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Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

Ahlia Sekkarie, Jean A Welsh, Miriam B Vos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The primary treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is lifestyle change, including a healthier diet. However, there are no agreed upon expert recommendations for a specific diet in the prevention or treatment of NAFLD. In this study, we review studies published between 2015 and 2017 contributing to further understanding of the role of diet in the development and progression of NAFLD, particularly those addressing sugars and dietary patterns...
May 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
George Grimble
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Lore Billiauws, Olivier Corcos, Francisca Joly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a rare disease but with many complications due to intestinal failure, parenteral nutrition and underlying disease. A better prevention, comprehension and treatment could improve the outcome of these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have been published on acute intestinal failure, first cause of SBS, and gives us strategy to avoid extended intestinal resection and thus SBS. There has been progress in the comprehension of intestinal adaptation, characterized by improvements in intestinal absorption, changes on hormonal secretion, development of a hyperphagia and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota...
April 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Hai-Bin Ruan, Peter A Crawford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ketone body metabolism is a dynamic and integrated metabolic node in human physiology, whose roles include but extend beyond alternative fuel provision during carbohydrate restriction. Here we discuss the most recent observations suggesting that ketosis coordinates cellular function via epigenomic regulation. RECENT FINDINGS: Ketosis has been linked to covalent modifications, including lysine acetylation, methylation, and hydroxybutyrylation, to key histones that serve as dynamic regulators of chromatin architecture and gene transcription...
April 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Sally Chiu, Kathleen Mulligan, Jean-Marc Schwarz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent evidence for the role of dietary carbohydrate in de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). RECENT FINDINGS: A large body of evidence suggests that increased hepatic DNL is a significant pathway contributing to the development of NAFLD. Dietary carbohydrates, in particular, fructose, have been shown to stimulate DNL and increase liver fat, although it is debated whether this is due to excess energy or fructose per se...
April 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
James G Ryall, Gordon S Lynch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss how innate muscle stem-cell metabolism and nutrient availability can provide temporal regulation of chromatin accessibility and transcription. RECENT FINDINGS: Fluorescence-activated cell sorting coupled with whole transcriptome sequencing revealed for the first time that quiescent and proliferating skeletal muscle stem cells exhibit a process of metabolic reprogramming, from fatty-acid oxidation during quiescence to glycolysis during proliferation...
April 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Priscila Sala, M L Corrêa-Giannella, Dan L Waitzberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review provides an overview of recent literature on new findings related to bariatric surgery and gut gene expression. RECENT FINDINGS: Bariatric surgery modulates the expression of intestinal genes. Experimental and clinical investigations have demonstrated the association of gut rearrangement with changes in intestinal expression of genes related to glucose metabolism. Recent data suggest that bariatric surgery also affects expression of genes belonging to other pathways, including nutrient transporters and metabolism of vitamin B12, decreasing pathway-encoding genes that may contribute to vitamin B12 deficiency in the postoperative period...
April 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Kevin D Hall, Stephanie T Chung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Summarize the physiological effects of low-carbohydrate diets as they relate to weight loss, glycemic control, and metabolic health. RECENT FINDINGS: Low-carbohydrate diets are at least as effective for weight loss as other diets, but claims about increased energy expenditure and preferential loss of body fat are unsubstantiated. Glycemic control and hyperinsulinemia are improved by low-carbohydrate diets, but insulin sensitivity and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion may be impaired, especially in the absence of weight loss...
April 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Julie Rodriguez, Sophie Hiel, Nathalie M Delzenne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gut dysbiosis was recently associated with the occurrence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In addition to this finding, an increasing number of studies performed upon the last 5 years have also shown that metformin treatment leads to changes in gut bacterial composition in diabetic patients. This review focuses on the articles describing the effects of metformin on gut homeostasis (including the gut microbiota) and proposes potential mechanisms involved in those effects. RECENT FINDINGS: Several human and animal studies emphasized that metformin alters the gut microbiota composition by enhancing the growth of some bacteria, such as Akkermansia muciniphila, Escherichia spp...
April 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Annic Baumgartner, Katja Hoskin, Philipp Schuetz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malnutrition before and during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Yet, optimal use of nutritional support to improve outcomes remains controversial. Our aim was to do an up-to-date literature review regarding nutritional therapy in allogeneic HSCT, the neutropenic diet and the use of immunonutrients. RECENT FINDINGS: Several observational studies find malnutrition to be associated with poor outcome, increased complications and lower overall survival...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Najate Achamrah, Agnès Ditisheim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although not fully understood, the physiopathology of preeclampsia is thought to involve an abnormal placentation, diffuse endothelial cell dysfunction and increased systemic inflammation. As micronutrients play a key role in placental endothelial function, oxidative stress and expression of angiogenic factors, periconceptional micronutrient supplementation has been proposed to reduce the risk of preeclampsia. However, recent studies reported conflicting results. RECENT FINDINGS: Calcium intake (>1 g/day) may reduce the risk of preeclampsia in women with low-calcium diet...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Etienne Nel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in our understanding of the treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in a resource-limited environment are needed to improve outcome. RECENT FINDINGS: Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) made from local products and with reduced milk content lower costs and may be effective in older children. None of the therapeutic foods used to treat severely malnourished children correct long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiencies.Routine short-term antibiotic (amoxicillin) treatment, in the context of adequate healthcare supervision, does not improve the recovery rate...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Kamilla G Eriksen, Sophie H Christensen, Mads V Lind, Kim F Michaelsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights relevant studies published between 2015 and 2017 on human milk composition and the association with infant growth. RECENT FINDINGS: High-quality studies investigating how human milk composition is related to infant growth are sparse. Recent observational studies show that human milk concentrations of protein, fat, and carbohydrate likely have important influence on infant growth and body composition. Furthermore, some observational studies examining human milk oligosaccharides and hormone concentrations suggest functional relevance to infant growth...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Martin Schwarzer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the recent discoveries about the impact of intestinal microbiota on mammalian host juvenile growth. RECENT FINDINGS: Intestinal microbiota is a powerful modulator of many facets of multicellular host's physiology. Recent results from human field studies and animal research have clearly shown that not only the nutrition, but also the intestinal microbiota impacts host postnatal growth kinetics. Absence of microbiome leads to stunted growth in mammalian gnotobiotic models and changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota can impact the postnatal growth kinetics both positively and negatively under normal nutritional conditions as well as in undernutrition...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Luise V Marino, Philippa C Thomas, Robert M Beattie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The development of nutritional screening tools has done much to raise the profile of nutrition and encourage healthcare practitioners to consider how to identify children at nutritional risk. However, the next challenge is to ensure nutritional screening accurately identifies those who have immediate and ongoing risk and therefore the potential to impact on it. RECENT FINDINGS: In this article, we review recent evidence which suggests that the large-scale use of these tools outside of a research setting is not always helpful...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Luc Tappy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is increasing concern that dietary fructose may contribute to the development of noncommunicable diseases. This review identifies major new findings related to fructose's physiological or adverse effects. RECENT FINDINGS: Fructose is mainly processed in splanchnic organs (gut, liver, kidneys) to glucose, lactate, and fatty acids, which can then be oxidized in extrasplanchnic organs and tissues. There is growing evidence that splanchnic lactate production, linked to extrasplanchnic lactate metabolism, represents a major fructose disposal pathway during and after exercise...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Mariëlle P K J Engelen, Nicolaas E P Deutz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been used for many years in athletes for muscle buildup and strength, and endurance enhancement. In recent years, its interest quickly expanded in older (diseased) populations and during (exercise) rehabilitation and recovery from hospitalization and surgery. We will discuss recent literature about HMB metabolism, its pharmacokinetics compared with the frequently used metabolite leucine, effectiveness of HMB to improve outcome in older diseased adults, and novel approaches for HMB use...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Bernardo L Horta, Bruno A de Sousa, Christian L de Mola
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Breastfeeding has clear short-term benefits for child survival. Concerning its long-term consequences, it has been reported that subjects who had been breastfed would have a better performance in intelligence tests. In this review, we perused the recently published studies on the association of breastfeeding with developmental outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: A meta-analysis published in 2015 reported that intelligence quotient (IQ) was 3.44 points (95% confidence interval: 2...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Stefano Schiaffino, Kenneth A Dyar, Elisa Calabria
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is focused on the unexpected role of myogenic regulatory factor 4 (MRF4) in controlling muscle mass by repressing myocyte enhancer binding factor 2 (MEF2) activity in adult skeletal muscle, and on the emerging role of MEF2 in skeletal muscle growth. RECENT FINDINGS: The MRF4s of the MyoD family (MyoD, MYF5, MRF4, myogenin) and the MEF2 factors are known to play a major role in embryonic myogenesis. However, their function in adult muscle tissue is not known...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Mette M Berger, Najate Achamrah, Claude Pichard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Parenteral nutrition (PN) alone or as supplemental parenteral nutrition (SPN) has been shown to prevent negative cumulative energy balance, to improve protein delivery and, in some studies, to reduce infectious morbidity in ICU patients who fail to cover their needs with enteral nutrition (EN) alone. RECENT FINDINGS: The optimization of energy provision to an individualized energy target using either early PN or SPN within 3-4 days after admission has recently been reported to be a cost-saving strategy mediated by a reduction of infectious complications in selected intensive care patients...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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