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Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730879/rgrna-prediction-of-rna-secondary-structure-based-on-replacement-and-growth-of-stems
#1
Jin Li, Chengzhen Xu, Hong Liang, Wang Cong, Ying Wang, Kuan Luan, Yunlong Liu
Owing to their structural diversity, RNAs perform many diverse biological functions in the cell. RNA secondary structure is thus important for predicting RNA function. Here, we propose a new combinatorial optimization algorithm, named RGRNA, to improve the accuracy of predicting RNA secondary structure. Following the establishment of a stempool, the stems are sorted by length, and chosen from largest to smallest. If the stem selected is the true stem, the secondary structure of this stem when combined with another stem selected at random will have low free energy, and the free energy will tend to gradually diminish...
July 21, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701050/validation-performance-comparison-for-finite-element-models-of-the-human-brain
#2
Logan E Miller, Jillian E Urban, Joel D Stitzel
The objective of this study was to compare the performance of six validated brain finite element (FE) models to localized brain motion validation data in five experimental configurations. Model performance was measured using the objective metric CORA (CORrelation and Analysis), where higher ratings represent better correlation. The KTH model achieved the highest average CORA rating, and the ABM received the highest average rating among models robustly validated against five cadaver impacts in three directions...
July 12, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699356/a-kinect-based-movement-assessment-system-marker-position-comparison-to-vicon
#3
Julia K Nichols, Mark P Sena, Jennifer L Hu, Oliver M O'Reilly, Brian T Feeley, Jeffrey C Lotz
Accurate movement analysis systems are prohibitive in cost and size to be accessible to the general population, while commercially available, affordable systems lack the accuracy needed for clinical relevance. To address these limitations, we developed a Depth Camera Movement Assessment System (DCMAS) featuring an affordable, widely available depth camera (e.g. Microsoft Kinect). After examining 3D position data for markers adhered to participants and a flat surface, captured with both DCMAS and the industry standard Vicon system, we demonstrated DCMAS obtained measurements comparable, within soft tissue artifact, to the Vicon system, paving the way for a breakthrough technology in preventative medicine...
July 12, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685612/protective-capacity-of-an-ice-hockey-goaltender-helmet-for-three-events-associated-with-concussion
#4
J Michio Clark, T Blaine Hoshizaki, Michael D Gilchrist
The purpose of this study was to assess the protective capacity of an ice hockey goaltender helmet for three concussive impact events. A helmeted and unhelmeted headform was used to test three common impact events in ice hockey (fall, puck impacts and shoulder collisions). Peak linear acceleration, rotational acceleration and rotational velocity as well as maximum principal strain and von Mises stress were measured for each impact condition. The results demonstrated the tested ice hockey goaltender helmet was well designed to manage fall and puck impacts but does not consistently protect against shoulder collisions and an opportunity may exist to improve helmet designs to better protect goaltenders from shoulder collisions...
July 7, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678541/mechanical-role-of-a-growing-solid-tumor-on-cortical-folding
#5
Mir Jalil Razavi, Mary Reeves, Xianqiao Wang
Cortical folding, or convolution of the brain, is a vital process in mammals that causes the brain to have a wrinkled appearance. The existence of different types of prenatal solid tumors may alter this complex phenomenon and cause severe brain disorders. Here we interpret the effects of a growing solid tumor on the cortical folding in the fetal brain by virtue of theoretical analyses and computational modeling. The developing fetal brain is modeled as a simple, double-layered, and soft structure with an outer cortex and an inner core, in combination with a circular tumor model imbedded in the structure to investigate the developmental mechanism of cortical convolution...
July 5, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675049/importance-of-material-parameters-and-strain-energy-function-on-the-wall-stresses-in-the-left-ventricle
#6
Sareh Behdadfar, Laurent Navarro, Joakim Sundnes, Molly M Maleckar, Stéphane Avril
Patient-specific estimates of the stress distribution in the left ventricles (LV) may have important applications for therapy planning, but computing the stress generally requires knowledge of the material behaviour. The passive stress-strain relation of myocardial tissue has been characterized by a number of models, but material parameters (MPs) remain difficult to estimate. The aim of this study is to implement a zero-pressure algorithm to reconstruct numerically the stress distribution in the LV without precise knowledge of MPs...
July 4, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675048/biomechanical-causes-of-trapeziometacarpal-arthroplasty-failure
#7
V Spartacus, A Mayoly, A Gay, T Le Corroller, M Némoz-Gaillard, S Roffino, P Chabrand
Trapeziometacarpal joint prosthesis revision has been widely reported, mainly due to loosening of the trapezium cup. Our hypothesis is that current prostheses do not sufficiently respect the kinematics of this joint. CT scan acquisitions enabled us to determine the position of the first metacarpal relative to the trapezium in three different characteristic postures, in subjects in different stages of arthrosis. A CAD model of a current prosthesis was inserted into the numerical 3D model of the joint under the different postures...
July 4, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675043/effect-of-round-curvature-of-anterior-implant-supported-zirconia-frameworks-finite-element-analysis-and-in-vitro-study-using-digital-image-correlation
#8
Ana Messias, Maria Augusta Neto, Ana Martins Amaro, Pedro Nicolau, Luis Manuel Roseiro
Two groups of 4-unit zirconia frameworks were produced by CAD/CAM to simulate the restoration of an anterior edentulous gap supported by 2 implant-abutment assemblies. Group 1 comprised straight configuration frameworks and group 2 consisted of arched frameworks. Specimens were made with the same connector cross-section area and were cemented and submitted to static loads. Displacements were captured with two high-speed photographic cameras and analysed with video correlation system. Frameworks and the implant-abutment assembly were scanned and converted to 3DCAD objects by reverse engineering process...
July 4, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658586/small-bubble-transport-and-splitting-dynamics-in-a-symmetric-bifurcation
#9
Adnan Qamar, Matthew Warnez, Doug T Valassis, Megan E Guetzko, Joseph L Bull
Simulations of small bubbles traveling through symmetric bifurcations are conducted to garner information pertinent to gas embolotherapy, a potential cancer treatment. Gas embolotherapy procedures use intra-arterial bubbles to occlude tumor blood supply. As bubbles pass through bifurcations in the blood stream nonhomogeneous splitting and undesirable bioeffects may occur. To aid development of gas embolotherapy techniques, a volume of fluid method is used to model the splitting process of gas bubbles passing through artery and arteriole bifurcations...
June 28, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658585/transport-and-flow-characteristics-of-an-oscillating-cylindrical-fiber-for-total-artificial-lung-application
#10
Adnan Qamar, Joseph L Bull
Mass transport and fluid dynamics characteristics in the vicinity of an oscillating cylindrical fiber with an imposed pulsatile inflow condition are computationally investigated in the present study. The work is motivated by a recently proposed design modification to the Total Artificial Lung (TAL) device, which is expected to provide better gas exchange. Navier-Stokes computations, coupled with convection-diffusion equation are performed to assess flow dynamics and mass transport behavior around the oscillating fiber...
June 28, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650686/the-influence-of-limb-alignment-and-transfemoral-amputation-technique-on-muscle-capacity-during-gait
#11
Ellyn C Ranz, Jason M Wilken, Donald A Gajewski, Richard R Neptune
Many factors influence successful outcomes following transfemoral amputation. One factor is surgical technique. In this study, the influence of limb alignment and surgical technique on a muscle's capacity to generate force was examined using musculoskeletal modeling. Non-amputee and transfemoral amputee models were analyzed while hip adduction, femur length, and reattached muscle wrap position, tension and stabilization technique were systematically varied. With muscle tension preserved, wrap position and femur length had little influence on muscle capacity...
June 26, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632407/prediction-of-the-structural-response-of-the-femoral-shaft-under-dynamic-loading-using-subject-specific-finite-element-models
#12
Gwansik Park, Taewung Kim, Jason Forman, Matthew B Panzer, Jeff R Crandall
The goal of this study was to predict the structural response of the femoral shaft under dynamic loading conditions using subject-specific finite element (SS-FE) models and to evaluate the prediction accuracy of the models in relation to the model complexity. In total, SS-FE models of 31 femur specimens were developed. Using those models, dynamic three-point bending and combined loading tests (bending with four different levels of axial compression) of bare femurs were simulated, and the prediction capabilities of five different levels of model complexity were evaluated based on the impact force time histories: baseline, mass-based scaled, structure-based scaled, geometric SS-FE, and heterogenized SS-FE models...
June 20, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628751/comparison-between-line-and-surface-mesh-models-to-represent-the-rotator-cuff-muscle-geometry-in-musculoskeletal-models
#13
Marion Hoffmann, Diane Haering, Mickaël Begon
Accurate muscle geometry (muscle length and moment arm) is required to estimate muscle function when using musculoskeletal modelling. In shoulder, muscles are often modelled as a collection of independent line segments, leading to non-physiological muscles trajectory, especially for the rotator cuff muscles. To prevent this, a surface mesh model was developed and validated against 7 MRI positions in one participant. Mean moment arm errors was 11.4% for the line vs. 8.8% for the mesh model. While the model with independent lines led to some non-physiological trajectories, the mesh model gave lower misestimations of muscle lengths and moment arms...
June 19, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631937/the-effect-of-the-sagittal-ridge-angle-on-cartilage-stress-in-the-equine-metacarpo-phalangeal-fetlock-joint
#14
Helen Liley, Helen Davies, Elwyn Firth, Thor Besier, Justin Fernandez
Fatigue failure of bones of the metacarpo-phalangeal (fetlock, MCP) joint is common in thoroughbred racehorses. Stresses within the fetlock joint cartilages are affected by the morphology of the third metacarpal bone (MC3) and proximal phalangeal bone, and the steepness of the median sagittal ridge of MC3 is believed to be associated with fracture. This study investigated the influence of the steepness of the sagittal ridge on cartilage stress distribution using a finite element model of the joint. Changes to the steepness of the sagittal ridge were made by applying a parabolic function to the mesh, creating four different models with sagittal ridge angles ranging from 95° to 105°...
June 15, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521518/3d-characterisation-of-the-dynamics-of-foot-joints-of-adults-during-walking-gait-pattern-identification
#15
E Sanchis-Sales, J L Sancho-Bru, A Roda-Sales, J Pascual-Huerta
A detailed description of the kinematics and kinetics of the ankle, midtarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints of the feet of a healthy adult male population during barefoot walking is provided. Plots of the angles and moments in each plane during the stance phase are reported, along with the mean and standard deviation values of 87 different parameters that characterise the 3D dynamics of the foot joints. These parameters were used to check for similarities between subjects through a hierarchical analysis that allowed three different gait patterns to be identified, most of the differences corresponding to the frontal and transverse planes...
May 19, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513192/the-haemodynamic-effect-of-an-adjustable-band-in-an-arteriovenous-fistula
#16
M Sturm, H Lee, S Thomas, T Barber
A number of treatment approaches exist for excessive flowrate arteriovenous fistulae. Banding has a number of advantages, yet there is concern over its use due to reported high post-surgery thrombosis rates. A computational study is conducted of a new technique, to elucidate the hemodynamics present in the process. The key improvement involves the use of an adjustable band which can be used to optimise the flowrate during the surgery. The pressure and flowrate changes are apparent from the computational results and the computational results also demonstrate that further optimization may be possible...
May 17, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460543/biomechanical-evaluation-of-the-natural-abutment-teeth-in-combined-tooth-implant-supported-telescopic-prostheses-a-three-dimensional-finite-element-analysis
#17
Yu Chen, Chao Wang, Yuanding Huang, Tianming Feng, Huawei Zou, Yubo Fan
Telescopic overdentures supported by the combination of natural teeth and implants have been thought a valuable treatment for the severely compromised partially edentulous patients. But the combination of teeth and implants involves highly complex biomechanical problems. This study is to evaluate biomechanical behaviors of the natural abutment teeth with the treatment of combined tooth-implant supported telescopic crown prostheses in mandible through 3D FEA. According to this study, the prosthetic option supported by a combination of teeth and implants and retained by double crowns could protect teeth and their periodontal support tissues acting as a rigid splint, and may be a valuable treatment option for partially edentulous patients with severely reduced remaining teeth in mandible...
May 1, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446031/influences-of-geometrical-and-mechanical-properties-of-bone-tissues-in-mandible-behaviour-experimental-and-numerical-predictions
#18
A Ramos, Yi Nyashin, M Mesnard
The properties and geometry of bone in the mandible play a key role in mandible behaviour during a person's lifetime, and attention needs to be paid to the influence of bone properties. We analysed the effect of bone geometry, size and bone properties in mandible behaviour, experimenting on cadaveric mandibles and FE models. The study was developed using the geometry of a cadaveric mandible without teeth. Three models of cadaveric condyles were experimentally tested with instrumented with four rosettes, and a condyle reaction of 300 N...
April 26, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441880/a-three-dimensional-collagen-fiber-network-model-of-the-extracellular-matrix-for-the-simulation-of-the-mechanical-behaviors-and-micro-structures
#19
Shoubin Dong, Zetao Huang, Liqun Tang, Xiaoyang Zhang, Yongrou Zhang, Yi Jiang
The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides structural and biochemical support to cells and tissues, which is a critical factor for modulating cell dynamic behavior and intercellular communication. In order to further understand the mechanisms of the interactive relationship between cell and the ECM, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) collagen-fiber network model to simulate the micro structure and mechanical behaviors of the ECM and studied the stress-strain relationship as well as the deformation of the ECM under tension...
April 26, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699402/the-management-of-episiotomy-technique-and-its-effect-on-pelvic-floor-muscles-during-a-malposition-childbirth
#20
Dulce A Oliveira, Marco P L Parente, Begoña Calvo, Teresa Mascarenhas, Renato M Natal Jorge
Vaginal childbirth is the leading cause of pelvic floor muscles injury, which contributes to pelvic floor dysfunction, being enhanced by fetal malposition. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to verify the influence of mediolateral episiotomies in the mechanics of the pelvic floor with the fetus in occiput posterior position when compared to the occiput anterior position. Numerical simulations of vaginal deliveries, with and without episiotomy, are performed based on the Finite Element Method. The biomechanical model includes the pelvic floor muscles, a surface to delimit the anterior region of the birth canal and a fetus...
August 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
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