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Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463898/glucose-kinetics-an-update-and-novel-insights-into-its-regulation-by-glucagon-and-glp-1
#1
Amalia Gastaldelli, Melania Gaggini, Ralph DeFronzo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glucagon and GLP-1 share the same origin (i.e., proglucagon); primarily GLP-1 is generated from intestinal L-cells and glucagon from pancreatic α-cell, but intestinal glucagon and pancreatic GLP-1 secretion is likely. Glucose kinetics are tightly regulated by pancreatic hormones insulin and glucagon, but other hormones, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), also play an important role. The purpose of this review is to describe the recent findings on the mechanisms by which these two hormones regulate glucose kinetics...
April 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441146/epigenetic-regulation-of-glucose-metabolism
#2
Sapna Sharma, Jennifer Kriebel, Harald Grallert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glucose metabolism is a central process in mammalian energy homeostasis. Its deregulation is a key factor in development of metabolic disease like diabetes and cancer. In recent decades, our understanding of gene regulation at the signaling, chromatin and posttranscriptional levels has seen dramatic developments. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of epigenetic mechanisms that do not affect the genetic code can be assessed with new technologies. However, increasing complexity becomes a major challenge for translation into clinical application...
April 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403011/emerging-roles-of-lipid-metabolism-in-cancer-progression
#3
Cyril Corbet, Olivier Feron
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lipid metabolism in cancer cells and tumor-associated stromal cells was recently identified to contribute to disease progression particularly in response to changes in tumor microenvironment such as acidosis and hypoxia. RECENT FINDINGS: New molecular mechanisms driving lipid metabolism in various cancers were elicited through genetic silencing, pharmacological inhibition of key metabolic enzymes, including those involved in fatty acid oxidation and synthesis, and modulation of diet composition...
April 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403010/prevention-of-metabolic-diseases-fruits-including-fruit-sugars-vs-vegetables
#4
Jessica N Kuzma, Kelsey A Schmidt, Mario Kratz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent evidence from observational and intervention studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and metabolic disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Observational studies have consistently demonstrated a modest inverse association between the intake of fruit and leafy green vegetables, but not total vegetables, and biomarkers of metabolic disease as well as incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is in contrast to limited evidence from recently published randomized controlled dietary intervention trials, which - in sum - suggests little to no impact of increased F&V consumption on biomarkers of metabolic disease...
April 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399013/caspase-recruitment-domain-9-microbiota-and-tryptophan-metabolism-dangerous-liaisons-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#5
Bruno Lamas, Mathias L Richard, Harry Sokol
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) develop as a result of a combination of genetic predisposition, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, and environmental influences. Here, we describe an example of how caspase recruitment domain 9 (CARD9), one of the numerous IBD susceptibility genes, participate to colitis susceptibility by shaping gut microbiota to produce tryptophan metabolites. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent study showed that CARD9 mice are more susceptible to colitis as a result of impaired interleukin 22 signaling pathway...
April 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399012/sweeteners-and-sweetness-enhancers
#6
Christine Belloir, Fabrice Neiers, Loïc Briand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review summarizes and discusses current knowledge on sweeteners and sweetness enhancers. RECENT FINDINGS: The perception of sweet taste is mediated by the type 1 taste receptor 2 (T1R2)/type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1R3) receptor, which is expressed in the oral cavity, where it provides input on the caloric and macronutrient contents of ingested food. This receptor recognizes all the compounds (natural or artificial) perceived as sweet by people...
April 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383298/fructose-use-in-clinical-nutrition-metabolic-effects-and-potential-consequences
#7
Sandra Moulin, Gérald Seematter, Kevin Seyssel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current article presents recent findings on the metabolic effects of fructose. RECENT FINDINGS: Fructose has always been considered as a simple 'caloric' hexose only metabolized by splanchnic tissues. Nevertheless, there is growing evidence that fructose acts as a second messenger and induces effects throughout the human body. SUMMARY: Recent discoveries made possible with the evolution of technology have highlighted that fructose induces pleiotropic effects on different tissues...
April 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375880/amp-activated-protein-kinase-fatty-acid-metabolism-and-insulin-sensitivity
#8
Brennan K Smith, Gregory R Steinberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Insulin resistance is an important risk factor for metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. A common characteristic of strategies that improve insulin sensitivity involves the activation of the energy sensing enzyme of the cell, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The purpose of this review is to explore the mechanisms associated with AMPK activation to improve insulin sensitivity with a focus on fatty acid metabolism...
April 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375879/glycine-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscle-implications-for-metabolic-homeostasis
#9
René Koopman, Marissa K Caldow, Daniel J Ham, Gordon S Lynch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review summarizes the recent literature on the role of glycine in skeletal muscle during times of stress. RECENT FINDINGS: Supplemental glycine protects muscle mass and function under pathological conditions. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle leads to increased cellular serine and glycine production and activation of NADPH-generating pathways and glutathione metabolism. These studies highlight how glycine availability modulates cellular homeostasis and redox status...
April 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375878/carbohydrate-craving-not-everything-is-sweet
#10
Yue Ma, Risheka Ratnasabapathy, James Gardiner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cravings for carbohydrates have been known about for hundreds of years but the mechanisms behind it were unclear. This review will highlight recent advances in our knowledge of mechanisms to detect carbohydrates in the diet. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent work has begun to identify the physiological mechanisms by which carbohydrates and glucose are detected and how this drives their intake. Recently, evidence has been found for systems that regulate carbohydrate and glucose intake via taste, hedonic, and homeostatic pathways...
April 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375877/do-diabetes-and-obesity-affect-the-metabolic-response-to-exercise
#11
Peter Plomgaard, Cora Weigert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exercise is recommended as therapeutic intervention for people at risk to develop type 2 diabetes to prevent or treat the disease. Recent studies on the influence of obesity and type 2 diabetes on the outcome of exercise programs are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Poor glycemic control before an intervention can be a risk factor of reduced therapeutic benefit from exercise. But the acute metabolic response to exercise and the transcriptional profile of the working muscle is similar in healthy controls and type 2 diabetic patients, including but not limited to intact activation of skeletal muscle AMP-activated kinase signaling, glucose uptake and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α...
April 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376508/the-ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-atf-response-elements-luciferase-mouse-model-an-innovative-tool-to-monitor-the-integrated-stress-response-pathway-in-vivo
#12
Alain Bruhat, Pierre Fafournoux
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article highlights the recent development of an ATF4 (activating transcription factor) inducible luciferase (LUC) mouse model to monitor the integrated stress response pathway (ISR) in vivo. RECENT FINDING: The ISR pathway plays a key role in cellular adaptation to stress and is dysregulated in numerous diseases. The core event in this pathway is the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 α, which leads to the recruitment of the transcription factor ATF4 to specific CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-ATF response elements (CAREs) located in the promoters of target genes...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376055/vitamin-d-requirements-in-infancy-a-systematic-review
#13
Francis B Mimouni, Adi Huber-Yaron, Shlomi Cohen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: New evidence for recommendations for vitamin D supplementation in healthy infants based upon recent literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trials published since 2009 that related to vitamin D doses in infancy were reviewed. They do not provide any additional evidence that larger, more generous amounts of daily vitamin D beyond the customary recommended 400 IU daily dose, affect any significant outcome. Larger amounts may lead to serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D concentrations that have been reported to be potentially associated with adverse effects...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376054/timing-of-the-initiation-of-parenteral-nutrition-in-critically-ill-children
#14
Lissette Jimenez, Nilesh M Mehta, Christopher P Duggan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current literature evaluating clinical outcomes of early and delayed parenteral nutrition initiation among critically ill children. RECENT FINDINGS: Nutritional management remains an important aspect of care among the critically ill, with enteral nutrition generally preferred. However, inability to advance enteral feeds to caloric goals and contraindications to enteral nutrition often leads to reliance on parenteral nutrition. The timing of parenteral nutrition initiation is varied among critically ill children, and derives from an assessment of nutritional status, energy requirements, and physiologic differences between adults and children, including higher nutrient needs and lower body reserves...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376053/modulation-of-allergy-risk-by-breast-feeding
#15
Joachim Heinrich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Breastfeeding has been suggested as a candidate for primary prevention of allergies. However, recent comprehensive and thoughtfully written systematic reviews reported mixed results and that overall there is only little evidence for breastfeeding being protective against allergic disorders. As these reviews last searched for relevant studies on 2 October 2014, the aim of our review is to shed light on the association between breastfeeding and allergic disorders (asthma, eczema, allergic rhinitis) recently published...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376052/which-dietary-components-modulate-longitudinal-growth
#16
Galia Gat-Yablonski, Michal Yackobovitch-Gavan, Moshe Phillip
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Linear growth in children is sensitive to nutritional status; the growth of the human skeleton requires many different nutritional factors for energy and building blocks: proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and micronutrients. However, what are the specific nutritional factors that are required for proper growth and what is the composition that will be most beneficial is still not known. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings indicate that macro and micronutrients are required as building blocks and as cofactors for important enzymes...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376051/role-of-muscle-stem-cells-in-sarcopenia
#17
Tim Snijders, Gianni Parise
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is an update on recent research investigating the role of skeletal muscle stem cells (also known as satellite cells) during muscle fiber regeneration and growth in animal and human skeletal muscle, with an emphasis on their role in age-related sarcopenia. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies indicate clear impairments in satellite cell function with aging, resulting in an impaired muscle fiber regenerative response. The autophagy-mediated switch to an irreversible presenescent state of geriatric satellite cells appears to play a key role in age-related impaired satellite cell function...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376050/role-of-atf4-in-skeletal-muscle-atrophy
#18
Christopher M Adams, Scott M Ebert, Michael C Dyle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here, we discuss recent work focused on the role of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) in skeletal muscle atrophy. RECENT FINDINGS: Muscle atrophy involves and requires widespread changes in skeletal muscle gene expression; however, the transcriptional regulatory proteins responsible for those changes are not yet well defined. Recent work indicates that some forms of muscle atrophy require ATF4, a stress-inducible bZIP transcription factor subunit that helps to mediate a broad range of stress responses in mammalian cells...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306567/use-of-parenteral-nutrition-in-the-pediatric-icu-should-we-panic-because-of-pepanic
#19
Berthold Koletzko, Olivier Goulet, Frank Jochum, Raanan Shamir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257333/recent-advances-for-measurement-of-protein-synthesis-rates-use-of-the-virtual-biopsy-approach-and-measurement-of-muscle-mass
#20
Marc Hellerstein, William Evans
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Flux-rate measurements of protein synthesis and breakdown (turnover) in muscle represent an ideal class of mechanism-based biomarkers for conditions of altered muscle mass and function. We describe here new metabolic labeling techniques for flux-rate measurements in humans, focusing on skeletal muscle. RECENT FINDINGS: Dynamics of the muscle proteome are accurately measured in humans by combining long-term heavy water labeling with tandem mass spectrometry...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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