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Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248373/structural-color-analysis-of-the-photoresist-grating-influenced-by-the-light-source-and-its-parameters
#1
Siwei Zeng, Zhengkun Liu, Keqiang Qiu, Ying Liu, Xiangdong Xu, Shaojun Fu
The basic principle and method to generate structural color from the photoresist grating of the multilayer dielectric diffraction grating are introduced. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis is used for computation with the open software RCWA-1D. The relationships between the characteristics of the photoresist and the structural color are explained. This paper discusses the effect of light source characteristics on the duty cycle color resolution, indicating that TE polarization is better than TM polarization, and the FWHM should be sufficiently large with an optimized value for the incident angle...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248372/aberrations-of-soft-x-ray-and-vacuum-ultraviolet-optical-systems-with-orthogonal-arrangement-of-elements
#2
Yiqing Cao, Lijun Lu
The wave aberration of plane-symmetric optical systems is expressed with the aperture-ray coordinates on the reference exit wavefront in the paper; the defocus aberration caused by the meridional field of source is analyzed in detail. Based on the expressions of the wave aberration and the defocus, the aberrations of the soft x-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) optical systems with an orthogonal arrangement of elements are studied as a whole. The resultant aberration expressions are used to calculate the aberrations of two design examples; the images are compared to the ray-tracing results with Shadow to validate the aberration expressions...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248371/generalization-of-the-minkwitz-theorem-to-nonumbilical-lines-of-symmetrical-surfaces
#3
Gregor Esser, Wolfgang Becken, Helmut Altheimer, Werner Müller
The linear relation between the increase of peripheral astigmatism and the increase of power along an umbilical line was described by Minkwitz and is known as the Minkwitz theorem. However, in many cases, modern progressive addition lenses do not show an umbilical principal line. Therefore, we propose to extend the Minkwitz theorem to nonumbilical lines and higher order terms than the linear term of the increase in the peripheral astigmatism. We were able to derive a "generalized Minkwitz theorem," which holds true for a prescribed astigmatism at the principal line...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248370/multi-focus-image-fusion-based-on-dictionary-learning-with-rolling-guidance-filter
#4
Xiang Yan, Hanlin Qin, Jia Li
We present a new multi-focus image fusion method based on dictionary learning with a rolling guidance filter to fusion of multi-focus images with registration and mis-registration. First, we learn a dictionary via several classical multi-focus images blurred by a rolling guidance filter. Subsequently, we present a new model for focus regions identification via applying the learned dictionary to input images to obtain the corresponding focus feature maps. Then, we determine the initial decision map via comparing the difference of the focus feature maps...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248369/theoretical-analyses-of-a-liquid-crystal-adaptive-lens-with-optically-hidden-dielectric-double-layer
#5
Oleksandr Sova, Victor Reshetnyak, Tigran Galstian
In this work we theoretically analyze the performance trends of a liquid crystal lens based on the optically hidden dielectric double layer principle. We demonstrate possible ways to optimize the lens as a function of the material and geometric parameters used. The impact of relative dielectric constants, conductivities, and dimensions of the components of the hidden dielectric layer, as well as the thickness and the temperature of the liquid crystal material, are demonstrated. Corresponding trade-offs are briefly discussed...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248368/vision-based-technique-for-circle-detection-and-measurement-using-lookup-table-and-bitwise-center-accumulator
#6
Hancheng Yu, Tuo Wang
In this paper, we proposed a fast algorithm for circle detection and measurement, which uses a lookup table and bitwise center accumulator (LUT-BCA). The LUT-BCA is a two-stage procedure. The first stage determines the candidate circle centers with normal lines produced by the lookup table and recorded by the bitwise center accumulator. The second stage computes the radius of each candidate circle center and validates these centers, which eliminates the false detections. The proposed LUT-BCA can also be easily implemented on massively parallel high-performance graphics hardware using the compute unified device architecture...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248367/historical-revision-of-the-differential-stokes-mueller-formalism-discussion
#7
Oriol Arteaga
The differential Stokes-Mueller matrix formalism expresses the local evolution of the Mueller matrix or the Stokes parameters for light propagating through a homogeneous optical medium. This paper presents a historical revision of the development of the differential Stokes-Mueller matrix formalism and highlights several important early contributions that have been overlooked. Particularly relevant is that this formalism was pioneered as early as 1929 by Paul Soleillet, almost 50 years earlier than it has been usually assumed...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248366/scattering-of-electromagnetic-waves-from-3d-multilayer-random-rough-surfaces-based-on-the-second-order-small-perturbation-method-energy-conservation-reflectivity-and-emissivity
#8
Mohammadreza Sanamzadeh, Leung Tsang, Joel T Johnson, Robert J Burkholder, Shurun Tan
A theoretical investigation of energy conservation, reflectivity, and emissivity in the scattering of electromagnetic waves from 3D multilayer media with random rough interfaces using the second-order small perturbation method (SPM2) is presented. The approach is based on the extinction theorem and develops integral equations for surface fields in the spectral domain. Using the SPM2, we calculate the scattered and transmitted coherent fields and incoherent fields. Reflected and transmitted powers are then found in the form of 2D integrations over wavenumber in the spectral domain...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248365/hyperspectral-photometric-stereo-for-a-single-capture
#9
Keisuke Ozawa, Imari Sato, Masahiro Yamaguchi
We present a single-capture photometric stereo method using a hyperspectral camera. A spectrally and spatially designed illumination enables a point-wise estimation of reflectance spectra and surface normals from a single hyperspectral image. The illumination works as a reflectance probe in wide spectral regions where reflectance spectra are measured, and the full spectra are estimated by interpolation. It also works as the resource for shadings in other spectral regions. The accuracy of estimation is evaluated in a simulation...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248364/salient-object-detection-using-coarse-to-fine-processing
#10
Qiangqiang Zhou, Lin Zhang, Weidong Zhao, Xianhui Liu, Yufei Chen, Zhicheng Wang
In this paper, we propose a salient object detection algorithm that considers both background and foreground cues. It integrates both coarse salient region extraction and a top-down background weight map measure via boundary label propagation into a unified optimization framework to acquire a refined salient map. The coarse saliency map is additionally fused by three prior components: a local contrast map with greater alignment to physiological law, a global focus prior map, and a global color prior map. During the formation of the background weight map, we first construct an affinity matrix and select nodes existing on the border as labels to represent the background...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248363/paraxial-ray-tracing-equations-for-optical-systems-containing-triangular-prisms
#11
Psang Dain Lin, Chung-Yu Tsai
Conventional paraxial ray-tracing procedures are widely used for optical systems design and analysis. However, they are not applicable to multiple-dispersion-prism systems. Accordingly, the present study simplifies the equations given by the present group in a previous paper [Optik117, 329 (2006)OTIKAJ0030-402610.1016/j.ijleo.2005.10.004] to the form of 3×3 matrix equations for tracing paraxial rays in optical systems containing triangular prisms. The accuracy and validity of the proposed approach are demonstrated by means of four numerical examples...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248362/spatial-spectral-space-wavenumber-correspondence-relationship-and-fresnel-zone-spectra
#12
Pin Han, Tsung-Han Hsieh, Yi-Ling Liu
A correspondence relationship between space and wavenumber for fully spatially coherent uniform monochromatic and polychromatic light in near- and far-field diffraction is fully illustrated, and it is used to study a phenomenon called the Fresnel zone spectra, which is verified experimentally. The spectra can be filtered or manipulated by moving the detection position relative to Fresnel zone plate along the optical axis.
March 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248361/single-shot-interferogram-analysis-for-accurate-reconstruction-of-step-phase-objects
#13
Mandeep Singh, Kedar Khare
We describe a constrained optimization approach for demodulation of single-shot interferograms corresponding to step phase objects. The demodulation problem is formulated as a minimization problem for a cost function consisting of a L2-norm squared error term and a gradient-based penalty (total variation) suitable for step objects. The optimization approach is tested with two methods that use complex (or Wirtinger) derivatives for the iterative solution update. The first simplistic method has a free parameter and thus provides a family of solutions...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248360/elimination-of-error-induced-by-a-beam-splitter-substrate-for-a-dispersion-compensated-polarization-sagnac-interferometer
#14
Jinyu Xing, Shiqun Jin, Penghao Hu, Guo Xia, Mingyong Hu
A wire grating beam splitter (WGBS) substrate in a dispersion-compensated polarization Sagnac interferometer (DCPSI) may introduce an additional shear distance in the shear distance generated by the DCPSI, thereby causing poor adaptability of the DCPSI to white light. This work applies a compensation scheme of an optical flat with the same material and thickness as the WGBS and parallel to the WGBS introduced in the other arm of the DCPSI. Theoretically, this method can decrease the additional shear distance approaching 0...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248359/generalized-formulas-for-ray-tracing-and-longitudinal-spherical-aberration
#15
Hassan A Elagha
In this work, we generalize the paraxial ray-tracing formulas to include nonparaxial rays. For a refracting (reflecting) spherical surface, a new single meridional formula is derived. This formula can be easily reduced to a paraxial formula. It can also be applied to any aspheric (or general) surface with a known equation. Also, a new exact ray-tracing procedure for a centered system of spherical surfaces is derived. In this procedure, we apply just two simple equations for each surface of the system, which, to the best of our knowledge, makes it the shortest analytical ray-tracing technique ever...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248358/weakly-diverging-to-tightly-focused-gaussian-beams-a-single-set-of-analytic-expressions-continuation-symmetric-beams
#16
Uri Levy, Yaron Silberberg
The always diverging-converging laser beams, more rigorously referred to as Gaussian beams, are part of many physical and electro-optical systems. Obviously, a single set of analytic expressions describing these beams in a large span of divergence-convergence angles at the focal plane, and at any distance away from the focal plane, will prove very handy. We have recently published three such analytic sets, one set for linearly polarized beams and two sets for radially polarized beams. However, our published analytic set for linearly polarized beams describes nonsymmetric electric-magnetic field components...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248357/radiation-losses-and-dark-mode-at-light-guiding-by-a-linear-chain-of-nanoparticles
#17
Yurii N Barabanenkov, Mikhail Yu Barabanenkov
A new general formula is presented for a collective extinction cross section of a dielectric or a metallic nanoparticle ensemble in terms of incident electric field work on currents excited inside particles. The formula is obtained by identical transformation of the well-known expression for the summing power of electromagnetic field energy losses caused by particle ensemble scattering and absorption. The derived formula is applied to the problem of radiation losses at electromagnetic excitation transfer along a straight chain of particles...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248356/propagation-dynamics-of-generalized-and-symmetric-airy-beams
#18
Yixian Qian, Denghui Li, Hongxing Mao
We present theoretically and experimentally generalized and symmetric Airy beams, where the two sidelobes are not mutually perpendicular, by introducing two rotary angle factors. The symmetric Airy beam is induced by a binary phase pattern. We demonstrate that the intensity distributions of generalized Airy beams are apparently different from those of normal Airy beams. Moreover, they can propagate along arbitrary trajectories. Numerical results show that the generalized and symmetric Airy beams still have the ability of self-healing and nondiffraction...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157857/electromagnetic-induction-holography-imaging-for-stroke-detection
#19
Lulu Wang
This paper presents the application of the electromagnetic induction holography (EMIH) approach to imaging the electromagnetic activity of the brain, with a particular focus on stroke detection. An integral equation formulation is presented to describe the scattered magnetic field from the distribution of optically small dielectric and magnetic objects of arbitrary shapes adsorbed onto a planar electromagnetic substrate. A numerical computer model was developed in a MATLAB environment to validate the theory...
February 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157856/online-multi-object-tracking-with-efficient-track-drift-and-fragmentation-handling
#20
Jaeyong Ju, Daehun Kim, Bonhwa Ku, David K Han, Hanseok Ko
This paper addresses the problem of multi-object tracking in complex scenes by a single, static, uncalibrated camera. Tracking-by-detection is a widely used approach for multi-object tracking. Challenges still remain in complex scenes, however, when this approach has to deal with occlusions, unreliable detections (e.g., inaccurate position/size, false positives, or false negatives), and sudden object motion/appearance changes, among other issues. To handle these problems, this paper presents a novel online multi-object tracking method, which can be fully applied to real-time applications...
February 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
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