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Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29979242/long-term-nutritional-follow-up-post-bariatric-surgery
#1
Emilie Montastier, Mael Chalret du Rieu, Géraud Tuyeras, Patrick Ritz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for classes II and III obesity and its associated diseases. However, many important long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery are still poorly understood, such as neurological and psychological complications, bone health, and so on. This review summarizes the current evidence and expert opinions on nutritional care in the long-term postoperative period. RECENT FINDINGS: In the first section, we will provide an update of the main long-term complications: risk of anaemia, risk of bone fracture, neurological and psychological complications, and risk of developing Barrett's oesophagus after sleeve gastrectomy...
July 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29957678/assessment-of-nutritional-status-what-does-it-mean
#2
Luc Cynober
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 28, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29957677/bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-in-the-assessment-of-sarcopenia
#3
M Cristina Gonzalez, Thiago G Barbosa-Silva, Steven B Heymsfield
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an accepted technique to estimate low muscle mass for sarcopenia diagnosis. However, muscularity assessment from BIA relies on prediction equations, estimating different compartments according to the calibration method. Low muscle mass can be defined using different approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a lack of standardization on how low muscularity is defined in the context of sarcopenia. Recent studies have shown discrepant results for the estimation of low muscle mass when different prediction equations are used in the same BIA device...
June 28, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939971/analysis-of-mitochondrial-respiratory-function-in-tissue-biopsies-and-blood-cells
#4
Mario Ost, Carolina Doerrier, Pau Gama-Perez, Sonia Moreno-Gomez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review provides an overview on latest methodological strategies to assess mitochondrial respiratory function in tissue biopsies or blood cells. In addition, it summarizes the recent literature related to this topic. RECENT FINDINGS: Today, the study of mitochondrial function in key metabolic active tissues has been become more relevant, with increasing focus in clinical applications. In addition, assessment of mitochondrial function in blood cells by respirometry might be a sensitive biomarker of disease progression...
June 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939970/fructooligosaccharides-and-appetite
#5
Renee Korczak, Joanne L Slavin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention through reduction of body weight and control of appetite, however, not all fibers are created equally, and characteristics of fiber such as viscosity, fermentability and solubility may affect appetite differently. RECENT FINDINGS: Although early studies supported that fructan fibers, including inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and oligofructose affected satiety, more recent studies are less supportive...
June 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939969/taste-perception-and-its-effects-on-oral-nutritional-supplements-in-younger-life-phases
#6
Amira Sayed Khan, Aziz Hichami, Naim Akhtar Khan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review summarizes the importance of taste perception with regard to acceptance of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in young children. We also shed light on how basic tastes may influence the orosensory detection of ONS in the light of genetic variations, encoding for different taste modalities, particularly for sweet and bitter (and fat), in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of bitter and sweet taste receptor genes, that is, respectively, TAS2R38 and T1R2/T1R3, may influence orosensory perception of 'bitter-made-sweet' ONS...
June 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939968/fecal-microbial-transplantation-an-update
#7
Sonia Bouri, Ailsa Hart
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to provide an update on recent developments in fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the last year. RECENT FINDINGS: Although FMT is an accepted treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), recently it is also gaining acceptance for the treatment of refractory CDI. FMT is showing promise in ulcerative colitis and is experimental in many other conditions. The optimal practical aspects to enhance the success of FMT are still being established...
June 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939967/new-approaches-in-assessing-food-intake-in-epidemiology
#8
Johanna Conrad, Stefanie A J Koch, Ute Nöthlings
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A promising direction for improving dietary intake measurement in epidemiologic studies is the combination of short-term and long-term dietary assessment methods using statistical methods. Thereby, web-based instruments are particularly interesting as their application offers several potential advantages such as self-administration and a shorter completion time. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of new web-based short-term instruments and to describe their features...
June 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927764/current-state-of-the-use-of-neuroimaging-techniques-to-understand-and-alter-appetite-control-in-humans
#9
Maartje S Spetter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is in the brain where the decision is made what and how much to eat. In the last decades neuroimaging research has contributed extensively to new knowledge about appetite control by revealing the underlying brain processes. Interestingly, there is the fast growing idea of using these methods to develop new treatments for obesity and eating disorders. In this review, we summarize the findings of the importance of the use of neuropharmacology and neuroimaging techniques in understanding and modifying appetite control...
June 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927763/nutrition-dietary-intake-and-eating-behavior-after-liver-transplantation
#10
Lucilene Rezende Anastácio, Samanta Catherine Ferreira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nutritional status of patients after liver transplantation is affected by dietary intake and this, in turn, is affected by eating behavior. The present review will highlight recent studies on these topics after liver transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Malnutrition drops significantly after liver transplantation. Recovery of weight lost during liver disease occurs within 1 year. Liver transplantation recipients gain weight up to the second or third year, often becoming overweight and obese...
June 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916924/how-to-best-assess-abdominal-obesity
#11
Hongjuan Fang, Elizabeth Berg, Xiaoguang Cheng, Wei Shen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Abdominal obesity, especially the increase of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is closely associated with increased mortality related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and fatty liver disease. This review provides an overview of the recent advances for abdominal obesity measurement. RECENT FINDINGS: Compared to simple waist circumference, emerging three-dimensional (3D) body-scanning techniques also measure abdominal volume and shape. Abdominal dimension measures have been implemented in bioelectrical impedance analysis to improve accuracy when estimating VAT...
June 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916923/probiotics-and-mucositis
#12
Emanuele Cereda, Marilisa Caraccia, Riccardo Caccialanza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an updated perspective on the use of probiotics as adjuvant treatment strategy for patients suffering from or at risk of developing mucositis. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies suggest that oral and intestinal microbiota could be relevant to mucositis development and treatment, but no clear high-risk pattern has been identified and no single probiotic formulation has emerged from human clinical trials for strong recommendation. Promising results from available clinical trials suggest their use in patients with peri-implant mucositis or at risk of anticancer treatment-related oral or intestinal mucositis...
June 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912811/innovations-in-energy-expenditure-assessment
#13
Najate Achamrah, Taku Oshima, Laurence Genton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optimal nutritional therapy has been associated with better clinical outcomes and requires providing energy as closed as possible to measured energy expenditure. We reviewed the current innovations in energy expenditure assessment in humans, focusing on indirect calorimetry and other new alternative methods. RECENT FINDINGS: Although considered the reference method to measure energy expenditure, the use of indirect calorimetry is currently limited by the lack of an adequate device...
June 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912810/categorizing-and-qualifying-nutritional-lipidomic-data-defining-brutto-medio-genio-and-infinio-lipid-species-within-macrolipidomics-and-microlipidomics
#14
Juan J Aristizabal Henao, Ryan M Bradley, Robin E Duncan, Ken D Stark
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lipidomic profiling of biological samples is increasing in nutritional research applications. 'Lipidomic analyses' however can be quite variable in specific methods and the type of information about the specific lipids that is revealed. The lack of defined and simple terminology to describe aspects of lipidomics presents a challenge in the use of lipidomics across interdisciplinary research groups. RECENT FINDINGS: We propose the use of macrolipidomics and microlipidomics to define lipidomic strategies based on analytical outcomes...
June 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851417/carbohydrates-and-cognitive-function
#15
Misty A W Hawkins, Natalie G Keirns, Zachary Helms
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent evidence documents the negative impact of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and other metabolic dysregulation on neurocognitive function. This review highlights a key dietary factor in these relationships: refined carbohydrates. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic consumption of refined carbohydrates has been linked to relative neurocognitive deficits across the lifespan. Hippocampal function is especially impacted, but prefrontal and mesolimbic reward pathways may also be altered...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847448/gut-nutrient-sensing-and-microbiota-function-in-the-control-of-energy-homeostasis
#16
Gilles Mithieux
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To analyze the respective roles of macronutrient-derived moieties, of a gut mucosal function [intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGN)] and its capacity of influencing the brain control of energy homeostasis, and of the microbiota 'function' versus 'genomic composition' in the control of host metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: Small products deriving from protein digestion (peptides) or from fermentation by the gut microbiota (short-chain fatty acids and succinate) activate IGN, a mucosal function sensed by the peripheral gut nervous system, which intitiates metabolic benefits deriving from brain control of energy homeostasis...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847447/the-manifold-role-of-the-mitochondria-in-skeletal-muscle-insulin-resistance
#17
William Todd Cade
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of mitochondria in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance has been an area of intense investigation and debate for over 20 years. The mitochondria is a multifaceted organelle that plays an integral part in substrate metabolism and cellular signalling. This article aims to summarize the current findings and thought regarding the relationship between mitochondria and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. RECENT FINDINGS: Skeletal muscle insulin resistance was earlier thought to result from deficiency in mitochondrial oxidative capacity and ectopic lipid accumulation...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847446/nutriepigenetics-and-cardiovascular-disease
#18
Anastasia Z Kalea, Konstantinos Drosatos, Jessica L Buxton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We present a current perspective of epigenetic alterations that can lead to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the potential of dietary factors to counteract their actions. In addition, we discuss the challenges and opportunities of dietary treatments as epigenetic modifiers for disease prevention and therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent epigenome-wide association studies along with candidate gene approaches and functional studies in cell culture and animal models have delineated mechanisms through which nutrients, food compounds and dietary patterns may affect the epigenome...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846195/evolution-of-complex-discreet-nutrient-sensing-pathways
#19
Kirnjot Mehat, Christopher Peter Corpe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review summarizes and discusses current research on differences elicited between sugars and nonnutritive sweeteners via sugar-sensing pathways. RECENT FINDINGS: Sugars, sweeteners, and sweetening agents are all perceived as sweet tasting because of their ability to bind to the type 1 taste receptor family of sweet taste receptors in the oral cavity. The ability of a wide variety of chemical ligands to activate the sweet taste receptor highlights the importance of sweet-tasting foods during human evolution...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794560/genetic-effects-on-bone-health
#20
Nika Lovšin, Janja Zupan, Janja Marc
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent years, the lower costs of arrays and sequencing technologies, and the better availability of data from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have led to more reports on genetic factors that are associated with bone health. However, there remains the need for a summary of the newly identified genetic targets that are associated with bone metabolism, and the status of their functional characterization. RECENT FINDINGS: GWASs revealed dozens of novel genetic loci that are associated with bone mineral density (BMD)...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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