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Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059233/cytopathological-image-analysis-using-deep-learning-networks-in-microfluidic-microscopy
#1
G Gopakumar, K Hari Babu, Deepak Mishra, Sai Siva Gorthi, Gorthi R K Sai Subrahmanyam
Cytopathologic testing is one of the most critical steps in the diagnosis of diseases, including cancer. However, the task is laborious and demands skill. Associated high cost and low throughput drew considerable interest in automating the testing process. Several neural network architectures were designed to provide human expertise to machines. In this paper, we explore and propose the feasibility of using deep-learning networks for cytopathologic analysis by performing the classification of three important unlabeled, unstained leukemia cell lines (K562, MOLT, and HL60)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059232/analysis-of-the-average-photon-path-length-between-two-consecutive-reflections-from-the-cavity-walls
#2
Lazo M Manojlović
In this paper a general theoretical analysis of the average photon path length between two consecutive photon reflections from the cavity walls has been presented. The presented analysis relies only on the energy conservation law and the assumption of the uniform photon distribution within the cavity volume. The obtained general result coincides with the solution previously obtained but under more stringent conditions.
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059231/improving-color-reproduction-accuracy-of-a-mobile-liquid-crystal-display
#3
Eric Kirchner, Ivo van der Lans, Francisco M Martínez-Verdú, Esther Perales
The default method for color representation on displays involves sRGB as device-independent encoding color space. For improving color reproduction accuracy, we develop a device-specific display characterization model for the Apple iPad Air 2. In separate articles, we will evaluate the same method for other devices and for other display technologies. This model is combined with an easy-to-implement new method to account for the influence of illuminance from ambient light. The combination is called the mobile display characterization and illumination model (MDCIM) for the iPad Air 2, representing modern liquid crystal displays...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059230/fast-and-accurate-computation-of-normalized-bargmann-transform
#4
Soo-Chang Pei, Shih-Gu Huang
The linear canonical transform (LCT) was extended to complex-valued parameters, called complex LCT, to describe the complex amplitude propagation through lossy or lossless optical systems. Bargmann transform is a special case of the complex LCT. In this paper, we normalize the Bargmann transform such that it can be bounded near infinity. We derive the relationships of the normalized Bargmann transform to Gabor transform, Hermite-Gaussian functions, gyrator transform, and 2D nonseparable LCT. Several kinds of fast and accurate computational methods of the normalized Bargmann transform and its inverse are proposed based on these relationships...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059229/polarization-rotation-of-hybridly-polarized-beams-in-a-uniaxial-crystal-orthogonal-to-the-optical-axis-theory-and-experiment
#5
Meng Lian, Bing Gu, Yingdi Zhang, Guanghao Rui, Jun He, Qiwen Zhan, Yiping Cui
The polarization rotation of hybridly polarized beams passing through a uniaxial crystal whose optical axis is orthogonal to the beam axis is theoretically and experimentally investigated. Based on the existing theory, analytical expressions of hybridly polarized beams in uniaxial crystals orthogonal to the optical axis are derived. Simulation results show that the distributions of the intensity patterns, the states of polarization, and the spin angular momentum of hybridly polarized beams in uniaxial crystals depend strongly on the beam radius, the propagation distance in the crystal, and the ratio of the extraordinary refractive index to the ordinary refractive index...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059228/simple-flexible-and-accurate-phase-retrieval-method-for-generalized-phase-shifting-interferometry
#6
Kohei Yatabe, Kenji Ishikawa, Yasuhiro Oikawa
This paper presents a non-iterative phase retrieval method from randomly phase-shifted fringe images. By combining the hyperaccurate least squares ellipse fitting method with the subspace method (usually called the principal component analysis), a fast and accurate phase retrieval algorithm is realized. The proposed method is simple, flexible, and accurate. It can be easily coded without iteration, initial guess, or tuning parameter. Its flexibility comes from the fact that totally random phase-shifting steps and any number of fringe images greater than two are acceptable without any specific treatment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059227/vector-and-matrix-states-for-mueller-matrices-of-nondepolarizing-optical-media
#7
Ertan Kuntman, M Ali Kuntman, Oriol Arteaga
Nondepolarizing Mueller matrices contain up to seven independent parameters. However, these seven parameters typically do not appear explicitly among the measured 16 parameters of a Mueller matrix, so that they are not directly accessible for physical interpretation. This work shows that all the information contained in a nondepolarizing Mueller matrix can be conveniently expressed in terms of a four component covariance vector state or a generating 4×4 matrix, which can be understood as a matrix state. The generating matrix, besides being directly related to the nondepolarizing Mueller matrix, mimics all properties of the Jones matrix and provides a powerful mathematical tool for formulating all properties of nondepolarizing systems, including the Mueller symmetries and the anisotropy coefficients...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059226/asymptotic-model-for-finite-element-calculations-of-diffraction-by-shallow-metallic-surface-relief-gratings
#8
Cinthya Rivas, Manuel E Solano, Rodolfo Rodríguez, Peter B Monk, Akhlesh Lakhtakia
We have formulated an asymptotic model for implementation in the finite-element method to calculate diffraction from a planar multilayered structure having a shallow surface-relief grating. The thin grating layer containing the shallow grating is replaced by a planar interface with transmission conditions that differ from the standard continuity conditions, thereby eliminating the necessity of representing the grating layer by a fine mesh. The parameters defining the shallow surface-relief grating are thereby removed from the geometry to the transmission conditions...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059225/generalized-vector-wave-theory-for-ultrahigh-resolution-confocal-optical-microscopy
#9
Ken Yang, Xiangsheng Xie, Jianying Zhou
Polarization modulation of a tightly focused beam in a confocal imaging scheme is considered for incident and collected light fields. Rigorous vector wave theory of a confocal optical microscopy is developed, which provides clear physical pictures without the requirement for fragmentary calculations. Multiple spatial modulations on polarization, phase, or amplitude of the illuminating and the detected beams can be mathematically described by a uniform expression. Linear and nonlinear excitation schemes are derived with tailored excitation and detection fields within this generalized theory, whose results show that the ultimate resolution achieved with the linear excitation can reach one-fifth of the excitation wavelength (or λ/5), while the nonlinear excitation scheme gives rise to a resolution better than λ/12 for two-photon fluorescence excitation and λ/20 for three-photon fluorescence excitation...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059224/amplitude-and-phase-beam-shaping-for-highest-sensitivity-in-sidewall-angle-detection
#10
Luca Cisotto, H Paul Urbach
In integrated circuits manufacturing, specific structures are used as tools to evaluate the quality of the lithographic process, and the shape of these structures is often described by a few parameters, of which in particular the sidewall angle suffers from considerable inaccuracies. Using scalar diffraction theory, we investigate whether a properly shaped cylindrically focused probing beam could increase the ability to detect tiny changes in this angle in the case of a cliff-like structure, modeled as a phase object...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059223/adaptive-single-pixel-imaging-based-on-guided-coefficients
#11
Yao-Ran Huo, Hong-Jie He, Fan Chen, Heng-Ming Tai
The existing adaptive single-pixel imaging methods suffer from a waste of sampling resources. The sampling resources are not used adequately for superior localization of significant coefficients and reconstruction. In this paper, an adaptive single-pixel imaging method via the guided coefficients in the Haar wavelet tree is proposed. The goal is to achieve high quality imaging with less sampling resources. The guided coefficients are selected from the unsampled coefficients by a proposed same-scale prediction method based on the sampled coefficients...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059222/contrast-dependent-saturation-adjustment-for-outdoor-image-enhancement
#12
Shuhang Wang, Woon Cho, Jinbeum Jang, Mongi A Abidi, Joonki Paik
Outdoor images captured in bad-weather conditions usually have poor intensity contrast and color saturation since the light arriving at the camera is severely scattered or attenuated. The task of improving image quality in poor conditions remains a challenge. Existing methods of image quality improvement are usually effective for a small group of images but often fail to produce satisfactory results for a broader variety of images. In this paper, we propose an image enhancement method, which makes it applicable to enhance outdoor images by using content-adaptive contrast improvement as well as contrast-dependent saturation adjustment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059221/implicit-kernel-sparse-shape-representation-a-sparse-neighbors-based-objection-segmentation-framework
#13
Jincao Yao, Huimin Yu, Roland Hu
This paper introduces a new implicit-kernel-sparse-shape-representation-based object segmentation framework. Given an input object whose shape is similar to some of the elements in the training set, the proposed model can automatically find a cluster of implicit kernel sparse neighbors to approximately represent the input shape and guide the segmentation. A distance-constrained probabilistic definition together with a dualization energy term is developed to connect high-level shape representation and low-level image information...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059220/the-professional-team-at-josa-a-editorial
#14
P Scott Carney
Editor-in-Chief P. Scott Carney closes a year of celebration and recognizes the staff who have produced the Journal for 100 years.
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059219/approach-to-atmospheric-laser-propagation-theory-based-on-the-extended-huygens-fresnel-principle-and-a-self-consistency-concept
#15
Erik J Bochove, V S Rao Gudimetla
We propose a self-consistency condition based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, which we apply to the propagation kernel of the mutual coherence function of a partially coherent laser beam propagating through a turbulent atmosphere. The assumption of statistical independence of turbulence in neighboring propagation segments leads to an integral equation in the propagation kernel. This integral equation is satisfied by a Gaussian function, with dependence on the transverse coordinates that is identical to the previous Gaussian formulation by Yura [Appl...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059218/statistical-properties-of-a-radially-polarized-twisted-gaussian-schell-model-beam-in-an-underwater-turbulent-medium
#16
Xiaofeng Peng, Lin Liu, Yangjian Cai, Yahya Baykal
Average intensity and the normalized powers of the completely polarized and the completely unpolarized portions of a radially polarized twisted Gaussian Schell-model (TGSM) beam propagating in underwater turbulence are examined. In our formulation, our previously obtained atmospheric turbulence solution for the same radially polarized TGSM beam using the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle is utilized, with the inclusion of our recently derived expression for the atmospheric turbulence structure constant in terms of underwater turbulence parameters...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059217/selective-excitation-of-higher-order-modes-in-etched-gelatin-coated-few-mode-fiber-and-demonstration-of-high-relative-humidity-measurement
#17
Saba N Khan, Partha Roy Chaudhuri
We report here our experimental studies on efficient excitation of higher-order modes in a few-mode fiber realized through selective chemical etching of single-mode fiber, depositing a dynamic refractive index profile coating (gelatin) and designing a well-performing high relative humidity (RH) (73%-99% RH) sensor with sensitivity as high as ∼1.2  dBm/% RH and fast response (∼125  ms). The design relies on fixing quasi-adiabatic transition of the single-mode-few-mode-single-mode configuration to launch light at angles corresponding to desired higher-order modes, pushing more power into the coating...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906279/adaptive-multifocus-image-fusion-using-block-compressed-sensing-with-smoothed-projected-landweber-integration-in-the-wavelet-domain
#18
Unni V S, Deepak Mishra, G R K S Subrahmanyam
The need for image fusion in current image processing systems is increasing mainly due to the increased number and variety of image acquisition techniques. Image fusion is the process of combining substantial information from several sensors using mathematical techniques in order to create a single composite image that will be more comprehensive and thus more useful for a human operator or other computer vision tasks. This paper presents a new approach to multifocus image fusion based on sparse signal representation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906278/effect-of-the-correlation-function-on-the-focal-shift-of-a-partially-coherent-beam
#19
Minghui Zhang, Yahong Chen, Yangjian Cai, Lin Liu
It is known that the focal shift is closely related with the Fresnel number of the lens system, the amplitude, and the spatial coherence of the light beam. In this paper, we investigate the focusing properties of a partially coherent beam with nonconventional correlation function, named a generalized multi-Gaussian correlated Schell-model beam, through deriving the analytical expression for its effective beam width. We find that the focal shift is also affected by the structure parameter of the correlation function...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906277/optical-manipulation-using-highly-focused-alternate-radially-and-azimuthally-polarized-beams-modulated-by-a-devil-s-lens
#20
Zhirong Liu, P H Jones
We propose and demonstrate a novel high numerical aperture (NA) focusing system composed of an annular beam with alternate radially and azimuthally polarized rings, focused by a devil's lens (DL), and further investigate its radiation forces acting upon a Rayleigh particle both analytically and numerically. Strongly focused cylindrical vector beams produce either dark-centered or peak-centered intensity distributions depending on the state of polarization, whereas the DL produces a series of foci along the propagation direction...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
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