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Molecular Cell

Megan H Orzalli, Avi Smith, Kellie A Jurado, Akiko Iwasaki, Jonathan A Garlick, Jonathan C Kagan
Virulent pathogens often cause the release of host-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) from infected cells. During encounters with immune-evasive viruses that block inflammatory gene expression, preformed DAMPs provide backup inflammatory signals that ensure protective immunity. Whether DAMPs exhibit additional backup defense activities is unknown. Herein, we report that viral infection of barrier epithelia (keratinocytes) elicits the release of preformed interleukin-1 (IL-1) family cytokines, including the DAMP IL-1α...
August 2, 2018: Molecular Cell
Xindan Wang, Anna C Hughes, Hugo B Brandão, Benjamin Walker, Carrie Lierz, Jared C Cochran, Martha G Oakley, Andrew C Kruse, David Z Rudner
Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complexes shape the genomes of virtually all organisms, but how they function remains incompletely understood. Recent studies in bacteria and eukaryotes have led to a unifying model in which these ring-shaped ATPases act along contiguous DNA segments, processively enlarging DNA loops. In support of this model, single-molecule imaging experiments indicate that Saccharomyces cerevisiae condensin complexes can extrude DNA loops in an ATP-hydrolysis-dependent manner in vitro...
August 2, 2018: Molecular Cell
Lorenzo Costantino, Douglas Koshland
DNA-RNA hybrids associated with R-loops promote DNA damage and genomic instability. The capacity of hybrids at different genomic sites to cause DNA damage was not known, and the mechanisms leading from hybrid to damage were poorly understood. Here, we adopt a new strategy to map and characterize the sites of hybrid-induced damage genome-wide in budding yeast. We show that hybrid removal is essential for life because persistent hybrids cause irreparable DNA damage and cell death. We identify that a subset of hybrids is prone to cause damage, and the chromosomal context of hybrids dramatically impacts their ability to induce damage...
July 27, 2018: Molecular Cell
Leeanne McGurk, Edward Gomes, Lin Guo, Jelena Mojsilovic-Petrovic, Van Tran, Robert G Kalb, James Shorter, Nancy M Bonini
In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal degeneration (FTD), cytoplasmic aggregates of hyperphosphorylated TDP-43 accumulate and colocalize with some stress granule components, but how pathological TDP-43 aggregation is nucleated remains unknown. In Drosophila, we establish that downregulation of tankyrase, a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase, reduces TDP-43 accumulation in the cytoplasm and potently mitigates neurodegeneration. We establish that TDP-43 non-covalently binds to PAR via PAR-binding motifs embedded within its nuclear localization sequence...
July 26, 2018: Molecular Cell
Bing Yao, Yujing Li, Zhiqin Wang, Li Chen, Mickael Poidevin, Can Zhang, Li Lin, Feng Wang, Han Bao, Bin Jiao, Junghwa Lim, Ying Cheng, Luoxiu Huang, Brittany Lynn Phillips, Tianlei Xu, Ranhui Duan, Kenneth H Moberg, Hao Wu, Peng Jin
A ten-eleven translocation (TET) ortholog exists as a DNA N6 -methyladenine (6mA) demethylase (DMAD) in Drosophila. However, the molecular roles of 6mA and DMAD remain unexplored. Through genome-wide 6mA and transcriptome profiling in Drosophila brains and neuronal cells, we found that 6mA may epigenetically regulate a group of genes involved in neurodevelopment and neuronal functions. Mechanistically, DMAD interacts with the Trithorax-related complex protein Wds to maintain active transcription by dynamically demethylating intragenic 6mA...
July 26, 2018: Molecular Cell
Isabel Strohkendl, Fatema A Saifuddin, James R Rybarski, Ilya J Finkelstein, Rick Russell
Class 2 CRISPR-Cas nucleases are programmable genome editing tools with promising applications in human health and disease. However, DNA cleavage at off-target sites that resemble the target sequence is a pervasive problem that remains poorly understood mechanistically. Here, we use quantitative kinetics to dissect the reaction steps of DNA targeting by Acidaminococcus sp Cas12a (also known as Cpf1). We show that Cas12a binds DNA tightly in two kinetically separable steps. Protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) recognition is followed by rate-limiting R-loop propagation, leading to inevitable DNA cleavage of both strands...
July 24, 2018: Molecular Cell
Xiang Li, Li Yang, Ling-Ling Chen
Covalently closed circular RNAs (circRNAs) are produced by precursor mRNA back-splicing of exons of thousands of genes in eukaryotes. circRNAs are generally expressed at low levels and often exhibit cell-type-specific and tissue-specific patterns. Recent studies have shown that their biogenesis requires spliceosomal machinery and can be modulated by both cis complementary sequences and protein factors. The functions of most circRNAs remain largely unexplored, but known functions include sequestration of microRNAs or proteins, modulation of transcription and interference with splicing, and even translation to produce polypeptides...
August 2, 2018: Molecular Cell
Hannah A Pliner, Jonathan S Packer, José L McFaline-Figueroa, Darren A Cusanovich, Riza M Daza, Delasa Aghamirzaie, Sanjay Srivatsan, Xiaojie Qiu, Dana Jackson, Anna Minkina, Andrew C Adey, Frank J Steemers, Jay Shendure, Cole Trapnell
Linking regulatory DNA elements to their target genes, which may be located hundreds of kilobases away, remains challenging. Here, we introduce Cicero, an algorithm that identifies co-accessible pairs of DNA elements using single-cell chromatin accessibility data and so connects regulatory elements to their putative target genes. We apply Cicero to investigate how dynamically accessible elements orchestrate gene regulation in differentiating myoblasts. Groups of Cicero-linked regulatory elements meet criteria of "chromatin hubs"-they are enriched for physical proximity, interact with a common set of transcription factors, and undergo coordinated changes in histone marks that are predictive of changes in gene expression...
July 23, 2018: Molecular Cell
Anaid Benitez, Wenjun Liu, Anna Palovcak, Guanying Wang, Jaewon Moon, Kevin An, Anna Kim, Kevin Zheng, Yu Zhang, Feng Bai, Alexander V Mazin, Xin-Hai Pei, Fenghua Yuan, Yanbin Zhang
FANCA is a component of the Fanconi anemia (FA) core complex that activates DNA interstrand crosslink repair by monoubiquitination of FANCD2. Here, we report that purified FANCA protein catalyzes bidirectional single-strand annealing (SA) and strand exchange (SE) at a level comparable to RAD52, while a disease-causing FANCA mutant, F1263Δ, is defective in both activities. FANCG, which directly interacts with FANCA, dramatically stimulates its SA and SE activities. Alternatively, FANCB, which does not directly interact with FANCA, does not stimulate this activity...
July 23, 2018: Molecular Cell
Gabriel J Sandoval, John L Pulice, Hubert Pakula, Monica Schenone, David Y Takeda, Marius Pop, Gaylor Boulay, Kaylyn E Williamson, Matthew J McBride, Joshua Pan, Roodolph St Pierre, Emily Hartman, Levi A Garraway, Steven A Carr, Miguel N Rivera, Zhe Li, Lucienne Ronco, William C Hahn, Cigall Kadoch
Chromosomal rearrangements resulting in the fusion of TMPRSS2, an androgen-regulated gene, and the ETS family transcription factor ERG occur in over half of prostate cancers. However, the mechanism by which ERG promotes oncogenic gene expression and proliferation remains incompletely understood. Here, we identify a binding interaction between ERG and the mammalian SWI/SNF (BAF) ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex, which is conserved among other oncogenic ETS factors, including ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5. We find that ERG drives genome-wide retargeting of BAF complexes in a manner dependent on binding of ERG to the ETS DNA motif...
July 19, 2018: Molecular Cell
Xin Jin, Yuqian Yan, Dejie Wang, Donglin Ding, Tao Ma, Zhenqing Ye, Rafael Jimenez, Liguo Wang, Heshui Wu, Haojie Huang
The bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) protein BRD4 is emerging as a promising anticancer therapeutic target. However, resistance to BET inhibitors often occurs, and it has been linked to aberrant degradation of BRD4 protein in cancer. Here, we demonstrate that the deubiquitinase DUB3 binds to BRD4 and promotes its deubiquitination and stabilization. Expression of DUB3 is transcriptionally repressed by the NCOR2-HDAC10 complex. The NCOR2 gene is frequently deleted in castration-resistant prostate cancer patient specimens, and loss of NCOR2 induces elevation of DUB3 and BRD4 proteins in cancer cells...
July 18, 2018: Molecular Cell
Mridula Nambiar, Gerald R Smith
In most eukaryotes, meiotic crossovers are essential for error-free chromosome segregation but are specifically repressed near centromeres to prevent missegregation. Recognized for >85 years, the molecular mechanism of this repression has remained unknown. Meiotic chromosomes contain two distinct cohesin complexes: pericentric complex (for segregation) and chromosomal arm complex (for crossing over). We show that the pericentric-specific complex also actively represses pericentric meiotic double-strand break (DSB) formation and, consequently, crossovers...
July 13, 2018: Molecular Cell
Tanya T Paull
The Mre11 nuclease has been the subject of intensive investigation for the past 20 years because of the central role that Mre11/Rad50 complexes play in genome maintenance. The last two decades of work on this complex has led to a much deeper understanding of the structure, biochemical activities, and regulation of Mre11/Rad50 complexes from archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotic cells. This review will discuss some of the important findings over recent years that have illuminated roles for the Mre11 nuclease in these different contexts as well as the insights from structural biology that have helped us to understand its mechanisms of action...
August 2, 2018: Molecular Cell
Jia Shou, Jinhuan Li, Yingbin Liu, Qiang Wu
Chromosomal rearrangements including large DNA-fragment inversions, deletions, and duplications by Cas9 with paired sgRNAs are important to investigate genome structural variations and developmental gene regulation, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we report that disrupting CtIP or FANCD2, which have roles in alternative non-homologous end joining, enhances precise DNA-fragment deletion. By analyzing the inserted nucleotides at the junctions of DNA-fragment editing of deletions, inversions, and duplications and characterizing the cleaved products, we find that Cas9 endonucleolytically cleaves the noncomplementary strand with a flexible scissile profile upstream of the -3 position of the PAM site in vivo and in vitro, generating double-strand break ends with 5' overhangs of 1-3 nucleotides...
July 5, 2018: Molecular Cell
José Reyes, Jia-Yun Chen, Jacob Stewart-Ornstein, Kyle W Karhohs, Caroline S Mock, Galit Lahav
Biological signals need to be robust and filter small fluctuations yet maintain sensitivity to signals across a wide range of magnitudes. Here, we studied how fluctuations in DNA damage signaling relate to maintenance of long-term cell-cycle arrest. Using live-cell imaging, we quantified division profiles of individual human cells in the course of 1 week after irradiation. We found a subset of cells that initially establish cell-cycle arrest and then sporadically escape and divide. Using fluorescent reporters and mathematical modeling, we determined that fluctuations in the oscillatory pattern of the tumor suppressor p53 trigger a sharp switch between p21 and CDK2, leading to escape from arrest...
July 4, 2018: Molecular Cell
David Van Ly, Ronnie Ren Jie Low, Sonja Frölich, Tara K Bartolec, Georgia R Kafer, Hilda A Pickett, Katharina Gaus, Anthony J Cesare
Telomeres regulate DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair activity at chromosome ends. How telomere macromolecular structure contributes to ATM regulation and its potential dissociation from control over non-homologous end joining (NHEJ)-dependent telomere fusion is of central importance to telomere-dependent cell aging and tumor suppression. Using super-resolution microscopy, we identify that ATM activation at mammalian telomeres with reduced TRF2 or at human telomeres during mitotic arrest occurs specifically with a structural change from telomere loops (t-loops) to linearized telomeres...
July 3, 2018: Molecular Cell
Xavier Pichon, Mounia Lagha, Florian Mueller, Edouard Bertrand
The spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression is key to many biological processes. Recent imaging approaches opened exciting perspectives for understanding the intricate mechanisms regulating RNA metabolism, from synthesis to decay. Imaging techniques allow their observation at high spatial and temporal resolution, while keeping cellular morphology and micro-environment intact. Here, we focus on approaches for imaging single RNA molecules in cells, tissues, and embryos. In fixed cells, the rapid development of smFISH multiplexing opens the way to large-scale single-molecule studies, while in live cells, gene expression can be observed in real time in its native context...
August 2, 2018: Molecular Cell
Roberto Covino, Gerhard Hummer, Robert Ernst
Eukaryotic cells face the challenge of maintaining the complex composition of several coexisting organelles. The molecular mechanisms underlying the homeostasis of subcellular membranes and their adaptation during stress are only now starting to emerge. Here, we discuss three membrane property sensors of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), namely OPI1, MGA2, and IRE1, each controlling a large cellular program impacting the lipid metabolic network. OPI1 coordinates the production of membrane and storage lipids, MGA2 regulates the production of unsaturated fatty acids required for membrane biogenesis, and IRE1 controls the unfolded protein response (UPR) to adjust ER size, protein folding, and the secretory capacity of the cell...
August 2, 2018: Molecular Cell
Szymon Juszkiewicz, Ramanujan S Hegde
The billions of proteins inside a eukaryotic cell are organized among dozens of sub-cellular compartments, within which they are further organized into protein complexes. The maintenance of both levels of organization is crucial for normal cellular function. Newly made proteins that fail to be segregated to the correct compartment or assembled into the appropriate complex are defined as orphans. In this review, we discuss the challenges faced by a cell of minimizing orphaned proteins, the quality control systems that recognize orphans, and the consequences of excess orphans for protein homeostasis and disease...
August 2, 2018: Molecular Cell
Xiaolan Zhao
Since the discovery of SUMO twenty years ago, SUMO conjugation has become a widely recognized post-translational modification that targets a myriad of proteins in many processes. Great progress has been made in understanding the SUMO pathway enzymes, substrate sumoylation, and the interplay between sumoylation and other regulatory mechanisms in a variety of contexts. As these research directions continue to generate insights into SUMO-based regulation, several mechanisms by which sumoylation and desumoylation can orchestrate large biological effects are emerging...
August 2, 2018: Molecular Cell
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