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Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30373489/importance-of-bacterial-biodegradation-and-detoxification-processes-of-microcystins-for-environmental-health
#1
Isaac Yaw Massey, Xian Zhang, Fei Yang
Microcystins (MC) the most frequently reported cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom toxins primarily found in some species of freshwater genera pose a serious threat to human and animal health. To reduce health risks associated with MC exposure it is important to remove these toxins found in drinking and recreational waterbodies. Since the physical and chemical water treatment methods are inefficient in completely degrading MC, alternative approaches to effectively detoxify MC have become the focus of global research...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341860/risk-management-of-free-radicals-involved-in-air-travel-syndromes-by-antioxidants
#2
Jeum-Nam Kim, Byung-Mu Lee
Frequent air travelers and airplane pilots may develop various types of illnesses. The environmental risk factors associated with air travel syndromes (ATS) or air travel-related adverse health outcomes raised concerns and need to be assessed in the context of risk management and public health. Accordingly, the aim of the present review was to determine ATS, risk factors, and mechanisms underlying ATS using scientific data and information obtained from Medline, Toxline, and regulatory agencies. Additional information was also extracted from websites of organizations, such as the International Air Transport Association (IATA), International Association for Medical Assistance to Travelers (IAMAT), and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30352012/polybrominated-diphenyl-ether-pbde-neurotoxicity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-animal-evidence
#3
David C Dorman, Weihsueh Chiu, Barbara F Hales, Russ Hauser, Kamin J Johnson, Ellen Mantus, Susan Martel, Karen A Robinson, Andrew A Rooney, Ruthann Rudel, Sheela Sathyanarayana, Susan L Schantz, Katrina M Waters
A recent systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis of human studies found an association between prenatal serum polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) concentrations and a decrease in the IQ of children. A SR of experimental developmental animal PBDE-mediated neurotoxicity studies was performed in the present study. Outcomes assessed included measures related to learning, memory, and attention, which parallel the intelligence-related outcomes evaluated in the human studies SR. PubMed, Embase, and Toxline were searched for relevant experimental non-human mammalian studies...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30199328/systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses-of-human-and-animal-evidence-of-prenatal-diethylhexyl-phthalate-exposure-and-changes-in-male-anogenital-distance
#4
David C Dorman, Weihsueh Chiu, Barbara F Hales, Russ Hauser, Kamin J Johnson, Ellen Mantus, Susan Martel, Karen A Robinson, Andrew A Rooney, Ruthann Rudel, Sheela Sathyanarayana, Susan L Schantz, Katrina M Waters
Male reproductive alterations found in animals and humans following in utero phthalate exposure include decreased anogenital distance (AGD) and other reproductive-tract malformations. The aim of this investigation was to conduct systematic reviews of human and animal evidence of the effect of in utero exposure to diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) on anogenital distance (AGD) in males. PubMed, Embase, and Toxline were searched for relevant human and experimental animal studies on August 15, 2016. Search results were screened for relevance, and studies that met the inclusion criteria were evaluated for quality and data extracted for analysis...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30130463/attention-restoration-theory-ii-a-systematic-review-to-clarify-attention-processes-affected-by-exposure-to-natural-environments
#5
Matt P Stevenson, Theresa Schilhab, Peter Bentsen
Attention Restoration Theory (ART) predicts exposure to natural environments may lead to improved cognitive performance through restoration of a limited cognitive resource, directed attention. A recent review by Ohly and colleagues (2016) uncovered substantial ambiguity surrounding details of directed attention and how cognitive restoration was tested. Therefore, an updated systematic review was conducted to identify relevant cognitive domains from which to describe elements of directed attention sensitive to the restoration effect...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30067478/human-biomarker-interpretation-the-importance-of-intra-class-correlation-coefficients-icc-and-their-calculations-based-on-mixed-models-anova-and-variance-estimates
#6
Joachim D Pleil, M Ariel Geer Wallace, Matthew A Stiegel, William E Funk
Human biomonitoring is the foundation of environmental toxicology, community public health evaluation, preclinical health effects assessments, pharmacological drug development and testing, and medical diagnostics. Within this framework, the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) serves as an important tool for gaining insight into human variability and responses and for developing risk-based assessments in the face of sparse or highly complex measurement data. The analytical procedures that provide data for clinical and public health efforts are continually evolving to expand our knowledge base of the many thousands of environmental and biomarker chemicals that define human systems biology...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30015594/the-obesogen-tributyltin-induces-features-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos-a-review
#7
Eduardo Merlo, Ian V Silva, Rodolfo C Cardoso, Jones B Graceli
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by abnormal reproductive cycles, irregular ovulation, and hyperandrogenism. This complex disorder has its origins both within and outside the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Cardio-metabolic factors, such as obesity and insulin resistance, contribute to the manifestation of the PCOS phenotype. Polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the most common endocrine disorders among women of reproductive age. Growing evidence suggested an association between reproductive and metabolic features of PCOS and exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC), such as bisphenol A...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714645/application-of-prioritization-approaches-to-optimize-environmental-monitoring-and-testing-of-pharmaceuticals
#8
Emily E Burns, Laura J Carter, Jason Snape, Jane Thomas-Oates, Alistair B A Boxall
Pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous in the natural environment with concentrations expected to rise as human population increases. Environmental risk assessments are available for a small portion of pharmaceuticals in use, raising concerns over the potential risks posed by other drugs that have little or no data. With >1900 active pharmaceutical ingredients in use, it would be a major task to test all of the compounds with little or no data. Desk-based prioritization studies provide a potential solution by identifying those substances that are likely to pose the greatest risk to the environment and which, therefore, need to be considered a priority for further study...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714636/extracellular-vesicles-released-in-response-to-respiratory-exposures-implications-for-chronic-disease
#9
Birke J Benedikter, Emiel F M Wouters, Paul H M Savelkoul, Gernot G U Rohde, Frank R M Stassen
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are secreted signaling entities that enhance various pathological processes when released in response to cellular stresses. Respiratory exposures such as cigarette smoke and air pollution exert cellular stresses and are associated with an increased risk of several chronic diseases. The aim of this review was to examine the evidence that modifications in EV contribute to respiratory exposure-associated diseases. Publications were searched using PubMed and Google Scholar with the search terms (cigarette smoke OR tobacco smoke OR air pollution OR particulate matter) AND (extracellular vesicles OR exosomes OR microvesicles OR microparticles OR ectosomes)...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553912/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-methods-for-evaluating-soil-arsenic-bioavailability-relevant-to-human-health-risk-assessment
#10
Karen D Bradham, Gary L Diamond, Michele Burgess, Albert Juhasz, Julie M Klotzbach, Mark Maddaloni, Clay Nelson, Kirk Scheckel, Sophia M Serda, Marc Stifelman, David J Thomas
Arsenic (As) is the most frequently occurring contaminant on the priority list of hazardous substances, which lists substances of greatest public health concern to people living at or near U.S. National Priorities List site. Accurate assessment of human health risks from exposure to As-contaminated soils depends on estimating its bioavailability, defined as the fraction of ingested As absorbed across the gastrointestinal barrier and available for systemic distribution and metabolism. Arsenic bioavailability varies among soils and is influenced by site-specific soil physical and chemical characteristics and internal biological factors...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446707/arsenic-cadmium-and-mercury-induced-hypertension-mechanisms-and-epidemiological-findings
#11
Airton da Cunha Martins, Maria Fernanda Hornos Carneiro, Denise Grotto, Joseph A Adeyemi, Fernando Barbosa
Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) are toxic elements widely distributed in the environment. Exposure to these elements was attributed to produce several acute and chronic illnesses including hypertension. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the most frequently proposed mechanisms underlying hypertension associated with As, Cd, and Hg exposure including: oxidative stress, impaired nitric oxide (NO) signaling, modified vascular response to neurotransmitters and disturbed vascular muscle Ca2+ signaling, renal damage, and interference with the renin-angiotensin system...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313450/response-to-tennekes-2018-the-resilience-of-the-beehive-journal-of-toxicology-and-environmental-health-b-20-316-386
#12
Keith R Solomon, Gladys L Stephenson
This paper is a response to a letter from Dr. H Tennekes ("The Resilience of the Beehive" Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health B 20: 316-386). Here we emphasize that our quantitative weight of evidence analyses were focused on the level of the honeybee colony. These colony-level responses include redundancy and resiliency as well as a number of possible sublethal effects of pesticides on the colony. We also note that the literature has shown that binding of neonicotinoid insecticides to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is reversible...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308978/letter-to-the-editor-the-resilience-of-the-beehive
#13
Henk A Tennekes
A recent quantitative weight of evidence (QWoE) assessment of higher tier studies on the toxicity and risks of neonicotinoids in honeybees by Solomon and Stephenson reported a colony-level no-observed-adverse effect concentration (NOAEC) of 25 µg/kg (ppb) for imidacloprid and clothianidin. The toxicity of these insecticides to honeybees is however known to be reinforced with chronic exposure, and extrapolation of time-to lethal-effect toxicity plots compiled from published studies indicate that an imidacloprid level of 0...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29252129/from-infections-to-anthropogenic-inflicted-pathologies-involvement-of-immune-balance
#14
Florence Lee, David A Lawrence
A temporal trend can be seen in recent human history where the dominant causes of death have shifted from infectious to chronic diseases in industrialized societies. Human influences in the current "Anthropocene" epoch are exponentially impacting the environment and consequentially health. Changing ecological niches are suggested to have created health transitions expressed as modifications of immune balance from infections inflicting pathologies in the Holocene epoch (12,000 years ago) to human behaviors inflicting pathologies beginning in the Anthropocene epoch (300 years ago)...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211634/risk-assessment-of-benzalkonium-chloride-in-cosmetic-products
#15
Seul Min Choi, Tae Hyun Roh, Duck Soo Lim, Sam Kacew, Hyung Sik Kim, Byung-Mu Lee
A risk assessment of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) was conducted based upon its toxicological profile and exposure evaluation. Since 1935, BAC has been used in a wide variety of products such as disinfectants, preservatives, and sanitizers. It is well-established that BAC is not genotoxic nor does it display tumorigenic potential, but safety concerns have been raised in local usage such as for ocular and intranasal applications. The Foundation of Korea Cosmetic Industry Institute (KCII) reported that in a hair conditioner manufactured as a cosmetic or personal product in South Korea, BAC was present at concentrations of 0...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182465/author-s-response-to-letter-to-the-editor-regarding-content-of-mesothelioma-from-asbestos-exposures-epidemiologic-patterns-and-impact-in-the-united-states-by-r-a-lemen-journal-of-toxicology-and-environmental-health-part-b-2016-19-250-265
#16
LETTER
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182464/triclosan-exposure-transformation-and-human-health-effects
#17
REVIEW
Lisa M Weatherly, Julie A Gosse
Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial used so ubiquitously that 75% of the US population is likely exposed to this compound via consumer goods and personal care products. In September 2016, TCS was banned from soap products following the risk assessment by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, TCS still remains, at high concentrations, in other personal care products such as toothpaste, mouthwash, hand sanitizer, and surgical soaps. TCS is readily absorbed into human skin and oral mucosa and found in various human tissues and fluids...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157187/quantitative-weight-of-evidence-assessment-of-higher-tier-studies-on-the-toxicity-and-risks-of-neonicotinoid-insecticides-in-honeybees-1-methods
#18
Keith R Solomon, Gladys L Stephenson
A quantitative weight of evidence (QWoE) methodology was developed and used to assess many higher-tier studies on the effects of three neonicotinoid insecticides: clothianidin (CTD), imidacloprid (IMI), and thiamethoxam (TMX) on honeybees. A general problem formulation, a conceptual model for exposures of honeybees, and an analysis plan were developed. A QWoE methodology was used to characterize the quality of the available studies from the literature and unpublished reports of studies conducted by or for the registrants...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157177/critical-and-systematic-evaluation-of-data-for-estimating-human-exposures-to-2-4-dichlorophenoxyacetic-acid-2-4-d-quality-and-generalizability
#19
REVIEW
Judy S LaKind, Carol J Burns, Daniel Q Naiman, Cian O'Mahony, Giulia Vilone, Annette J Burns, Joshua S Naiman
The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) has been commercially available since the 1940's. Despite decades of data on 2,4-D in food, air, soil, and water, as well as in humans, the quality the quality of these data has not been comprehensively evaluated. Using selected elements of the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument (temporal variability, avoidance of sample contamination, analyte stability, and urinary methods of matrix adjustment), the quality of 156 publications of environmental- and biomonitoring-based 2,4-D data was examined...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157160/quantitative-weight-of-evidence-assessment-of-higher-tier-studies-on-the-toxicity-and-risks-of-neonicotinoids-in-honeybees-4-thiamethoxam
#20
Gladys L Stephenson, Keith R Solomon
A quantitative weight of evidence (QWoE) methodology was used to assess several higher-tier studies on the effects of thiamethoxam (TMX) on honeybees. Assessment endpoints were population size and viability of commercially managed honeybee colonies and quantity of hive products. A higher-tier field toxicology study indicated a no-observed-adverse effect concentration (NOAEC) of 29.5 µg TMX/kg syrup, equivalent to an oral no-observed-adverse-effect-dose (NOAED) of 8.6 ng/bee/day for all responses measured...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
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