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Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521518/3d-characterisation-of-the-dynamics-of-foot-joints-of-adults-during-walking-gait-pattern-identification
#1
E Sanchis-Sales, J L Sancho-Bru, A Roda-Sales, J Pascual-Huerta
A detailed description of the kinematics and kinetics of the ankle, midtarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints of the feet of a healthy adult male population during barefoot walking is provided. Plots of the angles and moments in each plane during the stance phase are reported, along with the mean and standard deviation values of 87 different parameters that characterise the 3D dynamics of the foot joints. These parameters were used to check for similarities between subjects through a hierarchical analysis that allowed three different gait patterns to be identified, most of the differences corresponding to the frontal and transverse planes...
May 19, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521517/dynamic-model-of-vascular-targeted-photodynamic-therapy
#2
Xiao-Ming Hu, Linhuan He, Yi Zhao
Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy has shown efficiency in treating port wine stains. A dynamic model that incorporates blood flow, kinetic diffusion, oxygen and photosensitizer consumption and reaction, and light modulation is proposed to reveal the interactions among light, photosensitizer, and oxygen. Simulation results show that pulse light modulation synchronized with heartbeats hold the advantage of increased singlet oxygen accumulation, higher oxygen concentration and lower temperature. Meanwhile, constant light treatment is advantageous in terms of higher temperature, lower total oxygen concentration and singlet oxygen accumulation...
May 19, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521515/the-effect-of-boundary-conditions-on-epicardial-potential-distributions
#3
Josef P Barnes, Peter R Johnston
This study presents a comparison of semi-analytical and numerical solution techniques for solving the passive bidomain equation in simple tissue geometries containing a region of subendocardial ischaemia. When the semi-analytical solution is based on Fourier transforms, recovering the solution from the frequency domain via fast Fourier transforms imposes a periodic boundary condition on the solution of the partial differential equation. On the other hand, the numerical solution uses an insulation boundary condition...
May 19, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513192/the-haemodynamic-effect-of-an-adjustable-band-in-an-arteriovenous-fistula
#4
M Sturm, H Lee, S Thomas, T Barber
A number of treatment approaches exist for excessive flowrate arteriovenous fistulae. Banding has a number of advantages, yet there is concern over its use due to reported high post-surgery thrombosis rates. A computational study is conducted of a new technique, to elucidate the hemodynamics present in the process. The key improvement involves the use of an adjustable band which can be used to optimise the flowrate during the surgery. The pressure and flowrate changes are apparent from the computational results and the computational results also demonstrate that further optimization may be possible...
May 17, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460599/the-human-otitis-media-with-effusion-a-numerical-based-study
#5
B Areias, M P L Parente, C Santos, F Gentil, R M Natal Jorge
Otitis media is a group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear. Acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion (OME) are its two main types of manifestation. Otitis media is common in children and can result in structural alterations in the middle ear which will lead to hearing losses. This work studies the effects of an OME on the sound transmission from the external auditory meatus to the inner ear. The finite element method was applied on the present biomechanical study. The numerical model used in this work was built based on the geometrical information obtained from The visible ear project...
May 1, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460543/biomechanical-evaluation-of-the-natural-abutment-teeth-in-combined-tooth-implant-supported-telescopic-prostheses-a-three-dimensional-finite-element-analysis
#6
Yu Chen, Chao Wang, Yuanding Huang, Tianming Feng, Huawei Zou, Yubo Fan
Telescopic overdentures supported by the combination of natural teeth and implants have been thought a valuable treatment for the severely compromised partially edentulous patients. But the combination of teeth and implants involves highly complex biomechanical problems. This study is to evaluate biomechanical behaviors of the natural abutment teeth with the treatment of combined tooth-implant supported telescopic crown prostheses in mandible through 3D FEA. According to this study, the prosthetic option supported by a combination of teeth and implants and retained by double crowns could protect teeth and their periodontal support tissues acting as a rigid splint, and may be a valuable treatment option for partially edentulous patients with severely reduced remaining teeth in mandible...
May 1, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446031/influences-of-geometrical-and-mechanical-properties-of-bone-tissues-in-mandible-behaviour-experimental-and-numerical-predictions
#7
A Ramos, Yi Nyashin, M Mesnard
The properties and geometry of bone in the mandible play a key role in mandible behaviour during a person's lifetime, and attention needs to be paid to the influence of bone properties. We analysed the effect of bone geometry, size and bone properties in mandible behaviour, experimenting on cadaveric mandibles and FE models. The study was developed using the geometry of a cadaveric mandible without teeth. Three models of cadaveric condyles were experimentally tested with instrumented with four rosettes, and a condyle reaction of 300 N...
April 26, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441880/a-three-dimensional-collagen-fiber-network-model-of-the-extracellular-matrix-for-the-simulation-of-the-mechanical-behaviors-and-micro-structures
#8
Shoubin Dong, Zetao Huang, Liqun Tang, Xiaoyang Zhang, Yongrou Zhang, Yi Jiang
The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides structural and biochemical support to cells and tissues, which is a critical factor for modulating cell dynamic behavior and intercellular communication. In order to further understand the mechanisms of the interactive relationship between cell and the ECM, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) collagen-fiber network model to simulate the micro structure and mechanical behaviors of the ECM and studied the stress-strain relationship as well as the deformation of the ECM under tension...
April 26, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438031/mri-based-finite-element-modeling-of-facial-mimics-a-case-study-on-the-paired-zygomaticus-major-muscles
#9
Ang-Xiao Fan, Stéphanie Dakpé, Tien Tuan Dao, Philippe Pouletaut, Mohamed Rachik, Marie Christine Ho Ba Tho
Finite element simulation of facial mimics provides objective indicators about soft tissue functions for improving diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of facial disorders. There is a lack of in vivo experimental data for model development and validation. In this study, the contribution of the paired Zygomaticus Major (ZM) muscle contraction on the facial mimics was investigated using in vivo experimental data derived from MRI. Maximal relative differences of 7.7% and 37% were noted between MRI-based measurements and numerical outcomes for ZM and skin deformation behaviors respectively...
April 24, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434235/recirculation-zone-length-in-renal-artery-is-affected-by-flow-spirality-and-renal-to-aorta-flow-ratio
#10
Ashkan Javadzadegan, David Fulker, Tracie Barber
Haemodynamic perturbations such as flow recirculation zones play a key role in progression and development of renal artery stenosis, which typically originate at the aorta-renal bifurcation. The spiral nature of aortic blood flow, division of aortic blood flow in renal artery as well as the exercise conditions have been shown to alter the haemodynamics in both positive and negative ways. This study focuses on the combinative effects of spiral component of blood flow, renal-to-aorta flow ratio and the exercise conditions on the size and distribution of recirculation zones in renal branches using computational fluid dynamics technique...
April 24, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421821/modeling-and-dynamic-simulation-of-astronaut-s-upper-limb-motions-considering-counter-torques-generated-by-the-space-suit
#11
Jingwen Li, Qing Ye, Li Ding, Qianfang Liao
Extravehicular activity (EVA) is an inevitable task for astronauts to maintain proper functions of both the spacecraft and the space station. Both experimental research in a microgravity simulator (e.g. neutral buoyancy tank, zero-g aircraft or a drop tower/tube) and mathematical modeling were used to study EVA to provide guidance for the training on Earth and task design in space. Modeling has become more and more promising because of its efficiency. Based on the task analysis, almost 90% of EVA activity is accomplished through upper limb motions...
April 19, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394179/1-d-blood-flow-modelling-in-a-running-human-body
#12
Viktor Szabó, Gábor Halász
In this paper an attempt was made to simulate blood flow in a mobile human arterial network, specifically, in a running human subject. In order to simulate the effect of motion, a previously published immobile 1-D model was modified by including an inertial force term into the momentum equation. To calculate inertial force, gait analysis was performed at different levels of speed. Our results show that motion has a significant effect on the amplitudes of the blood pressure and flow rate but the average values are not effected significantly...
April 10, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387571/modelling-osteoblast-adhesion-on-surface-engineered-biomaterials-optimisation-of-nanophase-grain-size
#13
Song Chen, Cheuk Y Lee, Rachel W Li, Paul N Smith, Qing H Qin
A double-layered model is proposed for numerically simulating osteoblast adhesion on surface-engineered biomaterials. The proposed model consists of molecular and cellular motions based on theoretical and experimental evidence and creates predictive simulations from sparse experimental data. The comparison of numerical solutions and experimental data reveals that the proposed model can explain the nonlinear behaviour of osteoblast adhesion on material surfaces in respect to nanophase grain size (0-100 nm)...
April 7, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387534/the-influence-of-biophysical-muscle-properties-on-simulating-fast-human-arm-movements
#14
A Bayer, S Schmitt, M Günther, D F B Haeufle
Computational modeling provides a framework to understand human movement control. For this approach, physiologically motivated and experimentally validated models are required to predict the dynamic interplay of the neuronal controller with the musculoskeletal biophysics. Previous studies show, that an adequate model of arm movements should consider muscle fiber contraction dynamics, parallel and serial elasticities, and activation dynamics. Numerous validated macroscopic model representations of these structures and processes exist...
April 7, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387524/a-new-adaptive-time-step-method-for-unsteady-flow-simulations-in-a-human-lung
#15
Ana Fenández-Tena, Alfonso C Marcos, Cristina Martínez, D Keith Walters
The innovation presented is a method for adaptive time-stepping that allows clustering of time steps in portions of the cycle for which flow variables are rapidly changing, based on the concept of using a uniform step in a relevant dependent variable rather than a uniform step in the independent variable time. A user-defined function was developed to adapt the magnitude of the time step (adaptive time step) to a defined rate of change in inlet velocity. Quantitative comparison indicates that the new adaptive time stepping method significantly improves accuracy for simulations using an equivalent number of time steps per cycle...
April 7, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367643/computational-fluid-dynamics-in-abdominal-aorta-bifurcation-non-newtonian-versus-newtonian-blood-flow-in-a-real-case-study
#16
Armando A Soares, Sílvia Gonzaga, Carlos Oliveira, André Simões, Abel I Rouboa
Hemodynamic in abdominal aorta bifurcation was investigated in a real case using computational fluid dynamics. A Newtonian and non-Newtonian (Walburn-Schneck) viscosity models were compared. The geometrical model was obtained by 3D reconstruction from CT-scan and hemodynamic parameters obtained by laser-Doppler. Blood was assumed incompressible fluid, laminar flow in transient regime and rigid vessel wall. Finite volume-based was used to study the velocity, pressure, wall shear stress (WSS) and viscosity throughout cardiac cycle...
April 3, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367642/the-incompressibility-assumption-in-computational-simulations-of-nasal-airflow
#17
Ismael R Cal, Jose Luis Cercos-Pita, Daniel Duque
Most of the computational works on nasal airflow up to date have assumed incompressibility, given the low Mach number of these flows. However, for high temperature gradients, the incompressibility assumption could lead to a loss of accuracy, due to the temperature dependence of air density and viscosity. In this article we aim to shed some light on the influence of this assumption in a model of calm breathing in an Asian nasal cavity, by solving the fluid flow equations in compressible and incompressible formulation for different ambient air temperatures using the OpenFOAM package...
April 3, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347171/a-simple-reliable-method-to-determine-the-mean-gait-speed-using-heel-markers-on-a-treadmill
#18
Gustavo Souto de Sá E Souza, Fábio Barbosa Rodrigues, Adriano O Andrade, Marcus Fraga Vieira
Gait speed is an essential parameter of gait analysis. Our study proposed a simple and accurate method to extract a mean gait speed during walking on a treadmill using only kinematic data from markers placed on the heels of the participants' feet. This method provided an attractive, simple method that remains resistant to errors in treadmill calibration. In addition, this method required only two markers, since heel markers are essential to gait analysis, and the proposed method is robust enough to differentiate among various gait speeds (mean error <1%)...
March 28, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347170/stress-distribution-in-cylindrical-and-conical-implants-under-rotational-micromovement-with-different-boundary-conditions-and-bone-properties-3-d-fea
#19
Mateus Bertolini Fernandes Dos Santos, Gabriel de Oliveira Meloto, Ataís Bacchi, Lourenço Correr-Sobrinho
Factors related to micromovements at bone-implant interface have been studied because they are considered adverse to osseointegration. Simplifications are commonly observed in these FEA evaluations. The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of FEA parameters (boundary conditions and bone properties) on the stress distribution in peri-implant bone tissue when micromovements are simulated in implants with different geometries. Three-dimensional models of an anterior section of the jaw with cylindrical or conical titanium implants (4...
March 28, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332407/unsteady-computational-fluid-dynamics-in-front-crawl-swimming
#20
Mathias Samson, Anthony Bernard, Tony Monnet, Patrick Lacouture, Laurent David
The development of codes and power calculations currently allows the simulation of increasingly complex flows, especially in the turbulent regime. Swimming research should benefit from these technological advances to try to better understand the dynamic mechanisms involved in swimming. An unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study is conducted in crawl, in order to analyse the propulsive forces generated by the hand and forearm. The k-ω SST turbulence model and an overset grid method have been used...
March 23, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
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