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Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379072/biomarkers-of-mercury-toxicity-past-present-and-future-trends
#1
Vasco Branco, Sam Caito, Marcelo Farina, João Teixeira da Rocha, Michael Aschner, Cristina Carvalho
Mercury (Hg) toxicity continues to represent a global health concern. Given that human populations are mostly exposed to low chronic levels of mercurial compounds (methylmercury through fish, mercury vapor from dental amalgams, and ethylmercury from vaccines), the need for more sensitive and refined tools to assess the effects and/or susceptibility to adverse metal-mediated health risks remains. Traditional biomarkers, such as hair or blood Hg levels, are practical and provide a reliable measure of exposure, but given intra-population variability, it is difficult to establish accurate cause-effect relationships...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145849/the-role-of-micronutrients-in-the-response-to-ambient-air-pollutants-potential-mechanisms-and-suggestions-for-research-design
#2
Colette N Miller, Srujana Rayalam
People living in regions of low socioeconomic status are thought to be prone to higher exposures to environmental pollutants, poor nutrition, and numerous preventable diseases and infections. Poverty correlates with pollution and malnutrition; however, limited studies examined their interrelationship. The well-studied, deleterious health effects attributed to environmental pollutants and poor nutrition may act in combination with produce more severe adverse health outcomes than any one factor alone. Deficiencies in specific nutrients render the body more susceptible to injury which may influence the pathways that serve as the mechanistic responses to ambient air pollutants...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051929/increased-blood-levels-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-pop-in-obese-individuals-after-weight-loss-a-review
#3
Aina Jansen, Jan L Lyche, Anuschka Polder, Jan Aaseth, Marit Aralt Skaug
Lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POP) are stored in adipose tissue. Following rapid weight loss such as when induced by bariatric surgery, an increased release of potential harmful lipophilic compounds into the blood circulation may occur. Weight reduction is recommended for overweight and obese individuals in order to decrease risk of weight-related health problems. However, in cases of significant weight reduction POP become mobilized chemicals and consequently may adversely affect health, including endocrine disruption...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339349/is-triclosan-a-neurotoxic-agent
#4
Joanna A Ruszkiewicz, Shaojun Li, Maliya B Rodriguez, Michael Aschner
Triclosan (TCS) is an antibacterial agent that has been used in many products since 1960s. Given its broad usage as an antiseptic TCS is present ubiquitously in the environment. Trace levels of TCS continue to be detected in many organisms, and it has been shown to be particularly toxic to aquatic species. The mechanisms underlying TCS-mediated toxicity include hormone dyshomeostasis, induction of oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation. Although TCS has been considered to be non-toxic to mammals, the adverse effects of continuous, long-term and low concentration exposure remain unknown...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339348/geological-occurrence-mineralogical-characterization-and-risk-assessment-of-potentially-carcinogenic-erionite-in-italy
#5
Matteo Giordani, Michele Mattioli, Paolo Ballirano, Alessandro Pacella, Marco Cenni, Matteo Boscardin, Laura Valentini
Erionite is a zeolite representing a well-known health hazard. In fact, exposure of humans to its fibers has been unequivocally associated with occurrence of malignant mesothelioma. For this reason, a multi-methodological approach, based upon field investigation, morphological characterization, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) chemical analysis, and structure refinement through X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), was applied to different samples of potentially carcinogenic erionite from Northern Italy...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339347/the-aging-kidney-and-the-nephrotoxic-effects-of-mercury
#6
Christy C Bridges, Rudolfs K Zalups
Owing to advances in modern medicine, life expectancies are lengthening and leading to an increase in the population of older individuals. The aging process leads to significant alterations in many organ systems, with the kidney being particularly susceptible to age-related changes. Within the kidney, aging leads to ultrastructural changes such as glomerular and tubular hypertrophy, glomerulosclerosis, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, which may compromise renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR)...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830991/critical-assessment-of-pendimethalin-in-terms-of-persistence-bioaccumulation-toxicity-and-potential-for-long-range-transport
#7
Marco Vighi, Michael Matthies, Keith R Solomon
Pendimethalin (PND, CAS registry number 40487-42-1) is a dinitroaniline herbicide that selectively controls broad-leaf and grassy weeds in a variety of crops and in noncrop areas. It has been on the market for about 30 yr and is currently under review for properties related to persistence (P), bioaccumulation (B), and toxicity (T) in the European Union (EU). A critical review of these properties as well as potential for long-range transport (LRT) was conducted. Pendimethalin has a geometric mean (GM) half-life of 76-98 d in agriculturally relevant soils under aerobic conditions in the lab...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668460/attention-restoration-theory-a-systematic-review-of-the-attention-restoration-potential-of-exposure-to-natural-environments
#8
Heather Ohly, Mathew P White, Benedict W Wheeler, Alison Bethel, Obioha C Ukoumunne, Vasilis Nikolaou, Ruth Garside
Attention Restoration Theory (ART) suggests the ability to concentrate may be restored by exposure to natural environments. Although widely cited, it is unclear as to the quantity of empirical evidence that supports this. A systematic review regarding the impact of exposure to natural environments on attention was conducted. Seven electronic databases were searched. Studies were included if (1) they were natural experiments, randomized investigations, or recorded "before and after" measurements; (2) compared natural and nonnatural/other settings; and (3) used objective measures of attention...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656778/quantitative-weight-of-evidence-analysis-of-the-persistence-bioaccumulation-toxicity-and-potential-for-long-range-transport-of-the-cyclic-volatile-methyl-siloxanes
#9
Jim Bridges, Keith R Solomon
Cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMSs) are highly volatile and have an unusual combination of physicochemical properties, which are unlike those of halocarbon-based chemicals used to establish criteria for identification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that undergo long-range transport (LRT). A transparent quantitative weight of evidence (QWoE) evaluation was conducted to characterize their properties. Measurements of concentrations of cVMSs in the environment are challenging, but currently, concentrations measured in robust studies are all less than thresholds of toxicity...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351319/sources-fates-toxicity-and-risks-of-trifluoroacetic-acid-and-its-salts-relevance-to-substances-regulated-under-the-montreal-and-kyoto-protocols
#10
Keith R Solomon, Guus J M Velders, Stephen R Wilson, Sasha Madronich, Janice Longstreth, Pieter J Aucamp, Janet F Bornman
Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a breakdown product of several hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), regulated under the Montreal Protocol (MP), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) used mainly as refrigerants. Trifluoroacetic acid is (1) produced naturally and synthetically, (2) used in the chemical industry, and (3) a potential environmental breakdown product of a large number (>1 million) chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and polymers. The contribution of these chemicals to global amounts of TFA is uncertain, in contrast to that from HCFC and HFC regulated under the MP...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759495/blood-borne-biomarkers-and-bioindicators-for-linking-exposure-to-health-effects-in-environmental-health-science
#11
M Ariel Geer Wallace, Tzipporah M Kormos, Joachim D Pleil
Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705551/preface-respirable-elongated-mineral-particles-and-human-health-revisited
#12
Ronald F Dodson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705550/tyler-asbestos-workers-a-mortality-update-in-a-cohort-exposed-to-amosite
#13
Jeffrey L Levin, Alina Rouk, Sara Shepherd, George A Hurst, Jerry W McLarty
The Tyler asbestos plant produced pipe insulation from 1954 to 1972 and exclusively used amosite asbestos. There were 1130 former workers of this plant during the period of operation. A death certificate mortality analysis was published regarding this plant in 1998 for the period through 1993. This study represents an update of the mortality analysis with additional certificates collected for deaths occurring through 2011.Searches of the National Death Index database were conducted in 2004 and again in 2013...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705549/mesothelioma-from-asbestos-exposures-epidemiologic-patterns-and-impact-in-the-united-states
#14
Richard A Lemen
Mesothelioma, a rare tumor, is highly correlated with asbestos exposure. Mesothelioma, similar to all asbestos-related diseases, is dose/intensity dependent to some degree, and studies showed the risk of mesothelioma rises with cumulative exposures. Multiple processes occur in an individual before mesothelioma occurs. The impact of mesothelioma in the United States has been continuous over the last half century, claiming between 2,000 and 3,000 lives each year. Mesothelioma is a preventable tumor that is more frequently reported as associated with asbestos exposure among men than women...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705548/quantitative-structure-mesothelioma-potency-model-optimization-for-complex-mixtures-of-elongated-particles-in-rat-pleura-a-retrospective-study
#15
Philip M Cook, Joseph Swintek, Timothy D Dawson, David Chapman, Mathew A Etterson, Dale Hoff
Cancer potencies of mineral and synthetic elongated particle mixtures, including asbestos fibers, are influenced by changes in fiber dose composition, bioavailability, and biodurability in combination with relevant cytotoxic dose-response relationships. An extensive rat intrapleural dose characterization data set with a wide variety of elongated particles physicochemical properties facilitated statistical analyses of pleural mesothelioma response data combined from several studies for evaluation of alternative dose-response models...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705547/pathology-analysis-for-mesothelioma-study-in-the-united-kingdom-current-practice-and-historical-development
#16
B W Case
Following up on the largest case-control study of malignant mesothelioma yet performed, investigators at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine assessed 1732 male and 670 female cases as of May 2013. Epidemiological findings of a subset of these were published previously, excluding patients who died or who refused to be interviewed. Pathology reports were collected for subjects, including those both eligible and ineligible for epidemiology study based on vital status. The current investigation examined 860 cases having pathology reports available...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705546/five-years-update-on-relationships-between-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma-and-exposure-to-asbestos-and-other-elongated-mineral-particles
#17
Pascal Andujar, Aude Lacourt, Patrick Brochard, Jean-Claude Pairon, Marie-Claude Jaurand, Didier Jean
Despite the reduction of global asbestos consumption and production due to the ban or restriction of asbestos uses in more than 50 countries since the 1970s, malignant mesothelioma remains a disease of concern. Asbestos is still used, imported, and exported in several countries, and the number of mesothelioma deaths may be expected to increase in the next decades in these countries. Asbestos exposure is the main risk factor for malignant pleural mesothelioma, but other types of exposures are linked to the occurrence of this type of cancer...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705545/investigating-palygorskite-s-role-in-the-development-of-mesothelioma-in-southern-nevada-insights-into-fiber-induced-carcinogenicity
#18
David Larson, Amy Powers, Jean-Paul Ambrosi, Mika Tanji, Andrea Napolitano, Erin G Flores, Francine Baumann, Laura Pellegrini, Cormac J Jennings, Brenda J Buck, Brett T McLaurin, Doug Merkler, Cleo Robinson, Paul Morris, Meral Dogan, A Umran Dogan, Harvey I Pass, Sandra Pastorino, Michele Carbone, Haining Yang
Similar to asbestos fibers, nonregulated mineral fibers can cause malignant mesothelioma (MM). Recently, increased proportions of women and young individuals with MM were identified in southern Nevada, suggesting that environmental exposure to carcinogenic fibers was causing the development of MM. Palygorskite, a fibrous silicate mineral with a history of possible carcinogenicity, is abundant in southern Nevada. In this study, our aim was to determine whether palygorskite was contributing to the development of MM in southern Nevada...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705544/malignant-mesothelioma-in-australia-2015-current-incidence-and-asbestos-exposure-trends
#19
Matthew J Soeberg, James Leigh, Nico van Zandwijk
Australia is known to have had the highest per-capita asbestos consumption level of any nation, reaching a peak in the 1970s. Although crocidolite was effectively banned in the late 1960s, and amosite use ceased in the mid 1980s, a complete asbestos ban was not implemented until 2003. This resulted in an epidemic of asbestos-related disease, which has only now reached its peak. Between 1982 and 2011, 13,036 individuals were newly diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma, with 690 diagnosed in 2011. A further 778 cases were identified between 1945 and 1981 from retrospective searches and the first 2 years of the Australian Mesothelioma Program...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705543/environmental-risk-of-mesothelioma-in-the-united-states-an-emerging-concern-epidemiological-issues
#20
Francine Baumann, Michele Carbone
Despite predictions of decline in mesothelioma following the ban of asbestos in most industrial countries, the incidence is still increasing globally, particularly in women. Because occupational exposure to asbestos is the main cause of mesothelioma, it occurs four- to eightfold more frequently in men than women, at a median age of 74 years. When mesothelioma is due to an environmental exposure, the M:F sex ratio is 1:1 and the median age at diagnosis is ~60 years. Studying environmental risk of mesothelioma is challenging because of the long latency period and small numbers, and because this type of exposure is involuntary and unknown...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
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