attenuate cognitive decline including Alzheimer's disease in older people. This review concerns reports during 2015-2016 in humans. RECENT FINDINGS: One prospective cohort study showed that seafood consumption was related to less neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in brain autopsies from elderly care residents. In a large 5-year intervention no effects on cognition could be shown either in n-3 FA supplemented or in control patients...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941357/nutrient-deficiencies-prior-to-bariatric-surgery
#16
Lori R Roust, John K DiBaise
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update of recent additions to our understanding of the prevalence of nutrient deficiencies and the potential role of preoperative weight loss in contributing to these deficiencies in obese individuals planning to undergo bariatric surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports that have included bariatric surgery candidates from sites around the world have shown consistent deficiencies in a variety of nutrients...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906700/update-on-lipid-species-and-paediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#17
Jake P Mann, Ariel E Feldstein, Valerio Nobili
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the recent advances in our understanding of fatty acids and lipids in paediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and their future implications. RECENT FINDINGS: Data have been accumulated to suggest that ceramides are the main drivers of hepatic insulin resistance in NAFLD, and inhibition of ceramide synthesis improves histology in mice.Saturated fatty acids formed by de novo lipogenesis generate increased lipotoxicity compared with dietary-derived saturated fatty acids...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801686/protein-and-amino-acids-key-players-in-modulating-health-and-disease
#18
Rajavel Elango, Alessandro Laviano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801685/dietary-protein-intake-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#19
Gang Jee Ko, Yoshitsugu Obi, Amanda R Tortorici, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High-protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. This can cause damage to glomerular structure leading to or aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low-protein diet (LPD) of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day is often recommended for the management of CKD. We reviewed the effect of protein intake on incidence and progression of CKD and the role of LPD in the CKD management. RECENT FINDINGS: Actual dietary protein consumption in CKD patients remains substantially higher than the recommendations for LPD...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763893/implications-of-frailty-screening-in-clinical-practice
#20
Shosuke Satake, Hidenori Arai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many frailty screening instruments have been proposed due to the lack of consensus on a unified operational definition of frailty. This review reports on recent frailty screening tools in addition to revisiting the frailty concept. RECENT FINDINGS: Although there are two representative frailty models, both have issues that prevent them from being implemented in clinical settings despite their remarkable advantages. Due to their different characteristics, these models are thought to be complementary rather than substitutive...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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